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					          Survey of First Nations People
          Living Off-Reserve, Métis and
                       Inuit
                                      FINAL REPORT


                                              Submitted to:

                                   Indian and Northern Affairs Canada



Date: October, 2006
Contract: A0107-053053/001/CY
POR Registration number: POR 175-05

Ce rapport est aussi disponible en français


                              EKOS RESEARCH ASSOCIATES INC.,
                                         in Association with
                                 ANISHINABEK CONSULTANTS INC.
EKOS RESEARCH ASSOCIATES
Ottawa Office
99 Metcalfe Street, Suite 1100
Ottawa, Ontario
K1P 6L7
Tel: (613) 235 7215
Fax: (613) 235 8498
E-mail: pobox@ekos.com

Toronto Office
480 University Avenue, Suite 1006
Toronto, Ontario
M5G 1V2
Tel: (416) 598 8002
Fax: (416) 598 2543
E-mail: toronto@ekos.com

Edmonton Office
9925 109th St. NW, Suite 606
Edmonton, Alberta
T5K 2J8
Tel: (780) 408 5225
Fax: (780) 408 5233
E-mail: HYPERLINK "mailto:edmonton@ekos.com" edmonton@ekos.com
TABLE OF CONTENTS

TOC \o "1-2" \h \z \t "Ex-sum,1" HYPERLINK \l "_Toc149453225"
       Executive Summary                                                       PAGEREF _Toc1494
HYPERLINK \l "_Toc149453226" 1.            Introduction   PAGEREF _Toc149453226 \h 1
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc149453227" 1.1   Background PAGEREF _Toc149453227 \h 1
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc149453228" 1.2   Sampling       PAGEREF _Toc149453228 \h 2
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc149453229" 1.3   Survey Administration      PAGEREF _Toc149453229 \h 2
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc149453230" 1.4   Face-to-Face Component of Survey PAGEREF
_Toc149453230 \h 4
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc149453231" 1.5   Sample Characteristics      PAGEREF _Toc149453231 \h 4
HYPERLINK \l "_Toc149453232" 2.           General Social Conditions  PAGEREF
_Toc149453232 \h 9
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc149453233" 2.1   Quality of Life PAGEREF _Toc149453233 \h 9
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc149453234" 2.2   Mobility        PAGEREF _Toc149453234 \h 11
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc149453235" 2.3   Reasons for Relocation      PAGEREF _Toc149453235 \h
12
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc149453236" 2.4   Incentives for Relocation    PAGEREF _Toc149453236 \h
14
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc149453237" 2.5 Home Ownership         PAGEREF _Toc149453237 \h 15
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc149453238" 3.          Relations Between Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal
People, and Racism PAGEREF _Toc149453238 \h 19
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc149453239" 3.1 Racism and Discrimination PAGEREF _Toc149453239 \h
19
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc149453240" 3.2 State of Relations Between Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal
People PAGEREF _Toc149453240 \h 22
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc149453241" 4.          Government PAGEREF _Toc149453241 \h 27
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc149453242" 4.1 Priorities      PAGEREF _Toc149453242 \h 27
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc149453243" 4.2 Frequency of Seeking Assistance      PAGEREF
_Toc149453243 \h 29
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc149453244" 4.3 Perceptions of Government Service Delivery PAGEREF
_Toc149453244 \h 31
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc149453245" 5.          Aboriginal Representation and Services
PAGEREF _Toc149453245 \h 33
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc149453246" 5.1   Satisfaction with Aboriginal Representative Organizations
PAGEREF _Toc149453246 \h 33
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc149453247" 5.2   Aboriginal Representation in Program and Service Delivery
PAGEREF _Toc149453247 \h 35
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc149453248" 5.3   Impact of Friendship Centres PAGEREF _Toc149453248 \h
37
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc149453249" 5.4   Use of Friendship Centres    PAGEREF _Toc149453249 \h
38
HYPERLINK \l "_Toc149453250" 6.                        Participation in Cultural and Creative Activities
PAGEREF _Toc149453250 \h 41
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc149453251" 6.1             Community Participation              PAGEREF _Toc149453251 \h
41
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc149453252" 6.2             Volunteering PAGEREF _Toc149453252 \h 43
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc149453253" 6.3             Extent of Cultural Identity PAGEREF _Toc149453253 \h
45
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc149453254" 6.4
                             APTN Viewership     PAGEREF _Toc149453254 \h 50
HYPERLINK \l "_Toc149453255" 7.   Language       PAGEREF _Toc149453255 \h 53
HYPERLINK \l "_Toc149453256" 8.   Internet Use and Websites of Interest PAGEREF
_Toc149453256 \h 59
HYPERLINK \l "_Toc149453257" 9.                        Post-Secondary Education              PAGEREF
_Toc149453257 \h 65
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc149453258" 9.1 Views on Post-Secondary Education PAGEREF
_Toc149453258 \h 65
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc149453259" 9.2 Awareness of Government Post-Secondary Education
Savings Programs      PAGEREF _Toc149453259 \h 67
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc149453260" 9.3 Children at Home, and Proximity of Post-Secondary
Institutions   PAGEREF _Toc149453260 \h 69
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc149453261" 9.4 Importance, and Likelihood of Access to Post-Secondary
Education      PAGEREF _Toc149453261 \h 71
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc149453262" 9.5 Saving for Post-Secondary Education         PAGEREF
_Toc149453262 \h 72
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc149453263" 9.6 Getting Information about RESPs     PAGEREF
_Toc149453263 \h 75
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc149453264" 9.7 Preferred RESP Information Sources PAGEREF
_Toc149453264 \h 77
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc149453265" 10. Participation in Sport PAGEREF
_Toc149453265 \h 79
HYPERLINK \l "_Toc149453266" 11.                       Conclusions        PAGEREF _Toc149453266 \h 85

