Your Federal Quarterly Tax Payments are due April 15th Get Help Now >>

The New Taxonomies Moving From the Knowledge Age to by xqv17864

VIEWS: 25 PAGES: 27

									    The New Taxonomies: Moving From the
     Knowledge Age to the Conceptual Age



                        Valorie Hargett, Section Chief
                   Social Studies/English Language Arts
                             Secondary Division
                     North Carolina Department of Public
                                  Instruction




Fall 2006
                               IF …
  Intelligence is teachable, learnable, multiple types
  Intelligence is impacted by experience, instruction and/or by nature
  Intelligenceis flexible and subject to change, both up and down
  Intelligence has the capacity to continue growing throughout one’s life
  Intelligence (cognitive functioning) is enhanced and/or impacted by
  certain interventions


                              THEN…
      What are our universal frameworks, models or theories in
    which we communicate with one another to “grow or increase”
                      our cognitive capacity?


Fall 2006
            Introducing the 1950’s
 Benjamin Bloom -

     Used for the past fifty years as a codification
     system whereby educators could design learning
     objectives that have a hierarchical organization

     Remains a standard reference for discussions of
     testing and evaluation, curriculum development and
     teaching and teacher education.

     Became a powerful tool for objectives-based
     evaluation that had not been achieved before

Fall 2006
              Model of Evaluation

    1965 - Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA

    1970 - Statewide testing
    1980 - Higher levels of thinking

    1983 - A Nation at Risk
    1984 - ASCD, Racine, Wisconsin

    1985 - 32 States testing

    1990 - Additional states enter
    2001 - NCLB
Fall 2006
        The Original Bloom’s Taxonomy

Framework for communication between
 individuals

 Tool for designing test items especially
multiple choice




Fall 2006
        The Original Bloom’s Taxonomy

Evaluation
Synthesis
Analyzes
Application
Comprehension

Knowledge

Fall 2006
        The Original Bloom’s Taxonomy

Evaluation              All NOUNS for processes
                         One dimensional
Synthesis               Hierarchical
                         Degrees of difficulty as the
Analyzes                 basis for the difference
                          between levels of the taxonomy
Application             Multiple types of Knowledge

                         Very cognitively ambiguous
Comprehension            verbs
                         Failure for trained educators to
Knowledge                recognize questions at higher
                          levels as more difficult than at
                          lower levels

Fall 2006
                      Evaluation

                      Synthesis

                       Analysis

                      Application
                   Comprehension

                     Knowledge

            The Original Bloom’s Taxonomy
Fall 2006
   Why the Revised Taxonomy?

Historical link (1949 to the present)
 Two dimensions match the structure of all
  objectives: subject-verb-object.
 Verbs are critical since they represent the cognitive
  processes; objects, in noun form, represent the
  subject-matter content.
 Complete “crossing” of rows with columns (i.e.,
  students can remember factual, conceptual,
  procedural, and metacognitive knowledge).

Fall 2006
                                 THE TAXONOMY TABLE



                      1.          2.        3.          4.         5.        6.
                   REMEMBER   UNDERSTAND   APPLY      ANALYZE   EVALUATE   CREATE




  A. Factual
  Knowledge


B. Conceptual
 Knowledge


 C. Procedural
  Knowledge



D. Metacognitive
   Knowledge



   Fall 2006
                            The Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy Table
                     Project Bright IDEA 2 -Kindergarten-Language Arts

                                      The Cognitive Process Dimension
    The          1           2                 3               4            5          6
 Knowledge    Remember   Understand          Apply           Analyze     Evaluate    Create
 Dimension
     A        G2.03-A1    G1.01-A2    G1.03-A3    G2.01-A3              G3.03-A4    G2.04-A6
  Factual     G1.04-A1    G1.02-A2    G2.02-A3    G2.03-A3
                          G1.04-A2    G2.07-A3    G3.01-A3
 Knowledge                G1.05-A2    G3.04-A3    G4.01-A3
                          G2.05-A2    G4.02-A3    G4.03-A3
                          G4.06-A2    G4.04-A3    G4.05-A3
                          G5.01-A2    G5.02-A3    G5.03-A3
     B                    G3.02-B2          G3.04-B3         G4.06-B4
 Conceptual                                 G5.01-B3         G5.01-B4
                                                             G5.01-B4
 Knowledge
     C                    G2.06-C2                                                  G4.06-C6
 Procedural
 Knowledge
    D
   Meta
 Cognitive
 Knowledge




