K-12 Science Curriculum Guidelines by fsy40675

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									                    K-12 SCIENCE CURRICULUM GUIDELINES




                                           OVERVIEW



DEVELOPMENT:
    A K-12 committee of representative teachers, the director of curriculum, community
    representatives, and VISMT associates has reviewed national and state science standards in
    order to revise and align our local curriculum based on those standards.


IMPLEMENTATION:
     New resources for teaching science (i.e., Insights) are being reviewed at the elementary levels.
      The Internet is being used at all levels as a source for current science information (i.e.,
     NASA). Science Exemplars K-8 will provide teachers with authentic assessment tasks that
     can be used for both assessment and instruction. Standards- based units of study are being
     developed and shared across schools/teams.

       To supplement this curriculum is a teacher resource package that contains teaching and
       assessment tools for teacher and student use. Vermont Science Assessment Blueprint,
       released tasks, and locally designed performance assessment tasks will be available.


ASSESSMENT:
     Assessment of student performance is carried out using classroom, state, and national tests.
     These tests include the Vermont Science Assessment in grades 6 and 11, Biology Advanced
     Placement Tests in grade 12, and local assessments will be designed for benchmark years
     (grades 3, 5, and 8).


PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT:
    Professional development for staff members is ongoing with inservice, courses, mentors,
    workshops, conferences, and visitations to other schools.

       Both the learning expectations and the teacher resource package will be developed further as
       the Science Committee and the District Development Team review new state criteria for
       designing curricula and our students’ assessment results. These results will be analyzed by
       each School Development Team for the school’s annual action planning process. The District
       Development Team will review the assessment results in terms of the K-12 science program.




                                                 1
                                     South Burlington School District

                        K-12 SCIENCE PHILOSOPHY STATEMENT


Science is the study of the natural world. It is a human activity, a way of thinking, and a method for
understanding. Our instruction reflects our belief that experiencing the scientific enterprise is important for
every student. Our curriculum, in alignment with Vermont's Framework of Standards and Learning
Opportunities, offers students the opportunity to develop a cohesive, conceptual approach to understanding
their world.

Scientifically literate people construct a substantial knowledge base of facts, concepts, conceptual networks
and process skills (through hands-on, minds-on learning). Scientifically literate people understand how
science, technology, and society influence one another and are able to use this knowledge and related
technologies in everyday decision-making. These individuals appreciate the value as well as the limitations of
science and technology in society. We believe that science instruction is an important element in the education
of citizens who are responsible caretakers of their community, nation and planet.

Our curriculum affords all students opportunities to acquire the scientific skills and knowledge necessary for
responsible citizenship. Those of our students who aspire to become scientists, physicians, or engineers need
more than scientific literacy. This curriculum provides these students with chances to study earth/space, life,
and physical sciences in greater depth.



                                        K-12 PROGRAM GOALS
To provide opportunities for all students to:

1.      Experience the spirit of scientific enterprise, discovering scientific knowledge for themselves
        through laboratory experiments, field studies, performance-based projects and research.

2.      Study and apply the earth/space, physical and life sciences at an appropriate level of difficulty.

3.      Use the scientific method.

4.      Develop attitudes characteristic of scientists: curiosity, open-mindedness, objectivity, a
        healthy skepticism, and respect for the world around us.

5.      Develop the knowledge base for further study of the sciences.

6.      Learn to deal responsibly with science-related social issues.

7.      Use information and design technology to gather information, collect data, and to carry out scientific
        problem solving.




                                                        2
          VERMONT'S STANDARDS AND LEARNING OPPORTUNITIES


VITAL RESULTS: The following vital results are integral to the learning of science.

Communications
1.8   In written reports, students organize and convey information and ideas accurately and effectively.
1.17  Students interpret and communicate using mathematical, scientific, and technological notation and representation.
1.18  Students use computers, telecommunication, and other tools of technology to research, to gather information and
      ideas, and to represent information and ideas accurately and appropriately.
1.19  Students use organizational systems to obtain information from various sources (including libraries and the
      Internet).
1.20  Students use graphs, charts, and other visual presentations to communicate data accurately and appropriately.
1.22  Students employ a variety of techniques to use simulations and to develop models.

Reasoning and Problem Solving
2.1     Students ask a variety of questions.
2.2     Students' use reasoning strategies, knowledge, and common sense to solve complex problems related to all fields
        of knowledge.
2.3     Students solve problems of increasing complexity.
2.4     Students devise and test ways of improving the effectiveness of a system.

Personal Development
3.5     Students make informed, healthy choices that positively affect the health, safety, and well being of themselves
        and others.
3.9     Students take steps to protect and repair the environment.
3.10    Students perform effectively on teams that set and achieve goals, conduct investigations, solve problems, and
        create solutions.
3.11    Students interact respectfully with others, including those with whom they have differences.
3.13    Students analyze their roles and responsibilities in their family, their school, and their community.

FIELD OF KNOWLEDGE: Each grade level includes appropriate and relevant standards and evidences from the
following standards.
7.1     Students describe, investigate, and explain phenomena using the scientific method.
7.2     Students design and conduct a variety of their own investigations and projects.
7.3     Students understand the nature of mathematical, scientific, and technological theory.
7.4     Students understand the history of science, mathematics, and technology.
7.5     Students analyze the roles and responsibilities of scientists, mathematicians, and technologists in social,
        economic, cultural, and political systems.
7.11    Students analyze and understand living and non-living systems (e.g., biological, chemical, electrical, mechanical,
        optical) as collections of interrelated parts and interconnected systems.
7.12    Students understand forces and motion, the properties and composition of matter, and energy sources and
        transformations.
7.13    Students understand the characteristics of organisms, see patterns of similarity and differences among living
        organisms, understand the role of evolution, and recognize the interdependence of all systems that support life.
7.14    Students demonstrate understanding of the human body -- heredity, body systems, and individual development--
        and understand the impact of the environment on the human body.
7.15    Students demonstrate understanding of the earth and its environment, the solar system, and the universe in terms
        of the systems that characterize them, the forces that affect and shape them over time, and the theories that
        currently explain their evolution.
7.16    Students understand how natural resources are extracted, distributed, processed, and disposed of.
7.17    Students apply knowledge and understanding of technological systems to respond to a variety of issues.
7.18    Students understand that people control the outputs, and impacts of our expanding technological activities in the
        areas of communication, construction, manufacturing, power and transportation, energy sources, health
        technology, and biotechnology.
7.19    Students use technological/engineering processes to design solutions to problems.




                                                            3
                                    LEARNING OPPORTUNITIES
Learning Opportunities are recommended practices to support all students in attaining the VT standards.

K-12 Science instruction will include the following effective practices:
1.     Use of manipulative and scientific tools (e.g., calculators, microscopes, graphing calculators, computer
       simulations, tangrams) to engage students in active, in-depth learning (e.g., investigations, problem
       solving).

2.      Frequent interactions with the natural world.

3.      Inquiry, investigation, and experimentation as a regular part of the science program.

4.      Frequent opportunities to use appropriate tools -- including the senses -- for observation and
        subsequent collection of data, including data that may not have been anticipated.

5.      Frequent oral and written interactions between teachers and students, and among students, to develop
        and extend mathematical scientific thinking (e.g., discussions, presentations, learning logs, and open-
        ended follow-up questions).

6.      Flexible grouping for investigations, problem-solving tasks, research and experimentation.

7.      Teachers who display scientists' habits of mind.

8.      Open-ended tasks that allow students to explore and/or analyze scientific, mathematical, and
        technological questions.

9.      Assessment approaches that are embedded in instruction and that require appropriate manipulative and
        scientific and technological tools.

10.     Basic skills (e.g., measuring, recording, and computing) that are integrated with analysis, synthesis,
        and evaluation.

11.     The opportunity for students to present the results of their investigations to their peers for review.

To achieve high standards, every student needs:
A. ACCESS
Content:
1. Access to rigorous content, knowledge and skills described in the VT Framework.

Instructors:
2. Access to instructors who are knowledgeable about the disciplines they teach, about the developmental
characteristics of the students they teach, and about best practices in teaching and learning.

Resources:
3. Access to accurate information, materials and current resources (in addition to textbooks) that are
appropriate for the learning goals.

Time:
4. Instruction that uses time effectively and flexibly to achieve learning goals.

Safe and Healthy Environment:
5. A physically and emotionally safe, educationally supportive environment in which to learn.


                                                           4
B. INSTRUCTION
Acquiring Knowledge and Skills:
1. Learning experiences that engage students in active learning, build on prior knowledge and
experiences, and develop conceptual and procedural understanding, along with student independence.

Variety of Instructor Roles:
2. Teachers who use a variety of teaching roles (e.g., direct instruction, facilitating, modeling, coaching,
reflecting, and guiding observing), and adapt these as appropriate for different purposes of instruction and
student needs.

Multiple Student Roles:
3. Opportunities to learn through a variety of roles (e.g., planner, questioner, artist, scientist, historian), alone
and with others.

Application and Reflection:
4. Projects and assignments that require student to integrate and apply their learning in meaningful contexts,
and to reflect on what they have learned.

Adaptive Learning Environments:
5. Learning environments that are adapted so that all students achieve success.


C. ASSESSMENT AND REPORTING
Multiple Assessment Strategies:
1. A balance and variety of assessment strategies used to gain information and provide feedback about student
learning (e.g., performance assessments, self-assessments, paper-and-pencil tests, checklists, etc.).

Criteria:
2. Expectations and performance criteria are clear and public.

Use of Assessment to Inform Instruction and Guide Student Learning:
3. Assessment results that are used to influence instructional decisions and to plan the next learning steps for
students.

Self-Assessment:
4. Students use clear criteria and examples to evaluate their own work.

Effective Communication of Assessment Information:
5. Classroom-based assessments that are combined with other measures to communicate information about
student learning.


D. CONNECTIONS
Interdisciplinary Connections:
1. Learning experiences that illustrate strong connections within and across the fields of knowledge.

Relevance:
2. Learning experiences that have personal, community, and/or global relevance.

Family and Community Collaboration:
3. An educational climate that is collaborative, in which school staff, families, health and human services
personnel, and community members work together to support all learners.



                                                          5
                                                             INQUIRY PROCESS SKILLS CONTINUUM
Scientific Method: Students use scientific methods to describe, investigate, and explain phenomena. (7.1, 7.2, 7.3)
Proposing               Emergent                 Developing                Expanding              Bridging                         Fluent                     Proficient
Explanations            Kindergarten             Grade 1                   Grade 2                Grade 3                          Grade 4                    Grade 5
Observations            Students use 3 or 4       Students use at least 4    Students use their 5       Students use their 5       Students use their 5       Students use their 5
                        senses to observe and     senses to observe and      senses to observe and      senses to observe and      senses to observe and      senses to observe and
                        explore their             explore their              explore their              explore their              explore their              explore their
                        environment. Students     environment. Students      environment. Students      environment. Students      environment. Students      environment. Students
                        are able to make 1 or 2   can begin to observe       observe more complex       observe more complex       observe more complex       observe more complex
                        simple observations       more complex events        events and objects and     events and objects and     events and objects and     events and objects and
                        and/or discoveries.       and objects and make       make several               make several               make numerous              made numerous
                        Drawings are used to      several observations.      observations. Drawings     observations. Students     observations. Students     observations. Students
                        represent these           Drawings with simple       include descriptive        recognize the need to      recognize the need to      recognize the need to
                        observations.             captions or words can      words and sentences        observe carefully and      observe carefully and      observe carefully and
                                                  be used to represent and   and include more detail    over time.                 over time.                 over time.
                                                  explain student            about what is observed.    Observations are           Observations are           Observations are
                                                  observations.                                         recorded and               recorded and               recorded and
                                                                                                        represented in detail.     represented in detail.     represented in detail.
                                                                                                                                   Students are able to       Students are able to
                                                                                                                                   plan systematic            plan systematic
                                                                                                                                   observations.              observations. Students
                                                                                                                                                              use a variety of
                                                                                                                                                              observation techniques.
Frame Questions         Expresses wonder and      Begins to ask questions    Begins to ask questions    Asks questions about       Asks questions about       Asks questions about
                        curiosity about their     about the natural and      about the natural and      the natural and physical   the natural and physical   the natural and physical
                        world and seeks           physical world.            physical worlds that are   worlds that are not        worlds that are not        world that are not
                        information by asking     Students can extend        not directly observable.   directly observable.       directly observable.       directly observable or
                        "why" questions.          "why" questions to          Student can extend        Questions raised are       Questions raised are       that have inconclusive
                        Questions can be          "how" and "what" with      "why" questions to         phrased in such a way      phrased in such a way      answers. Questions
                        generated by the whole    teacher assistance. May    "how" and "what"           to lead to scientific      to lead to scientific      raised are phrased in
                        class. "How" and          begin to ask "what if"     questions. Begin to ask    investigation. Students    investigation and/or       such a way to lead to
                        "what" questions may      questions based upon       "what if” questions        ask a variety of           research and are           scientific investigation
                        be generated with         observations and           based upon                 questions including        detailed and specific.     and research and are
                        teacher assistance.       investigations with        observations and           "what if" questions that   Students ask a variety     detailed. Students ask a
                                                  teacher modeling.          investigations. May        are based upon previous    of questions including     variety of questions
                                                                             raise new questions        observations and           "what if" questions that   including "what if"
                                                                             after completing an        investigations. Raises     are based upon previous    questions that are based
                                                                             investigation that         new questions after        observations and           upon previous
                                                                             extends thinking.          completing an              investigations. Raises     observations,
                                                                                                        investigation that         new questions after        knowledge and
                                                                                                        extends thinking and       completing an              investigations. Raises
                                                                                                        understanding              investigation that         new questions after
                                                                                                                                   extends thinking and       completing an
                                                                                                                                   understanding.             investigation or
                                                                                                                                                              research that extends
                                                                                                                                                              thinking and
                                                                                                                                                              understanding.