             Appendix A: Telephone Survey Instrument
             Appendix B: Face to Face Survey Instrument
             Appendix C: Instructions on Face to Face Survey
             Appendix D: Response Rates to Telephone Survey
             Appendix E: Tables of Detailed Results (separate cover)


             EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

             The purpose of the current study is to conduct a national telephone survey of all Aboriginal people who
are currently not living on a reserve, including non-reserve Aboriginal peoples (i.e., Métis and Inuit), and individuals
who are members of a First Nation who are living off-reserve. The objective is to profile the issues and concerns of
Aboriginal people and measure awareness levels, interest and expectations around government programs and
services, as well as probe contact patterns and personal preferences regarding communications with government.


              General Social Conditions


              Most Aboriginal people living off-reserve (close to two-thirds) are satisfied with their current quality of
life, and expect that their quality of life will improve over the next year.


              One-quarter of Aboriginal people have moved within the past year, with about half of these having
moved within their current community. Just over one-third moved to another community, and one in ten moved from a
reserve. The most frequently cited reason for moving is housing or quality of housing, followed by family reasons, or
employment or educational opportunities.


              Although half of Aboriginal people feel it is unlikely that they would relocate to get a better job or more
education, three in ten would be very likely to move for a better job (unchanged since 2003). A further one-quarter
would be very likely to relocate for more education (a small increase from 2003).


              Four in ten of Aboriginal people living off-reserve rent their current residence, 35 per cent own their
residence, and 15 per cent are living with family or friends. Financial reasons are cited as the main obstacle to home
ownership by most Aboriginal people living off-reserve.


              Relations Between Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal People


              Just over four in ten Aboriginal people living off-reserve report having been a victim of racism or
discrimination because of their Aboriginal origin over the last two years (similar to 2003 results). Among those who
have experienced racism or discrimination, the vast majority (three-quarters) say it was at the hands of a non-
Aboriginal person (a higher proportion than in 2003). Four in ten of those discriminated against said that they have
experienced racism or discrimination from businesses (up from two in ten in 2003), and one-quarter cited police (up
slightly from 2003).The same proportion (one-quarter) experienced racism in schools, or through people at work or
an employer (also both showing an increase from 2003). Government was the source of their experience with racism
or discrimination by two in ten Aboriginal people (up slightly from 2003).
              Four in ten Aboriginal people living off-reserve who rent their residence believe they never experience
any discrimination when meeting a landlord or viewing a property they would like to rent, and another two in ten state
that they rarely experience any discrimination. On the other hand, close to one-third feel that they sometimes or
always experience discrimination as a renter.


              Just over half of Aboriginal people living off-reserve report that they see the relationship between
Aboriginal people and other Canadians as unchanged. One-quarter believe that things are improving, and slightly
fewer feel that the relationship is deteriorating. This is similar, although less positive than found among First Nations
people living on-reserve (although these results were collected in 2005, before the 2006 conflict in Caledonia made
national headlines).


              Of those who feel that relations between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people are improving, one-third
attribute the improvement to better intercultural relations between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people; and roughly
one in four feel it is because non-Aboriginal society is better educated (than in the past). Conversely, of those who
believe that the relationship between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people is deteriorating, roughly one-quarter
blame this decline on racism or intolerance, while two in ten say it comes from a sense of neglect or mistreatment by
government.


              Government


              The list of priority areas identified for the Government of Canada is quite varied and less concentrated
than found in the general public. Health care and education are placed at the top of the list of priorities for the federal
government (37 per cent and 35 per cent, respectively). Eighteen per cent cited Aboriginal issues as top priorities,
and similar proportions talked about social services, poverty, welfare, and homelessness, or jobs and unemployment.
This represents somewhat of a shift from 2003, when health care was singled out as the top priority, followed by
Aboriginal Treaty rights and issues, with education in third place.


              The most common type of information or assistance sought is for government services (sought after
occasionally or often by roughly three in ten), followed closely by employment. Arranging for transportation to go
somewhere is third on the list of demand for information and services (sought after occasionally or often by over two
in ten), followed by child care, and credit.


              In terms of the overall quality of government service delivered to Aboriginal people living off-reserve,
negative views generally outweigh positive ones. The most positive results, although tepid at best, relate to
performance of local governments: one-quarter of individuals are positive about their city or town government‘s
service. Two in ten are positive about the performance of the provincial government, and fewer still believe the
overall quality of service delivery from the Government of Canada to Aboriginal people is good (12 per cent, down
from 17 per cent in 2003).
               Aboriginal Representation and Services

               Views about the performance of Aboriginal representative organizations are no more positive than they
are about their local governments (although they are marginally less negative than they are about more senior levels
of government), with only one-quarter saying that their interests are well represented by these organizations. Opinion
is also divided with regards to information and communication people receive from Aboriginal representative
organizations: over one-third are dissatisfied, and about the same proportion are content.


               The impact of Friendship Centres on the community is viewed positively by over half of Aboriginal
people living off-reserve. Just over half report having used the services, family access programs, or activities of a
Friendship Centre; two in ten do so yearly and another one-third make weekly or monthly use of a Friendship Centre.

