Documentation Citing Referencing Your Research

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					Documentation: Citing &
Referencing Your Research

    An Overview of the
     MLA & APA Styles

                    UNIV1-1011
                   March 6, 2007
The MLA Style

   Modern Language Association
  style is most commonly used in
           the Humanities
                                   MLA style

What are the Humanities?
At Nipissing…
 Classical Studies      Philosophy
 English Studies        Religious Studies
 Film                   Russian
 Fine Arts              Spanish
 French                 Culture and the Arts
 Music
                                                        MLA style

      Common MLA bibliographical format
          Commonly called “Works Cited”
Note Hanging Indent (5 spaces)                  Italics or Underline

       Author LN, FN. Title of Work. City: Publisher,
          date.
                 Note punctuation – it’s important!

          Example
       Frazer, James George. The Golden Bough: A Study in
           Magic and Religion. New York: Macmillian, 1922.
                                                    MLA style

Some examples
   Two authors and new edition:
Strunk, William, Jr., and E. B. White. The Elements of Style. 3rd ed.
    New York: Macmillian, 1979.
   More than three authors:
Carter, Carol et al. Keys to Success: How to Achieve Your Goals.
    3rd Canadian ed. Toronto: Pearson, 2004.
   Government or Corporate author:
Ontario. Ontario Ministry of Education. Ontario Teacher Qualifying
   Test Registration Bulletin 2003/2004. Toronto: Queen’s Printer
   for Ontario, 2003.
                                                   MLA style

More examples
   Newspaper:
Naylor, Peter. “Veterans offer trip back in time.” The North Bay
    Nugget 11 Nov. 2004: A2.
   Unsigned article:
“School buses need restraints - coroner.” The North Bay Nugget 11
    Nov. 2004: A4.
   Magazine:
Johnston, Ann Dowsett. “How grads grade their schools.”
    Maclean’s 15 Nov. 2004: 26-34.
                                                      MLA style

    Even more…
   Journal
Hitchcock, Chuck and Skip Stahl. “Assistive technology, universal
    design, universal design for learning: improved learning
    opportunities.” Journal of Special Education Technology 18:4
    (Fall 2003): 45-52.
   Pamphlet
Northern Ontario Assessment and Resource Centre (NOARC) at
    Cambrian College. About Assessments…. Sudbury: Cambrian
    College, 2004.
   Interview:
Bajewsky, Ingrid. Personal Interview, 11 Nov. 2004.
                                                        MLA style

    Online content…
   Personal site
Chase, Ted. Ted Chase’s Homepage. 30 Aug. 2004. 11 Nov. 2004
   <http://www.nipissingu.ca/faculty/tedc/>.
   Professional site
Ministry of Education and Ministry of Training, Colleges and Universities
    Home. 10 Nov. 2004. The Queen’s Printer for Ontario. 11 Nov.
    2004 <http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/welcome.html>.
   Electronic journal (from a full-text data base)
Vukovic, Rose K., Alexander M. Wilson and Kevin K. Nash. “Naming
   Speed Deficits in Adults with Reading Disabilities: A Test of the
   Double-Deficit Hypothesis." Journal of Learning Disabilities 37:5
   440-451 (2004). EBSCO Host 12 Nov. 2004
   <http://web15.epnet.com>.
                                                        MLA style

   Your “Works Cited” Page
Carter, Carol et al. Keys to Success: How to Achieve Your Goals. 3rd
     Canadian ed. Toronto: Pearson, 2004.

Chase, Ted. Ted Chase’s Homepage. 30 Aug. 2004. 11 Nov. 2004
     <http://www.nipissingu.ca/faculty/tedc/>.

Johnston, Ann Dowsett. “How grads grade their schools.” Maclean’s
     15 Nov. 2004: 26-34.

Strunk, William, Jr., and E. B. White. The Elements of Style. 3rd ed.
     New York: Macmillian, 1979.
                                       MLA style

Citing references in your work
   Simple citation

    In a recent poll Nipissing University was
    ranked first in Student Services, fourth in
    Teaching and Instruction and fifth in The
    Learning Environment (Johnston 29-30).
                                        MLA style

    More citing…
   Johnson goes on to state that in terms of
    Student Services that “the Primarily
    Undergraduate universities topped the charts”
    (33).

