Continued by fdjerue7eeu


Migration and social support
?Typically, communication between parents and children, social and
emotional support to parents is very important. However, due to the
migration of children to enable them to communicate between the less
and less, while their parents the opportunity to see their children
also, especially the less and less regular.
Keep in touch
A short distance before the city will make children and parents in
rural areas become difficult to contact. With the development of
science and technology, cable came in handy, if the parents want to
contact their children, they can be an agent helped himself to the
post office or to their children a telegram. But they must be aware of
their children before a telegram address, but it must often migrate
for those people, and almost is very difficult. Of course they can
write, but they must be able to write and read, the other is to spend
many days letterhead to arrive.
In recent years the spread of mobile phones to facilitate
communication is almost a revolution, especially in rural areas. Our
1994 survey, when there is poor communication conditions, the private
phone is very small. Some countries are the last 10 years through the
power of the state finance installation in the vast rural areas, rural
areas, covering the entire rural public telephone network. However, it
may break out easily, but the answer still bother some.
??In comparison, the mobile phone is convenient and common. We
investigated the parents and their children to contact the majority is
relying on mobile phones. Just because children have an installed
fixed telephone provider. Family has grandchildren who need a phone,
because those needs and their granddaughter grandson's parents to
contact in the field. People who do not have mobile phones, they will
go to a relative or neighbor with a telephone, although sometimes have
to pay. Also, most children will have to go out their contact tool
will not know who, in order to facilitate and home, in our survey of
27 cases, only one case did not contact by phone and their children.
Some people worry that the phone only to solve things, and do not
often use.
By the following changes can be seen that not only parents and
children by telephone access to social and emotional support. This
approach is very beneficial to both sides.
????????"There is no phone when I am worried about her, and want
them to go visit her.
?????????Mother: It takes time to write before, and now calling more
?????????Father: We do not have phones, but our children have. In
recent years, this thing is very common, it is also very easy to use,
before they're expensive. I have now, very cheap. "
Most families we visited, the walls will have a series of phone
numbers, and some are easy to see clearly. And at least one case that
is when we interviewed the children of parents calling about the
situation. If you moved the children have children at home, then this
will be a lot. In this case, the children will be moved to call home
more often, to know their child's situation. Sometimes, direct, and
their children on the phone, if your child is big enough. This contact
will be enhanced because of television advertising.
?Mobile phone also makes the children of brothers and sisters moved to
strengthen the links between. Parents so that they better understand
the information and easy-child on a variety of information
transmission. Especially when a person know their parents are sick,
they will soon know that between the
???"When I was sick or had no money, I would call my daughter,
then she will notify the other brothers and sisters. They know I have
no money, so under normal circumstances, I rely on their financial
difficulties are resolved"
To visit relatives in rural areas is composed of parents and children
outside the home an important way the links between, in particular,
face to face contact. While visiting each other, but outside the home
their children back to their own home (his parents) than their parents
to visit or live in other places in the city's children in general.
?????Children to visit parents. In Thailand, far away from their
parents when adult children back in Bangkok to visit her parents, to
express their filial piety to parents, this is a deeply rooted
tradition. Especially when they leave more than a day. Encountered
special things, such as marriage, funeral, or organized priesthood
Shouli Buddhist temple travel back home to visit them back home can
inspire. Therefore, all outside the home parents to visit their
children at least once a year, but for some children, it more than
once. Documents show, according to some national surveys: 27 parents
surveyed, only six parents visited their children less than once a
year. However. All of those surveyed, there are other children outside
the home, they go to visit the more frequent. In addition, there is a
case in which their daughter moved to the U.S., but they are often
???There are some factors to visit children living in cities living in
the countryside, the frequency of their parents. Obviously, distance
is the key. In our survey, where the parents live in the center
frequency of visits than children of parents living in the Northeast
region with high frequency to visit the children. There is no doubt
reflects the high frequency of typically short. From Bangkok and
surrounding areas, a common location outside the home, especially
close to those provinces where the provincial capital, has a
relatively convenient transportation. Another obvious factor is the
impact of the child outside the presence of living children. Some
returned home frequently to visit relatives in their children outside
the home, is to visit their children. Children to take care of by
their grandparents. In contrast, married children living outside their
new place of residence in a family seems to be less frequently to
visit her parents. In fact, many parents seemed to understand and
accept this. Children outside the home not only because of these
deeply rooted in their own communities, but also because they usually
have two pairs of parents need to visit, which is an unmarried child
outside the home is not the same.