                                                                                             6
7
                                                               INQUIRY PROCESS SKILLS CONTINUUM
Scientific Method: Students use scientific methods to describe, investigate, and explain phenomena. (7.1, 7.2, 7.3)
           Proposing               Emergent                Developing                Expanding                Bridging                             Fluent                     Proficient
         Explanations            Kindergarten                Grade 1                   Grade 2                 Grade 3                             Grade 4                     Grade 5
    Predict/Hypothesize     Students use prior          Use prior knowledge to      Use prior knowledge         Use prior knowledge         Uses prior knowledge        Uses prior knowledge,
                            knowledge to predict        predict and explain         and experiences to          and experiences to          and experiences to          experiences and abstract
                            and explain what might      what might happen.          predict and explain         predict and explain         predict and explain         reasons to predict and
                            happen. Predictions         Predictions are more        what might happen.          what might happen.          what might happen.          explain what might
                            and hypotheses can be       logical and related to      Predictions are more        Predictions are more        Predictions are logical     happen. Predictions are
                            whole class generated       scientific observation.     logical and related to      logical and related to      and related to scientific   logical and related to
                            or represented through      Predictions and             scientific observation.     scientific observation.     observation. Students       scientific observation
                            pictures, oral              hypotheses are              Predictions may be          Students revise after       revise after additional     and concepts learned.
                            discussion, teacher         represented through         revised after additional    additional observations     observations and look       Students revise after
                            recorded or diagrams.       pictures and simple text,   observations. Students      and look for patterns to    for more complex            additional observations
                                                        oral discussion, or         give more detailed oral     guide predictions.          patterns to guide           and look for more
                                                        diagrams.                   and written predictions.    Students give more          predictions. Students       complex patterns to
                                                                                                                detailed oral and written   give more detailed oral     guide predictions.
                                                                                                                predictions.                and written predictions.    Students give more
                                                                                                                                                                        detailed oral and written
                                                                                                                                                                        predictions.
    Design and Experiment   Students first engage in    Students continue to        Students continue to        Students continue to        Students continue to        Students continue to
                            a variety of guided         engage in a variety of      engage in a variety of      engage in a variety of      engage in a variety of      engage in a variety of
                            investigations provided     guided investigations       guided investigations       guided investigations       guided investigations       guided investigations
                            by the teacher that are     provided by the teacher     provided by the teacher     provided by the teacher     provided by the teacher     provided by the teacher
                            relevant to the questions   that are relevant to the    that are relevant to the    that are relevant to the    that are relevant to the    that are relevant to the
                            they raise and are based    questions they raise and    questions they raise and    questions they raise and    questions they raise and    questions they raise and
                            on their observations.      are based on their          are based on their          are based on their          are based on their          are based on their
                            In small groups or as a     observations. Students      observations. Students      observations. Students      observations. Students      observations. Students
                            whole class students can    can set up simple tests,    can set up simple tests,    plan tests directly         plan tests directly         plan tests directly
                            create an investigation     recognize and control       recognize and control 1     related to their            related to their            related to their
                            plan to test their          obvious variables,          or more variables, select   predictions and             predictions and             predictions and
                            predictions, identify       select and use scientific   and use scientific tools    hypotheses recognize        hypotheses, recognize       hypotheses, recognize
                            obvious variables and       tools and materials to      and materials to answer     and control 1 or more       and control at least 2      and control at least 2
                            appropriate materials/      answer their questions      their questions.            variables, select and use   variables, select and use   variables, select and use
                            tools, and then conduct     with some teacher           Students begin to           scientific tools and        appropriate scientific      appropriate scientific
                            these investigations        assistance.                 understand the concept      materials to answer         tools and materials to      tools and materials to
                            with teacher assistance.                                of fair testing and their   their questions.            answer their questions.     answer their questions.
                                                                                    testing procedure has a     Students understand and     Students understand and     Students understand and
                                                                                    logical progression.        apply the concept of fair   apply the concept of fair   apply the concept of fair
                                                                                                                testing and their testing   testing and their testing   testing consistently and
                                                                                                                procedure has a logical     procedure has a logical     their testing procedure
                                                                                                                progression.                progression. Students       has a logical
                                                                                                                                            may recognize the need      progression. Students
                                                                                                                                            to adjust an                recognize the need to
                                                                                                                                            investigation when          adjust an investigation
                                                                                                                                            necessary.                  when necessary.
                                                               INQUIRY PROCESS SKILLS CONTINUUM
                                                                                               8
Scientific Method: Students use scientific methods to describe, investigate, and explain phenomena. (7.1, 7.2, 7.3)
           Proposing               Emergent                Developing                 Expanding                Bridging                   Fluent                   Proficient
         Explanations            Kindergarten                Grade 1                   Grade 2                 Grade 3                    Grade 4                   Grade 5
    Use                      Students select and      Students select and       Students select and     Students select and       Students select and       Students select and
    Tools/Technologies       use appropriate tools    use appropriate tools     use appropriate tools   use appropriate tools     use appropriate tools     use appropriate tools
                             for measurement and      for measurement and       for measurement and     for measurement and       for measurement and       for measurement and
                             data collections (i.e.,  data collections (i.e.,   data collections (i.e., data collections (i.e.,   data collections (i.e.,   data collections (i.e.,
                             nonstandard units of     nonstandard and           standard units of       standard units of         standard units of         standard units of
                             measure and              standard units of         measure, magnifying     measure, magnifying       measure, magnifying       measure, magnifying
                             magnifying glasses).     measure and               glasses, data           glasses, data             glasses, data             glasses, data
                                                      magnifying glasses).      collection tools, and   collection tools, and     collection tools,         collection tools,
                                                      Students are able to      microscopes).           microscopes).             microscopes, scales,      microscopes, scales,
                                                      recognize how the         Students are able to    Students are able to      test tubes, pH paper,     test tubes, pH paper,
                                                      tools help with           recognize how the       recognize how the         etc). Students are        etc.). Students are
                                                      scientific                tools help with         tools help with           able to recognize how     able to recognize how
                                                      investigation.            scientific              scientific                the tools help with       the tools help with
                                                                                investigation and       investigation and         scientific                scientific
                                                                                understand their        understand their          investigation and         investigation and
                                                                                applications to other   applications to other     understand their          understand their
                                                                                situations.             situations.               applications to other     applications to other
                                                                                                                                  situations. Students      situations. Students
                                                                                                                                  begin to use              use technology as a
                                                                                                                                  technology as a           means to collect and
                                                                                                                                  means to collect and      organize data (i.e.
                                                                                                                                  organize data (i.e.       spread sheets,
                                                                                                                                  spread sheets,            computer generated
                                                                                                                                  computer generated        graphs).
                                                                                                                                  graphs).
    Collect Data             Students collect,         Students collect,        Students collect,        Students collect,        Students collect,         Students collect,
                             count, measure things     count, measure things    count, measure things    count, measure things    count, measure things     count, measure things
                             during their              during their             during their             during their             during their              during their
                             investigations.           investigations.          investigations.          investigations.          investigations.           investigations.
                                                                                Students can collect     Students can collect     Students can collect      Students can collect
                                                                                more than one type of    more than one type of    more than one type of     more than one type of
                                                                                data with teacher        data during an           data during an            data during an
                                                                                assistance.              investigation.           investigation.            investigation.




                                                                                          9
                                                             INQUIRY PROCESS SKILLS CONTINUUM

Scientific Method: Students use scientific methods to describe, investigate, and explain phenomena. (7.1, 7.2, 7.3)
           Proposing                 Emergent               Developing                 Expanding               Bridging                   Fluent                  Proficient
         Explanations             Kindergarten               Grade 1                    Grade 2                Grade 3                   Grade 4                   Grade 5
    Organize and             Student use teacher      Students continue to      Students organize      Students organize         Students organize         Students organize
    Represent Data           generated charts to      use teacher-generated data using tallies,        data using tallies,       data using tallies,       data using tallies,
                             assist in organizing     charts to assist in       lists, charts, graphs, lists, charts, graphs,    lists, charts, graphs,    lists, charts, graphs,
                             data. Simple graphs,     organizing data.          words, symbols,        words, symbols,           word symbols,             words, symbols,
                             lists, tally charts, and Simple graphs, lists,     pictures and models.   pictures and models.      pictures and models.      pictures and models.
                             pictures can also be     tally charts, and         Students are able to   Students are able to      Students are able to      Students are able to
                             used to represent data pictures that are           select the most        select the most           select the most           select the most
                             when appropriate.        student created are       appropriate form of    appropriate form of       appropriate form of       appropriate form of
                                                      used more frequently. representation.            representation and        representation and        representation and
                                                                                Simple labels are      use it accurately with    use it accurately and     use it accurately and
                                                                                included               appropriate labels.       effectively to display    effectively to display
                                                                                                                                 data.                     data.
    Compare, Categorize      With teacher              Students make             Students make           Students make           Students make             Students make
    and Classify Data        assistance students       comparisons about         comparisons about       comparisons about       comparisons about         comparisons about
                             make comparisons          concrete events and       events and objects      events and objects      events and objects        events and objects
                             about concrete events     objects and can sort      and can sort these      and can sort these      into a variety of         and can sort these
                             and objects. Students     these events and          events and objects      events and objects      categories. Students      events and objects
                             look for patterns and     objects into              into categories.        into categories.        look for patterns and     into a variety of
                             notice similarities and   categories. Students      Students look for       Students look for       notice similarities and   categories. Students
                             differences.              look for patterns and     patterns and notice     patterns and notice     differences and can       look for patterns and
                                                       notice similarities and   similarities and        similarities and        explain why they          notice similarities and
                                                       differences and can       differences and can     differences and can     categorized according     differences and can
                                                       explain why they          explain why they        explain why they        to object specific        explain why they
                                                       categorized               categorized according   categorized according   properties. Students      categorized according
                                                       something in a certain    to object properties.   to object specific      can explain their         to object specific
                                                       way.                                              properties.             rationale for             properties. Students
                                                                                                                                 categorization.           can explain their
                                                                                                                                                           rationale for
                                                                                                                                                           categorization and
                                                                                                                                                           use multiple
                                                                                                                                                           classification
                                                                                                                                                           systems.