               Half consider it important that programs and services they use be delivered by an Aboriginal
organization, while roughly four in ten believe it is important that services be delivered by Aboriginal staff (but not
necessarily an Aboriginal organization).


               Participation in Community, Cultural and Creative Activities


               Participation in community groups, organizations or events varies: just over two in ten do so weekly,
and another one-quarter participate on either a monthly basis. One in four participate on a yearly basis, and a similar
number never participate. For those who are active in the community, most (six in ten) indicate that this participation
is generally in Aboriginal groups, organizations or events.


               Over half of Aboriginal people living off-reserve report having done unpaid volunteer work during the
last 12 months, and the overwhelming majority of those who volunteered enjoyed the experience. For those who did
not volunteer over the past year, the most cited (and obvious) is lack of time.


               Most Aboriginal people living off-reserve rate their own sense of cultural identity as strong (six in ten),
but are much less likely to see the same strong sense of cultural identity in their community (four in ten). Most
participated in some type of cultural activity in the 12 months preceding the survey. In the past year, most have
attended a live performance such as a play, concert or dance; over half have attended a visual arts exhibit; and close
to half have attended an exhibit of artifacts, historical objects or natural history specimens.


               Participation in creative activities is less common than participation in cultural activities. Just under half
of Aboriginal people living off-reserve have done craft-work (pottery, ceramics, jewellery, leatherwork, sewing,
knitting, etc.), or have acted, danced, sung, composed or played music in the 12 months prior to the survey. Less
than four in ten have done creative writing, painting, drawing or sculpture, or made photographs, movies or videos as
an artistic activity in the past year.
              Roughly half of Aboriginal people living off-reserve watch the Aboriginal Peoples‘ Television Network
(APTN) on a daily basis.


              Language


              The vast majority of Aboriginal people living off-reserve speak English in their home and community
(93 per cent do) and close to two in ten speak French. Thirteen per cent speak Cree, six per cent speak Ojibway (or
Saulteaux) and a small proportion speak other Aboriginal languages. Just over three-quarters of those who speak an
Aboriginal language at home or in their community learned the language as a child, and two in ten learned to speak
an Aboriginal language as an adult.


              Aboriginal people living off-reserve who currently speak an Aboriginal language consider it important
that their language be passed on to future generations, and that they maintain their language skills through speaking,
reading, writing, storytelling and ceremonies. The perceived importance in these areas is higher than found among
First Nations people living on-reserve.


              Close to two-thirds of those who do not speak an Aboriginal language say it is important to be able to
speak their Aboriginal language, and only slightly fewer consider it important that they be able to read or write in this
language. On the other hand, compared with findings among First Nations people living on-reserve, fewer Aboriginal
people living off-reserve (who do not speak an Aboriginal language) consider this important. In terms of learning or
re-learning an Aboriginal language, a combination of traditional and multi-media approaches is the preferred
approach (over solely traditional or multi-media approaches).


              Internet Use


              Roughly three-quarters of Aboriginal people living off-reserve have used the Internet in the past three
months (which is in-line with figures reported by the general public more broadly and considerably higher than the
usage reported among First Nations people living on a reserve). Of those who have not used the Internet recently,
half point to lack of access as the main reason, followed by a lack of familiarity with the Internet and how to use it, or
general disinterest in using the Internet. Ultimately then only 13 per cent of Aboriginal people living off-reserve lack
access to the Internet (since 74 per cent have used it and only half of non-users report a lack of access).


              For Internet users, websites that target people of their culture, ethnic original or language on the topic of
education and learning are the most popular (identified by almost three-quarters of Internet users), followed by local
community events or news specific to their culture or language (by four in ten), and visiting websites to shop for
goods and services (by one-quarter).
              Post-Secondary Education


              The vast majority of Aboriginal people (both parents and others) believe that the cost of post-secondary
education is a sound investment for young people, leading to better jobs with higher wages. Just over two-thirds also
agree that financial support from parents play a large role in determining whether children are able to obtain a post-
secondary education. In spite of high levels of agreement and appreciation for the value of post-secondary and the
need for financial support from parents, results are nonetheless considerably lower than found among parents in the
general public. The difference may be attributable in part to depressed local economies in some regions, but primarily
it is likely related to the existence of a dedicated financial support program in place for Aboriginal youth to attend
post-secondary education (making the role of parental financial support perceived to be less critical, and less obvious
for many).


              Just over half of Aboriginal households residing outside of a reserve have children under the age of 18
(at home or away from home). The vast majority of those with children under the age of 18 years consider it
important that their children get a post-secondary education. Proximity to a post-secondary institution is considerably
higher than found among First Nations parents living on a reserve, as eight in ten report that there is a post-
secondary institution within daily driving distance of their community.


              Among those actively contributing, about half have contributed to a RESP. For those who are saving for
a child‘s post-secondary education but not using RESPs as a savings vehicle, two in ten say they are not using
RESPs because they did not know about them, and an equal proportion say that it is because it is easier to save
outside of an RESP. When asked what they would do to get information about how to set up an RESP, most say they
would go to a financial institution (40 per cent), while a smaller proportion (15 per cent) would visit a website.

              Aboriginal parents are more apt to regard their bank or employees of the financial
              institution where they do their banking as the most trustworthy source of information on
              establishing an RESP (according to one-third), followed by friends or family members
              (one-quarter) and financial advisors (two in ten).