Fall 2006
        Major Characteristics of Bloom’s

Framework
  Two Dimensions
    Cognitive processes
    Knowledge Dimensions
  Cognitive Processes renamed and
   reorganized
  Least cognitively ambiguous verbs
  Knowledge Subcategories renamed and
   reorganized
  Strong verb-noun relationship
Fall 2006
       Major Characteristics of Bloom’s

        Analysis and alignment for learning,
         teaching and assessment (format/structure)
        Tool for unpacking standards
        Tool for extending standards
        Tool for defensible differentiated instruction
        Not a cumulative hierarchy
        Subcategories overlap
        Omission of problem solving and critical
         thinking

Fall 2006
                                 THE TAXONOMY TABLE



                      1.          2.        3.          4.         5.        6.
                   REMEMBER   UNDERSTAND   APPLY      ANALYZE   EVALUATE   CREATE


                   MEMORY     UNDERSTAND



  A. Factual
  Knowledge


B. Conceptual
 Knowledge


 C. Procedural
  Knowledge

 PROCEDURAL

D. Metacognitive
   Knowledge

   OPINION


   Fall 2006
            Designing a New Taxonomy of
               Educational Objectives




        “A place holder for my thinking.”
                   Robert Marzano




Fall 2006
                       A New Taxonomy of Educational Objectives
                                     Robert Marz ano




                                    Model of Behavior
            New Task                  Self-System

                                     Decides to Engage

                                                     No Š Continue current behavior




                                            YES

                                 Metacognitive System
                                  Sets Goals and Strategies



                                    Cognitive System
                               Processes Relevant Information



                                   Knowledge Domain




Fall 2006
                                   The New Taxonomy of Educational Objectives by Robert Marzano

                                                                Three Systems and Knowledge

                                                                          Self System
                      Beliefs about the importance of the Belief about the Efficacy (ability                  Emotion associated with
                                  knowledge                           to learn)                                     knowledge

                                                                Overall Motivation to Learn

                                                                    Metacognitive System
                Specifying learning goal              Monitoring for execution of                Monitoring for clarity               Monitoring for
                                                             knowledge                                                                  accuracy


                                                                          Cognitive System
    Retrieval             Comprehension                                        Analysis                                            Knowledge Utilization
Re call   Execution    Synthesis   Re presentation   Matching    Classifying    Error     Ge neralizing   Specifying   De cision   Problem   Experimental Investigation
                                                                               Analysis                                Making      Solving     Inquiry



                                                                    Knowledge Domain
                      Information Conceptual and Factual                Mental Procedures                       Physical Procedures




           Fall 2006
            Marzano’s Taxonomy
 Levels of Processing           Knowledge Domains
  1.    Retrieval
                                 1. Information
  2.    Comprehension

  3.    Analysis                 2. Mental Procedures
  4.    Knowledge Utilization

  5.    Metacognitive System     3. Psychomotor
                                    Procedures
  6.    Self-System




Fall 2006
                  Adaptation from Developing Minds Edited by Art Costa
                          Student and Teacher Cues and Questions
                  For the Levels of the New Taxonomy by Robert Marzano
                                 Student Cues and Questions
                                                                  Teacher Cues and Questions
                                 (Robert Marzano)
                                                                  How have I provided opportunity or opportunities
                                 How important is this to me?
                  A. Examining                                    for the students to express why this is important?
                                 What is my reasoning?
                  Importance                                      How have I supported students in checking the
                                 How logical is my reasoning?
                                                                  logic in their reasoning?
                                 How capable do I think I am to   How have I encouraged or promoted confidence
                  B. Examining   learn this? What is my           in students to learn new materials, ideas, concepts
                  Efficacy       reasoning? How logical is my     and/or procedures? How reasonable and logical
                                 reasoning?                       are these pursuits in relationship to the request?

  Level 6: Self                                                 How have I provided opportunity or opportunities
                                 What is my emotional response
                  C. Examining                                  for students to explore their emotional response to
                                 to this? What is the reasoning
                  Emotional                                     a topic, idea, concept or procedure? How have I
                                 behind my response? How
                  Response                                      assisted students in examining the logic behind
                                 logical is my response?
                                                                their emotional response?

                                                                How have I provided opportunity or opportunities
                                 What is my level of motivation
                                                                for the students to become interested in the new
                  D. Examining   to learn this? What is my
                                                                materials, ideas, concepts and/or procedures thus
                  Motivation     reasoning? How logical is my
                                                                motivating them to be engaged in the learning
                                 reasoning?
                                                                process?

