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Feasibility analysis of biogas power generation industry

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					Feasibility analysis of biogas power generation industry
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????Biogas technology in controlling environmental pollution, access
to green energy is more economical and practical means, the potential
of biogas production from our power generation technology, market
demand and policy-oriented development trends, biogas power generation
industry will have a breakthrough.
?
- Editor
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??China is facing a huge energy and environmental pressures. Fossil
energy resources are increasingly depleted in the 2003 data: oil
reserves of only 25 million tons of recoverable coal reserves of about
204 billion tons. At the current level of mining technology
consumption, China's annual oil imports, at least 91 million tons; the
same time, the uncontrolled use of fossil energy, causing an
increasingly serious environmental pollution problems, leading to
global warming, damage the ozone layer, destruction of ecosystem
carbon balance, the release of hazardous substances, causing acid rain
and other natural disasters.
?
???Development and production of renewable energy, replace coal, oil
and gas and other fossil fuels is the world coming to solve the energy
shortage in an effective way, especially in developed countries are
committed to developing efficient and clean biomass energy utilization
technologies to protect domestic fossil energy resources, to achieve
the sustainable development of national economic security.
?
???Classified as green energy biogas. Countries for environmental
protection and development of renewable energy purposes, for pollution
control and green power energy technology research and integration
very seriously. In both biogas power generation technology among more
than 20 years after a refined, in our society, economically vibrant
development environment, its development trend has caused concern.
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????1 Development is to promote biogas biogas power generation an
important means to promote the use of
?
???Biogas technology is the treatment of organic waste pollution,
conversion to gas and other organic waste material can be very
effective use of technology, emphasizing the context of sustainable
development, to promote biogas project is very important. To get an
engineering application, the advanced and applicable technology, and
engineering of the input-output relationship must be recognized by the
market, thereby increasing the biogas technology to improve the
economic efficiency of biogas projects can be for a biogas project
promote the use of a large number of the key.
?
???Biogas is a high calorific value of combustible gas, use it as fuel
for power machine, driven generator running, the electricity will be
high quality. Biogas power generation project in the introduction of
biogas, biogas project will not only enhance the overall technological
level, and can lead to higher energy through the sale of financial
returns. According to several domestic biogas power plant with a
certain scale of operation of view, Zhao electricity sold outside or
internal digestion, can obtain better value for money.
?
???Here are "fifth" scientific and technological issues,
"Efficient large-scale anaerobic biogas power generation
technology and demonstration power plant," the research results.
The issue is sewage treatment compliance and high-power gas turbine is
a breakthrough in research topics, the use of biogas generated by the
construction of sewage treatment biogas power generation demonstration
project.
?
???Jiangsu Taicang too much alcohol, Ltd. is invested by Singapore
Guangyu Limited owned enterprises, with cassava as raw material
consumption of alcohol, with an annual output of alcohol 5 to 6 tons
daily discharge volume of distiller waste mash 1500 ~ 2000 tons of
liquid waste CODcr5.0 ~ 6.0 Íò mg / l, an average of 57,500 mg / l;
BOD2.5 ~ 3.0 Íò / l, SS3.0 ~ 2.0 Íò mg / l or so, pH3 ~ 4, is a high
concentration, high acidity of organic suspended wastewater.
?
??The company has invested 20 million yuan in 1998 about the
construction of a sewage treatment works (the main design unit: Former
Beijing Light Central ASTRI), an area of 1,600 square meters. 2002 to
2003 the company under the "large-scale anaerobic biogas power
generation technology and high demonstration power plant" project
for the realization of MW biogas power generation and implementation
of the transformation has invested 8.8 million yuan, making it even
better. After the technological transformation of the sewage treatment
system not only ensures that the terminal effluent discharge
standards, and by utilization of waste (sewage treatment to produce
biogas, biogas for power generation and boiler fuel, sludge used as
fertilizer or mixed with coal combustion in the boiler), truly the
waste treatment and resource utilization combined.
?
