Distributed Generation From Biogas in California by wgv13363

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									Distributed Generation From
    Biogas in California


   Interconnecting Distributed Generation
                 Conference


   George Simons and Dr. Jessica Zhang
     California Energy Commission
             March 21, 2001
            What is “Biogas”

                          Biogas is the mixture of methane,
                          carbon dioxide and other minor
                          gases formed from the
                          decomposition of organic
From                      materials
landfills
                                                   From
                                                   livestock
                                                   operations

             From
             wastewater
             treatment
             plants
       Why Care About Biogas?
 Health and Safety Issues
   Explosion and fire hazards
   Increased exposure to vectors (fungal & bacterial)
   Odors
 Environmental Impacts
    Global climate change (CH4, CO2)
    Emissions from disposal practices (NOx, SOx, etc)
 Loss of Energy Resources
    Electricity and heat
    Possible vehicle fuels
Existing Biogas Electricity in CA
 Total: ~ 300 MW of biogas facilities
 Landfill gas to electricity (LFGTE)
    58 facilities: ~260 MW
    220 kW - 40 MW in capacity: most less than 5 MW
 Wastewater treatment plant to electricity (WTPE)
   23 facilities: ~ 40 MW
   50 kW - 15 MW in capacity: most less than 1 MW
 Livestock digester gas to electricity (LDGTE)
    5 facilities: < 400 kW
    all less than 200 kW
    New Biogas Facilities in CA
 In Construction or Planning ~ 52 MW
    Landfill Gas Projects: 50 MW
    Digester Gas Projects: 2 MW
 Landfill Gas Projects
    21: Most located in Southern California
    Sizes: 250 kW - 5 MW
 Digester Gas Projects
   1: San Francisco @ 2 MW
     Potential Future CA Biogas
             Electricity
 Landfill (LFGTE) potential
    Based on waste in place plus waste going to landfills
    Total potential is ~ 230 MW
 Wastewater (WTPE) potential
   Based on amount of treated wastewater
   Total potential is ~ 40 MW
 Livestock digester gas potential
    Based on amount of livestock waste
    Total potential is ~ 100 MW
 Overall: 370 MW of CA biogas electricity
Existing LFGTE in CA

            Existing LFGTE systems in
                     California
            58 sites: 257 MW
             * 15 sites > 5 MW
             * 13 sites from 2 - 5 MW
             * 30 sites < 2 MW
Planned LFGTE Projects in CA

                  Planned LFGTE systems
                       in California
                 21 sites: 48 MW
                 * 7 sites from 3 - 5 MW
                 * 7 sites from 1 - 3 MW
                 * 7 sites < 1 MW
Nearer Term LFGTE Projects


              Landfills Currently Flaring LFG
             74 sites: ~ 50 MW possible
              * 10 sites > 1 MW
              * 10 sites from 500 kW - 1 MW
              * 54 sites < 500 kW
Longer Term LFGTE Projects

            Landfills Currently Venting LFG
           161 sites: ~ 25 MW possible
            * 9 sites from 500 kW - 1.5 MW
            * 43 sites from 125 - 500 kW
            * 109 sites below 125 kW
    Observations About LFGTE
          Opportunities
 Most of the opportunities for “big” systems are
  gone
 Nearer term opportunities:
    Expansions at existing LFGTE sites
    New sites that currently flare LFG
    Vast majority involve systems less than 2 MW (maybe
     500 kW avg)
 Longer term opportunities:
    Flaring or venting sites
    Small: Vast majority below 500 kW
Existing WTPE in CA

            Existing WTPE systems in
                    California
           23 sites: 38 MW
            * 18 sites < 2 MW
            * 5 sites > 2 MW
Future WTPE in CA