Fall 2006
                                Adaptation from Developing Minds Edited by Art Costa
                                        Student and Teacher Cues and Questions
                                For the Levels of the New Taxonomy by Robert Marzano
                                    Student Cues and Questions
                                                                      Teacher Cues and Questions
                                    (Robert Marzano)
                                                                     How have I taken time to prepare and/or provided opportunities for
                                    What is my goal relative to
                                                                     students to develop goals and to discuss steps for attacking
                A. Goal             learning this?
                                                                     problems, rules to remember and directions to follow? Have
                Specification       What have I planned for
                                                                     students created a road map to accomplish desired goals? If so,
                                    accomplishing this goal?
                                                                     how? (Costa, 2001)
                                                                     How have I provided time for student reflections? Are students
                                    What is working well and what is evaluating how effective possible solutions are to problems, how
                B. Process
                                    not working well relative to my  productive the strategies are, whether instructions were followed
                Monitoring
                                    use of this skill or process?    correctly and what would be some alternative more effective
Level 5:
                                                                     strategies for the future? (Costa, 2001) Lessons learned?
Metacognition
                                                                     How clearly are students articulating the new knowledge? Do
                                    About what am I clear and about
                C. Monitoring                                        students have a deep understanding of the knowledge (interpreting,
                                    what am I not clear in terms of
                Clarity                                              exemplifying, classifying, summarizing, inferring, comparing and
                                    this knowledge?
                                                                     explaining)? (Anderson, 2001)
                                                                      How accurately are students detecting errors and recovering from
                                    About what am I accurate and
                D. Monitoring                                         those errors? Identifying areas where errors most likely might
                                    about what am I not accurate in
                Accuracy                                              occur? Selecting a strategy or strategies that will reduce the
                                    terms of this knowledge?
                                                                      possibility of error and provide easy recovery? (Rigney, 1980)




   Fall 2006
                                     Adaptation from Developing Minds Edited by Art Costa
                                             Student and Teacher Cues and Questions
                                     For the Levels of the New Taxonomy by Robert Marzano
                                       Student Cues and Questions
                                                                           Teacher Cues and Questions
                                       (Robert Marzano)
                                       How can this knowledge be used      How have I provided appropriate decision making models/graphic
                  A. Decision          to make a decision?                 organizers and provided instruction in how to use them correctly?
                  Making                What decision can be made          Do students demonstrate understanding in how to use models across
                                       about the knowledge?                various disciplines?
                                                                           How have I provided appropriate problem solving models/graphic
                                                                           organizers and provided instruction in how to use them correctly? How
                                     How can this knowledge be used        do students demonstrate understanding in how to use problem solving
                                     to help solve a problem?              models across disciplines? How do students
                  B. Problem Solving
                                     What problem can be solved            understand the characteristics/indicators of good problem solving?
Level 4:                             about the knowledge?                  How have I provided opportunities for students to explain their
Utilization                                                                hypothesis and conclusions? Do students understand how to evaluate
                                                                           themselves and to become better problem solvers? Is, how?
                                       How can this knowledge be used      How have I provided students with appropriate models/graphic
                                       to help generate and test a         organizers for experimental inquiry? How have I used familiar content
                  C. Experimental
                                       hypothesis? What hypotheses         to teach students the steps for experimental inquiry? How
                  Inquiry                                                   have I provided guidance as needed? How have I provided
                                       can be generated and tested about
                                       knowledge?                          opportunities for students to explain their hypotheses and conclusions?
                                                                           How have I provided students with appropriate models/graphic
                                       How can this knowledge be used      organizers for the process? How have I used familiar content to teach
                  D. Investigation
                                       to help investigate something?      the process? How have I provided opportunities for students to explain
                                                                           their hypotheses and conclusions?