??Demonstration projects including sewage treatment and power
generation in two parts, with a total investment of 28,800,000 yuan,
annual production of 12 million cubic meters of biogas, in which 500
million cubic meters of gas power generation, and the remaining gas
for steam boiler fuel. Revenue including sales gas, power generation,
biogas instead of coal. Demonstration project's economic assessment is
based on equipment 11.5 million yuan (service life by 10 years), civil
engineering 17.3 million yuan (useful life of 20 years), the interest
rate is 5%, 5% discount rate; operating costs portion of the sewage
treatment operating costs and biogas power generation part of the
operating cost structure. Treatment part of the annual operating cost
of about 252 million yuan and annual net income of 166 million yuan
(gas revenues, biogas instead of coal a year income). Treatment part
of the net present value of cash flow starting from the first 12 years
only becomes positive, that is to become profitable from the first 12
years, the initial payback period is 12 years. Simply consider the
sewage treatment, its profitability is not very strong, but the
contribution to environmental protection are: BOD5 1.50 million tons
of emission reduction, saving 4,950 tons of coal, gas instead of coal
produced in the first year cost of about 3352.6 tons CO 2 emissions
(carbon) to generate electricity. Biogas power generation part of
electricity price of 0.56 yuan in accordance with marsh / kWh
(national plans, the peak power is 0.68 yuan / kWh, Valley Electric is
0.29 yuan / kWh), made electrical consumption rate 0.7 / m 3 / kWh,
generating units throughout the year 330 days total number of days,
gas purchase price of 0.25 yuan / m 3 (total original coal), biogas
electricity running costs 0.18 yuan / kWh (including people on
salaries, equipment depreciation and maintenance costs, loan interest,
etc.), annual operating cost about 203 million yuan and annual net
income of up to 2.01 million yuan. Biogas power generation part of the
net present value of cash flow starting from the first 2 years becomes
positive, that is starting from the first 2 years profitable internal
investment interest yield IBR = 62.72%, the initial payback period is
2 years. See separate biogas power generation project profitability is
very strong. If sewage treatment and power generation together two
economic assessment of the overall project net present value of cash
flow starting from the first 6 years into a positive demonstration
project shows that the total investment recovery period is about 6
years.
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???Thus, through the biogas power generation, so that the operation of
biogas process, the process is not only harmless pollutants, waste
resources, revealing of the process and the high level of resource use
and the process of generating financial returns. Therefore, the
application of biogas power generation technology will promote the
further promotion of biogas, the biogas project in the process of
social and economic development in China to play a greater
environmental protection and energy efficiency.
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???2 domestic gas and biogas power generation technology development
status
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??Anaerobic digestion biogas technology is mainly used to handle high
concentrations of animal manure and industrial organic wastewater.
After several years of research and development applications in the
country built more than 2,000 large biogas; household biogas digesters
in rural areas 10.6 million, the number highest in the world. Whether
anaerobic digestion technology, or construction, operation and
management and so accumulated a wealth of practical experience, the
overall level of technology has entered the international advanced
level.
?
??Biogas power generation in developed countries has been widely
valued and actively promoted, such as the U.S. energy farm, the German
renewable energy promotion law enacted, the Sunshine Project in Japan,
the Netherlands, green energy. Biomass power generation and network in
Western Europe (Germany, Denmark, Austria, Finland, France, Sweden,
etc.) in some countries the proportion of total energy is about 10%,
is expected to increase to 25% of the end of the century.
?
???Development of biogas power generation 20 years of history,
especially the "Ninth Five," "fifth" period, a
number of research institutes, institutions and enterprises have
engaged in a methane gas power generation technology research and
development of power generation equipment. In this area, formed a
research and technology backbone, the establishment of the
corresponding research and production base, has accumulated more
experience of success and failure for the application of biogas power
generation technology and the quality of biogas power generation
equipment to a higher level laid the foundation, such as the
introduction of Hangzhou Tianziling 2 sets of 970kW of pure American
fuel gas generator; Hangzhou Sibao sewage treatment plant imported
from Germany 4 400kW of pure fuel gas generator; Jiangsu Taicang plant
using a homemade alcohol pure fuel 600kW gas generator sets, 2 sets of
750kW steam generator; Tianjin hanging on alcohol plant with 8
homemade 180kW of pure fuel gas generator sets and so on.
