Introduction to Distance Learning with Blackboard

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					Introduction to Distance
     Learning with
       By: Dr. Shawn F. Clouse
            School of Business
         University of Montana
Today’s Objectives
    Introduction to Blackboard
    Look at distance learning and SOBA’s program
    Practice some basic blackboard skills.
    Look at some Learning Theories and Instructional
     Design Issues.
    Look at some Online Learning Research and
Defining Aspects Continued
   Lack of quality research in the area of distance
    learning (Phipps & Merisotis, 1999)
   The No Significant Difference Phenomenon
    (Russell, 1999).
   Technologies used in 1997-1998 (Lewis, Snow,
    Farris, & Levin, 1999)
       58% Asynchronous Internet Instruction
       54% Synchronous Interactive Videoconference
       47% Asynchronous Pre-recorded videotapes
       19% Synchronous Internet Instruction
Defining Aspects of Distance
   Distance learning provides instruction in the
    place and time convenient to the learners.
   Market Size (IDC, 1999)
       710,000 students in 1998
       2.2 million expected in 2002
       62% of 4-year universities offered distance
        programs in 1998
       84% expected in 2002.
History of Distance and Online
Learning at SOBA
   Sole provider of MBA education in the
    Montana University System
   On-campus program stated in 1965
   Off-campus program started in 1988
   Online Foundation program started in 1997
7 Off-campus Locations
Mixed Model Delivery Formats
   Foundation program
       Delivered online through in-house designed
   Professional program
       Two-way interactive videoconferences through
        the Montana State Network called MetNet.
       1-credit weekend courses in a traditional
        classroom setting.
Why Blackboard
   UM has two Blackboard servers
   GradNet platform is outdated and requires
    considerable resources to maintain and operate.
   DEOS-L - The Distance Education Online
    Symposium Survey Monkey data
       53.1% Blackboard
       41.8% WebCT
       7.1% Lotus Learning Space
       4.1% eCollege
   Supported by Microsoft
SOBA Conversion
   Help SOBA convert from “Home Grown”
    online learning environment “GradNet” to the
    Blackboard Course Management System.
   First stage for GradNet classes.
   Second stage with some regular classes.
   Final stage open up platform to all SOBA
Training & Research Model
   Interview participants
   Introduction to the Blackboard Platform
   Learning Theory & Instructional Design
   Online Learning Research and Strategies
   Participants develop and present learning modules
    or units to the group.
   Interview participants
   Teach online course
   Follow-up interview with participants
Objectives for SOBA’s Training
   Train a small group of SOBA faculty on using the
    Blackboard Course Management System
   Explore how to redesign courses based on learning
    theory, instructional design, and online learning
   Work together as a learning community to help one
    another develop strategies for online learning
    course design.
   Research the process to add to the faculty
    development literature in the area of online learning.
“Materials themselves do not teach but
 provide a medium that with appropriate use
 can support learning,” (Oliver, Herrington,
 and Omari, 1996). Accordingly, the instructor
 must incorporate the organization,
 presentation, and integration of materials into
 the online environment.
What is Blackboard?
   Course Development and Management System
   Not a web authoring tool like Word, FrontPage or
   Relational Database Design with web programming.
   Communication and collaboration capabilities.
   Online assessment engine with integrated gradebook.
   Content sequencing and delivery.
   Online resource gateway.
   Tools to help teachers manage their online course and track
    student progress.
   Standards based (Instructional Management System IMS,
    Section 508, etc.)
Administrative Features
   Monitor and administer online learning environment.
   Customize pages and interface.
   Control security.
   Perform batch user enrollment of students.
   Manage preferences for multiple courses.
   Track usage and report statistics.
   Issue system-wide announcements.
   Communication tools built-in and configured by
Blackboard Features
Main Blackboard Page
My Institution Portal
   Users can customize to own preferences.
   Entry point for Blackboard Courses.
   Institution-wide communities.
   Access to Student Services.
   Academic Web Resources.
  Blackboard Course Screen