                  Participation in Sport

                   Just under four in ten Aboriginal people participate in sports. Of those involved in
              sporting activity, most participate as a player (83 per cent), while 15 per cent participate
              as coaches, and 14 per cent as volunteers. These patterns of participation are similar to
              those recently found among Aboriginal people living on-reserve. For those participating in
              sport, the primary benefit of participation is perceived to be physical fitness, followed by
              socializing or getting to know people, general well-being, and learning to be part of a
              team. The factor which presents the greatest obstacle to participation for those not
              involved in sport is lack of time, followed by health concerns or a disability, and lack of
              interest.


              INTRODUCTION
BACKGROUND
              Since 2001, the Government of Canada, with Indian and Northern Affairs as the lead department, has
been conducting surveys at regular intervals with First Nations people living on-reserve. These surveys examine First
Nations people‘s impressions of the performance of the Government of Canada, perceived priorities, rates and
method of contracting the Government and perceived quality of service received, preferences for different channels
of communications and opinions on a wide variety of substantive issues. Since the first On-Reserve survey, there has
been much discussion of the pressing need to collect the same type of information in the wider Aboriginal community
who are not residents of a reserve. This is fuelled in large part by the fact that two in three First Nations people do not
live on a reserve, that the Métis are the fastest growing Aboriginal group, and that all Aboriginal groups (not living on
a reserve) are asking for similar rights and benefits as those experienced by First Nations people living on-reserve. It
is also fuelled by the fact that most federal government departments have responsibility for delivering services to
Aboriginal people living off-reserve.


              According to the most recent Statistics Canada Census information there are approximately 976,305
people living in Canada today who report themselves to be Aboriginal. This represents 3.3 per cent of the national
population. Nearly two in three of the Aboriginal population are First Nations people, just under one in three are Métis
and nearly five per cent are Inuit. While roughly one in three First Nations people live on a reserve, across the entire
Aboriginal population 73 per cent per cent do not live on a reserve. Of those who do not live on a reserve, over two-
thirds live in urban areas and just under a third live in relatively rural and remote areas. Those living in urban areas
typically do not live in highly dense Aboriginal areas. That is, in most cities and urban communities where Aboriginal
people live, they represent a very low percentage of the population. Aboriginal people choosing to live in rural areas,
on the other hand, are often found in highly dense Aboriginal communities. Another interesting parameter of the
Aboriginal population with implications for the survey design is that the median age of Aboriginal people is only 24.7,
compared to 37.7 in the non-Aboriginal population — indicating a considerably larger youth population in the
Aboriginal community. To underscore the importance of this segment of the population, all of the on-reserve First
Nations surveys conducted to date have showed that youth hold very different (and generally more positive) opinions
on a wide range of issues (compared with their older counterparts).


              The purpose of the current study is to conduct a national telephone survey of all Aboriginal people who
are not living on a reserve. The objective is to profile the issues and concerns of Aboriginal people and measure
awareness levels, interest and expectations around government programs and services, as well as probe contact
patterns and personal preferences regarding communications with government.
SAMPLING
             EKOS sampled from geographic clusters where the incidence of Aboriginal people relative to the
broader population is a minimum of three per cent. The individual cluster used is the smallest geographic unit for
which there is Census information from Statistics Canada. This is the Dissemination Area (DA), which typically
includes roughly 1,000 individuals or about 250 households. It does not, however, correspond to an individual postal
code (even at the six digit level), making it somewhat difficult to match against other information, such as the number
of listed telephones to ascertain precisely how many households (or Aboriginal households) there are in a cluster of
DAs.


             All telephone numbers for DA‘s with an Aboriginal incidence of three per cent or greater were
assembled in a sample frame and entries were drawn according to a random stratified sampling plan. That is,
numbers from certain regions of the country (i.e., the Atlantic) and from higher Aboriginal incidence DAs were
oversampled, while those from other regions and lower Aboriginal incidence areas were under sampled. The sample
was also monitored throughout data collection for the proportions of Inuit, Métis and First Nations respondents. The
incidence of finding appropriate households (i.e., that satisfied the study criteria of having an individual in it that
considered themselves to be Aboriginal, who did not live on a reserve for at least six months of the year) ranged
between two and 30 per cent. The overall average across the cases collected using the random (stratified) sampling
method was roughly ten per cent.


             In addition to the randomly selected portion of the sample, an additional ten per cent of the sample was
obtained using a ―snowball‖ referral process. That is, we completed roughly 180 cases based on referrals given to us
by the respondents in the random, high-density cluster sample. We assured respondents that no names would be
used, but that a telephone number of a household that they know to be Aboriginal, off-reserve, and living in their own
community would be helpful. This helped to offset the resources required to screen for the lower incidence sample in
the other 90 per cent of the telephone sample and allowed for a higher number of cases in the final sample.


SURVEY ADMINISTRATION
             The actual interviews were carried out between March 10 and May 27, 2006 and carry a margin of error
of  2.1 per cent for the sample overall and +/-5 to 10 per cent for most sub-groups that can be isolated in the
analysis. The average time taken to complete an interview was 23 minutes and the response rate was 28 per cent
(details in Appendix D).
             The questionnaire was developed, with questions submitted from INAC and its study partners;
Canadian Heritage; Human Resources and Social Development Canada and the Office of the Federal Interlocator
(questionnaire presented in Appendix A). Prior to the interviewing period, the questionnaire went through a round of
pre-testing with a total of 25 respondents (in both official languages) in order to gauge the flow and clarity of the
survey instrument. A small number of revisions were made to the survey instrument in order to clarify certain
questions and to adjust the focus of others before the final survey was fielded.