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???Biogas power generation equipment, Germany, Denmark, Austria, the
United States of pure fuel gas generator group of advanced, gas
consumption rate of ¡Ü 0.5 m 3 / kWh (gas heat value ¡Ý 25MJ / m 3), the
price of 300 ~ 500 $ / kWh. In the "Ninth Five-Year",
"fifteen" developed during the 20 ~ 600kW of pure fuel gas
generator products, gas consumption rate of 0.6 ~ 0.8 m 3 / kWh (gas
heat value ¡Ý 21MJ / m 3), price 200 300 $ / kWh, the cost advantages
of a larger, suitable for China's economic development.
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????3 power source potential and the needs of sustainable strategies
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???(1) biogas production and reliability of the diversity of raw
materials
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???Biogas factory production of raw materials mainly from four
aspects: the scale of livestock farms Manure anaerobic food
processing, brewing sugar industry and other industrial organic
wastewater treatment, urban sewage treatment plant sludge and
municipal landfill buried.
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????¡ñ China's livestock production has nearly doubled, showing the
development of aquaculture are two major trends, one in the proportion
of agricultural output value accounted for the increase, the second is
the large-scale aquaculture development. Now more than 7,000 large and
medium livestock farms, the Manure handling less than 10%. With the
accession to the WTO and international livestock and poultry breeding
industry standards, the size and breeding livestock and poultry
industry will be increasing the coverage, will be built large scale
biogas project livestock waste treatment;
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?????¡ñ China's annual emissions of alcohol high degree of wastewater
agriculture about 1,200 tons of monosodium glutamate of about 400
million tons of industrial organic wastewater, starch wastewater about
1600 tons of pulp and paper industry wastewater by about 40 million
tons, the industrial wastewater treatment compliance rate is less than
10%, the use of industrial organic waste biogas production potential;
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????¡ñ According to 2001 data, China has built more than 400 cities
have sewage treatment plants, but the treatment rate is less than the
amount of sewage to be treated to 20%. According to the national
"Tenth Five" plan, by 2005, urban sewage treatment rate
should reach 60%, showing that municipal sewage treatment plant will
have a larger amount of the increase of acceleration, followed by a
sewage treatment plant the sewage anaerobic digestion of sludge will
increase the number of projects;
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?????¡ñ 2002 the amount of municipal waste in China reached 1.5 million
tons of landfill methane resources in the reserves has been
recognized, there are a small amount of landfill gas is collected and
used for power generation, if all the landfill gas can be collected,
there will be a lot of methane can be used to generate electricity.
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???With the development of national economy in the next 10 years, the
biogas production potential is much larger than the current level, the
national environmental policy under the guidance of these potentials
will be gradually released as a gas fuel power generation will be more
and more, from the power source point of view to provide a space for
development of biogas power generation.
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????(2) gas to generate electricity is more suitable for large biogas

??????In general, tons of alcohol plants, large-scale livestock and
poultry farms, city sewage treatment plant and municipal solid waste
landfill is not only the local pillar industries and the necessary
public enterprises, are also big polluters. For the high concentration
organic wastewater (thing) governance, now internationally recognized
as the preferred technology is anaerobic digestion (biogas
technology). An annual output of 50,000 tons alcohol production plant
of its deal with alcohol wastewater biogas, biogas Nissan 4 50 000 m
3; one, the small city sewage treatment plant or landfill, biogas
Nissan (or spam landfill gas) ten thousand m 3; a size of 10,000
breeding farms and 1,000 head of dairy waste treatment biogas
projects, at more than 1000 m 3 biogas. Since most of these companies
away from the town, methane can not be used as the fuel of life of
urban residents centralized gas supply (mainly distance and the high
cost of gas pipeline network construction.) If the gas replaced coal
as a boiler fuel direct combustion, and its economic value is low (1 m
3 biogas heat value and heat value of 1kg of coal equivalent). In
addition, factories, sewage treatment plants or large-scale livestock
and poultry farms is big power in recent years, due to the
increasingly tense domestic power, especially in economically
developed areas of the business, are often subject to restrictions on
the national grid electricity (power 1 week ~ 2 days) or unplanned
need to buy expensive electricity. Therefore, many companies have
begun to realize methane gas power generation not only improve the
economic value of their own, but also ease the power shortage for the
business conflicts.
