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Confucianism and Confucian filial piety on the reflection

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					Confucian culture and Confucianism "filial piety" in Modern
Analysis: Zhiwu (Finance Yale School of Management Professor of
Economics, Visiting Professor Cheung Kong Graduate School)
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In recent years, Confucianism has again become a hot topic, these
discussions are not only limited to cultural circles, but directly
related to the primary and secondary schools as well as how much time
students spend reading each week, how much time to learn the modern
knowledge. In addition, the requirements established Confucianism as
the state religion of the voice is not small, so believe it or not
Confucianism is not a personal choice issue, or a whole society and
the country's fundamental problems. Indeed, some Neo-Confucian
scholars claim to be "Assimilating Foreign" and
"integration with the Chinese civilization in the world",
the state has allocated hundreds of millions setting up Confucius
schools in foreign countries to specific actions to promote Confucian
culture in the world. China is so big, bigger world, to do some of
these things, but also not a bad idea. However, the effectiveness of
how it may be another matter.
So in the end is what culture? Why Confucian culture will be in China?
Are there other things in addition to Confucianism more
"good" order in place? Western civilization is really only
material, but the East is a more noble civilization, spiritual
civilization it? The "five. Fourth New Cultural Movement"
has brought freedom, democracy, rule of thought, a big step for China
approached the World. However, it is now found in the year struck
down, "Confucianism" after the reconstruction of today seem
to have to "Confucianism", how is this going? What we lack
only to individual rights, individual freedom is difficult to take
root?
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Culture is clearly not static, for example, today's Chinese culture
with Han Han Chinese culture, Chinese culture of the Tang Dynasty,
Song Zhaoming towards the Chinese culture, Chinese culture and even
the Republic of China is different, the dynamic changes of other
ethnic culture is also largely so. If the culture is changing, then
what is the promotion of transitions? Why are some enduring cultural
content that things have changed while others disappear? Here, we
tried to finance, economics perspective to answer these questions, as
far as possible away from the cultural perspective to understand the
culture. We find that cultural content must be a need for health, also
died because of a need. In other words, once the culture of a certain
function to the other more popular things to replace, then the meaning
of that culture of life will end. We will see, with the economic and
financial technology, society needs the cultural connotation also
changes. Therefore, the simple sense of retro culture is not only
wishful thinking, and meaningless.
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Why is this not the culture like?
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Culture and of course a lot of content is broad, our concern is not as
"Sichuan", "Hunan," such a non-institutional
culture, but cultural norms and behavior of the system affect people
make value judgments and Life culture. In addition, we should note
that the paper aside and the Confucian "five virtues" in the
"five permanent members" and life skills, because, like
"jen, righteousness, propriety, wisdom and trust" these
moral standards are universal values of world culture is not unique to
Confucian culture, otherwise we would not have followed the Chinese
people going abroad to interact with others in any basis. The content
is today in China and should be taught in any society.
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Reflection of this article focused on the Confucian "five
virtues" in the "three bonds" and related "five
relationships" social order. Family culture is the core of
various cultures is the core of Confucian culture differences with the
other embodiment. We take a look at their differences.
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Whether ancient or modern, any person from birth that is faced with
two basic needs, one is clothing, housing, consumption of these
substances, the so-called material life, "Food"; the other
is the psychological or that spiritual needs, the so-called spiritual
life. From the survival needs of view, the importance of material life
should be first, followed by spiritual. These two kinds of basic needs
is the cause of culture, but also cultural purposes.
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All animals have their culture, and education level of an animal cry
from the independent viability of the individual animal. In all
animals, people's self after birth, may be in the weakest of the
series, before the age of infants by a nurse, even after a year-old
can eat normal food, can walk in 12,13 or difficult before the age of
a person alone to make a living. In contrast, strong ability of self
horse, colt born in a day or two can stand to walk, it can quickly eat
their own. Nevertheless, after birth, the colt will follow the mother,
two months, the mare will give motherly love, protection colt,
inseparable, so even the horses have reflected a certain "family
values", "Family Culture . " I grew up in rural Hunan,
fear is also bringing a group of children, bitch, bitch for the
protection of the children shown by evil, really selfless person close
to her home territory as long as the scope will definitely come out to
bite you bitch! Therefore, the dog, "family values" is not
weak. "Home" as the basic unit of survival is a common
animal.