             Once the sampling for the telephone survey was conducted and the questionnaire designed,
programmed, translated and tested, a pilot was conducted to ensure that the questionnaire ran as expected, and that
the sampling and incidence of reaching Aboriginal people living off-reserve was at the level anticipated. Similarly, the
contact rate in the different quota cells (e.g., within the Dissemination Areas in CMA‘s where there is a high expected
Aboriginal incidence) were examined to ensure that the number of cases required (e.g., the proportions decided upon
in the sampling) were appropriate and achievable. In this step a total of 200 interviews were conducted (mostly by
telephone) and was used to gauge the success of the survey in attaining the stated objectives. A brief report was
provided to the client as a result of this pilot. Results indicated the questionnaire to work well, but incidences of
finding the targeted population to be lower than expected and total completion targets and sample quota targets were
adjusted accordingly prior to commencing the full telephone survey.


             Fieldwork for this project was conducted by trained interviewers at EKOS‘ call centres in Ottawa and
Edmonton. The survey was collected using 16 years of age as a lower end cut off for qualifying eligible respondents.
Throughout the data collection, survey supervisors continuously monitored interviewing to ensure consistency of
questionnaire administration and interviewing techniques. Up to six call-backs were made to each member of the
sample for which initial attempts at contact were unsuccessful. This was increased to 12 call-backs in households
where initial information indicated the household to be Aboriginal. Follow-up calls were made on subsequent days, at
varying time periods to maximize the potential for reaching a given respondent. Appointments were made for
respondents wishing to reschedule a survey. Daily records were kept of all calls made, whether successful (i.e.
interviews completed or appointments made) or not.


             Once the survey collection was completed, data were reviewed for the purposes of coding open-ended
responses and general cleaning (e.g., based on skip patterns and for unusual outliers). The overall survey results
were weighted in the analysis to reflect population proportions in terms of region of residence, community size and
Aboriginal population density, as well as by age and gender from known population parameters for Aboriginal people
who are living outside of a reserve.
FACE-TO-FACE COMPONENT
OF SURVEY

                Additionally, just under 300 face-to-face interviews (n=294) were conducted at Aboriginal Friendship
Centers (AFCs) and other Aboriginal organizations found in urban communities across the country. For this part of
the study, EKOS relied on the assistance of Anishinabek Consultants Inc., an Aboriginal-owned firm with more than
15 years of experience in consulting the Aboriginal community, who assisted with the selection of Aboriginal
organizations and the coordination of data collection for the face-to-face survey. Anishinabek Consultants Inc. also
provided advice on the overall instrument design, and on the interpretation of results across the different components
of the study.


                For these face-to-face interviews, an adapted version of the telephone survey was used, that was
reader-friendly, with liberal use of instructions on how to complete the questionnaire and making skip logic simple
and clear to follow (Appendix B). A total of 13 Aboriginal organizations participated by administering the survey to
their clientele. In each centre, one or two staff from the organization were given instructions on how to sample and
interview Aboriginal clientele who do not have a listed telephone number. This included individuals without a home
phone, including those who have chosen to have a mobile phone instead, since databases of telephone numbers do
not include numbers for mobile phones (instructions can be found in Appendix C). Two organizations participated in
the pilot, completing a total of 13 cases. Additional changes were made to the questionnaire and instructions as a
result of this pilot.


                Completed questionnaire forms were returned to EKOS for a complete review of data quality and
coding. Responses where then entered and merged with the main data set, with a flag to allow for examination of in-
person versus telephone responses.


SAMPLE CHARACTERISTICS
                The following table provides details on the sample of Aboriginal people living off-reserve in both the
telephone (random and snowball) and face-to-face portions of the overall sample for many of the sub-group
segments represented in this report. As shown, the age, education and income profile among face-to-face
respondents is lower than found elsewhere in the sample, and this sample is also highly clustered geographically.
There is also a considerably larger proportion of the sample that is First Nations. Where there are differences in the
results for face-to-face respondents, they have been noted, along with other sub-group differences, in the body of the
report.
Table 1: Overall Sample Characteristics

                                                                                      Sample Distribution (%)
                                                            Sample Distribution (%)      in Face-To-Face
                        Overall Sample                           in Telephone               Interviews
                           (n=2183)       Margin of Error    Interviews (n=1,889)            (n=294)

Province/Region

British Columbia             428                4.7                   19                        10

Alberta                      309                5.6                   17                        3

Saskatchewan                 316                5.5                   14                        1

Manitoba                     482                4.5                   15                        53

Ontario                      360                5.2                   21                        19

Quebec                       107                9.5                   8                         0

New Brunswick                17                24.5                   2                         0

Nova Scotia/Prince
                             64                12.3                   3                         11
Edward Island

Newfoundland and
                             100                9.8                   3                         3
Labrador

Size

Rural                        339                5.3                   16                        —

Less than 2.5K               327                5.4                   18                        —

CMA                          918                3.2                   66                        —

Aboriginal Density of
Area

3% or less                    0                 n/a                   0                         —

4%-9.9%                      235                6.4                   11                        —

10%-19.9%                    281                5.9                   13                        —

20%-49.9%                    529                4.3                   24                        —