                                                                                          10
                                                              INQUIRY PROCESS SKILLS CONTINUUM

Scientific Method: Students use scientific methods to describe, investigate, and explain phenomena. (7.1, 7.2, 7.3)
           Proposing               Emergent                Developing                Expanding                Bridging                          Fluent                    Proficient
         Explanations            Kindergarten                Grade 1                   Grade 2                 Grade 3                          Grade 4                    Grade 5
    Analyze Data and Draw   Students begin to guess    Students form               Students form              Students form              Students form logical      Students form logical
    Conclusions             reasons for what they      explanations and            explanations and           explanations and           explanations and           explanations and
                            have observed during       reasons for what they       reasons for what they      reasons for what they      reasons for what they      reasons for what they
                            their investigations and   have observed during        have observed during       have observed during       have observed during       have observed during
                            may base these on the      their investigations and    their investigations and   their investigations and   their investigations and   their investigations and
                            data they collected.       base these on the data      base these more closely    base these more            base these more            base these accurately on
                                                       they collect with           on the data they           accurately on the data     accurately on the data     the data they collected.
                                                       teacher modeling and        collected. Students can    they collected. Students   they collected. Students   Students can read and
                                                       assistance.                 read and interpret         can read and interpret     can read and interpret     interpret different types
                                                                                   simple graphs.             different types of         different types of         of graphs. Conclusions
                                                                                   Conclusions may            graphs. Conclusions        graphs. Conclusions        include information
                                                                                   include information and    include information        include information        about "why" something
                                                                                   "why" something            about "why" something      about "why" something      happened and make
                                                                                   happened.                  happened.                  happened and/or make       connections to other
                                                                                                                                         connections to other       concepts or
                                                                                                                                         concepts or                investigations. Students
                                                                                                                                         investigations.            make inferences about
                                                                                                                                                                    scientific principles and
                                                                                                                                                                    theories.
    Communicate             Students communicate       Students communicate        Students can begin to      Students communicate       Students communicate       Students communicate
    Understanding           through the use of         through the use of          communicate                informally through the     informally through the     informally through the
                            whole group sharing,       whole group sharing,        informally through the     use of journals and lab    use of journals and lab    use of journals and lab
                            pictures, and simple       pictures and words, and     use of journals and lab    reports, and report out    reports, and report out    reports, and report out
                            demonstrations to          simple demonstrations       reports, and reporting     more formally to the       more formally to the       more formally to the
                            describe their results     to describe their results   out more formally to the   class. Students plan       class. Students plan       class. Students plan
                            and explanations.          and explanations.           class. Students can plan   and prepare a simple       and prepare a variety of   and prepare a variety of
                                                       Students use more           and prepare a simple       presentation of their      presentations to share     presentations to share
                                                       scientific vocabulary in    presentation of their      results and                their results and          their results and
                                                       their explanations and      results and                explanations. There is     explanations. There is     explanations. There is
                                                       conclusions more            explanations. There is     more consistent use of     consistent use of          consistent use of
                                                       accurately reflect data.    more consistent use of     scientific vocabulary to   scientific vocabulary to   scientific vocabulary to
                                                                                   scientific vocabulary to   describe findings.         describe findings.         describe findings.
                                                                                   describe findings.         Analysis of data is more   Analysis of data is        Analysis of data is
                                                                                   Analysis of data is more   closely linked with        closely linked with        linked with actual
                                                                                   closely linked with        actual results and         actual results and         results and conceptual
                                                                                   actual results and         conceptual                 conceptual                 understanding is
                                                                                   conceptual                 understanding is           understanding is           reflected in their
                                                                                   understanding.             reflected in their         reflected in their         conclusions.
                                                                                                              conclusions.               conclusions.




                                                                                             11
                                     LEARNING EXPECTATIONS

                                                KINDERGARTEN

By the end of Kindergarten, all students should be able to:

#1 Physical Science
Students understand forces and motion, the properties and composition of matter, and energy sources and
transformations.

ESSENTIAL CONCEPT: The senses of sight, smell, taste, touch, and sound are the means through which
information about our environment is obtained.

1.1     sort and classify objects and events according to the properties that can be observed through
        the sense of touch (e.g., soft, hard, warm, cold, dry, wet, etc.).
1.2     sort and classify foods by taste (e.g., sweet, sour, salty, and bitter).
1.3     identify names of objects by smell.
1.4     identify and compare objects by the sound they make.
1.5     observe and describe objects using characteristics (e.g., size, shape, color, etc.), not object
        names.
1.6     observe objects in motion.
1.7     use inquiry process skills to investigate concepts.
1.8     investigate related theories, scientists and history (i.e., Issac Newton, Wright Brothers).

#2 Life Science
Students understand the characteristics of organisms, see patterns of similarity and differences among living
organisms, understand the role of evolution, and recognize the interdependence of all systems that support life.

ESSENTIAL CONCEPT: Plants and animals are living things that take in food, air and water. They grow,
respond to stimuli and reproduce.

2.1     observe and identify the basic needs of plants.
2.2     observe how plants grow and respond to stimuli in their environments.
2.3     recognize the basic parts of a plant (e.g., roots, stems, leaves, covering, flowers, and seeds).
2.4     recognize the basic parts of an animal (e.g., head, limbs, trunk, covering, and special parts).
2.5     observe and identify the basic needs of animals.
2.6     observe how animals grow and respond to stimuli in their environments.
2.7     identify similarities and differences in the way plants and animals function.
2.8     recognize that plants and animals reproduce the same kind.
2.9     use inquiry process skills to investigate concepts.
2.10    investigate related theories, scientists and history (i.e., Charles Parker, Jane Goodall).

#3 Human Body
Students demonstrate understanding of the human body--heredity, body systems, and individual development--and
understand the impact of the environment on the human body.

ESSENTIAL CONCEPT: Awareness and healthy choices are important to physical and personal
development.

3.1     identify those daily activities that promote growth and development.
3.2     identify factors that influence physical and emotional growth over which they can exert some control.
3.3     describe how lifestyle habits contribute to health.
3.4     identify lifestyle choices.


                                                          12
                                    LEARNING EXPECTATIONS

                                                     GRADE 1



By the end of Grade 1, all students should be able to:



#1 Physical Science
Students understand forces and motion, the properties and composition of matter, and energy sources and
transformations.

ESSENTIAL CONCEPT: Everything is made of matter and is characterized by certain forms and properties
that can be used to identify and classify.

1.1     identify two forms of matter (solids and liquids). At this level students can be introduced to
        the concept of gases through exploration of air.
1.2     observe that matter has weight and takes up space.
1.3     observe that the basic material of an object stays the same even though its appearance may
        change (e.g., ice, water vapor, and liquid water).
1.4     classify materials according to size, shape, color, and texture.
1.5     describe the kinds of information senses receive from the environment and use when classifying
        matter.
1.6     use inquiry process skills to investigate concepts.
1.7     investigate related theories, scientists, and history (i.e., Archimedes, Aristotle).
1.8     apply design process and utilize tools to solve scientific problems.


#2 Earth Science
Students demonstrate understanding of the earth and its environment, the solar system, and the universe in terms of
the systems that characterize them, the forces that affect and shape them over time, and the theories that currently
explain their evolution.

ESSENTIAL CONCEPT: Different kinds of weather occur on the earth.

2.1     investigate natural weather phenomena that occur on earth.
2.2     describe different kinds of weather as sunny, cloudy, windy, calm, rainy, snowy, hot, or cold.
2.3     classify clothing and activities as appropriate for certain kinds of weather.

ESSENTIAL CONCEPT: The earth is made up of materials consisting of rocks, water and soil. These
materials interact with each other and produce observable changes.

2.4     recognize and observe properties of rocks.
2.5     recognize and observe properties of soil.
2.6     recognize and observe properties of water.
2.7     observe interactions between earth materials.
2.8     identify and describe fossils and fossil formation.
2.9     use inquiry process skills to investigate concepts.




                                                          13
#3 Human Body
Students demonstrate understanding of the human body--heredity, body systems, and individual development--and
understand the impact of the environment on the human body.

ESSENTIAL CONCEPT: Developing and choosing healthy behaviors are important for physical and personal
development.

3.1     begin to understand the concept that life originates from seeds (plants), eggs that grow outside the
        mother's body, or eggs that grow inside them other's body.
3.2     begin to understand concept that like produces like--off spring resembles parents.
3.3     understand the relationship between emotional stress and disease susceptibility.




                                                       14
                                     LEARNING EXPECTATIONS

                                                     GRADE 2



By the end of Grade 2, all students should be able to:

#1 Physical Science
Students understand forces and motion, the properties and composition of matter, and energy sources and
transformations.

ESSENTIAL CONCEPT: Sound is one common form of energy. Vibrations in matter produce sound waves
and travel from the source and through matter.

1.1     demonstrate that vibrations in matter produce sound waves.
1.2     demonstrate understanding that sound waves travel and can travel through matter.
1.3     demonstrate understanding that pitch is affected by the tension and/or size of the vibration
        causing the sound and the amount of vibrating material causing the sound.
1.4     understand that magnetism is a naturally occurring form of energy that occurs on earth.
1.5     observe magnetic forces (attracting and repelling).
1.6     use inquiry skills to investigate concepts.
1.7     investigate related theories, scientists and history (i.e. Alexander Graham Bell, Marie Curie,
        James Joule).
1.8     apply design process and utilize tools to solve scientific problems.


#2 Life Science
Students understand the characteristics of organisms, see patterns of similarity and differences among living
organisms, understand the role of evolution, and recognize the interdependence of all systems that support life.

ESSENTIAL CONCEPT: The life cycle of plants includes reproduction and growth.

2.1     observe the initial growth of roots, stems, and leaves in germinating plants.
2.2     observe and identify plants that reproduce in a variety of ways (e.g., seeds, spores, bulbs, and
        cuttings).
2.3     illustrate and explain the process of photosynthesis.
2.4     recognize the co-dependence that exists between plants and animals (e.g., food, oxygen, and
        carbon dioxide).
2.5     use inquiry process skills to investigate concepts.




                                                          15
#3 Earth/Space Science
Students demonstrate understanding of the earth and its environment, the solar system, and the universe in terms of
the systems that characterize them, the forces that affect and shape them over time, and the theories that currently
explain their evolution.

ESSENTIAL CONCEPT: Water has a major impact on life and the shaping of the earth. The water cycle is the
continuous movement of water from the earth's surface to the atmosphere and back to the surface of the earth.

3.1     recognize the changes that take place when water is heated (evaporation to gas) and cooled
        (condensation to liquid). This is an example of the interaction of matter with energy.
3.2     describe and diagram the water cycle.
3.3     recognize that the continuous movement of water between earth's crust and atmosphere is a
        major agent in shaping the earth (e.g., ice, groundwater, running water, and rainfall).
3.4     classify water on Earth as being either salt water or fresh water.
3.5     observe and collect data to show how important water is to people and daily life (e.g.,
        drinking, bathing, recreation, power, irrigation, and waste disposal).
3.6     collect and organize data to show human impact on the water cycle (e.g., pollution,
        conservation, depletion, etc.).
3.7     uses inquiry process skills to investigate concepts.
3.8     investigates related theories, scientists and history (i.e., Samuel E. McCoy, John Dalton).

ESSENTIAL CONCEPT: The earth's atmosphere is a mixture of gases affected by pressure, temperature, and
moisture. Weather refers to the condition of the atmosphere at a certain time and place. Climate is a long-term
and widespread pattern of weather.

3.9     describe atmosphere. Use terms such as: air pressure, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, oxygen, rare
        gases, water vapor, and wind in this description.
3.10    observe and demonstrate the effects of temperature changes on air pressure (e.g., wind, storms,
        and clouds).
3.11    describe and record the daily weather conditions in terms of temperature, wind, moisture, and
        sky conditions (e.g., clouds, dusts, and pollution).
3.12    observe how daily weather affects the activities of people (e.g., food, clothing, and shelter).
3.13    identify changes in the land caused by water, wind, heating, and cooling.
3.14    describe the different climate zones of the world (e.g., polar, tropical, temperate).
3.15    uses inquiry process skills to investigate concepts.
3.16    investigates related theories, scientists and history (i.e., Daniel Bernouilli).
3.17    analyzes and explains living and/or non-living systems.