                        Course Area
Student View vs. Instructor View
Logon to Blackboard
   URL is or
   Username
   Password
My Institution Tools
   Welcome
   Tools
   Announcements
   My Calendar
   My Courses
   My Tasks
Course Web Site Functions
   Announcements
   Course Information
   Staff Information
   Course Documents
   Assignments
   Communication
   External Links
   Tools
   Resources
   Course Map
   Control Panel
   Logout
Instructor Control Panel
User Tools
   Announcement
   Calendar
   Tasks
   My Grades
   Send E-mail
   User Directory
   Address Book
   Personal Information
Content Areas
   Post course documents, staff information,
    assignments, announcements, assessments
   Incorporate text, spreadsheets, slideshows,
    graphics, audio, video clips, and interactive
   Create sequential Learning Units.
Types of Content
   Specific Content
       Announcements, Staff information, and External
   Primary Content
       Course Information, Course Documents,
        Assignments, and Books.
   Content can be organized in folders.
   Names of areas can be changed.
Learning Units
   Learning units are a special kind of folder
    with a structured path through the content.
   Used to organize other items, such as
    documents, folders, assessments, etc.
   Can require your students to follow a certain
Authoring Tools
   Word processor - Microsoft Word
   Presentation package – PowerPoint &
    Microsoft Producer
   Spreadsheet - Excel
   Web page authoring - FrontPage
   Graphics package - Adobe PhotoShop
   Video editing - Adobe Premiere
   Multimedia development - Macromedia Flash
    and Authorware
Blackboard Content Elements
   Attach a document – Depends on user
    having software to open the document
   Put in HTML
     Import whole websites

     attach HTML documents

     paste HTML into Blackboard pages

   Type information into Blackboard Text
    boxes (usually to introduce/describe your
HTML in Blackboard Text Box
   Select View Source in the View Menu of
    Word or View Source Tab of FrontPage.
   Paste html (what lies between <body> tags,
    using copy and paste) into text box.
   Click “HTML” radio button.
File Types
   Quizzes & Exams.
   Learning Unit Feedback.
   Instructor grades essay questions and enters
    in the gradebook.
   Surveys for formative and summative
    assessments. Completion is anonymous.
   To keep grades you MUST keep them
   Linked to online assessments.
   View by user, item, or spreadsheet.
   Can manually enter an item and assign
    grades in list by user or item.
   Can export to Excel.
   Weighted function requires all totals to be the
   Click on ! in gradebook to grade essay
Saving a PowerPoint
   Select Save as Web Page from File Menu.
   Publish it to your computer.
   Zip the folder that contains the presentation
   Enter a course item for the presentation.
   Select the zip file.
   For special Actions select Unpackage these
   Select the entry point to the presentation
Discussion Area
   Organized by Forums, Threads, and Messages.
   Instructor must create Forums.
   Can control who creates threads.
   Can delegate student responsibility for facilitating
    the discussion.
   Can sort messages by author, subject, date or
   Can create a Student Forum just for the students to
   Can grade participation and archive the discussion.
Virtual Classroom (Chat Room)
   Instructor and student view different.
   Chat panel, Questions, User Information.
   Participants see all of the discussion transcript
    regardless of when they begin the chat.
   Can use for virtual office hours.
   Question & Answer area can be private or public
   Can control who talks by giving the floor.
   Can show slides or web sites.
   Can archive discussion.
Digital Drop Box
   Used to submit work to the instructor.
   Used for group collaboration.
   Can send email and files.
   Can have discussions and chats.
   Can grade and resend a file to a student.
Learning Theory &
Instructional Design
   Behaviorist
   Humanists
   Cognitive & Constructive Learning
   Learning Styles
   Instructional Design Models
   Strategies for Instruction
   Eisner (1998) – The art and craft of
    teaching. No science of teaching exists that
    makes teaching routine. The teacher like
    the artist must continue to develop their
    skills for the technology enriched classroom.
Bloom (1956) Taxonomy
   Knowledge -- Recall memorized information.
   Comprehension --Grasp the meaning of material.
   Application--Use learned material in new and
    concrete situations.
   Analysis--Identify relationships and organization of
    component parts.
   Synthesis--Put parts together to form a new whole.
   Evaluation--To judge the value of material for a
    given purpose.
Building Blocks of Learning

 Creative Thinking              Critical Thinking
     Synthesis                     Evaluation