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Of course, since the viability of human than the weak horse, home is
the most basic conditions of race continue. Today, there are no
national, it must have the family's basic cultural connotation, it
will be impossible until today. Various cultures the family, this is
the basic bottom line of ethnic survival.
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In addition to today's material consumption and to meet the spiritual
needs, the A man is more important challenge is to worry about the
future life, including future revenues necessary to material life, the
uncertainty, the uncertainty of physical health, but also future
spiritual life, mental state of uncertainty. Uncertainty of risk
events can be natural disasters, for example, according to Mr. Deng
Yunte in 1937, "History of the Chinese famine," a book of
statistics [2], the 16th century there were over 504 in China since
the flooding, drought, locusts, hail , hurricane, epidemic, earthquake
and snow, an average of more than 5 times per year; 17th century, a
total of 507 times for different kinds of disaster, a total of 411
times the 18th century, 19th century, 407 times, in the 20th century,
101 times the first 35 years of great disaster. The recorded history
of not including a small disaster, not including the frequent wars and
large and small peasant uprisings, turmoil and chaos of war during the
individual's material and spiritual, of course will be challenged.
These are all people want to avoid the systemic risk.
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At the individual level, illness, traffic or work accidents, house
fires and other accidents may lead to property income, mental state on
the loss, there Quxi, married women, to build a house, pension and
other large items of expenditure of these are personal life To predict
the risk of poor response or a large expenditure event. In addition,
venture, production investment, it will also face the uncertainty of
large and small, may lose everything, it is possible a bad harvest.
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The result of natural, social and personal inevitably bring their own
people and fear the risk of events, which to avoid forcing people to
seek the spirit of the future risks and the risks of material means,
or else a family, a nation the probability to survive much smaller
than 100% of the community nor peace. Generally speaking, there are
two ways to avoid future human risk, one is through the development,
"development is the last word", through increased
productivity and supply of material to increase the overall standard
of living of human beings, of course, to enhance their events through
the Risk capacity. Materials supply balance, even if natural disasters
or production failures occur temporarily, will not have to give a
deadly crisis. "Hard" contributions to technological
innovation that is here.
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The second is through economic exchange between individuals, spiritual
exchange to mutual insurance, mutual aid and resource sharing effect,
thereby enhance the ability of society to hedge, so that individuals
can better overcome the economic tension, mental depression period.
Any society, the personal income between the different risk
characteristics and capabilities will enable them to achieve through
the exchange of mutual insurance, mutual effects of the allocation of
resources. Also true in the spiritual life, different people will
appear at different times, emotions, feelings of interpersonal
exchange between the foundation provided.
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The question is, how to exchange? In the economic benefits, financial
products is to let different people (buyer and seller) to achieve at
different time and material exchange between the different states (of
course, have to achieve in the future may be in different time and
different states of emotional exchange between the securities). For
example, the loan contract is for the lender to lend money to other
uses today, but when the borrower due to debt service, the effect is
credited to income transfers to the future of today's flower, the
borrower put the transfer of future income to spend today. Others,
such as life annuities, health insurance, life insurance, pension
funds, stocks, bonds and other financial products, although different
arrangements for the payment of the contract, but the truth is
realized at different times to different people, exchange of interests
among different states. The problem is that these financial services
development until recent times. Then, in the ancient and traditional
societies, like this feeling of financial insurance transactions and
spirit of the way transactions rely on it? This is a transaction or
contract implementation risk, if we all worried about the other party
will estoppal fulfill its exchange obligations, then the mutual
insurance mutual transactions will not occur. History of different
periods and different cultural and social system of the launch of the
fundamental is to ensure that these transactions can be conducted
smoothly.
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In primitive society, because productivity is low, relying on hunting,
picking berries to make a living, its too risky harvest, hunting days
may be nothing more than straight, no food supply, must be the daily
challenge of survival top priority. If that during the production and
life are an individual or family as a unit, then the people will be
very low viability of the human may soon become extinct. Therefore,
the primitive tribe became avoid production risks, avoid disasters and
provide the original spirit of the consumer's basic organization.
