Robert Gagne’s Nine Events of Instruction “Organization is the hallmark of effective instructional materials”. Robert Gagne 1916-present Presenter: Ronda Critchlow Gagne’s Theoretical Background Robert Gagne is best known for his learning outcomes, learning conditions, and his nine events of instruction. Gagne’s theories have been applied to the design of instruction in several domains beyond the educational realm, such as the military, Instructional Systems Development, flying, troubleshooting, leadership, medical care, & engineering. Gagne’s theory should be classified as instructional theory as opposed to a learning theory. A learning theory consists of a set of propositions and constructs that account for how changes in human performance abilities come about. On the other hand, an instructional theory seeks to describe the conditions under which one can intentionally arrange for the learning of specific performance outcomes. (Driscoll, 2000) Gagne’s Theoretical Orientation Gagne’s instructional theory tends to side with behavioristic principles (teacher-centered approach) because he focuses on outcomes/behaviors that result from instruction. Further, he believes that the results of learning are measurable through testing, and that drill, practice, and immediate feedback are effective. Gagne’s theories became influenced by cognitive theorists. He proposed that the information-processing model of learning could be combined with behaviorist concepts to provide a more complete view of learning tasks (Molenda, 2002): Gagne (1997): “These [cognitive] theories propose that stimulation encountered by the learner is transformed or processed in a number of ways (i.e., through commitment to short-term memory, conversion to long-term memory, and the retention and retrieval of that information) by internal structures during the period in which the changes identified as learning takes place.” (Campos, 1999) Gagne’s Theoretical Orientation (Cont’d) In his view, effective instruction must reach beyond traditional learning theories (behaviorism, cognitivism, and constructivism) and provide support to transition from simple to complex skills, thus using an hierarchical model for learning. Overview of Gagne’s Theories Gagne’s Taxonomy of Learning states that there are five major categories of learning outcomes: verbal information, intellectual skills, cognitive strategies, motor skills, and attitudes; The five subcategories of intellectual skills are hierarchical in nature (low- level skills to high-level skills). Gagne’s hierarchy of intellectual skills follows programmed instruction since one skill must be learned before another can be mastered. Overview of Gagne’s Theories (Cont’d) Verbal information: Reciting something from memory Intellectual skills: Discrimination: Recognizing that two classes of things differ Concrete concept: Classifying things by their physical features alone Defined concept: Classifying things by their abstract (and possibly physical) features Rule: Applying a simple procedure to solve a problem or accomplish a task Higher-order rule: Applying a complex procedure (or multiple simple procedures) to solve a problem or accomplish a task Cognitive strategies: Inventing or selecting a particular mental process to solve a problem or accomplish a task Attitudes: Choosing to behave in a way that reflects a newly- acquired value or belief Motor skills: Performing a physical task to some specified standard Overview of Gagne’s Theories (Cont’d) Gagne’s Theory says that learning hierarchies can be constructed by working backwards from the final learning objective. So, the key question to keep in mind when developing a learning hierarchy is “What are the intellectual skills one needs to have mastered in order to learn the new objective(s)? The significance of this hierarchy is to identify prerequisites that should occur to facilitate learning at each level and to provide the basis for the sequencing of instruction. (http://www.educationau.edu.au/archives/cp/04d.htm) Overview of Gagne’s Theories (Cont’d) Gagne developed ideas known as Conditions of Learning, whereby he claimed that there are several different types or levels of learning. Therefore, he posits that each different type of learning requires different types of instruction. Different internal & external conditions are necessary for each type of learning. The external conditions are the things that the teacher arranges during instruction, while internal