#4 Human Body
Students demonstrate understanding of the human body--heredity, body systems, and individual development--and
understand the impact of the environment on the human body.

ESSENTIAL CONCEPT: Developing and choosing healthy behaviors are important for physical and personal
development.

4.1     identify common body parts, their location in the body, and major functions.
4.2     identify healthy food choices.
4.3     discuss the food pyramid.
4.4     discuss importance of eating a variety of foods.
4.5     discuss importance of nutrients and digestion.
4.6     identify healthy snacks for dental health.
4.7     understand importance of cleaning teeth.



                                                          16
                                     LEARNING EXPECTATIONS
                                                     GRADE 3



By the end of Grade 3, all students should be able to:


#1 Physical Science
Students understand forces and motion, the properties and composition of matter, and energy sources and
transformations.

ESSENTIAL CONCEPT: Students develop an understanding of motion, the forces that affect it and how
machines utilize motion and energy.

1.1     investigate forces (e.g., inertia, gravity, friction, push and pull).
1.2     define work as moving an object to a new location.
1.3     recognize that energy can be used to do work.
1.4     compare and contrast the difference between kinetic energy (because of motion) and potential energy
        (because of location).
1.5     identify and experiment with the six simple machines (e.g., inclined planes, wedge, levers, screw,
        wheel, axle and pulley).
1.6     recognize and describe inputs and outputs of a variety of technological systems.
1.7     use inquiry process skills to investigate concepts.
1.8     investigate related theories, scientists and history (i.e., Leonardo DaVinci, Elijah McCoy).
1.9     applies design process and utilizes tools to solve scientific problems.




#2 Life Science
Students understand the characteristics of organisms, see patterns of similarity and differences among living
organisms, understand the role of evolution, and recognize the interdependence of all systems that support life.

ESSENTIAL CONCEPT: Organisms exist and interact with each other in habitats. These habitats provide
shelter, food, water, and space for the plants and animals that live there.

2.1     observe and describe a local habitat. Use field guides and other science resources to identify plants
        and animals living in the habitat.
2.2     observe and describe examples of interdependence within that habitat.
2.3     classify populations of animals as either predators or prey, and as carnivore, omnivore, insectivore,
        and herbivore.
2.4     observe and explain the feeding relationships (e.g. food chains and webs) that exist in a habitat.
2.5     use inquiry process skills to investigate concepts.
2.6     investigate related theories, scientists and history (e.g. John Muir, Carl Linnaeus).




                                                          17
#3 Earth/Space Science
Students demonstrate understanding of the earth and its environment, the solar system, and the universe in terms of
the systems that characterize them, the forces that affect and shape them over time, and the theories that currently
explain their evolution.

ESSENTIAL CONCEPT: The sun, planets, and their moons make up the solar system.

3.1     recognize that the Earth and other planets in the solar system revolve around the sun.
3.2     recognize that the sun is a star that gives off light, heat, and other kinds of energy.
3.3     demonstrate how rotation of the earth determines night and day.
3.4     demonstrate how revolution of the earth around the sun and its tilt determines seasons.
3.5     identify gravity as the main force that keeps the planets and their moons in orbit.
3.6     identify and describe the characteristics of the nine planets and their distances from the sun.
        Compare them with Earth and its atmosphere.
3.7     recognize that the moon, a natural satellite of the earth, revolves around the earth and that
        other planets have moons.
3.8     recognize that the moon has gravitational influence on the earth that causes tides.
3.9     use inquiry process skills to investigate concepts.
3.10    investigate related theories, scientists and history (i.e., Copernicus, Mae Jemison).


#4 Human Body
Students demonstrate understanding of the human body--heredity, body systems, and individual development--and
understand the impact of the environment on the human body.

ESSENTIAL CONCEPT: Developing and choosing healthy behaviors are important for physical and personal
development.

4.1     identify cells as the smallest part of the body.
4.2     identify the various body systems and how the body is organized into cells, tissues, organs, and
        systems.
4.3     identify major parts and the functions of the skeletal system.
4.4     identify types and locations of the following bones: skull, long bones of extremities, flat bones of hips
        and shoulders, and spine.
4.5     identify location of body joints and their function in body movement.
4.6     identify the major parts and functions of the muscular system.
4.7     identify the action of muscles when doing work.
4.8     identify that muscles are made of individual cells and that muscle tissue needs oxygen, food, and water
        to live; to help identify the importance of exercise for muscle growth.
4.9     learn about food protectors and promoters.
4.10    review high-fat versus low-fat daily foods.
4.11    develop label reading skills.
4.12    identify unsafe environmental factors and risk taking behavior in their own accident situations.
4.13    learn about dental plaque and decay.




                                                          18
                                     LEARNING EXPECTATIONS

                                                     GRADE 4



By the end of Grade 4, all students should be able to:

#1 Physical Science
Students understand forces and motion, the properties and composition of matter, and energy sources and
transformations.

ESSENTIAL CONCEPT: Students develop a basis for understanding electricity by exploring its properties.

1.1     observe and record the effects of electric charge (produce light, heat, and sound).
1.2     demonstrate that electrical circuits require a complete loop through which an electrical current
        can pass.
1.3     recognize materials that are conductors and non-conductors of electricity.
1.4     recognize the relationship between electricity and magnetism (electromagnets and motors).
1.5     uses inquiry process skills to investigate concepts.
1.6     investigates related theories, scientists and history (i.e., Thomas Edison, Lewis Latimer).
1.7     applies design process and utilizes tools to solve scientific problems.


#2 Life Science
Students understand the characteristics of organisms, see patterns of similarity and differences among living
organisms, understand the role of evolution, and recognize the interdependence of all systems that support life.

ESSENTIAL CONCEPT: Classes of plants and animals are related through possession of common structure
and function.

2.1     classify animals into two large structural groups (vertebrate and invertebrate).
2.2     compare and contrast structural characteristics of invertebrates and classify them into large
        groups (e.g., single cell, sponges, coral, jellyfish, echinoderms, mollusks, crustaceans, worms,
        and insects).
2.3     compare and contrast structural characteristics of vertebrates and classify them into five large
        groups (e.g., fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals).
2.4     compare and contrast structural characteristics of plants and classify them into two large
        groups--those that produce seeds (e.g., grass, flowers, and trees) and those that do not produce
        seeds (e.g., mold, fungi, algae, moss, seaweed, and ferns).
2.5     analyze and explain living and/or non-living systems.
2.6     use inquiry process skills to investigate concepts.
2.7     investigate related theories, scientists and history (i.e., Anton Van Leeuwenhoek).




                                                          19
#3 Earth Science
Students demonstrate understanding of the earth and its environment, the solar system, and the universe in terms of
the systems that characterize them, the forces that affect and shape them over time, and the theories that currently
explain their evolution.

ESSENTIAL CONCEPT: The earth's crust contains minerals, rocks, and soil. The topography of the crust has
resulted from changes on and within the earth.

3.1     compare and contrast the characteristics of the earth's layers: crust, mantle, and core.
3.2     define a mineral and explain that rocks are made of minerals.
3.3     compare the characteristics of rocks (e.g., hardness, chemical composition).
3.4     identify the structure of a volcano (e.g. magma, vent, and crater).
3.5     classify rocks by the process and environment in which they form (e.g., igneous, sedimentary,
        and metamorphic).
3.6     demonstrate that weathering and erosion continually break down the rock and recycle
        minerals.
3.7     recognize that natural resources are extracted, distributed, processed and disposed of.
3.8     uses inquiry process skills to investigate concepts.


#4 Human Body
Students demonstrate understanding of the human body--heredity, body systems, and individual development--and
understand the impact of the environment on the human body.

ESSENTIAL CONCEPT: Developing and choosing healthy behaviors are important for physical and personal
development.

4.1     to describe how the human body is organized into cells, organs, tissue, and organ systems; to
        investigate how cells in the human body perform all life processes.
4.2     begin to understand the structure and function of the heart.
4.3     define the function and organs of the circulatory system.
4.4     begin to understand the respiratory system functions.
4.5     begin naming the major organs of the respiratory system and in learning the major function of the
        system.
4.6     have an overview of the body systems and how the systems work together.
4.7     learn accurate, basic information, and answer questions about conception, pregnancy, and birth.
4.8     appreciate growth changes occurring over the life span.
4.9     identify those childhood diseases that are preventable through immunizations.
4.10    identify role of antibiotics in treatment of certain communicable diseases; identify their responsibility
        in treatment of their own illnesses.
4.11    understand the AIDS virus, its transmission and its prevention.




                                                          20
                                     LEARNING EXPECTATIONS
                                                     GRADE 5



By the end of Grade 5, all students should be able to:

#1 Physical Science
Students understand forces and motion, the properties and composition of matter, and energy sources and
transformations.

ESSENTIAL CONCEPT: The basic units of matter are subatomic particles, atoms and molecules.

1.1     differentiate between the physical and chemical properties of matter.
1.2     explain and define an atom, a molecule, an element, a compound, a mixture, and a solution.
1.3     describe the structure of an atom (e.g., protons, electrons, neutrons, and nucleus).
1.4     recognize that the model of an atom is a visible representation of invisible particles.
1.5     interpret simple chemical formulas for given compounds (e.g., H2O-water, H2O2-hydrogen
        peroxide, and CO2-carbon dioxide).
1.6     recognize that elements and compounds can be classified on the basis of their properties (e.g.,
        acids, bases, odor, color, brittleness and elasticity, etc.).
1.7     use inquiry process skills to investigate concepts.
1.8     investigate related theories, scientists and history (i.e., J.J. Thomson, Albert Einstein, Antoine
        Lavoisier).


#2 Life Science
Students understand the characteristics of organisms, see patterns of similarity and differences among living
organisms, understand the role of evolution, and recognize the interdependence of all systems that support life.

ESSENTIAL CONCEPT: Plants, animals and physical environments are interacting parts of a system, and
changes in one part affect the other parts of that system. This includes human impact on the environment.

2.1     explain what pollutants are and give examples of air and water pollution.
2.2     study a global ecosystem where the human impact creates an imbalance in the system.
        Address environmental issues such as misuse of land, pollution of water, production of toxic
        waste, destruction of trees and natural space.
2.3     recognize that natural resources are extracted, distributed, processed and disposed of.
2.4     uses inquiry process skills to investigate concepts.
2.5     investigates related theories, scientists and history (i.e., Rachel Carson).
2.6     applies design process and utilizes tools to solve scientific problems.




                                                          21
#3 Earth/Space Science
Students demonstrate understanding of the earth and its environment, the solar system, and the universe in terms of
the systems that characterize them, the forces that affect and shape them over time, and the theories that currently
explain their evolution.

ESSENTIAL CONCEPT: The history of the earth is recorded in the rock strata and fossils.

3.1     recognize the principle of superposition: the oldest rock is nearest the center of the earth, and the
        youngest rock is on Earth's outer surface. Once the strata have been defined, a geologist can interpret
        the history.
3.2     describe how fossils are formed and how they are used to determine the relative age of rocks.
3.3     recognize that the earth's physical history is recorded in the crust (e.g., folding, faulting,
        volcanoes, earthquakes and glaciers).
3.4     describe how fossil finds suggest that continents have moved, that life forms have changed,
        and that the earth's climate has changed.
3.5     list the four major time periods in earth's history, and describe the surface of the earth and the
        types of life that existed in each.
3.6     uses inquiry process skills to investigate concepts.


ESSENTIAL CONCEPT: Our solar system is part of a galaxy called the Milky Way. There are many different
galaxies in the universe. These galaxies are made up of many types of stars.

3.7     identify our solar system as part of a larger system called a galaxy, the Milky Way.
3.8     state that there are different forms of galaxies (elliptical and spiral).
3.9     recognize that galaxies are made up of many types of stars.
3.10    identify the Milky Way as a spiral galaxy.
3.11    create a model of a galaxy and label its type.
3.12    recognize that stars change size and color and go through a "life cycle".
3.13    identify constellations in our night sky.
3.14    analyze and explain living and/or non-living systems.
3.15    use inquiry process skills to investigate concepts.
3.16    investigate related theories, scientists and history (i.e., Galileo).