50% and over                 537                4.2                   25                        —

Age

<18                          56                13.2                   4                         7

18-24                        231                6.5                   18                        21

25-34                        441                4.7                   21                        24

35-44                        466                4.5                   25                        23
45-54                      469    4.5    14   19

55-64                      308    5.6    10   5

65+                        162    7.7    6    1

Gender

Male                       875    3.3    40   46

Female                     1305   2.7    60   54

Type

Status First Nations       1107   2.9    43   77

Non-Status First Nations   198    7.0    13   4

Métis                      723    3.6    38   8

Inuit                      116    9.1    4    8

Other                       11    31     0    1

Education

Grade 8 or less            214    6.7    7    11

Some high school           625    3.9    26   42

High school graduate       410    4.8    21   10

Some college               161    7.7    8    11

College/CEGEP graduate     327    5.4    18   6

Some university            162    7.7    7    11

Undergraduate university   155    7.9    6    4

Graduate/post graduate
                            69    11.9   4    1
university

Other                       10    32.7   1    0

Income

<$10,000                   255    6.1    8    29

$10-$19K                   330    5.4    13   17

$20-$29K                   272    6.0    11   11

$30-$39K                   209    6.8    10   4

$40-$49K                   144    8.2    8    3

$50-$59K                   140    8.3    6    2

$60-$69K                    91    10.3   5    1

$70-$79K                    97    10.0   5    0
$80K or above                     231                    6.5                    14                     1

                     Readers should note that although results are presented for a number of segments
                of the sample in some tables in the report, only results that are statistically and
                substantially significant are presented in the text (bullets) of the report. For example,
                results may be shown for the proportion of Aboriginal parents who are currently saving
                for their children‘s education across all provinces and territories in a table, however, the
                text only describes the results for those areas that are significantly different from the
                national average. Detailed results for all key sub-groups examined for this report can be
                found in the tables in Appendix E (under separate cover).

                     Also, some generic terms are used in this report to refer to specific segments of the
                population. Throughout the report, the term Aboriginal people living off-reserve is used to
                refer to the population of all Aboriginal people who are not currently residents of a
                reserve. We recognize that this term may be misleading, in that we use it to represent
                First Nations people who are not living on a reserve, as well as Métis and Inuit (who do
                not typically live on reserves). To date, we have found no other term that is more succinct
                or appropriate (i.e., Urban Aboriginal people, non-reserve Aboriginal people) to describe
                the population of the study. Having now established the population, we would simply use
                the term Aboriginal people, however, this would be confusing in instances in the report
                where we compare the current results with those obtained from First Nations people
                living on-reserve.
                     Also, in this report the term First Nations people is used to describe both Status
                Indians (who are registered as an Indian under the Indian Act) and Non-Status Indians.
                Additionally, youth is used to refer to individuals who are between the ages of 16 to 24
                years of age. Note as well, as indicated earlier in the sampling discussion, areas
                described as having a higher or lower Aboriginal incidence refers to small
                neighbourhoods (i.e., 200 to 300 households) where the population of Aboriginal people
                is high or low relative to the broader population. High typically includes areas where
                Aboriginal people account for upwards of one in four of the overall population. Low refers
                to areas where Aboriginal people make up fewer than one in ten.


                GENERAL SOCIAL CONDITIONS

                This Chapter presents survey results pertaining to the overall satisfaction of Aboriginal people who are
not living on a reserve, the mobility or movement of Aboriginal people living outside of a reserve in the twelve months
preceding the survey, reasons and incentives for relocation, and home ownership.


QUALITY OF LIFE
                Almost two-thirds of Aboriginal people living off-reserve are satisfied with their current quality of life;
about three in ten say it is neither good nor bad, and a small proportion (seven per cent) claim that it is poor. Even
higher proportions are optimistic about the future, with more than two-thirds expecting that their quality of life will get
even better in the next twelve months. Two in ten expect that things will remain the same, and about one in ten
expect their quality of life to deteriorate over the next 12 months. In contrast, Aboriginal people on-reserve are less
apt to rate their current quality of life positively, but are somewhat more apt to believe that this situation will improve.


                                                EMBED PowerPoint.Slide.8
Métis are more likely than others to report having a good quality of life, while First Nations people (and those
    responding in-person and through the snowball approach) are least likely to describe their quality of life
    positively.
    Younger Aboriginal people are far more hopeful than their older counterparts that their quality of life will
    improve, while older Aboriginal people are more apt than others to expect their current situation to
    continue at the same level of quality, or to worsen.
    Aboriginal people in rural Canada are less likely than those in more populated centres to have a
    positive view on their quality of life, and those in Alberta and in Quebec tend to be more satisfied with
    their quality of life than those in other parts of the country. Albertans, along with people from
    Saskatchewan, are also more likely than others to expect their quality of life to improve with time, and
    Ontarians are more apt than those in other regions to believe their quality of life will worsen.
    Those with higher household incomes are almost twice as likely to say they have a good quality of life
    as those with less income, and the same trend is true for those with more education. Aboriginal people
    reporting low income are less optimistic than those with higher household incomes that their quality of
    life will improve in the next 12 months. Similarly, those who responded to the survey in-person (and
    tend to report less income) are more apt to believe that their lives will worsen.
    Aboriginal people who are working and those who own their own home are more content with their
    quality of life than others. Internet users are more likely than others to anticipate that they will have a
    better quality of life in the future, as are those who are employed.
    Having a strong sense of cultural identity – both personally and in one‘s community – is more likely to
    result in satisfaction with one‘s quality of life. At the same time, those who speak an Aboriginal
    language are less likely than others to say they have a good quality of life.
    Those who have experienced racism recently are less likely than others to be content with their quality
    of life.
    Aboriginal people who have positive perceptions of government performance are more likely to be
    content with their current quality of life and are also more likely to expect it to improve in the future.
    Having a good quality of life now is strongly correlated with expectations of an even better quality of life
    in the future. And conversely – but to a slightly lesser degree – Aboriginal people who are not satisfied
    with their current quality of life are more apt than others to expect that it will worsen.
    Parents are more apt than others to expect their lives to improve in the next year.
MOBILITY
             One-quarter of Aboriginal people living off-reserve have moved within the past year. For those who
moved, about half moved within their current community, while just over one-third moved to another community, and
one in ten moved from a reserve.