"Sometimes she can not go home, sometimes with his sister back.
She married, had her own family"
"Every child should be responsible for their own families, they
have to make a living, no time."
Nature of the work outside the home can affect children's children to
return home to visit his parents, in particular, take a few hours
away, from the northeast to (Bangkok) those who work. Those who own
boss, such as taxi drivers or street vendors with those employed by
others for the rest for another person in different situations.
Parents often put their children can not leave the job why do not
often see them as the reason. In some cases, it has become careless
with their parents or children of a lame excuse. In others, it appears
it is a very important concern.
"He came back a trip is not easy, his job is not holiday, he must
go back to work within the stipulated time. In fact, his father had
died before he returned to visit his father in hospital, but before he
could recover his father had to go back a "
Monetary considerations can influence a child for taking the time to
go back to visit his parents, because of the need to pay for expensive
travel, especially outside the home when children think that when they
go back to at least bring some money, food or clothing to their
parents, this is practice. In a few cases because of tension between
parents and children outside the home or outside the home with
non-relationship between brothers and sisters visit relatives rarely
caused. However, the opposite is more generally, the brothers and
sisters get together and go home to visit her parents, brothers and
sisters also have the opportunity to get along. For some parents and
children outside the home, the phone can also be replaced regularly to
visit, at least for small home is a compensation, especially when
their children far away from their parents, the relatives need to
spend a lot of time, effort and money. From the following dialogue
Mother (talking about the other provinces in the far as the military's
son): he lived very far away from us, very few have the opportunity to
visit us.
Father: He often guards or night, in his time to call his mother.
Q: Your son? He often back?
Mother: not often, he's busy, he wants to go to work, but also take
the children, the children's school is far ~~~~~~~ but he came back in
for the holidays.
Father: He has called us.
Mother: He always give us a call. I said to him, son, ah, you see the
television ad? The mother called to his son, his son asked him if he
is not sick, he replied 'No, just want to hear your voice' so he
called us saying, 'Hello, how are you? Dad how? '
There are many reasons why the children living outside the home to
visit his parents, in many instances the parents were to see the
emotional needs of children and parents should provide emotional
support their children and obligations constitute the underlying
causes of his parents. Among these reasons will usually mixed with
other motives and circumstances, because many children outside the
home as the registration remains in their home, go home to visit the
event may be facilitated by the government, such as elections or
business dealings with local government . Contributed to a very
important reason to visit the children, their parents may be closely
related supplies. Although to some extent the money through the post
office or otherwise have been sent to parents, but in most cases,
children will personally bring money to their parents that may
frequent, regular or occasional. Rational allocation of the frequency
of home to visit his parents, and often money on a regular basis or
closely linked to their parents, especially parents of children in the
care of a child outside the home, but in many cases the children to
their parents money not much, but it represents value is much higher
than their number.
"I want to know why he did not come back, he always come back
every month, but why Why come back this month? I could not guess what
that he can not come back. He would give me time to 400-500 Baht"
"He came back once a year, he can sometimes come back the
holidays, and each will give us 100 Baht, and if he has no money to
pay bus fare will be for us, he never send money to us."
Parents see their children
Parents to visit their children visit with their children than their
parents, parents see their children outside the home is quite rare,
and often with a specific purpose. Few parents of children outside the
home has never been out to see the children, and in fact rarely
mentioned, even if filed not even know their address. Prompted some
parents to see children living Wangwai one of the reasons it is
worried that their children's health, especially her daughter to leave
home early, some parents to verify their own daughter is how to ensure
that all is good. Health problems also led to the parents to spend
time outside the home their children. Many parents went to see their
children or their children are in operation in the city of residence
on certain hospitals, and to live together with their children until
the children recovered. Another case is the status of the parents
where their children go to very good care of their children by their
children. In some cases, to help parents take care of their children
being children. There are also some other is mainly to visit the
children together. Some cases, the parents formed a group in
conjunction with other children to visit a child. But in general
because of his parents to visit their children away for personal
reasons is not very common, and although his parents together than the
number of children is much less.