#4 Human Body
Students demonstrate understanding of the human body--heredity, body systems, and individual development--and
understand the impact of the environment on the human body.

ESSENTIAL CONCEPT: Developing and choosing healthy behaviors are important for physical and personal
development.

4.1     review the growth process from a cell to a complete system and emphasize how the body functions as
        a whole.
4.2     explain the structure and function of the nervous system.
4.3     understand the parts of the eye and how it functions and understand vision problems.
4.4     have a brief overview of the parts and purpose of the excretory system.
4.5     have a brief overview of the endocrine system and its role especially during puberty.
4.6     understand physical and emotional changes of puberty.
4.7     uncover themes behind advertising.
4.8     identify protectors and promoters.
4.9     understand stress and relate how different types and amounts of stress can positively influence their
        health.
4.10    identify stressors potentially present in their own life-style and learn what diseases and/or conditions
        could result from the presence of each stressor.
4.11    understand the AIDS virus, its transmission and prevention.

                                                          22
                                     LEARNING EXPECTATIONS

                                                      GRADE 6

By the end of Grade 6, all students should be able to:

#1 Scientific Method
Students use the scientific method to describe, investigate, and explain phenomena.
1.1     generate hypotheses based on prior knowledge.
1.2     perform the experiment.
1.3     display the data appropriately.
1.4     analyze results.
1.5     draw conclusions.

#2 Investigation
Students design and conduct projects and investigations
2.1     research various topics via Internet and library sources.
2.2     design and conduct experiments, projects, and presentations based on research.

#3 History Of Science
Students understand the history of science.
3.1     examine important contributions made to the advancement of the sciences and their relationships to the past,
        present, and future events.

#4 Physical Science
Students understand forces and motion, the properties and composition of matter, and energy sources and
transformations.

ESSENTIAL CONCEPTS: Water is a solvent that has many properties, is influenced by many forces and affects our
planet in immeasurable ways.
4.1       carry out individual investigations/projects about the water cycle.
4.2       describe the physical and chemical properties of water.
4.3       investigate pH.
4.4       identify major sources of water pollution.
4.5       experiment with water as a solvent.
4.6       perform water testing.
4.7       explain natural resource management using water as a vehicle.
4.8       use inquiry process skills to investigate concepts.
4.9       investigate related theories, scientists and history.

#5 Life Science
Students understand the characteristics of organisms, see patterns of similarity and differences among living
organisms, understand the role of evolution, and recognize the interdependence of all systems that support life.

ESSENTIAL CONCEPTS: All living organisms can be classified into groups and are part of a system of interdependent
and interrelated parts.
5.1      compare and contrast organisms.
5.2      classify organisms according to their major groups.
5.3      explain how characteristics of living things are important in classification.
5.4      describe ecological relationships between organisms and their environment.
5.5      investigate food chains and food webs.
5.6      explain how humans and other forces impact the environment.
5.7      compare and contrast different animal groups (classes) and explain their life cycles.
5.8      describe how populations exist and interact within their ecosystems.
5.9      use inquiry process skills to investigate concepts.
5.10     investigate related theories, scientists and history.


                                                           23
#6 Earth/Space Science
Students demonstrate understanding of the earth and its environment, the solar system, and the universe in terms of
the systems that characterize them, the forces that affect and shape them over time, and the theories that currently
explain their evolution.

ESSENTIAL CONCEPT: Our place within the Universe is defined by our relationship to galaxies, stars, and planets.
6.1   compare and contrast the inner planets to the gas giants.
6.2   describe the geographic features and atmospheric composition of the planets.
6.3   list the planets in their order from the sun.
6.4   identify the planets from photos.
6.5   describe your galactic address.
6.6   describe the geographic features and atmospheric conditions of the sun.
6.7   explain how the sun affects the solar system.
6.8   investigate distance, motion, and forces as they pertain to space.
6.9   describe the motions of the earth (e.g., day, year and seasons).
6.10  explain phases of the moon and eclipses.
6.11  study the history of the space program.
6.12  use inquiry process skills to investigate concepts.
6.13  apply design process and utilize tools to solve scientific problems.




                                                          24
                                  LEARNING EXPECTATIONS

                                                  GRADE 7


By the end of Grade 7, all students should be able to:

#1 Scientific Method
Students use the scientific method to describe, investigate, and explain phenomena. This is evident when
students:
1.1     generate problem statements.
1.2     generate hypotheses based on prior knowledge.
1.3     perform the tests.
1.4     display data appropriately.
1.5     analyze data.
1.6     draw appropriate conclusions.


#2 Investigation
Students design and conduct projects and investigations. This is evident when students:
2.1    design and conduct experiments, projects, and presentations.


#3 History Of Science
Students show an understanding of the history of science. This is evident when students:
3.1    demonstrate knowledge of important contributions made to the advancement of the sciences.


#4 Physical Science
Students understand the properties and composition of matter. This is evident when students:
4.1    describe how atomic model has changed over time.
4.2    classify subatomic particles.
4.3    identify the relationships among atomic number, isotope, mass number and atomic mass.
4.4    describe the structure of an atom according to modern atomic theory.
4.5    identify how the four forces in nature are related to atomic structure.
4.6    observe, measure and experiment with characteristic properties of matter (e.g., mass, volume, density,
       buoyancy).

Students analyze and understand non-living systems as collections of interrelated parts and interconnected
systems.
4.7     demonstrate understanding that physical systems (e.g., density/buoyancy systems) are composed of
        parts, which are interrelated and interconnected.
4.8     use physical models (e.g., liquids and vials system, submarine project, Cartesian Divers, sinking straws
        and cartons, balloons in water, gases in bubbles) to express how matter behaves given a set of inputs
        and outputs.
4.9     use mathematical models (e.g., density and buoyancy equations) to express how matter behaves given
        a set of inputs or outputs.




                                                      25
#5 Life Science
Students understand the characteristics of life, understand the role of evolution, and recognize the interdependence of
all systems that support life. This is evident when students:
5.1     identify the characteristics and basic needs of living things.
5.2     Identify, model, and explain the structure and function of cells and their organelles both as individual
        entities and as components of larger systems.
5.3     understand organisms are composed of cells, the fundamental unit of life, which is called the cell
        theory.
5.4     conclude that cells carry on the many functions needed to sustain life. (e.g. grow, divide, reproduce,
        take in nutrients, use energy, and make the materials that a cell or an organism needs).

Students understand the principles of ecology and the role of evolution in this process. This is evident when
students:
5.5     identify the parts of an ecosystem.
5.6     identify how living things in an ecosystem are categorized and interact as producers, consumers and
        decomposers (e.g., food webs, food chains, energy pyramids).
5.7     describe how energy flows within an ecosystem.
5.8     recognize that population size depends on a constantly changing balance of the available biotic and
        abiotic resources as well as disease and predation. (e.g., light, water, temperature, soil composition)
        and (e.g., number and types of producers, consumers, and decomposers).
5.9     demonstrate their knowledge about how matter flows through an ecosystem (e.g., water, carbon
        dioxide, and nitrogen cycles).
5.10    describe evolution in terms of diversity and adaptation, variations, extinction, and natural
        selection.

Students demonstrate understanding of the human body—heredity, body systems, and individual
development—and understand the impact of the environment on the human body. This is evident when
students:
5.11    demonstrate an understanding of the human body systems, how these systems interact with
        one another, and how the human body obtains food and energy, reproduces, fights disease, and
        develops.
5.12    know that disease is a breakdown in structures or functions of an organism. Some diseases are the
        result of intrinsic failures of the system. Others are the result of damage by infection by other
        organisms.


#6 Earth Science
Students demonstrate understanding of the earth and its environment in terms of the systems that
characterize them, the forces that affect and shape them over time, and the theories that currently explain
their evolution This is evident when students:
6.1     understand the forces that affect and shape the formation of soil.
6.2     collect, observe and determine that soil consist of weathered rock, decomposed organic material, air,
        water, and living organisms.
6.3     discover layers in soil, with each having a different chemical composition and texture.
6.4     demonstrate absorption and percolation of water by soil.




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                                   LEARNING EXPECTATIONS

                                                  GRADE 8


By the end of Grade 8, all students should be able to:

#1 Scientific Method
Students use the scientific method to describe, investigate, and explain phenomena. This is evident when
students:
1.1     generate problem statements.
1.2     generate hypotheses based on prior knowledge.
1.3     perform tests.
1.4     display data appropriately.
1.5     analyze data.
1.6     draw appropriate conclusions.


#2 Investigation
Students design and conduct projects and investigations. This is evident when students:
2.1    design and conduct experiments, projects, and presentations.


#3 History Of Science
Students show an understanding of the history of science. This is evident when students:
3.1    demonstrate knowledge of important contributions made to the advancement of the sciences.


#4 Physical Science
Students understand the properties and composition of matter. This is evident when students:
4.1    demonstrate an understanding of how matter is classified as mixtures, elements, or compounds.
4.2    demonstrate an understanding of the four phases of matter.
4.3    demonstrate an understanding of the gas laws (Charles’ and Boyle’s laws).
4.4    demonstrate an understanding of how elements are classified in the periodic table.
4.5    demonstrate an understanding of electric charge, static electricity, the flow of electricity, and electric
       circuits.
4.6    distinguish between charge, current, voltage, and resistance and apply the concepts of Ohm’s and
       Coulomb’s laws.
4.7    demonstrate an understanding of magnetism, magnetic fields, and the relationship between electricity
       and magnetism.
4.8    observe, measure and experiment with characteristic physical properties of matter (e.g., mass, volume,
       boiling point, melting point, density, buoyancy) and use them to distinguish one substance from
       another.
4.9    demonstrate an understanding of chemical reactions whereby substances react chemically to form new
       substances with different characteristics.
4.10   identify and describe common forms of energy (e.g., light, heat, sound, electricity, electromagnetic
       waves) and their attributes, sources, and transmission characteristics (e.g., radiation, convection,
       conduction of heat).
4.11   understand that in most chemical and nuclear reactions, energy is transferred into or out of a system.
       Heat, light, mechanical motion, or electricity might all be involved in such transfers.
4.12   demonstrate an understanding that the sun is a major source of energy for changes on Earth. The sun's
       energy arrives on Earth in the form of electromagnetic radiation.

                                                       27
#5 Life Science
Students understand the systems that support life locally and globally . This is evident when students:
5.1     demonstrate an understanding of photosynthesis, the carbon cycle, nitrogen cycle, and water cycle.

Students demonstrate understanding of genetics and heredity. This is evident when students demonstrate an
understanding of:
5.2    the history of genetics.
5.3    the principles of genetics.
5.4    the role of probability in genetics.
5.5    chromosomes, genes, mutations, and the DNA molecule.
5.6    the basic principles of human heredity, sex-linked traits, and human genetic disorders.


#6 Earth/Space Science
Students demonstrate understanding of the universe in terms of the forces that have affected and shaped it
over time, and the theories that currently explain its evolution. This is evident when students:
6.1     demonstrate an understanding of the “big bang” theory and how it has become the accepted modern
        scientific view of how the universe formed.
6.2     are able to explain the characteristics and the evolution of stars.
6.3     demonstrate an understanding of the relationship between the formation of elements and nuclear fusion
        within stars.

Students understand how natural resources are extracted, distributed, processed, and disposed of. This is
evident when students:
6.4     identify the steps that need to be followed when extracting natural resources.
6.5     demonstrate the ways that some materials can be reused, while others will be disposed in
        landfills.
6.6     identify how and why natural resources are unevenly distributed throughout the world, and how they
        are distributed through transportation.




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                                                     28
                                     LEARNING EXPECTATIONS

                                               PHYSICAL SCIENCE


Physical Science is a one semester course designed to give students an opportunity to develop, at an
introductory level, a conceptual understanding of the rules by which the universe operates in the areas of
motion, forces, momentum, energy, work, electricity, and magnetism. Activities, demonstrations, and
discussions will focus on the three parts of the learning cycle (exploration, concept development, and
application) to help students achieve the appropriate level of conceptual understanding. An attempt will be
made to identify, and discuss, common misconceptions related to each topic. Tools of technology such as
computers, electronic sensors, and graphing calculators support many units studied.