Although the tribal public submerged personal space, and no separate
home, but at the time the production capacity constraints, the
primitive tribe might be the best body for Mutual Economic Assistance
and Social Community. At that time no formal financial contract
transactions, but the tribe to share everything, in fact, primitive
society based on the exchange of interest implicit insurance
arrangements.
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To the agricultural community can be farmed poultry, repeated in a
fixed place to grow food, these two types of technological innovations
greatly increased the production of human productivity, material
supply greatly increased, reducing the frequency of hunger. In this
case, changes have taken place in human culture, people do not need to
continue tribal economic self-help groups such public. After all, in
order to support the public sector to achieve the effect of future
risk-sharing, each person need to sacrifice too much personal space
and personal freedom. As long as the productivity breakthrough, the
viability of the individual substantial increase, one must search for
new, expanded personal space of economic organizations and social
organizations, a new culture will emerge. This is Emataya. Sen said
that "development is the individual more freedom," which is
human nature to.
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In the agricultural society, not outside of the establishment of the
rule of law, and stranger still too high transaction costs, trade in
particular, finance, insurance, loans, securities are developed, there
is no market for mutual insurance mutual transactions. So, out of
village after public also need to find a new guarantee of economic
transactions, the spirit of transactions are smooth arrangements. At
this time, the family, clan became the major economic mutual physical
and social community, family and kinship as to ensure mutual
insurance, mutual transactions to smooth the natural basis, the family
like an informal internal financial markets. Family as the basic unit
of course there is no full liberation of the individual, does not mean
that individuals complete freedom, but "home" may be that
the era of the individual to avoid the risk of future physical, mental
risks of the most reliable arrangement.
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In any society, the family has two main functions, one for Mutual
Economic Assistance, a spirit of social function that mutual. Two
aspects of its economic function, first, within the family there are
all sorts of hidden financial contractual relationship, parents who
have invested in future generations, so that future generations have
hidden "return" of responsibility; brothers and sisters then
you owe me, I owed him so; this house due to the same family to
another family, so there are many not tell each other, but also lots
to talk about hidden debts, insurance. Second, because of blood ties,
"home" can greatly reduce the exchange of interests among
members of the implementation of the risk, reduce transaction costs.
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To support the "home" for Mutual Economic Assistance and the
spirit of mutual aid functions, society must have a matching family,
clan culture, to help achieve these complex financial contracts
hidden. This is the Confucian and other traditional agricultural
society from culture to achieve the objective, is 2,500 years of
Confucian culture in general
Confucian culture, today and yesterday
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That is, in the absence of markets for various types of insurance,
loans, stocks, investment funds, pension funds, financial services
under the premise of married parenthood, preferably sons, it becomes
material to avoid future risks and mental risk of specific means,
namely the so-called "old age son." Sons and daughters both
parents investment in the future, is to buy insurance for the future,
children are of a personal financial services. Parents Xu Aizi, maybe
not love, this is not the most important key is to their children grow
up to be "filial piety", which is to ensure the parents
return on investment has been the key. "Foster child old
age" is the concept of insurance and investment, and "filial
piety" is the children perform stealth "contract"
concept. The "filial piety" and "obligations" as
the core of Confucian culture of Confucius and Mencius in order to
reduce the uncertainty of invisible trade interests, designed to
increase the safety of transactions. As Mr. Xie Youwei of "filial
piety and Chinese culture," one wrote, "Chinese culture in a
sense, can be described as 'the culture of filial piety'. Filial piety
in Chinese culture and the role of the large, high status, on the
expense of filial piety in Chinese culture that non-China culture
really know. "
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Thus, by the "three bonds", "Five Relations" to
establish and extend the home out of order, social order, very
critical, and Chen must obey the ruler, the child must be subordinate
to the Father, the women must be subordinate to their husbands and
brothers to be subject to Brother . The relationship is unconditional
obedience, and regardless of rational or irrational. According to
Liang Shuming's argument [3], "is the society of people all in
their relations with each other birthright scheduled its position
should be specified for each other feeling and meaning to them always
by definition. ... Ethical relationship means that a kind of
obligations, a person may not exist for themselves, but there are
other people who like each other. " The core of Confucian culture
is based on seniority as well as natural men and women who will be
incorporated into a rating for each organization, and then, according
to birth sites to his class with the same responsibilities and
obligations of life; whether adult before or after, or even children,
all 67-year-old brother, and every person in this level of order in
the same position as always the elderly who only listen when they
speak of young sub, only low-level one or several other, never self.