Learning Styles & Preferences
   Jung, Carl (1921)
   Learning styles – Individuals have a style or type
    that they prefer
   Dunn & Dunn and Meyers-Briggs.
   Felder (1996) – Learning styles 1) sensing/intuitive,
    2) visual/verbal, 3) inductive/deductive, 4)
    active/reflective, and 5) sequential/global.
   These are types or preferences
   Not the only way people learn
Howard Gardner
Frames of Mind 1983 and The Disciplined Mind 1999
Theory of Multiple Intelligences
  Linguistic
  Mathematical/logical
  Spatial
  Musical
  Body-kinesthetic
  Interpersonal
  Intrapersonal
  Ecology & Environment
  Spiritual/Transpersonal
We Learn:
 10% of what we read
 20% of what we hear

 30% of what we see

 50% of what we see and hear

 70% of what is discussed with others

 80% of what we experience personally

 95% of what we teach someone else

Source: William Glasser
Instructional Design
   Most models are based on Gagne’s work
   Systematic way of designing instruction
   Elements
       Analysis
       Design
       Development
       Implementation
       Evaluation
Instructional Design
Walter Dick & Lou Carey
Blackboard Model
   Analyze
       Who are your learners and what are you trying to achieve
        with your instruction?
   Design and Develop
       What are your objectives, and how will you structure and
        organize the content of your learning material?
       How will you assess the learners’ understanding and
        whether or not they have met the objectives of the
   Implement
       Carry out the instructional sequence to deliver the
        instruction you have developed.
Instructional Design Strategies
   Develop based on learning objectives.
   Know the level of learning desired (Bloom).
   How to make students think about the
   How to stimulate more than one of the
    senses or intelligences.
   Paradigms
   Barker, Joel Arthur (1993, Paradigms: The
    Business of Discovering the Future)
   Paradigm – a set of rules and regulations that
    establishes boundaries, and defines how to
    behave inside the boundaries in order to be
   Paradigm shift – a change in the fundamental
    rules of the business, organization, or industry.
   Paradigm pioneers are the initial adopters of the
    new paradigm
   Paradigm Paralysis – believing in the old
    paradigm and not able to see the new one.
Seven Principles of Good
Practice in Education
Chickering and Ehrmann (1996)
1.   Encourage contact between students and faculty
2.   Develop reciprocity and cooperation among
3.   Use active learning techniques,
4.   Give prompt feedback,
5.   Emphasize time-on-task,
6.   Communicate high expectations,
7.   Respect diverse talents and ways of learning.
Online Learning Research &
   Source: 2001 Dissertation in the School of
   On and Off-Campus students.
   Asynchronous and Synchronous treatments
    for lecture and discussion.
          Demographic Information
                    On-campus Off-campus
     Description       Day       Night    Total
N                       37         20      57
Age                    26.1       36.8    29.8*
Income over $30,000   10.8%     78.9%    33.9%*
Percent employed      73.0%     95.0%    80.7%*
Percent from towns
under 5000            10.8%     30.0%    17.5%*
Percent from cities
over 40,000           78.4%     20.0%    57.9%*
  American Indian     5.4%                3.5%
  Hispanic            2.7%                1.8%
  White               86.5%     100.0%   91.2%
  Other               5.4%                3.5%
 Felder/Silverman ILS
             Learning Style Distribution
              ACT      REF        Totals
Total *      64.9%    35.1% 100.0%
On-Campus    67.6%    32.4% 100.0%
Off-Campus   60.0%    40.0% 100.0%
              SEN      INT
Total        64.9%    35.1% 100.0%
              VIS      VRB
Total        73.7%    26.3% 100.0%
              SEQ      GLO
Total        59.6%    40.4% 100.0%
Meyers-Briggs Distribution