By the end of this course, all students should be able to:

#1 Scientific Method
Students use the scientific method to describe, investigate, and explain phenomena.
1.1     generate hypotheses based on prior knowledge.
1.2     perform the experiment.
1.3     display the data appropriately.
1.4     analyze results.
1.5     draw conclusions.

#2 Investigation
Students conduct a variety of investigations
2.1     conduct experiments and report results related to the subject matter.

#3 History Of Science
Students understand the history of physical science
3.1     examine important contributions made to the advancement of the science and their relationship to the
        past, present, and future events.

#4 Space, Time, And Matter
Matter, Motion, Forces, And Energy
Students understand forces and motion, the properties and composition of matter, and energy sources and
transformations.

MECHANICS
4.1     recognize and apply the idea that motion is relative.
4.2     use the relation of distance, time, velocity and acceleration to quantitatively describe the motion of
        objects moving in a straight line as well as projectile motion.
4.3     distinguish between a vector and a scalar quantity and use basic vector addition with velocities,
        acceleration, and forces.
4.4     state Newton’s three Laws of Motion and apply the concepts both qualitatively and quantitatively to
        real life situations.
4.5     distinguish between inertia, mass, volume, and weight.
4.6     conceptualize force as an interaction and distinguish between action force, reaction force, and net
        force.
4.7     distinguish between elastic and inelastic collisions and recognize the distinction between the concepts
        momentum and impulse.
4.8     recognize and apply the Law of Conservation of Momentum.



                                                          29
ENERGY
4.1  distinguish between the concepts Work, Power, and Energy and recognize the types of simple
     machines, their uses, mechanical advantages and efficiency.
4.2  distinguish between the various forms of energy, provide examples of their transformations, recognize
     and apply the concept described by the Law of Conservation of Energy.
4.3  recognize the types of forces that exist in nature and their relative strengths.


ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM
4.1  recognize the origin and nature of electrical forces, compare and contrast is force with gravitational
     force by way of the Law of Universal Gravitation and Coulomb's Law.
4.2  distinguish between electrical conductors and insulators, static and current electricity.
4.3  state evidence supporting the notion of AC and DC electrical charge flow.
4.4  distinguish between charge, current, voltage and resistance, recognize and apply the concept of Ohm's
     Law to both series and parallel electrical circuits.
4.5  describe the differences and similarities between magnetic poles and electric charges, how alternating
     magnetic fields generate electric fields and vice versa, and their application to motors, generators and
     transformers.
4.6  understand the existence of electromagnetic waves (e.g., radio-waves through Gamma rays).




                                                     30
                                      LEARNING EXPECTATIONS
                                                  EARTH SCIENCE


This one semester course addresses a portion of the state standard on Earth/Space Science. During the first quarter the
main theme is Plate Tectonics. Students learn about the origin and structure of Earth. They do experiments and
investigations on topics ranging from measuring the density of Earth materials and measuring the size of Earth, to locating
plate boundaries and earthquakes. The rock cycle and the origin and identification of minerals are other topics
investigated during this period of time. During the second quarter the system of weathering and erosion of the land and
sedimentation is introduced. This unit is followed by the earth system of weather and climate. In this unit students learn
about the energy that drives the weather and its effects on such things as wind, air pressure, temperature and precipitation.


By the end of this course, all students should be able to:

#1 Scientific Method
Students use the scientific method to describe, investigate, and explain phenomena.
1.1     generate hypotheses based on prior knowledge.
1.2     perform the experiment.
1.3     display the data appropriately.
1.4     analyze results.
1.5     draw conclusions.

#2 Investigation
Students design and conduct projects and investigations
2.1     research various topics via Internet and library sources.
2.2     design and conduct experiments, projects, and presentations based on research.

#3 History Of Science
Students understand the history of science.
3.1     examine important contributions make to the advancement of the Earth sciences and their relationships to the
        past, present, and future events.

#4 The Universe, Earth, And The Environment
Theories, Systems, And Forces
Students demonstrate understanding of the earth and its environment, the solar system, and the universe in terms of
the systems that characterize them, the forces that affect and shape them over time, and the theories that currently
explain their evolution.
4.1      describe the accepted scientific origin of the solar system, and Earth (one aspect of the universe).
4.2      describe the origin of Earth’s atmosphere and bodies of water.
4.3      explain the origin of Earth’s layers and their differences in density and chemical make-up.
4.4      list sources of earth’s internal heat.
4.5      use geometry to calculate the circumference of a sphere (Earth).
4.6      identify and explain the various forms of chemical and mechanical weathering and soil formation.
4.7      explain the structure of Earth’s lithosphere and the theory of plate tectonics (including earthquakes, volcanoes
         and mountain building).
4.8      explain the origins and identify:
                        sedimentary rocks
                        metamorphic rock
                        igneous rock
4.9      list the major periods of geologic history and the key events occurring in each period.
4.10     describe the structure and function of the layers of Earth’s atmosphere.
4.11     explain energy movement in the changes of states of water.
4.12     describe the relationships between the conditions of air and weather.
4.13     describe the water cycle.
4.14     describe the effects of running water and erosion.

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                                      LEARNING EXPECTATIONS

                                                      BIOLOGY

Biology offers an invitation to study the diversity of the living world. Particular attention is given to
understanding cell structures and how their functions relate to the development of the organism. Special
emphasis will be placed on how these organisms fit into the environment. Significant time is committed to the
study of genetics and the influence of heredity on an organism’s role in life. Most areas are illustrated through
laboratory investigations and field studies. The use of the scientific method and writing for science is
emphasized and developed over the course of the school year. In the course of their studies, students are
introduced to the use of the microscopes, video microscopy, and computers as word processors and links to the
Internet. Students may also become competent in the use of other specialized software.

By the end of this course, all students should be able to:

#1 Scientific Method
Students use the scientific method to describe, investigate, and explain phenomena.
1.1     generate hypotheses based on prior knowledge.
1.2      perform the experiment.
1.3      display the data appropriately.
1.4      analyze results.
1.5      draw conclusions.

#2 Investigation
Students design and conduct a variety of projects and investigations.
2.1      research various topics via Internet and library sources.
2.2      design and conduct experiments, projects, and presentations based on research.

#3 History Of Science
Students understand the history of science.
3.1      examine important contributions made to the advancement of the biological sciences and their
         relationship to the past, present and future events.

#4 Roles And Responsibilities
Students understand the roles and responsibilities of scientists in social, economic, cultural and political systems.
4.1      analyze the impact of bioethical issues in society.

#5 The Living World
Organisms, Evolution, And Interdepence
Students understand the characteristics of organisms, see patterns of similarity and differences among living
organisms, understand the role of evolution, and recognize the interdependence of all systems that support life.
5.1      describe and understand cell theory, structure and function.
5.2      understand basic biochemistry including the structure and function of the four macromolecules.
5.3      explain the process of photosynthesis and its importance to the biosphere.
5.4      explain the process of cellular respiration and its relationship to photosynthesis and energy needs of
         organisms.
5.5      understand how a cell maintains homeostasis through diffusion, osmosis, and other forms of transport.
5.6      label the structures and describe the functions of a typical plant and animal cell.
5.7      understand the structures, functions, and roles of DNA and RNA in cellular reproduction and protein
         synthesis.
5.8      compare and contrast the stages of mitosis and meiosis.


                                                            32
#5 The Living World, Continued
5.9    list examples and characterize the five kingdoms, major phyla or divisions, and selected classes by
       using:
                morphology
                anatomy
                physiology
                phylogeny

5.10    describe how plants and animals adapted to land over time.
5.11    identify and describe the structure, function and interdependence of major plant systems.
5.12    explain the parts of an ecosystem including biogeochemical cycles and species interaction.
5.13    list the locations, climate, and climax species of the major biomes.
5.14    demonstrate an understanding of succession.
5.15    explain energy flow in an ecosystem.
5.16    understand population growth curves over time.
5.17    describe how disease and resources affect populations.
5.18    evaluate human impact on the local and global environment.
5.19    explain the theory of Natural Selection and cite supporting evidence.

#6 Human Body
Students demonstrate understanding of the human body- heredity, body systems, and individual development- and
understand the impact of the environment on the human body.
6.1     describe the functions of DNA and RNA in transcription and translation.
6.2     explain how meiosis and mutation produce new gene combinations and lead to species variability.
6.3     identify and label the parts of the major human systems and describe their functions and
        interdependence.
6.4     analyze and describe the effects of common genetic disorders, infectious diseases, and environmental
        impact on the health of the human body.
6.5     identify, explain, and analyze the patterns of animal development.




                                                       33
                                     LEARNING EXPECTATIONS

                        CHEMISTRY--ACCELERATED AND TRADITIONAL

In chemistry, students study matter and its changes by collecting and analyzing data in labs, learning to solve
problems, and doing reports and projects. The course is designed for students who are interested in science and
plan to attend a four-year college. The year begins with a review of measurement, the metric system, unit
conversions, the classification of matter, and basic atomic structure. In the next units, students learn more
about electron arrangement and its effect on elements' reactivities, periodic properties, radioactivity and its
applications, and bonding. Then come units basic to chemical literacy-names, formulas, moles, equations, and
stoichiometry.

The second semester includes the study of the properties of gases, solids, liquids, solutions, acids and bases,
oxidation-reduction, and organic compounds. It concludes with more theoretical units on chemical kinetics and
equilibrium.

Laboratory experiences allow observation of properties and reactions, teach techniques of analysis, and verify
chemical laws. Students use spectrophotometers and meters for pH, conductivity, radiation, and voltage.

Applications and real-world examples are discussed in all units, but this course emphasizes principles of
chemistry and problem solving skills. Students are expected to take notes in class or from text, complete lab
reports and/or assignments at home, and work beyond class time on special projects. The American Chemical
Society's standardized test is used as the final exam.


                         CHEMISTRY--CHEMISTRY IN THE COMMUNITY

Chemistry in the Community (ChemCom) is a course in which chemistry is presented in relation to technological issues
now confronting our society and the world. The yearlong course is designed primarily for students who plan to pursue
non-science careers.

The topics studied are: Supplying Our Water Needs, Conserving Chemical Resources, Using Petroleum for Building and
Burning, Food Supply, Nuclear Chemistry and Chemistry, Air and Climate. Emphasis is placed on major concepts, basic
vocabulary and laboratory skills expected in any introductory chemistry course but in the context of real-world examples.
The laboratory experience is similar to the other chemistry courses but less quantitative.

This program includes a large number of student-oriented hands-on activities to enhance the students understanding of
chemistry. Special projects and reports are required using computer research and reporting. Homework is assigned daily
to reinforce class work.

By the end of this course, all students should be able to:
#1 Scientific Method
Students use scientific methods to describe, investigate, and explain phenomena.
1.1     compare results of their laboratory experiments (ex Conservation of Matter, Stoichiometry) to expected ones and
        explain differences.
1.2     prepare organized lab reports.
1.3     make accurate observations and draw conclusions (ex Chemical and Physical Changes).
1.4     work with partners or in larger groups to complete experiments.
1.5     use safe lab procedures.
1.6     use standard techniques (ex heating to constant mass, filtering).
1.7     use lab equipment such as balances, burets, eudiometers, thermometers, pH meters, or spectrophotometers.
1.8     perform calculations and prepare graphs.


                                                           34
#2 Theory
Students understand the nature of mathematical, scientific, and technological theory.
2.1     compare models of atomic structure.
2.2     compare types and properties of radiation.
2.3     predict properties of compounds based on periodic properties of their elements.
2.4     understand basic chemical laws such as conservation of matter and definite proportion.

#3 History of Science, Math, and Technology
Students understand the history of science, mathematics, and technology.
3.1     describe the discovery and creation of elements.
3.2     compare and contrast models of atomic structure and the instruments that made this
        possible.
3.3     identify individuals involved with the discovery of radiation, chain reactions, and the
        formulation of the gas laws.