Children born from the beginning, through the "Three Character
Classic" and other classics of their embedded
"Confucianism", labeled as "three bonds" burden,
let them at any time be satisfied with the wishes of the elderly were
guilty shame. The "Confucian" only one purpose: to ensure
that parents, brothers and other elders of investment returns.
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People can not choose before the birth family and birth order, so as
to inter-generational naming points of interest achieved by trading
liability involuntary transactions. The mandatory transaction contrary
to the rights of individuals.
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Individual rights but not to define the hierarchical structure of
birthright, did let the Chinese community in 2500 in essentially the
same (except for regime change), but this culture has emasculated the
Chinese personality, castration of our creativity. Emasculation of the
personality structure may be stable, the price is a long time between
the food and clothing and hunger. Take the example of its students in
these years, our students and graduates who work in America, although
the high professional level, but with Americans, Indians, Europeans,
Chinese Confucian culture that often lacks personality, habits to
listen, but do not fight for their rights and interests.
"Obedience", "obedient" the habit of course, we
are only suitable for working.
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National essence school like that Western civilization is material,
and Chinese civilization is a higher realm of spiritual civilization,
which is based in the West seems to modern industrial technology,
material wealth, while China has only enough food and clothing in
recent years. - This logic is questionable for the simple reason, the
West than the East developed material production does not necessarily
mean that their spiritual civilization on the behind, while the East
lagged behind the physical production does not necessarily mean that
our spiritual civilization on the advanced. Will the material and
spiritual civilization in the East are far behind?
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We can look at this issue from three aspects. First, the spiritual
life of the rich spiritual food supply, the premise is rich in
academic and literary art is its main source. Around two thousand
years of Chinese Confucianism and the academic, France, Mexico, Taoism
playing circle, Buddhism gradually entered China in the Han Dynasty,
the Tang and Song dynasties had driven the literature, poetry and
other fields of development, there have been the development of
Neo-Confucianism, but generally do not leave on the earlier
interpretation of the classic and re-interpretation, and the basic
philosophy and literature scholar limited to the small society, the
vast majority of the spiritual life of the community to illiteracy
limited impact. Neo-Confucianism as the representative of the famous
Chang 30 years in the 20th century's comments: "The two thousand
years after Qin Ran, its system of government as monarchy, form most
of the people subservient. Children from the large family of shelter,
and dependent parents, long into the habits. academically well
received by the binding of the bitter words, but also marked 'good
enough''tacit knowledge' of purpose, so the lack of logic of the
training, while highly developed intellect. This is my family Shoubing
Department. "(Zhang Junmai:" Tomorrow, the Chinese culture
"on page 84, Shandong People's Publishing House, 1998 edition).
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China did not like the West as a system of religious organizations,
regulate everyday behavior of Confucianism is not strictly religious.
In this lack of formal rational and irrational view of life in
society, the public only from the spiritual world "spirit,"
superstition to dominate, do not see where this spiritual high.
Contrary Han Buddhism into China, the Ming Dynasty to enter the
Catholic Church and other Christian resources to expand our spirit.
Take a step back, the "middle way" is not only the material
on the stifling of innovation, but also the spiritual resources to
inspire people not to have "impressive" breakthrough
innovation.
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Second, perhaps there is no reason for religious or academic support
of the spiritual is not important, more important is that we focus on
the spirit of the pursuit of life, rather than over-the pursuit of
material life. Chinese ideal of spiritual life may not be religious,
but the family warmth and affection. However, the friendship between
the is a very personal thing, everyone has different preferences and
different personality, even with parents, brothers and sisters, the
same personality and preferences is difficult, they only know each
other brothers and sisters and "should "a family
relationship, not necessarily connected depths of the soul is not
necessarily there for the" voluntary "the friendship. Family
members because of birthright and the corresponding responsibilities
and rely on one another, with contacts, but this does not mean that
their relations can be higher than the original emotion and
communication state of mind, like an arranged marriage between husband
and wife have the responsibility to know each other, is husband and
wife, but they may not be between the "love" experience.