conditions are skills and capabilities that the learner has already mastered. (Driscoll, 2000) For example, for cognitive strategies to be learned, there must be a chance to practice developing new solutions to problems; to learn new attitudes, the learner must be exposed to a credible role model or persuasive arguments. http://www.educationau.edu.au/archives/cp/04d.htm The Nine Events of Instruction When the Events of Instruction occur, internal learning processes take place that lead to various learning outcomes. (Campos, 1999) The Events of Instruction constitute a set of communications to the student, which have the aim of aiding the learning process. Instruction consists of a set of events external to the learner designed to support the internal processes of learning. (Gagne, Briggs, & Wager, 1988) This theory outlines nine instructional events and their corresponding processes. The Nine Events of Instruction Event of Instruction Learning Process 1. Gaining attention Attention Giving learner a stimulus to ensure reception of coming instruction 2. Informing the learner of the Expectancy objective Telling learner what they will be able to do for the instruction Retrieval to working memory 3. Stimulating recall of prior learning Asking for recall of existing relevant knowledge 4. Presenting the stimulus Pattern recognition; selective Displaying the content perception 5. Providing learner guidance Supplying organization and Chunking, rehearsal, encoding relevance to enhance understanding The Nine Events of Instruction (Cont’d) Events of Instruction Learning Process 6. Eliciting performance Retrieval, responding Asking learners to respond, demonstrating learning 7. Providing Feedback Reinforcement, error correction Giving immediate feedback on learner's performance. 8. Assessing performance Providing feedback to learners' Responding, retention more performance for reinforcement 9. Enhancing retention and transfer Providing diverse practice to Retention, retrieval, generalize the capability generalization The Nine Events of Instruction (Cont’d) Keep in mind that the exact form of these events is not something that can be specified in general for all lessons, but rather must be decided for each learning objective. The events of instruction must be deliberately arranged by the teacher to support learning processes. (Gagne, Briggs, & Wager, 1988) References Bassoppo-Moyo, Temba C. 1997. The Effects of Preinstructional Activities and Mental Maps in Enhancing Learner Recall and Conceptual Learning of Instructional Materials for Preservice Teachers in Zimbabwe. Academic Search Premier Database. Campos, Tracy. 1999. Gagné’s Contributions to the Study of Instruction http://chd.gse.gmu.edu/immersion/knowledgebase/theorists/cognitivism/gagne.htm Conditions of Learning. http://tip.psychology.org/gagne.html Conditions of Learning: Exponent/Originator http://www.educationau.edu.au/archives/cp/04d.htm Driscoll, M. (2000). Psychology of learning for instruction, 2nd edition. New York: Allyn & Bacon. Unit 6: Gagne’s Instructional Design theory. http://education.indiana.edu/~p540/webcourse/gagne.html Fields, Dennis. (1996). The Impact of Gagne’s Theories on Practice. EDRS-Academic Search Database. Gagne, Briggs, & Wager.1988. Principles of Instructional Design. Holt, Rinehart & Winston: New York. Gagne's Learning Outcomes-- http://online.sfsu.edu/~foreman/itec800/finalprojects/annie/gagne'slearningoutcome.html Gagne's Nine Events of Instruction --http://online.sfsu.edu/~foreman/itec800/finalprojects/annie/gagne'snineevents.html Gagne’s Nine Events of Instruction. http://coe.sdsu.edu/eet/articles/gagnesevents/index.htm House, Daniel J. 2002. The Use of Computers in a Mathematics lesson in Japan: A Case Analysis from the TIMSS Videotape Classroom Study. International Journal of Instructional Media. Vol. 29(1). Academic Search Premier Database. Kruse, Kevin. Gagne’s Nine Events of Instruction: An Introduction. www.e-learningguru.com/articles/art3_3.htm Molenda, Michael 2002. A New Framework for Teaching in the Cognitive Domain. ERIC Digest. Academic Search Premier Database. Richey, Rita C. (1996). Robert M. Gagne’s Impact on Instructional Design Theory and Practice of the Future. EDRS-Academic Search Database. Selwyn. 1999. A Constructivist Learning Event Following Gagne’s Steps of Instructional Design. http://hagar.up.ac.za/catts/learner/smarks/constructionist-Gagne.htm Wall, Patricia.1998. Say it Naturally. Heinle & Heinle: Boston.