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????(3) pollution control, opening up renewable energy, is to
implement the requirements of sustainable development strategy
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???The typical high-concentration organic waste water (matter) is the
major source of pollution, is the expense of the environment, and must
be cut from the source rule. Also need to realize that it is the
development and utilization of valuable energy. Through scientific
handling and processing, can be transformed into indispensable to the
production and subsistence. Using the anaerobic digestion (biogas
technology) as the core of the comprehensive treatment and utilization
of engineering technology, both the economy (energy, capacity), and
effective (only anaerobic digestion process removal rate can reach 75%
or more), the anaerobic by-product of digestion
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?????- Slurry, quality organic fertilizer residue is expected, as the
cultivation of ecological agriculture industry needs.
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???China's transition from oil-exporting countries for the oil
importing countries, 2000, net imports reached 70 million tons.
Biomass can be converted into liquid through a variety of techniques,
gas, direct substitute for gasoline, diesel, natural gas and other
fossil fuels. In addition, electricity production in China in 1999 was
about 1.26 trillion kWh, per capita electricity than 100kWh /
person-years, where the per capita power consumption than 110kWh /
person-years, but South Korea's 1 / 5. Especially in the rural
electricity supply gap even more. To achieve the goal of quadrupling
the national economy in 2020 to ensure reliable electricity supply is
a prerequisite. Use of local resources for local conditions to produce
biogas and biomass power generation, the establishment of
decentralized, independent off-grid or grid power plant has broad
market prospects, but also protect our fossil energy resources, to
achieve the sustainable development of national economic security.
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????4 biogas power generation industry will be a sunrise industry
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???Biogas power generation is a systematic project, which includes
biogas production, biogas purification and storage, biogas power
generation technology and the Internet and many other elements of the
optimal combination, but also relates to national support policies for
biogas power generation and technical regulations. Analysis of the
existing domestic biogas power generation projects, and borrowing from
the biogas power generation experience, and state renewable energy
policy-oriented, I believe that our biogas power generation industry
will in the future there will be a breakthrough after years on the
basis that :
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????(1) the introduction of relevant national policies, including
biogas power generation will open up the green power, including the
bottleneck of the Internet
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???When a country reaches a certain level of economic strength, it
will put more attention to environmental protection, would be more
concerned about sustainable development issues, will put money into
this area, it will introduce relevant policies to ensure sustainable
development strategy goals.
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???Case of Germany. After decades of postwar Germany's economic
recovery, already have the economic capacity to address sustainable
development issues. In order to protect the environment, curb global
warming and promote sustainable energy supply, Germany in 1990
formulated the "transmission method" in 2000, introduced the
"Renewable Energy Law." "Transmission Act"
provides the public transport network on the gas to generate
electricity to preferential purchase price of electricity, the biogas
power generation technology policies to promote the improvement of
Germany led to the subsequent establishment of more than 700 biogas.
The "Renewable Energy Law" enhancing the access of renewable
energy power purchase price, the installed capacity to achieve 500kW
of power stations, electricity transmission to the grid than the
subsidy received increased by 37% in 1999. It can be predicted, it
will once again promote the promotion of biogas in Germany.
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???Green power of the Internet and the preferential policies on the
issue has been brewing for some time, its importance has been well
understood. For a certain size in terms of biogas power plants,
generators can make long-term work at the rated load, and determines
the price level of gas generation can achieve better economic
efficiency. If a biogas power plant generating capacity can not be
used more fully, we talk about efficiency? A considerable part of the
biogas project, and its gas production is much larger than the size
corresponding to the internal power stations (gas project itself or
the construction business) the total electricity load, and internal
electrical load capacity is great but only intermittent generators to
achieve the rated value of the case, so that, on this scale biogas
power plant if you can not transfer power to the utility grid, there
is no way out; in the local electricity sector, a biogas production of
electricity power station is trivial for them can be Do not want to be
is to buy, they have to consider the profits, the purchase price for
gas power stations are often not accepted. Fortunately, the state has
determined to open up, including green power, including biogas power
bottlenecks in the Internet.