Unimaginable in the human personality and free space have been
repressed society, emotional and mental world can be fixed at random
to fly beyond the simple feelings.
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Third, the core of Chinese culture focus is to maintain
"home" of the economic function, neglect their social and
emotional function, it must inhibit the spiritual connotations of
Chinese culture. In one sense, with no adequate food and clothing
solve the agricultural society, "home" should certainly be
the first function is to achieve the economic interests of family
members to exchange, so the Confucian culture, "filial
piety", "obedience," " obedient "ranked
first, which is understandable. However, the problem is here, once the
economic interests of the exchange of a "family" the most
important function, it is easy to see interests first, after a family,
or just see the economic benefits. Economic interests caught in the
"Home", you did not know that relatives of the Hello is a
nice, or out of interest. In real life, I see more hometown in Hunan,
because the interests of the blows of the Confucian family, and not
prominent family, highlighting the relationship between emotional
sentimental Confucian world. That the Confucian ideal of the world has
not been achieved in China, too, from the internal logic may also be
difficult to achieve. After all, the Confucian culture inhibited the
development of case material, traditional Chinese food and clothing
has not completely out of the challenge; in that situation, the
emotional world of the spirit that can reach the peak of civilization,
it can only be wishful thinking.
Background.
Traditional knowledge of the Chinese society of too many stay on in
the classic study, like the classic study is to understand the real
China. Obviously, "classics" talk is "should be",
but "Practice" may be another matter, as if we can not say
the Christian "Bible" in the world is the same as in Western
society. Books of Confucianism in the social course of tender
feelings, poetic. The real traditional Chinese society, though not
"made profits", but the actual link "home" in the
interests also take the lead. From an economic perspective, the
Confucian "rigid" and "filial piety" may instead
force the family to the main exchange of interests.
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We can see from today's China to see this. In fact China today
contains many different sub-cultural society. Last year, Du Junlin
students to help the author, Beijing, Dandong, Xushui and three Henan
Village - 9 Citylink, Niuzhuang, Songzhuang conducted a survey, random
sample of around 300 people, where the income level and level of
economic development course the highest in Beijing, Dandong City, the
second, third Xushui County, nine Citylink, Niuzhuang, Songzhuang
minimum.
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Many family contacts, social contacts show the meaning of economic
transactions. For example, in modern society, gift giving is often
symbolic, "ulterior motives", "gift" it is a
purpose. In traditional society, gift giving is a very serious thing,
but also big, because the "reciprocity" is not just for
"love" is a borrowing more exchange of interests. Villagers
experienced marriage, moved into new homes and other events, the city
a large banquet, and then accepting gifts, the equivalent of big
spending to help alleviate the difficulties caused to the owner; Since
then, the other side has a similar event, the longer the number of
gifts sent to the corresponding .
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Six places on the sample survey, the Beijing people exchanges between
the borrowing and gifts at least, Dandong and Xu water second, and
rural loans and gifts among the largest exchanges. Therefore, the
former is not the traditional society, but the latter still is.
Especially in rural areas, primarily in loans and gifts among
relatives and relatives outside the few. This shows that in rural
areas, among relatives heavy economic interests, family, family is
still central for Mutual Economic Assistance.
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When asked "Why are you baby?", The Beijing only 12% said
"son old age", while the average of three villages, 69% said
"son old age", Dandong and Xu water in these two extremes
between.
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When asked "Are you not because of love for children and
children?", The Beijing, 55% said "yes", while the
three villages on average only 16% said "yes", Dandong and
Xu water still between both ends.
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Through quantitative analysis found that the total sample, the higher
the income the same time bought a variety of urban finance and
insurance were more likely to say "having children out of
feelings", rather than old age and other economic purposes.