            Type Indicator
Extraverts Introverts Neutral   Totals
   57.9%       33.3%   8.8%     100.0%
 Sensors Intuitors
   52.6%       40.4%   7.0%     100.0%
Thinkers Feelers
   73.7%       22.8%   3.5%     100.0%
 Judgers Perceivers
   77.2%       14.0%   8.8%     100.0%
        Class vs. Population MBTI Distribution
                                                      % of            Percent of
       Titles          Unique Ability       Type    Population Counts Students
Architect            Logical               INTP          1.00%      1     2.50%
Scientist, Builder   Independent           INTJ          1.00%      1     2.50%
Inventor             Inventive             ENTP          5.00%      3     7.50%
Fieldmarshal         Commandeering         ENTJ          5.00%      6   15.00%
Crusader             Non-directive         INFP          1.00%      0     0.00%
Author               Empathic              INFJ          1.00%      0     0.00%
Journalist           Optimistic            ENFP          5.00%      3     7.50%
Teacher, Catalyst    Persuasive            ENFJ          5.00%      2     5.00%
Entertainer          Generous              ESFP        13.00%       0     0.00%
Promoter             Unpredictable         ESTP        13.00%       0     0.00%
Disestablishment     Artistic              ISFP          6.00%      0     0.00%
Artisan              Skillful with tools   ISTP          6.00%      1     2.50%
Seller               Harmonizing           ESFJ        13.00%       1     2.50%
Administrator        Hard-charging         ESTJ        13.00%      11   27.50%
Loyal                Loyal                 ISFJ          6.00%      1     2.50%
Trustee              Strong & silent       ISTJ          6.00%     10   25.00%
                                           Totals     100.00%      40 100.00%
Conclusions for Performance with
Synchronous and Asynchronous
Interaction Methods

   Improved student performance (8% to 9%) by
    combining synchronous and asynchronous
    methods for lecture and discussion.
   Asynchronous lectures allow students to study
    and review materials.
   Asynchronous discussions allow students to
    reflect on questions.
   Mixed delivery works with the strengths of the
    different interaction methods to improve
Conclusions & Recommendations
for Student Satisfaction
   Strong student preference for traditional F2F lecture and
   Instructors must work with students to change their paradigm for
    delivery of lectures and discussions.
   Incorporate elements that students like from synchronous
    methods into asynchronous methods.
   Students valued discussion interaction, but placed more
    emphasis on interacting with content and the instructor during the
   Skipping the opportunity to interact with content and the
    instructor and moving directly into discussions is not the best
    strategy to keep students satisfied with the learning experience.
Qualitative Findings
   Used NUD*IST 4.0 software for open and axial
    coding (Strauss & Corbin, 1990).
   Purposeful sample included students with strong
    MBTI-E/I or ILS-S/G.
   Found that students with moderate to weak types
    and styles are the most receptive to the methods.
   Themes related to issues facing students, instructor,
    technology, interaction, and the learning community.
                        Interaction Theme Model
          Archived                                                Social

Access   Technology Convenient                                 Community        Fun

         Learning                                                 Broader
          Curve                                                 Participation

                           Skill      Student      Reflection

          Facilitator                                           Structure

Guide    Instructor       Moderator                            Interaction       Focus

                                                  Disconnect                    Speed
          Feedback                                              Feedback
  Transactional Distance Model

Low Distance         High Distance

 Dialog                 Structure

Asynchronous            Synchronous
Threaded                Chat
Discussion              Discussion
   Provide students with the opportunity to learn
    the technology prior to the learning activities
    of the course.
   Improve satisfaction with non-traditional
    methods by developing a learning
   Students do best with a mix of synchronous
    and asynchronous lectures & discussions.
Synchronous Chat
   Strengths
       Immediate feedback
       Social & fun
   Weaknesses
       Fast moving
       Not organized
       Short responses
       Multitasking
Chat Strategies
   Use to develop a learning community.
   Teacher must guide the discussion with some
   Call on people by requiring them to raise their hand
    by entering a $.
   Instructor should prepare responses in advance in a
    word processor.
   Have another resource open with the chat to
   Helps get broader participation from all students.
Asynchronous Discussion
   Strengths
       Students get a chance to reflect.
       Convenient access.
       Very organized
   Weaknesses
       Not very social.
       Students saying the same things over and over.
       Lack of immediate feedback.
Strategies for Asynchronous
   Facilitator must check the area often, provide
    frequent feedback, and ask probing
   Facilitator should interject humor and get
    students to check the area more often.
   Have students act as facilitators.
   Utilize to give more students the opportunity
    to participate.
Questions and Exercises