   The Maclean’s survey is an annual
    review/ranking of universities across the
    country. (Why did I not cite this?)
The APA Style

 American Psychological Association
 style is most commonly used in the
            Social Sciences
                                                          APA style

        What are the Social Sciences?
        At Nipissing… **
           Anthropology                      Law & Justice
           Child & Family Studies            Native Studies
           Economics                         Political Science
           Gender Equality &                 Psychology
            Social Justice                    Social Welfare
           Geography                         Sociology
           History
** Although these disciplines may be considered social sciences, some may
use other documentation styles such as Chicago. Always check with your
faculty to determine which documentation style you should use.
                                                          APA style

        Common APA bibliographical format
            Commonly called “References”
 Author’s last name & initial(s)           Title in italics or underline


        Author LN, I. (date). Title of Work. City:
           Publisher.
Note hanging indent (5 spaces)     Date now comes after author

            Example
        Frazer, J. G. (1922). The Golden Bough: A Study in
            Magic and Religion. New York: Macmillian.
                                                     APA style

Some examples…
   Two authors and new edition:
Strunk, W. Jr., & White, E. B. (1979). The Elements of Style. 3rd
    ed. New York: Macmillian.
   More than three authors:
Carter, C., Bishop, J., Kravits, S. L., & Maurin, P. J. (2004). Keys to
    Success: How to Achieve Your Goals. 3rd Canadian ed. Toronto:
    Pearson.
   Government or Corporate author:
Ontario. Ontario Ministry of Education. (2003). Ontario Teacher
   Qualifying Test Registration Bulletin 2003/2004. Toronto:
   Queen’s Printer for Ontario.
                                                   APA style

More examples…
   Newspaper:
Naylor, P. (2004, November 11). Veterans offer trip back in time.
    The North Bay Nugget, p. A2.
   Unsigned article:
(2004, November 11). School buses need restraints - coroner. The
    North Bay Nugget, p. A4.
   Magazine:
Johnston, A. D. (2004, November 15). How grads grade their
    schools. Maclean’s 117 (46), 26-34.
                                                    APA style

    Even more…
   Journal
Hitchcock, C. & Stahl, S. (2003). Assistive technology, universal
    design, universal design for learning: improved learning
    opportunities. Journal of Special Education Technology, 18 (4),
    45-52.
   Pamphlet
Northern Ontario Assessment and Resource Centre (NOARC) at
    Cambrian College. (2004) About Assessments…. Sudbury:
    Cambrian College.
   Interview:
Bajewsky, Ingrid. (November 11, 2004). Personal Interview.
                                                         APA style

    Online content…
   Personal site
Chase, Ted. (2004, August 30). Ted Chase’s Homepage. Retrieved
   November 11, 2004, from http://www.nipissingu.ca/faculty/tedc/
   Professional site
Ministry of Education and Ministry of Training, Colleges and Universities
    Home. (2004, November 10). Retrieved November 11, from
    http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/welcome.htm
   Electronic journal (from a full-text data base)
Vukovic, R. K., Wilson, A. M., & Nash, K. K. (2004). Naming Speed
   Deficits in Adults with Reading Disabilities: A Test of the Double-
   Deficit Hypothesis. Journal of Learning Disabilities 37 (5), 440-451.
   Retrieved November 12, 2004 from EBSCO Host database.
                                                         APA style

    Your “References” Page

Bajewsky, Ingrid. (November 11, 2004). Personal Interview.
Hitchcock, C. & Stahl, S. (2003). Assistive technology, universal design,
     universal design for learning: improved learning opportunities.
     Journal of Special Education Technology, 18 (4), 45-52.
Naylor, P. (2004, November 11). Veterans offer trip back in time. The
     North Bay Nugget, p. A2.
Strunk, W. Jr., & White, E. B. (1979). The Elements of Style. 3rd ed.
     New York: Macmillian.
                                       APA style

Citing references in your work
   Simple citation

    In a recent poll Nipissing University was
    ranked first in Student Services, fourth in
    Teaching and Instruction and fifth in The
    Learning Environment (Johnston, 2004).
                                       APA style

More citing…
   Johnson goes on to state that in terms of
    Student Services that “the Primarily
    Undergraduate universities topped the charts”
    (2004).

   The Maclean’s survey is an annual
    review/ranking of universities across the
    country. (Why did I not cite this?)
     Resources           (see web site for more)


   Writer's Handbook (University pf Wisconsin) - Research
    papers, Reviews, Proposals & more
    http://www.wisc.edu/writing/Handbook/
   OWL (Online Writing Lab, Purdue University)
    http://owl.english.purdue.edu/handouts/research/
   Concordia University Style Guide Links
    http://library.concordia.ca/help/howto/citations.html
   Sample Papers
    http://www.bedfordstmartins.com/hacker/papers.htm