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This shows that, like Beijing, developed cities like Shanghai, with
the revenue to meet the needs of species at the same time use of
insurance, investment funds, to couples arrange future economic risks,
they more of "home" as emotional communication, to meet the
spiritual needs of the social unit, originally from the
"home" qualified economic function gradually borne by the
financial markets, "Filial Piety" responsibility gradually
from "love" to replace the economic and financial
development are changing the social culture. In contrast, in rural
areas, family relations, economic transactions still at the head,
"foster child" continues to be the principal means to avoid
future risks, while the "home" on the weak emotional
function, where Confucian ethics need to maintain hidden economic
transactions, Thus, there is more to retain the Confucian values.
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So, China's future cultural development will be what is it? Towards as
Beijing, Shanghai and other developed community cultural development,
or to restore the Confucian tradition, back to traditional rural value
system do? Society and culture is difficult to design the individual,
but by the community to decide.
Financial Development of Western Culture
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To help understand the future direction of Chinese culture, we can see
how the economic and financial development is the promotion of
individual rights, individual freedom in Western culture status. Today
in Beijing, Shanghai and cultural differences with the rural areas of
Western culture is actually the difference today with the mapping of
the past. West is not always on the individual as the center of
economic and financial development to their family and the church
gradually from the economic dependence of liberation.
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Of course, today's personal financial securities species have been
confused by their different functional purpose. For ease of
discussion, we will to life annuity (life annuity), for example, this
should be the future of the individual to avoid the risk of one of the
most important financial services. Think of the future, are most
uncertain is how much in the end will live is to live to 120 or 70
years of age? If you live according to the age of 70 today to save
money, and if living to 120 years old, that the remaining 50 years of
income come from? According to live 120 years to save money, and if
live live 70 years old, it is not save too much? - Life very easy for
the uncertainty of their offspring in old age become a burden, but
also the loss of their independence of. Life annuity is to solve this
problem occurs, as long as the buyer to prove their good health today,
then he may purchase life annuity installments or a one-time, buy,
investors may be 50 years old (the age can be started from the other)
to get prior agreement a year before his death the income, such as
40,000 yuan, this revenue can continue to the buyer or the death of
both husband and wife until the death. With this financial
arrangement, the parents do not have to rely on financial support to
future generations through old age, do not worry they will not live
too long, economic independence is clearly the basis of personal
freedom.
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Democracy, freedom, thought and practice of the rule of law as early
as in ancient Greece, ancient Rome appeared, this is familiar history,
but not necessarily familiar with the past is, life annuities and
other insurance and loans are also varieties of ancient Greece 2,000
years ago , Rome emerged and developed. In accordance with the CF
Trenerry in "The Origin and Early History of Insurance" book
research [4], AD 150 years, "Rome Civil Code," there on the
Life Annuity, Life Insurance Terms of the deal as early as 225 AD a
man named Ulpian Romans series out of life annuities, life insurance
pricing table, that is the origin of actuarial mathematics. Therefore,
the ancient Greeks, Romans can use these financial instruments to
achieve individual freedom. Another class of mutual insurance for
individuals, mutual trade is the rise of religion in ancient Rome, and
other non-governmental Cooperation, the Cooperation through the
contributions of many members of the set together and then to the
members of accidents encountered financial support .
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But, interestingly, as the Roman Empire in AD 476 ended, Europe
entered the so-called "dark ages" of democracy, freedom and
rule of law, then replaced by the tyranny of religion, life annuities
and other financial market disappears, the individual economic risks,
pension and other re-qualified by the traditional family to. For
example, from the 8th century to the 10th century, Germany, Belgium
clan highly developed, land is vested in the clan, family members of
production and individual members dedicated to circumvent the economic
risk, the effect of this one is for "family" of some
economic transaction capabilities to bear by the clan. However, to
support the clan structure and return "home" function for
Mutual Economic Assistance, the patriarchal and "home"
culture has become more "rigid" loss of freedom and rights
of individuals, loss of individuality.
?
Statement in accordance with Aaron Gurevich [5], is so 12th century
Europeans to a lack of personality, if you see a group of people
painting of that period, you will find that the above figures from the
face to clothing, to their manners are completely identical, do not
see any difference, no personality, reflected in the spiritual world
of shallow imagine.