                                              EMBED PowerPoint.Slide.8


         Métis are less likely than First Nations people or Inuit to have relocated in the past year. Métis are also more
             likely to have moved from another community than First Nations people or Inuit, while First Nations
             residents are more apt than others to have moved from a reserve.
             Not surprisingly, younger Aboriginal people had a greater tendency to have relocated in the past year
             than did those who are older. Younger Aboriginal people also are more likely than others to have
             moved from a reserve, while those between the ages of 35 and 44, and those 55 years old or over are
             more apt than others to have moved within their current community.
             Men are more likely than women to have moved from a reserve.
             Those in the most populated areas, and Albertans are more likely than others to have moved, while
             Quebecers and Atlantic Canadians are less likely to have done so.
             Rural Aboriginal people and those living in Alberta are more likely to have moved from another
             community, while those living in the most populated areas and Manitobans in particular, are more likely
             than others to have moved from within their current community. Ontarians have a greater tendency than
             others to have moved from a reserve.
             Homeowners, those who are currently employed, and those with a higher household income are less
             likely than others to have moved in the last year.
             Internet users are less likely than others to say that their move was within their current community.
             Those who rent are more likely to have done so.
             Those who speak an Aboriginal language have a greater tendency to have relocated in the past year
             than others, and to have relocated from a reserve.
             Parents are less likely than others to have moved within the past year.


REASONS FOR RELOCATION
             Among the main reasons for moving, the most popular is housing or quality of housing (27 per cent).
Smaller, but still important proportions, moved for family reasons, or for employment or educational opportunities. A
few report moving to escape social problems, because of a separation, divorce, or break-up of relationship, or to
access better or more services, better quality services, or a better life, and independence. Finally, a small proportion
moved because they wanted to experience urban life, for medical reasons, or to escape domestic violence.


                                           EMBED PowerPoint.Slide.8
Métis are more likely than others to cite family reasons as the primary reason for their move, while First
    Nations people are more apt than others to say it was due to educational opportunities.
    Not surprisingly, younger Aboriginal people are more likely than others to say that the main reason for
    their move was to pursue educational opportunities; they are less likely to attribute their move to quality
    of housing issues. Those between the ages of 25 and 44 have a greater tendency than others to
    identify quality of housing as a key issue in their relocation.
    Rural Aboriginal people and those living in areas of very high Aboriginal incidence are more likely than
    others to have moved for employment opportunities, while in areas of moderate incidence, there is a
    greater likelihood that the move was due to separation or divorce.
    Manitoba residents have a greater tendency than others to have moved for educational opportunities; in
    Alberta, they are more likely than others to say that their move was to escape social problems.
    Moving for employment reasons is a reason more often found among high school graduates than
    others. Internet users, those who are currently unemployed, and those with less than a high school
    education have a greater tendency than others to have moved for educational opportunities, but are
    less likely than others to point to housing issues as a major factor in their relocation.
    Those with no fixed address are more likely than others to have moved for either educational or
    employment opportunities, but are much less likely to have moved due to housing issues. Current
    homeowners are most likely to have moved as a result of concerns about housing.
    Among those who expect their quality of life to worsen in the future, there is a greater tendency than
    others to have moved for educational opportunities.
INCENTIVES FOR RELOCATION
             Just over half of Aboriginal people not currently living on a reserve say that they would at least
moderately likely to relocate either to get a better job, or to get more education. Fully, three in ten say they would be
very likely to move for a job (unchanged since 2003), and another two in ten say the chances of doing so are
moderately likely. (Just under half say it is not likely). Just over one-quarter would be very likely to move to get more
education (an increase from 22 per cent in 2003), and two in ten would be moderately likely to do so. Just over half
report that they would not likely move to get more education.


                                              EMBED PowerPoint.Slide.8


         First Nations people have the greater tendency to say they would be very likely to move to another
             community to get more education.
             Younger Aboriginal people are more likely than those who are older to be willing to relocate for
             educational opportunities, or for a better job.
             Those living in areas with low Aboriginal incidence, in moderately populated areas, and those in Atlantic
             Canada are less eager than others to relocate for educational opportunities. Aboriginal people living in
             areas with low Aboriginal incidence are also more apt than others to consider moving to get a better
             job.
             Willingness to move for education is highest in Saskatchewan. Willingness to move for a better job is
             highest in Manitoba (and lowest in Quebec).
             Aboriginal people with lower income report greater willingness to consider relocating for educational
             opportunities, or a better job. This is also more likely to be true of Internet users, and of those who are
             renters or who have no fixed address than of others.
             Aboriginal people who speak an Aboriginal language are more open to the idea of moving to another
             community for educational opportunities. French-speaking Aboriginal people are less likely than others
             to consider moving for a better job.
             Those who have recently experienced racism or discrimination are more apt than others to consider
             relocating for either more education or a better job.
             Interest in moving for educational opportunities is also higher among those whose current quality of life
             is poor, than for those who are more content with their quality of life. Willingness to relocate for a better
             job is lower for those whose quality of life is good than for others.