Mother: She went to Bangkok in the near future to write a letter came,
saying not to worry, she can live there, she went there in 4,5 months
after his father went to see her.
Father: I am a person to go, her mother stayed at home. In the letter
she told me how to get to, where to ride, where to get off, then where
interchange, I would go. I want to see her had been. Should also
decent, and her salary is 80 baht.
Mother: Because to do eye surgery, I have been there for a month.
Daughter told me to stay in the hospital. I do not like Bangkok. I
have no friends there, and I do not want to go where only stay at home
at any time.
Wangwai rural parents to see their children home is not very common.
This is for many reasons. Very important point is that the children
outside the home than to go home to their elderly parents are not
familiar with the city easier. We interviewed many parents, they said,
walking a long distance is very difficult, especially in recent years,
because of their physical condition. Some other need to stay at home
to look after their children, or afraid to leave their homes on their
land and have little relationship to animals. Parents feel that they
have (or will feel) can not be integrated into the city, do not know
what to do, not knowing where to go. There is also a very common
problem is that the children are living outside the home unit of the
lack of local parents live. Especially when the child does not own the
house. This involves parents worried that their arrival will cause
inconvenience to the children, or they will be popular, especially his
wife or son.
Daughter: Parents have been to Bangkok, but they stay there less than
a week.
Father: there, I can only stay in the yard.
Daughter: Yes, they can only sit at home. Both go, they are afraid of
vehicles, fear getting lost, their children have to go to work ~ ~ ~ ~
they are always clamoring to go home.
Father: I miss my cattle and I kind of raised land.
Outside the home and economic support
The data show that a large number of general adult children living in
Thailand to their elderly parents provide financial and material help.
According to a 2002 international survey, 70% of Thailand's infected
more than 60% of the income and material support are provided by the
children. 71% said either their children or son or daughter are their
main economic pillars. These results relate to the support of all
children regardless of whether they moved out. International survey of
1995 people in Thailand, 50 years or 50 years, parents in rural areas,
and at least one child living in different provinces, 78% of the at
least get some money, 62% had at least 1,000 Thai baht () from a child
or more children to get there. Overall, 78% of parents of children
previously will receive food or gifts. Some parents have also been
some money on their children outside the home or other assistance.
Although the direction of flow is rarely the same. According to the
1995 survey, 1 / 4 at least to give money to the parents of the
children outside the home, about 1 / 5, at least to the 1000 Thai
currency, at least more than 1 / 3 of people to send some food or
Support for parents
In our investigation of the cases, the children of financial support
from the working mostly in the form of money and gifts to support
parents. According to reports, more than 4 / 5 majority of working
children (though not all) at least give some money to their parents.
At the same time, by the parents we interviewed said that their
children get at least one work to help the economy. In addition, all
parents have received one or more of filial children, at least aspects
of the food or the gifts of support.
Financial assistance. Working children from the support in the amount
of money and frequency are very different. The most common form is
that we occasionally mentioned in the previous text of the visits,
gifts and give money. In these cases, given that they are not
impressive, or even usually just for show only. In other cases, Head
moderate to substantial.
"If he comes back, who have some money, sometimes to two or three
hundred or a hundred. He rarely came to visit us, and sometimes once a
year. Some years, he only came once in the New Year. This year he came
twice, and intends to Chinese New Year again. "
Sometimes the help and visit from time to time the number is not
relevant. In one case, a child living in a foreign exchange give
parents a substantial amount of money, even if only once. In other
cases, those who frequently take the opportunity to visit the children
to their parents money occasionally to their parents money in other
???Sometimes visit will bring some money. In this case, the daughter
living abroad will also exchange some money over, it is essential. In
several other cases, those who do not regularly visited the children
to transfer from time to time by other means is to send money. Another
one of the most ordinary way, the most important thing is money based
on the economic situation of parents, parents to pay more or less
daily living expenses. In some cases, major expenditure frugal
parents. In our study, is now half of them to receive regular funding.