#4 Roles and Responsibilities
Students analyze the roles and responsibilities of scientists, mathematicians, and technologists in social, economic,
cultural, and political systems.
4.1     evaluate beneficial and harmful effects of radiation.
4.2     understand the reactions that produce acid precipitation, its effects, and how laws regulating emissions
and treatment can help streams and forests.
4.3     relate use of fossil fuels and other organic compounds to ozone destruction and global
        warming.

#5 Systems Analysis
Students analyze and understand living and non-living systems as collections of interrelated parts and interconnected
systems.
5.1     understand energy changes in combustion, heating and cooling, and phase changes.
5.2     calculate the efficiency of automobiles.
5.3     describe or calculate entropy changes.
5.4     calculate yield in chemical reactions.
5.5     measure reaction rate.
5.6     understand the solution process.

#6 Space, Time, and Matter
Matter, Motion, Forces, and Energy
Students understand forces and motion, the properties and composition of matter, and energy sources and
transformations.
6.1     know characteristics and examples of different types of matter.
6.2     predict reactivity and properties of elements, and bonding, type, and properties of          compounds
        based on periodic properties.
6.3     state how the kinetic molecular theory of matter explains the physical properties of the
        phases of matter.
6.4     express solution concentration in molarity, percent by mass, or parts per million.
6.5     write chemical formulas, name compounds, and draw Lewis structures and structural formulas for
        compounds.
6.6     analyze or determine the composition of compounds.
6.7     predict products of simple chemical reactions using a solubility chart or the activity series.
6.8     calculate the amount of reactant or product formed during a chemical reaction.
6.9     understand equilibrium and the factors that affect it.
6.10    write and balance equations for electron and proton transfer reactions.
6.11    know properties, reactions, and uses of types of compounds such as acids, bases, and alkanes.
6.12    compare and contrast models of atomic structure, including subatomic particles.
6.13    understand forces that affect nuclear stability.


                                                           35
#6 Space, Time, and Matter, continued
6.14   describe types, properties, risks, and benefits of radiation.
6.15   describe and write equations for nuclear reactions.
6.16   use the concept of half-life to predict the amount of a radioactive nuclide.
6.17   draw conclusions about range, penetrability, and decay patterns of radioactive
       nuclides.
6.18   relate contributions of nuclear chemists/physicists to the development of the atomic
       model and the understanding of radioactivity.
6.19   understand the relationship between gas laws and real-world uses of gases.
6.20   know the parts and processes of electrolytic and electrochemical cells.
6.21   understand the difference between kinetic and potential energy.
6.22   know that changes in matter are affected by entropy and enthalpy factors.
6.23   understand the energy changes involved in chemical reactions, phase changes, and
       heating and cooling.
6.24   use ideal gas law or percent composition to calculate mass, volume, or moles of a substance.


#7 Natural Resources
Students understand how natural resources are extracted, distributed, processed, and disposed of.
7.1     compare the properties and uses of metals and nonmetals.
7.2     evaluate fuels.
7.3     give examples of renewable and nonrenewable resources.
7.4     describe local solid and liquid waste disposal methods and recycling efforts.


#8 Outputs and Impacts
Students understand that people control the inputs and impacts of our expanding technological activities in the areas of
communication, construction, manufacturing, power and transportation, energy sources, health technology, and
biotechnology.
8.1     list pros and cons of nuclear power.
8.2     know the medical and food uses of radiation.




                                                          36
                                     LEARNING EXPECTATIONS

                                       SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

Science and Technology is designed to integrate the fields of science and technology into a single program of
studies for the third year science student. The course is intended to make science more relevant for students by
demonstrating how science and technology work together to improve human conditions. Utilizing science
standards, students will engage in research and activities in a technological context. Topics covered include
wetlands, living machines, energy studies, electricity and basic chemistry.


By the end of this course, all students should be able to:


#1 Scientific method
Students use scientific methods to describe, investigate, and explain phenomena:
1.1      frame questions that can be investigated using scientific methods and knowledge, including
         manipulating variables, and predicting outcomes for untested hypotheses using scientific
         principles.
1.2      critically evaluate the validity and significance of sources and interpretations, including
         scientific knowledge, observation, and experimentation.
1.3      formulate and revise explanations and models based on evidence, logical argument, and
         scientific principles.
1.4      propose, recognize, analyze, synthesize, and evaluate alternative explanations.
1.5      identify problems and opportunities, propose designs and choose among the alternatives,
         implement a solution and evaluate its consequences.


#2 Investigation
Students design and conduct a variety of their own investigations and projects.
2.1      locate information on a particular investigation using the available resources.
2.2      design procedures that are safe, humane, and ethical.
2.3      select data to be collected and recorded in ways that others can verify.
2.4      record data and results that are represented in ways that address the question at hand.
2.5      interpret data in order to develop a conclusion based on experimental evidence.
2.6      communicate results and conclusions to an audience.


#3 Theory
Students understand the nature of mathematical, scientific, and technological theory.
3.1      use principles and observations to formulate theory and to explain or predict phenomena.


#4 Roles and Responsibilities
Students analyze the roles and responsibilities of scientists, mathematicians, and technologists in social,
economic, cultural, and political systems.
4.1      analyze the impact of scientific, mathematical, and technological investigations on human
         society.




                                                            37
#5 Analysis
Students analyze and understand living and non-living systems (e.g., biological, chemical, electrical,
mechanical, optical) as collections of interrelated parts and interconnected systems.
5.1     analyze systems in order to determine inputs and outputs.
              Living Machine is a model of a biological wastewater treatment system. Inputs are monitored and
              these data are analyzed to determine the effects of changes on the outputs.
5.2     demonstrate an understanding that systems are effectively designed when specifications and
        constraints are understood; systems are optimized when efficiencies are maximized; and a
        system is never 100% efficient.


#6 Space, Time and Matter
Matter, Forces and Energy
Students understand forces and motion, the properties of composition of matter, and energy sources and
transformations.
6.1     observe and measure characteristic properties of chemical reactions; explain the structure of
        matter using the periodic properties of elements.
6.2     demonstrate an understanding of the atomic structure of matter in relationship to the periodic
        table, bonding, elements and compounds; demonstrate an understanding of the conservation of
        matter; understand how radioactive elements decay (e.g., half-life, alpha and beta emissions).
6.3     use Newton's laws to explain quantitatively the effects of applied forces; observe, explain, and
        model object motion in a plane; qualitatively investigate conservation of momentum as it
        relates to collisions, and investigate the mechanics of rolling motion.
6.4     understand that alternating magnetic fields generate electric fields, and vice versa (e.g.,
        generators); discuss electromagnetic waves (e.g., radio waves, x-rays).


#7 The Living World
Organisms, Evolution and Interdependence
Students understand the characteristics of organisms, see patterns of similarity and differences among living
organisms, understand the role of evolution, and recognize the interdependence of all systems that support
life.
7.1     describe, model, and explain the principles of the interdependence of all systems that support
        life (e.g., flow of energy, ecosystems, life cycles, cooperation and competition, human
        population impacts on the world ecological system), and apply them to local, regional, and
        global systems.


#8 The Universe, Earth and the Environment
Theories, Systems and Forces
Students demonstrate understanding of the earth and its environment, the solar system, and the universe in
terms of the systems that characterize them, the forces that affect and shape them over time, and the theories
that currently explain their evolution.
8.1     analyze and explain natural resource management and the ecological interactions and
        interdependencies between humans and their resource demands on environmental systems
        (e.g., production, consumption).


#9 Natural Resources
Students understand how natural resources are extracted, distributed, processed, and disposed of.
9.1     choose effective methods for extracting specific natural resources.
9.2     predict and evaluate how the characteristics of materials influence product testing.




                                                           38
#10 Technological Systems
Students apply knowledge and understanding of technological systems to respond to a variety of issues.
10.1    use and evaluate the processes involved within each technological system (e.g., construction,
        power and transportation, communication, and manufacturing).
10.2    evaluate complex technological outputs based on the original design specifications, and create
        modifications to improve that system.


#11 Outputs and Inputs
Students understand that people control the outputs and impacts of our expanding technological activities in
the areas of communication, construction, manufacturing, power and transportation, energy sources, health
technology, and biotechnology.
11.1    assess ways that people are able to share, compile, use, and misuse technology.
11.2    invent and use tools that observe, measure, create, and control.
11.3    propose a technological solution in which both the positive and negative consequences of
        technology are considered.


#12 Designing Solutions
Students use technological/engineering processes to design solutions to problems.
12.1    create a design solution:
        -        build on specifications, with an understanding of the constraints (e.g., cost, weight, and
                 environment), and tolerances that affect performance
        -        include mathematical and/or mechanical models of their design
        -        include steps and sequences for efficiently building a prototype or product that conforms to the
                 specifications
        -        test the prototype
        -        use the results to modify the design

12.2    evaluate and adjust a design process, responding to the unique characteristics of a specific
        problem.




                                                          39
                                     LEARNING EXPECTATIONS

                                  ADVANCED PLACEMENT BIOLOGY



Advanced Placement Biology is a college level course designed for the highly motivated student. It follows a
prescribed national curriculum designed specifically for study of in-depth biological principles. Content is
divided into three areas: molecules and cells, genetics and evolution, and organisms and populations. There
are 12 required college level labs. It is expected that the students take the national Advanced Placement
Biology test given in May.


By the end of this course, all students should be able to:


#1 Scientific Method
Students use scientific methods, to describe, investigate, and explain phenomena by performing independently the
advanced placement labs. These labs are classic, teachable labs in which students:
        -        generate hypotheses based on prior knowledge
        -        perform the experiment
        -        display the data appropriately
        -        deduce the theoretical results; analyze the actual results
        -        draw conclusions
1.1     frame questions that can be investigated using scientific methods and knowledge and predict
        outcomes for untested hypotheses using scientific principles.
1.2     critically evaluate the validity and significance of sources and interpretations.
1.3     formulate and revise explanations based on evidence, logical argument, and scientific
        principles in the following advanced placement labs:
        1.       diffusion and osmosis
        2.       enzyme catalysis
        3.       mitosis and meiosis
        4.       cell respiration
        5.       plant pigments and photosynthesis
        6.       plant seed germination and growth
        7.       plant hormones
        8.       molecular biology
        9.       genetics of Drosophila
        10.      population genetics and evolution
        11.      transpiration
        12.      physiology of the circulatory system
        13.      behavior: habitat selection
        14.      dissolved oxygen and aquatic primary productivity
        15.      Lake Champlain ecology study
        16.      anatomy and physiology of the fetal pig


#2 History of Science and Technology
Students understand the history of science and technology as it applies to biology.
2.1     know and explain the classic experiments that lead to discoveries in botany, zoology,
        animal behavior, and microbiology.
2.2     know and explain the classical experiments leading to the discovery of the gene,
        DNA, genetic engineering and recombination, and the human genome project.
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#3 Roles and Responsibilities
Students analyze the roles and responsibilities of scientists in social, economic, cultural and political systems.
3.1      analyze the impact of scientific findings on humans and discuss the ethical
         implications of biotechnology.
3.2      discuss the role of government in scientific research.