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Century from 12,13, Venice, Florence and other Italian city-states of
the commercial rapid development, which not only makes their per
capita income growth, food and clothing to people out of the
challenge, but in the late 13th century, life annuities, life
insurance, dowry fund and other financial species again in Venice and
other places, until the 14-15 century Italian Renaissance, the rights
of individuals to reproduce the sense of time, Western Europe has been
considerable development of financial, freedom and rights for
individuals to achieve the financial means to provide initial support.
?
Various types of insurance, loans, bonds, investment products,
particularly in the 15,16 century have faster development and spread
to the Netherlands, France and later Britain. These increasingly
sophisticated financial instruments as the beginning of the 17th
century Enlightenment movement and further development of key economic
freedom of the individual foundation of modern democratic political
system is in Europe, such a background appears.
?
We see that if the Interest Transaction from the "family"
functions were removed from the financial market as a replacement
which course to reduce the exchange benefits to families because of
the tension but also requires a new social and political systems, a
kind of culture, for example, individual rights-based laws and checks
and balances system to ensure the rule of law regime, or, in the
family, clan financial transactions outside the market can hardly be
the safety of transactions, contracts, property benefits security. In
other words, if the main function of personal economic risk
transactions borne by the family, the family culture, then a
corresponding demand in China will have a Confucian culture; if the
main function of this economy by the market to bear, so the legal
system must have a social and political corresponding to the content,
in this context under the Western developed a free, democratic and
rule of law, at the same time, the West "home" Yuelai Yue
Cheng Wei a simple of spiritual life Xibao, brothers and sisters, the
elder and the younger among the Ganqingjiaoliu Wei basis.
?
Rights and freedoms of individuals and how financial and securities in
the West developed an interactive history of lack of space between the
text and then the other devoted.
?
When the financial markets to replace the "home" mutual
insurance features, so similar to the traditional Confucian culture,
the need for such a reduction, people's "quality of life" is
rather wrong with that? Does Fandao people into zombies, of dream die?
Neo-Confucian scholars, like most critical, of course, the United
States, used to bring the United States to explain why Western culture
must be hopelessly to save them from the Chinese culture. United
States, insurance, banking, securities industry is the most advanced,
all kinds of financial products to most of the Americans can imagine
the risk of future income, living arrangements in advance. In addition
to medical, life, property, automotive, unemployment, disability
insurance, and other traditional breeds, housing, cars and other
varieties of personal loans, pension funds, investment funds,
securities, the U.S. financial and insurance are always kept informed
of emerging personal life or old-age needs, according to new needs and
then introduce new financial products aimed at individuals do not,
through accident and loved ones dragged down economically.
?
For example, the 1990s, the new "long-term care insurance"
(long-term care insurance), its background, with the increase in life
expectancy after retirement many people can live 30 years or more,
over the age 70,80 may not ill, but life may be more difficult
operation, need someone around care, the cost of this care is
generally not covered by medical insurance. At this time, a child may
be asked to give up work, to abandon his home, moved back home to take
care of their parents, and if so, children should sacrifice their
career and life, and if each generation of people drop out their own
careers and families to care take care of elders, which means that
each generation can not realize their greatest potential career and
life would be a way for generations of social arrangements are not
happy. Four generations, if only an abstract realm, that can still be
better than real life.
?
Another possibility is provided by the insurance companies
"long-term care insurance," If Joe Smith started from the
middle pay 1,500 yuan every year premiums, after he retired, until the
death of old age before the can under the need to care center, or ask
people to home to care costs paid by insurance companies. Its
characteristics are: insurance transactions with insurance companies
in the parents, between parents and offspring and not in between. The
new insurance species are becoming more popular.
?
The recessive and dominant economic transactions almost entirely from
the family relations, family relations, out of, the parents can still
keep the retirement home of their own independent personality, without
domination by the future generations. For children, they do not have
to feel "filial piety" the responsibility of the pressure,
but they still may be out of love for parents voluntarily choose to
take care of their parents.
?
Yi Dan mandatory for financial responsibility no longer exists Yu
father and son, brothers, father, Mo Biyaozaiyi a dignified close to
the face Chuxian Buke in children before, no need to force the
children to listen Ziji's »° unconditionally and requested Fumujianghua
children Bu Neng O'clock Huanzui, while children may be from the
"Confucianism" liberate.
?

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Notes:
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posted:9/28/2010
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