In addition, only a few people in the past received regular
remittances, but do not friends. The children of their own money on
regular funding is based on the way to their parents or send money
??"Every two months, the youngest daughter gave us 10,000 Thai
baht, she lived in (), regularly give us money. She never mailed to
the way, because she feared lost. Every two months with money to us,
but she can never spend the night here, come Sunday, the day on the
back. "(married father, central2, 143/86)
???Such a large sums of money and a wide variety of cases and to pay
related to the care of grandchildren. Some recent cases, the parents
and children the burden of expenditure. In other cases, the
grandparents if they can pay for their own consumption and that their
children outside the home even more outside the home need the money or
that the children of financial support available to them spending more
prefect of their own, they will reject any material help.
???"My two daughters to their own four children I raise, I
8,000-10,000 Baht per month, I used the money to pay for children's
educational expenses and family living expenses. because I never waste
money, so the money enough. "(married father, northeast1,
??The rest of the money in special purposes, such as health insurance.
Case had chronic diseases, to be funded from the health insurance it
is very natural. But this common medical insurance only applies to
emergency situations. In this case, the children in the government or
the army, their health insurance expenditures by the parents. Rest of
the money used to improve the parents built a new house or
accommodation, or to buy a piece of land to the parents, this is not
common. The money mostly material expenditures, some expenses are not
always huge, some generous remittances from their parents. This is for
the children and parents in this case the mutual understanding.
????Reporter: the departure of their children's lives to you what kind
of impact?
Father: My daughter gave us a lot of money for the sons of the land
.... give us the money to build a house .... and sometimes the
children to older, sometimes younger children to. The other daughter
was graded to. This is why the final with a big house and a lot of
cattle out. Help our children build little by little. We sell cattle
can get some income .... thanks to my children, I am spending is
enough. (Married father, northeast2, 582/146)
Received from a variety of different aspects of child support, or
support the contents of their children vary with the circumstances, it
is not uncommon. And these again, and the needs of parents and
children moved to support the capacity.
"My third daughter is a nurse, she did not like that to buy it.
She will give us a large object or a lot of money, such as a mobile
telephone, a television, a table, a double spring door open.'s Largest
Our daughter is responsible for daily necessities such as food,
clothing, telephone rental or some pocket money. "
Some parents also mentioned that their children would not have moved
to provide money to them or just to provide some worthless things. Two
parents or even the end of that visit when the children back, they
have to go back to the children fare. Some parents complained about
this situation, while some parents said their children can not afford
to help them form an important therefore that the lack of help to
parents is understandable. At least two respondents said that when
parents send their children more than symbolic support when they are
unhappy because their parents feel they have relatively economically
well-off and believe the money for the children may be more useful.
Non-financial support: almost all the interviewees have said before it
moved to some children from non-financial support, at least some food
gifts. This is not surprising to see the parents when the children
will usually be to take some food, even if only symbolic. The food
provided to the parents tend to be more common. However, since those
who can provide children with some special and sometimes very
expensive food, when they know their parents love or to help a symbol
of some special occasions. However, regular provision of food to the
elderly will be greatly limited to parents who do not have to emigrate
or because of obvious practical reasons, to live in the vicinity of
???Sometimes as a gift of clothes brought to visit with the children,
although this is less than the food mentioned. And migration compared
to children to buy food together, this gift does not seem so
practical. In comparison, the provision of home appliances to be more
important, as discussed earlier, such as mobile phones. In our
interview subjects, at least half of the parents moved their children
received from home appliances. These include not only small, not very
expensive items such as fans, thermos, electric kettle or radio,
including some valuable items. These valuable items are: TV and
refrigerator. Some migrants surveyed children to buy the furniture to
their parents. At least one subject of the investigation moved their
children to buy the following items: washing machines, speakers, air
conditioning, exercise equipment, a set of carpenter tools and pumps
to their parents. There are two subjects were the parents of the
child's motorcycle. One child moved to the parents to buy a car.
"My youngest daughter rented a house in the town. She shops at a
fixed work. Her best to save money to buy us something, she wanted to
buy us a fridge or give her father bought a motorcycle."
Less of the object in the non-financial support is in the form of
labor. In our survey, there are three stressed that in the special
time when a strong need for labor migrants will come back to help
their children do farm work.
Support from parents
As mentioned earlier, the economic importance of mutual support in the
rural parents and the children moved between cities can be both ways.