      Fall 2006
                                      Adaptation from Developing Minds Edited by Art Costa
                                              Student and Teacher Cues and Questions
                                      For the Levels of the New Taxonomy by Robert Marzano
                                        Student Cues and Questions
                                                                           Teacher Cues and Questions
                                        (Robert Marzano)
                                        How is this knowledge similar to   How can I improve students listening, observation and description
                    A. Matching         and different from other           skills in order to detect correspondences between ideas, objects,
                                        knowledge?                         concepts, principles, etc?
                                                                           How have I provided students with appropriate models/graphic
                                        To what general category does
                                                                           organizers for the process? How have I used familiar content to teach
                                        this knowledge belong? What are
                    B. Classifying                                         the process and then provided students opportunities to classify items
                                        the subcategories of this           using their own rules for category membership? How have I provided
                                        knowledge?                         opportunities for students to explain their hypotheses and conclusions?
                                                                           How have I taught students how to monitor for accuracy and clarity so
                                        What errors (if any) have been
                                                                           as to detect and to reduce possible errors? How have I taught students
                    C. Error Analysis   made in the presentation or use of
                                                                            to make either a quick fix or to retreat to the last known correct
Level 3: Analysis                       this knowledge?
                                                                           operation and then to proceed on task? (Rigney, 1980)
                                                                           How have I provided students with models of deductive and inductive
                                                                           thinking? How have I, and possibly other colleagues, provided
                                        What generalizations can be        opportunities for students to use generalizations from interdisciplinary
                    D. Generalizing
                                        inferred from this knowledge?       perspectives across the disciplines? How have I monitored how well
                                                                           students understand generalizations? How will I help students who are
                                                                           struggling with developing understanding of generalizations?
                                                                           How may I guide students to develop generalizations based on stated
                                        What predictions can be made
                                                                           knowledge gained from the deductive and/or inductive thinking skills
                    E. Specifying       and proven based on this
                                                                           models? What hypotheses may be developed form other models
                                        knowledge?
                                                                           students may know and use?



    Fall 2006
                                Adaptation from Developing Minds Edited by Art Costa
                                        Student and Teacher Cues and Questions
                                For the Levels of the New Taxonomy by Robert Marzano
                                     Student Cues and Questions
                                                                           Teacher Cues and Questions
                                     (Robert Marzano)
                                     What is the basic structure of this   How have I provided students opportunities to construct meaning from
                                     knowledge - main ideas versus         instructional messages, including oral, written and graphic
                 A. Synthesis        supporting ideas, sequence of          communication? How have students connected prior knowledge and
                                     information, relationship between     constructed new meaning? Do students understand the relationships
Level 2:
                                     the parts?                            between ideas, wholes, and parts? If so, how?
Comprehension                                                              How have I provided students with opportunities to represent and
                                     How can the basic structure of
                                                                           structure their knowledge through graphic organizers, pictographic
                 B. Representation   this knowledge be represented
                                                                           representations, mental images, physical models and kinesthetic
                                     symbolically or graphically?
                                                                           representations?
                                                                           How have I designed instruction to allow students to store knowledge
                                     Is this accurate about the
                 A. Recall                                                 in multiple memory pathways (implicit and explicit, and opportunities
                                     knowledge?
Level 1:                                                                   to retrieve long-term information from the multiple pathways?
Retrieval                                                                  How have I provided students opportunity or opportunities to apply the
                 B. Execution        Perform this skill or process.        skill or process to a familiar task? How have I monitored students for
                                                                           possible error analysis in the execution of the skill or process?




     Fall 2006
            Characteristics of Marzano’s
                    Taxonomy

     A “model” or “theory” of human thought (allow
      for prediction of phenomenon)
     Flow of info ALWAYS (?) (self to
      metacognitive to cognitive and then
      knowledge)
     Two dimensions (Three Systems and
      Knowledge)
     Self-System -interrelated beliefs and goals
     Metacognitive - Goals/learning targets for
      new tasks
Fall 2006
             Characteristics of Marzano’s
                     Taxonomy

            A “model” or “theory” of human thought
             (allow for prediction of phenomenon)
            Flow of info ALWAYS (?) (self to
             metacognitive to cognitive and then
             knowledge)
            Two dimensions (Three Systems and
             Knowledge)
            Self-System -interrelated beliefs and goals
            Metacognitive - Goals/learning targets for
             new tasks
Fall 2006
                                   THE TAXONOMY TABLE



                      1.           2.             3.           4.          5.        6.
                   REMEMBER    UNDERSTAND       APPLY        ANALYZE    EVALUATE   CREATE



                                               Knowledge
                   Retrieval   Comprehension                 Analysis
                                               Utilization

  A. Factual
  Knowledge
  Information

B. Conceptual
 Knowledge
  Information

 C. Procedural
  Knowledge
Mental/Physical
  Procedures

D. Metacognitive
   Knowledge
 Metacognition
     Self

    Fall 2006
            Some Conclusions
    To solve shared problems, we need
     shared lenses.

    Shared lenses provide a common way of
     thinking about problems and a common
     language to talk about them.

    Any shared lens (framework) is better
     than no lens at all. Without a shared lens,
     we are all in this alone.
Fall 2006

								
To top