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???Sustainable development of national standing in the height of the
Internet policies introduced to promote green power is within sight.
Being studied and developed by the proportion of renewable energy
quota, share test, green certificates and preferential access to the
Internet generation, will benefit from the built creating a trading
platform for the development of green power.
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????(2) the domestic price will produce a better product gas
generators for biogas power generation equipment to provide strong
support
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???At present, more mature domestic biogas power generator set
specifications, the main focus of this section in the 100 ~ 500kW.
Trend analysis based on construction and development of biogas and
biogas power generation equipment market requirements, greater than
and less than this section of the specifications are increasing the
demand for generator sets.
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???Gas production from the biogas of view, there are many suitable for
biogas project built with more than 500kW gas generating sets. From
the gas turbine of the price point of view, the power can be used in a
case of the original machine, single power, the more conducive to
improving the fuel efficiency of power generation, the more conducive
to reducing the cost of unit power generating units, resulting in
better value for money.
?
???The same gas production from biogas electricity load from the
nature point of view and perspective, 20kW generator sets below are
great market. For example, a million heads of farm biogas projects, at
80 cubic meters of biogas production is obviously not suitable for the
Internet generation, suitable for internal consumption. The marsh is
generally use power-driven water pumps and farm biogas project fan,
lighting and so on, so should be left with a 10kW generator sets. Many
biogas projects of similar shows, the demand for small power
generators are also a lot of methane.
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???View of the broad prospects for development of biogas power
generation, a number of strong domestic research institutes and large
enterprises had strong cooperation, development of market demand for
different specifications of gas turbine products. In large units, the
Jinan Diesel Engine Co., Ltd. has developed a full-burn gas engine's
600kW gas turbine, and in the "fifth" scientific and
technological projects, "Efficient large-scale anaerobic biogas
power generation technology and the demonstration power plant,"
the engineering success. 500 ~ 600kW biogas generators will be
available soon. It is worth mentioning that developed out of a new
round of domestic biogas generators, has not the past simple and
modified internal combustion engine generators. New generating units
has been reduced in terms of performance units and foreign advanced
technology indicators. In small units, the Chongqing Hongyan, Shandong
Weifang Diesel Engine biogas generators, has been on the market. It
can be said has been in power generation equipment for the domestic
implementation of biogas power generation to provide strong support.
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????(3) financial support and professional production will attract
more investors
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???Large biogas projects are environmentally friendly nature, benefit
the whole community. Investment points to beach, with "Who
polluter pays" principle-based, supplemented by "who
benefits and who sub-beach" principle, by the Government, local
and joint venture enterprises. For the initial investment, the state
will and must support, such as: national or industry will develop a
series of preferential policies and tax relief for projects to reduce
the burden on enterprises; to broaden sources of funds to help build
the party access to various types of loans ; encourage the community
to invest in the development of various forms of gas utilization
projects to preferential policies to mobilize the enthusiasm of
investors.
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???National, local and joint venture companies the way, focus on
supporting a number of special equipment manufacturing enterprises
(biogas production plant, gas purification equipment, gas generators,
etc.) necessary for its transformation; expand production scale,
enhance product range and product quality; the establishment of
quality assurance system (after-sales service, personnel training,
quality supervision and inspection, etc.) and property management
model.
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???As can be seen from the above analysis, whether the potential of
biogas production, power generation technology, or market demand,
policy guidance, all will be birth of the great development of biogas
power generation. Some of the first step has tasted the sweetness of
the enterprise. Several years later, in our scenario is likely to
occur in Germany, almost every gas works should be carried out to
generate electricity. It is foreseeable that the formation of methane
thermal power industry is inevitable, and have great development
space.

				
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posted:9/28/2010
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