            WTPs currently w/o energy
              recovery operations
        222 plants: 37 MW possible
         * 2 plants > 1 MW
         * 50 plants from 200 kW - 1 MW
         * 170 plants < 200 kW
     Observations About WTPE
          Opportunities
 Not concentrated by region
   Scattered across state (rural & urban)
   Opportunity dependent on specific municipality
 Future likely geared towards small energy
  recovery systems
    Only 10% of future facilities > 400 kW
    Over 75% of future facilities < 200 kW
      (most < 100 kW)
 Unknown value of electricity to municipality
Livestock DGTE Potential in CA
 Type of       Livestock         Biogas        Electricity
Livestock     Population    (Billion Btu/yr)     (MW)

Dairy Cows     2 million         6,800            200

  Swine        210,000            380              3

 Poultry     46.9 million        3,500             26

  Sheep        420,000            420              3

 Total:      ~ 49 million     ~ 11,000            232
   Digester Gas From Livestock
 Overall potential at ~ 230 MW
 Difficult to collect manure from unconfined stock
 Realistic potential is less than 200 MW
   Dairy and swine operations
 Nearer term potential:
   Mostly dairies
   Larger operations and/or
   Self generation opportunities
Possible Dairy LDGTE Sites

              Color   # of Cows     kW
              Red      <10,000     < 520
              Blue    10-50,000    520-2600
              Yellow 50-100,000 2600-5200
              Green    >100,000     >5200


                2000 dairies
               Most < 200 kw per
               dairy
             Benefits to LDGTE
 Energy
    Renewable electricity capacity up to 200 MW
    Generation of up to 900,000 MWhrs/yr
    Diaries protected from price volatility
 Environmental
    Safe disposal of over 2 million tons/yr of livestock
     waste
       Improved water quality
    Eliminates release of 37 million ft3 of methane per year
    Observations About LDGTE
          Opportunities
 Toughest Biogas to Energy Market
    Methane typically not captured
     Collection system at site or
     Collection of wastes for central plant
 Emphasis Likely on Small Prime Movers
    Few large (multi-MW) systems
 Expected Growth Areas
    Chino Basin
    Central Valley
Overall DG Potential for Biogas
 Potential is up to 185 MW
    LFGTE: 50 MW (flaring sites) & 25 MW (venting)
    WTPE up to 40 MW
    Livestock DGTE (dairy) up to 70 MW
 Near term (5 yr)potential more limited: ~ 50 to 70
  MW
    60% of flaring LFGTE
    50% of WTPE
    10% of Dairy DGTE
 Mostly small prime movers (less than 200 kW)
 Fuel Characteristics of Biogas

           Natural       Landfill   WWTP       Livestock
Components  Gas            Gas       Gas        AD Gas

Methane (%)    90-99      40-55      50-65      50-80

  CO2 (%)       0-5       35-50      35-50      20-50

 H2S (ppmv)    < 15       < 200     500-3000    < 3000

HHV (Btu/ft3) 950-1050   400-550    400-650    500-800
  The Family of Biogas Prime
           Movers


               IC Engines



                                   Microturbines




Gas Turbines          Fuel Cells
        Characteristics of BioGas
          Combustion Systems
                       IC         Gas    Micro-           Fuel
   Item      Flare   Engine      Turbine Turbine          Cells
Heat Rate
(Btu/kwhr)    NA     10-11,000   10-12,000   12-13,000   9-10,000
NOx
lb/MMBtu     0.05      0.22        0.07        0.02      0.0005

CO
lb/MMBtu     0.19      0.67        0.10        0.10       0.002
      State’s Interests in BioGas
            Developments
 Electricity Benefits
    Up to 185 MW in new capacity
    Up to 1.3 billion kwhr/yr of delivered electricity
       May be in electricity constrained areas
 Environmental Benefits
    Reduced groundwater pollution (LDGTE)
    Reduced methane emissions: over 150,000 tons per
     year
    Reduced NOx emissions: up to 170 tons per year
       Dependent on prime mover type
            BioGas Energy Assistance



                                              Water/Wastewater
  AgStar: Help with
                                              Program: Efficiency
  Livestock Biogas


                       PIER: RD&D on Biogas
                          Energy Systems

                                                Renewable Energy
                                               Program: Incentives
LMOP:Help with LFGTE

								
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