#4 The Living World
Organisms, Evolution and Interdependence
Students understand the characteristics of organisms, see patterns of similarity and differences among living
organisms, understand the role of evolution, and recognize the interdependence of all systems that support life.
4.1      demonstrate understanding of the uniqueness of molecules and cells in different organisms.
         This includes:
         -        biological chemistry--carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids
         -        enzymes, coenzymes, rates of activity, and regulation
         -        prokaryote and eukaryote cells
         -        structure and function of plant and animal cells, and subcomponent organelles
                  and membranes
         -        cell cycle and mitosis
         -        DNA, RNA and protein synthesis
4.2      demonstrate understanding of how biological organisms are classified into a hierarchy of
         groups and subgroups based upon their similarities that reflect evolutionary history and
         relationships. This includes:
         -        survey the five kingdoms studying the principles of taxonomy and systematics
                  for protista, fungi, monera, plants and animals
4.3      describe, model and explain the principles of the interdependence of all systems that support
         life including:
         -        population dynamics
         -        ecosystem and community dynamics; energy flow, productivity, species
                  interaction, succession, and biomes
         -        biogeochemical cycles
4.4      explain and justify how natural selection and its evolutionary consequences provide a scientific
         explanation for fossil record. This includes understanding and explaining the scientific principles of
         evolution including:
         -        origin of life
         -        evidence of life
         -        natural selection
         -        Hardy--Weinberg principle influencing allele frequency
         -        speciation
         -        patterns of evolution, gradualism, punctuated equilibrium
4.5      know and understand the development, anatomy and physiology of the plant world including:
         -        diversity, classification, phylogeny, adaptations to land; alternation of
                  generations in moss, fern, pine, and flowering plants.
         -        structure and function of vascular plants
         -        seed formation, germination, and growth in seed plants
         -        hormonal regulation of plant growth
         -        plant response to stimuli: tropisms, photoperiodicity




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#4 The Living World, continued
4.6    know and understand the development, anatomy and physiology of the animal world
       including:
       -       diversity, classification, phylogeny, survey of acoelomate, pseudocoelomate,
               protostome, and deuterostome phyla
       -       behavior


#5 The Human Body
Students demonstrate understanding of the human body--heredity, body systems, and individual development--and
understand the impact of the environment on the human body
5.1     explain how information is passed from parent to offspring in DNA molecules and the
        mistakes that can result including:
        -        meiosis
        -        Mendel's law and probability
        -        inheritance patterns, chromosomes, genes, alleles, and interactions
        -        regulation of gene expression
        -        mutations
        -        recombinant DNA, cloning, hybridization, sequencing
        -        DNA and RNA viruses
5.2     explain and understand the mammalian systems including tissues, organs and the anatomy and
        physiology for all the human systems.
5.3     identify, explain and analyze the pattern of human development including an understanding of
        gametogenesis, fertilization, embryogy, and development in sea urchin, frog, chick and
        human.




                                                       42
                                     LEARNING EXPECTATIONS
                                            ADVANCED BIOLOGY


Advanced Biology is composed of a number of standards that encompass the field of biology. In the first
quarter, environmental issues are stressed involving aquatic and terrestrial communities. Students travel to a
number of outdoor locations in order to gather data for further analysis. During the second quarter, students
conduct a series of experiments that demonstrate a number of the biological standards. Subjects included are:
cellular respiration, bacteriology, genetics and biological statistics. During the third quarter, students conduct
a series of experiments designed to build an understanding of plant anatomy and physiology. The final quarter
stresses human anatomy and physiology. Throughout the different units, students are expected to design and
conduct their own team investigations. Data is collected and recorded which is presented formally to the class.
 A number of different technologically devices are used to collect and record data.


By the end of this course, all students should be able to:

#1 Scientific Method
Students use scientific methods to describe, investigate, and explain phenomena.
1.1     conduct an experiment in the area of plants and one in the area of animals utilizing scientific method.
1.2     evaluate the validity and significance of data collected.
1.3     recognize, analyze, synthesize and evaluate alternative explanations to the experiment.


#2 Theory
Students understand the nature of mathematical, scientific, and technological theory.
2.1     learn content and conduct experiments to explain conclusions to experiments.


#3 History of Science, Math, and Technology
Students understand the history of science, mathematics, and technology.
3.1     show an appreciation for the historical background that has lead to the current knowledge in a
        field of study.


#4 Roles and Responsibilities
Students analyze the roles and responsibilities of scientists, mathematicians, and technologist in social, economic,
cultural, and political systems.
4.1     discuss ethical issues related to content areas in genetics, ecology, human physiology and weekly
        current events presented by students.


#5 Living World
Students understand the characteristics of organisms, see patterns of similarity and differences among living
organisms, understand the role of evolution, and recognize the independence of all systems that support life.
5.1     know the structure and function of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
5.2     explain the structure of DNA and RNA, and how they function in cellular activity.
5.3     know the purpose and chemical process of aerobic respiration and fermentation.
5.4     know how cells regulate flow of materials through their membranes.
5.5     describe the stages of mitosis and meiosis and can relate these stages to cell activities.
5.6     identify some of the more common bacteria and develop an understanding of their
        requirements.
5.7     understand the principles of water and mineral absorption, translocation and cell storage.
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#5 Living World, continued
5.8     know the internal anatomy of roots, monocot stems, herbaceous dicot stems, woody
        stems and leaves on a cellular level.
5.9     know the steps of the photosynthetic process to include both light and dark reaction.
5.10    know how plant auxins, light, temperature and moisture effect cell activities.
5.11    know how plant tissues develop.
5.12    identify the structure and function of several types of seeds from/to cellular
        development.
5.13    demonstrate an understanding of bacteria through laboratory procedures to identify
        various forms and structures.
5.14    review the systems of classification using the five kingdoms and their sub groups.
5.15    describe Linnaeus's contribution to taxonomy and the basis for his classification.
5.16    discuss the current changes in classification due to DNA, protein analysis.
5.17    describe the differences between monocots and dicots.
5.18    can identify examples of the major phyla/division of plants and animals.
5.19    explain alternation of generations in moss, fern and higher plants.
5.20    know the anatomy and life cycle of flowering plants.
5.21    understand the major biogeochemical cycles.
5.22    understand food chains and food webs in an aquatic environment.
5.23    explain lake succession.
5.24    understand human impact on aquatic zone through research on a local, regional and global scale.
5.25    describe algae blooms and their implication to lake cycles.
5.26    classify lakes according to light, temperature, nutrients and 02-C02 balance.
5.27    know how to analyze tree vegetation.


#6 The Human Body
Students demonstrate understanding of the human body--heredity, body systems, and individual development--and
understand the impact of environment on the human body.
6.1     know how to determine offspring from parents representing a variety of different
        factors.
6.2     know the terminology that represents the language of the genetics.
6.3     discuss current genetic research.
6.4     demonstrate an understanding that animals have complex biochemical systems that
        enable them to function and reproduce.
6.5     analyze and describe how the health of humans is affected by disease and
        environmental factors.
6.6     analyze the patterns of human development.




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                                   LEARNING EXPECTATIONS

                                                   PHYSICS



Physics includes the following topics: linear motion, curvilinear motion, forces, Newton's laws, the laws of
conservation of energy and momentum, rotational dynamics, fluid dynamics, thermodynamics, waves, light,
sound, light, optics, and electromagnetism.

The study of physics is active. This is by design and an integral part of the discipline of physics. In other
disciplines, practitioners speak of studying their subjects. Physicists speak of doing physics.

In addition to reading from various sources, students are engaged in mathematical and practical problem
solving, acquiring and analyzing data, evaluating reliability, and communicating their findings. About half
of class time is dedicated to active learning in the laboratory. Computers are used for gathering experimental
measurements and even more frequently as analysis and communication tools.

The history of the development of physics is emphasized so that students come to see science as a human
endeavor rather than simply a body of knowledge or a method for solving problems.

Components of SBHS curriculum that support Vermont Science Standards.

By the end of this course, all students should be able to:

#1 Scientific Method
Sstudents use scientific methods to describe, investigate, and explain phenomena.
1.1    frame questions that can be investigated using the scientific method.
1.2    critically evaluate the validity and significance of sources and interpretation, including scientific
       knowledge, observation and experimentation.
1.3    formulate and revise explanations based on evidence and scientific principles.


#2 Investigation
Students design and conduct investigations.
2.1    design and conduct experiments.


#3 History of Science
Students understand that science has a historical, cultural, and human context
3.1     investigate historical as well as current understanding of phenomena.
3.2     compare and contrast the explanations of phenomena through the eyes of a person of
        another era.
3.3     trace the development of ideas through time, including the cultural contexts that
        encouraged or prevent progress.
3.4     assess the effects of human strengths and foibles on the progress of scientific
        understanding.




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#4 Space, Time, and Matter
Matter, Motion, Forces, and Energy
Students understand forces and motion, the properties and composition of matter, and energy
sources and transformations.
4.1     use the equations and methods of kinematics to describe the motion of a body in one
        and in two dimensions.
4.2     use Newton's laws to explain everyday phenomena.
4.3     use the equations and methods of dynamics, including Newton's laws, to describe the
        interactions of forces and bodies.
4.4     analyze forces exerted on a body.
4.5     analyze events using the laws of conservation of momentum and energy.
4.6     describe the behavior of wave phenomena such as light and sound both qualitatively
        and quantitatively.
4.7     study the development of the wave-particle duality theory over three centuries to see
        how theory has had to change to               accommodate new observations.
4.8     recognize that light is simply one form of electromagnetic energy, unique only in our
        eyes having evolved sensitivity to it.
4.9     describe the electromagnetic spectrum.
4.10    analyze optical systems and explain everyday phenomena in terms of the behavior of
        electromagnetic waves.


#5 Designing solutions
Students use technological engineering processes to design solutions to problems
5.1     create a design solution based on specifications, within the constraints and tolerances that specify
        performance.
5.2     test prototypes, evaluate and adjust a design process, and improve performance.

Components of SBHS curriculum that exceed Vermont Science Standards.

By the end of this course, all students should be able to:

5.1     use vector analysis to solve problems in a variety of units, including motion, forces,
        and conservation of momentum.
5.2     analyze rotational motions and problems of rotational dynamics.
5.3     use principles of fluid dynamics, including the continuity equation and Bernoulli's
        Principle, to solve problems and explain physical phenomena.
5.4     explain a wide variety of everyday phenomenon using the concepts of heat, heat
        transfer, specific heat capacity, and latent heat.
5.5     understand the laws of thermodynamics, especially the limitations those laws specify.
5.6     solve problems involving static electricity using Coulomb's Law.
5.7     analyze direct current electrical circuits using Ohm' Law.
5.8     understand the deep connection between electricity and magnetism, specially
        electromagnetic induction.
5.9     use the World Wide Web to retrieve information.
5.10    communicate information through the SBHS intranet by constructing web sites.
5.11    understand (qualitatively) elements of Einstein's special and general theories of relativity.




                                                         46
                                     K-12 SCIENCE ASSESSMENT


Science assessment standards are criteria against which a teacher determines student attainment in science.
Evaluation, however, involves the total assessment of students' learning, including subject matter competence
and achievement, scientific attitudes, the process of science, and laboratory skills.

Below is a list of performance and traditional assessment strategies. The skills, concepts, and attitudes
developed through the standards-based approach are numerous and varied, therefore assessment strategies
must be varied. Assessment must be ongoing and embedded in student learning experiences. The benefits of
alternative assessments such as these are that they integrate curriculum, instruction and assessment. Please
refer to the more detailed Assessment Planning Guide in the Teacher Resource Package.

Traditional assessments test for knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis and synthesis of the subject
matter. It may involve objective test questions, free response questions, evaluation of laboratory work and lab
reports, and practical laboratory tests.

Performance assessment models evaluate inquiry and investigative techniques. These include concept
mapping, journals, oral interviews, portfolios, extended projects, open-ended labs, constructed response, and
self-assessment.


Alternative/Performance                                          Traditional
1.     Teacher observation/anecdotal records                     1.     Multiple choice
2.     Performance based-demonstrations                          2.     Free response items
3.     Presentations of learning, both informal                  3.     Quizzes/tests
       and formal                                                4.     Research projects
4.     Checklists of skills and concepts                         5.     Lab reports
5.     Portfolios
6.     Pre and post assessments
7.     Rubrics
8.     Journals
9.     Student work from investigations/open ended labs
10.    Student interviews
11.    Student self assessments
12.    Projects/presentations of learning


Assessment of student performance in South Burlington's K-12 science program will be carried out daily in
classrooms and annually by state and national testing. Assessments are being used to inform instruction.
Educators will use assessment results annually for action planning and in periodic program evaluation.
Standardized Science assessments include the following:

          Vermont Science Assessment                Grades 6 and 11
          Advanced Placement Test, Biology          Grade 12
          Local Assessment                          To be designed for benchmark years (Grades 3,
                                                    5, and 8)
* See the Teacher Resource Package for additional assessment resources.

12/11/03
C:\DOI\Science\Curriculum.1999.doc


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