Although the adult children from the support of parents in rural areas
is more common, but our survey shows that there are a large number of
parents from rural areas to support urban children. This support can
be money, although the general rural products are natural objects of
non-money, the most important thing is to help them care for children.
Economic support when the children go to school when their parents pay
for education costs, which is we have already discussed one way of
economic support. In addition to this, parents rarely take aspects of
life with economic support of their immigrant children. In our survey,
only two parents in normal circumstances that they sometimes give
money to their children outside the home. However, in our survey at
least four parents provided substantial financial support in some
special circumstances or for particular purposes. These include: to
help buy a car and paid the funeral expenses of her daughter, spouse
to pay off a large debt, financial support to Taiwan to work his son,
in order to remove the son of military service to pay a bribe, to pay
for her daughter in Bangkok children's educational expenses and loans
to pay her costs in the Bangkok study beauty and when her daughter
came back to help her pay the cost of open beauty shop. A survey to
help his children to buy land in rural areas while the other is to
help children build a house for when their children came back. There
to help his son pay the wedding expenses. In some subjects, parents
must rely on a mortgage or sell land or sell cattle to fill those
expenditures. This financial support primarily from the assets that
have a certain balance or the parents can provide, not including those
poorer parents.
"I still regret losing those lands, but that was my child's debt.
She did not ask me for help, but it does not matter to her whether the
request, parents can help their children. 10rai a piece of land price
is not low. "
Non-economic support in our interviews there were two major rural
parents to support children moved to the city's money is not directly
included. Both are unusual, reasonable and not restricted to any
particular socio-economic status of parents. The first is to provide
agricultural products, particularly rice, to their children when the
children of migrants to return after the visit or when parents visit
their child. In some surveys only a symbolic object to some, as a
typical example of the time when the parents moved their children to
visit their parents bring food to the same. However, in other
subjects, parents give is quite enormous.
"I want to see him so I collect tamarind (a tropical fruit) and
put off the skin. I do chili powder, pepper collection. And I can
still do those things and put them in the sun to dry. I think Give
these to him. "
"Sometimes I put the rice to the son as the officer in Bangkok,
as he likes and he said my delicious rice."
There is no dispute, the second rural parents moved their children to
the important non-economic support for child care for children is to
help migrants, sometimes grandson or granddaughter and rural parents
to live with time. There are also some objects, the parents moved
their children in the city to provide temporary child care services.
It is clear that child care services for children, moved to have
important economic significance, so they can go to work without other
people take care of your children. Objects in our survey, almost half
are caring for one or more of the grandson or granddaughter, with the
other two did the same thing. Objects in these surveys, while adult
children, the grandchildren's aunt or uncle, may be linked with the
grandparents to help care for children. As noted above, the majority
of immigrant children left behind children and grandparents lived, and
used to pay costs. However, this cost may be less than the care of
children staying in the city, and asked people to take care better
than the other. In some research subjects, the parents and their
children moved to take care of children living in Bangkok.
"My daughters live in order to help them care for children, no
other reason, just look after their children. My daughter to go to
work... I and they live in Bangkok. Both sides have to work all day.
So the children of the post is a trouble for them. "
Finally, two respondents said they need to pay attention to immigrant
children to take care of their property or livestock, when the
children leave. The two survey involving short-term rather than
permanent migration.
Predict migration of adult children's social and economic impact of
this situation and remain in rural areas and the parents of the need
to establish a large number of data in the basis of need for social
analysts subjective evaluation. As mentioned above, even if there is
open-ended interviews, parents of the narrative, there may not be
complete or contains inaccurate information. Our investigation of
several cases, especially those related to family relations strained,
because of the psychological self-defense, respondents seemed to not
completely let go, they seem to balance the parent immigrant status
and the impact on them. We believe that information obtained in
interviews at least enough to note that all cases of material behavior
is reasonable. Evaluation of social support in a way that is a
difficult task, especially when the concept of vague and difficult to
measure social performance when done. However, our interviews provide
at least some things about this situation that data.
The impact of economic welfare
The survey found that most live in rural areas for older parents,
their children moved to the city to improve the material conditions
for active role play. We feel the study linked 26 cases, until the
time of our study, only three cases because the children moved through
the reduction in wealth, there are 7 cases only a little reduction in
wealth. In the remaining 16 cases were moved to the city because their
children are on the increase of wealth, there are also enormous.
In the interview, the case of the negative impact of only the surface
is particularly the case on a destination choice, as said above, you
may have no intention to expand the opportunity to experience this
phenomenon. Importantly, in three cases, each lost in the economy have
their own characteristics. There is a parent for his son took on a big
loan, and the son went to Taiwan to work to earn money but lost
contact, so the negative impact is not caused by urban migration. In
this case, the daughter of the children moved from the care of the
parents, and also to provide the necessary support. In the second
case, a mother and her husband separated from their children's
education into a lot of energy and money, but then she did not deserve
benefits. Without help, the more important from the conflict within
the family rather than moving or immigrants. In the third case, the
two daughter has been moved to the generous assistance of his father
not only has the debt, but there are other live in the new cost of
living. Obviously, in three cases when the children leave, not because
the family moved to reduce the property.
Another case, in all cases, at least four pairs of parents because
their children moved to the city to benefit. This case has two couples
may benefit most of all, they leave their children early in life is
very simple. Children working in the field well and they have exactly
the wishes of filial piety to their parents become very superior
material conditions, while parents expressed satisfaction with the
social care. This is a life of older people in rural areas as in
cities and urban elderly live in rural areas as good contrast.
In the remaining cases, more than half of the show parents in their
children moved to get the economic benefits, even if some are very
small. The case shows that very few parents have not been affected.
Both now and in most cases children are left very poor, no one moved
the children to learn through the primary level, so they can not live
a very good job for wages, can only engage in manual labor or factory
workers. Therefore, the land that only a few other skills or poor
parents had no savings, can not be moved to bring the children return
exactly, but this does not belittle their low level of economic
Economic impact is reflected in the parents who did, in fact there are
7 cases, there are children for parents to buy a new house, there for
the parents to improve their living conditions. 2 cases, children also
for parents to buy the land. In addition, most of the children for
their parents acquired the furniture or other valuable items. There
are several children in the government, the military work for parents
to develop a personal insurance plan. In addition to reference
material to help, but in some cases, parents are still preaching the
children also moved to support the education of brothers and sisters.
At least three cases, the children moved to the city for the younger
siblings to school to cover tuition fees or provide other assistance.
Some parents pointed out that because the children moved, they can not
in the fields, workers can only rent or lease land to others planted.
Sando this research with academics in Taiwan is very similar to the
rural areas. However, in most cases, this is not the most important
issue. For example, there are two cases, the children moved to provide
a lease rental of labor, the other, most parents do not have much of
the land farming. This difficulty should not be attributed to
migration, which in most cases, children are not very far away from
their parents not to use them to work. Therefore, even if children are
not moved, the situation would not have any change.
????When we asked parents to their children that all, or there are
several advantages and disadvantages of migration, many blunt Road,
their children get the material benefits of that. There are some
people that moved to the advantage of children in care while their
parents can feed themselves and for their children to help. It is like
complaining that a father and son came back from Bangkok, has become a
family to support his negative, he hoped that his son went out looking
for work in this. This is understandable, said parents often only a
few children in the home the opportunity to support themselves,
especially for parents only a few of the land and resources.
I think he has a clean desktop work he was well. Here, he is not
nothing the same money. There, he can make money every day, you can
work overtime, put together up to 10,000 baht. This is good for him
and the parents, the son would not have their wages to us to take it.
[Married father, Central 1, 215/98]
I want them out, they should be responsible for the family. If they
live here, what can we provide? Only 20 bags of rice is not enough.
More difficult to earn a living with the money, we can not earn enough
money to support family members. Farming income is only 100 baht a
day, there is no other way to make money. . [Married father, Northeast
1, 514/118]
This point, there is a very important point is that parents are very
concerned about the welfare of their children, they sure moved to the
city offers better opportunities to life. Therefore, knowing their
children in the city to find a job for parents is a major
psychological comfort, which as with the economic impact.
Of spiritual well-being
Spiritual well being then there was no material performance in the
social support study, we continue to contact and access as the focus
of study. In one interview, the parents said they have a psychological
conflict, on the one hand want their children to be away from his
closer, on the other hand they want their children to work out a good
life, there are better opportunities than the local .


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