HOME OWNERSHIP
             Four in ten Aboriginal people who are not currently living on a reserve (42 per cent) rent their current
residence, 35 per cent own their residence, and 15 per cent are living with family or friends.


                                              EMBED PowerPoint.Slide.8
        First Nations people are more likely than Métis or Inuit to rent their home.
             Women are more apt than men to rent their residence, while men are more apt to report that they are
             living with friends or family.
             Home ownership increases steadily with age (from seven per cent of those under 25 to 57 per cent of
             those 55 and older) and household income, as well as employment.
             Residents of Atlantic Canada are more apt to own their home, while those in Saskatchewan are more
             apt to be renting. Those residing in large cities are more apt to rent their residence, while those in rural
             areas and small cities are more apt to own.
             Those who speak an Aboriginal language are less likely than Anglophones or Francophones to own
             their current residence.
             The proportion that own their home declines as density of Aboriginal population increases, and those
             residing in areas of high Aboriginal density are more apt to be staying with friends or family.


             Financial reasons are cited as the main obstacle to home ownership by most Aboriginal people living
off-reserve. Only a small proportion (11 per cent) choose not to be a homeowner (because they are not interested in
being a homeowner or are unable/unwilling to maintain a home). A small minority also choose not to purchase a
home because of a temporary situation or state of transition (e.g., attending school, they plan to move back to the
reserve) or do plan to own a home eventually.


                                              EMBED PowerPoint.Slide.8
             Renters were asked how often they experience discrimination when they are meeting a landlord or
viewing a property they would like to rent. Four in ten believe they never experience any discrimination in this
situation and an additional 19 per cent report that they rarely experience any discrimination. On the other hand, one-
quarter say that they sometimes experience discrimination and seven per cent feel that they always do.


                                              EMBED PowerPoint.Slide.8


         Métis renters are less likely than First Nations people or Inuit renters to say that they experience
             discrimination. The difference is even more marked among those who responded to the survey in-
             person (which may be partially driven by the fact that this segment has higher proportions of Inuit and
             First Nations people), who are most likely to indicate that they experience discrimination in this
             situation.
             Men are less likely than women to report that they experience discrimination.
             Those aged 35 to 54 are more apt than others discrimination (while those 55 and older are less apt to
             say they experience discrimination).
             Residents of Ontario and Quebec are less likely than others to experience discrimination as renters,
             while those in Manitoba are more apt to. Perhaps related to this (or vice versa), renters in large cities
             more often report discrimination.
             Renter discrimination declines with household income.
             Those who speak an Aboriginal language are more apt than those who speak English or French to
             indicate that they experience discrimination when meeting a potential landlord.
             Individuals who rate their current quality of life poorly more often report this type of discrimination than
             others, as do those who experience racism.


             RELATIONS BETWEEN ABORIGINAL
             AND NON-ABORIGINAL PEOPLE,
             AND RACISM

             This Chapter presents survey results pertaining to the views of Aboriginal people regarding the state of
relations between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people, the extent to which these relations are perceived to be
static, improving or eroding over time and why, as well as reported racism or discrimination experienced within the
previous two years.


RACISM AND DISCRIMINATION
              Just over four in ten Aboriginal people non and off-reserve report having been a victim of racism or
discrimination because of their Aboriginal origin over the last two years (which is similar to results found in the off-
reserve population in 2003). Among those who have experienced racism or discrimination, the vast majority (74 per
cent) say it was at the hands of a non-Aboriginal person; a higher proportion than in 2003, when this figure was
64 per cent. Four in ten have experienced racism or discrimination by businesses (up from 20 per cent in 2003). One-
quarter cited police (up slightly from 2003).The same proportion experienced racism by schools (up from 17 per cent
in 2003), and one-quarter say it was through people at work or an employer; an increase from six per cent in 2003.
Government was the source of their experience with racism or discrimination by two in ten Aboriginal people, which is
up slightly from 14 per cent in 2003. Smaller proportions refer to a landlord or housing authority, a bank or credit
institution, or the courts and justice system in general (although the proportion reporting racism or discrimination is up
from seven per cent in 2003).
                                     EMBED PowerPoint.Slide.8


First Nations people are more likely to report racism or discrimination because of their Aboriginal origin than
    either Inuit or Métis. They are also more likely than others to cite the police, and businesses as sources.
    Métis are less likely than others to identity landlords or housing authorities (at least partly driven by a
    larger proportion of homeowners among Métis).
    Those who responded to the survey in-person, or as a result of the snowball approach are far more
    likely than others to indicate that they have experienced racism in the past two years.
    Racism or discrimination is more often reported by older Aboriginal people. Specifically, those between
    the ages of 45 and 54 are more likely to report many sources of racism, compared with those younger
    or older, (including the courts or justice system, banks, utilities, work or employer, government, and
    Aboriginal people). Younger Aboriginal people are more likely to identify problems with schools, but are
    less likely to cite businesses, work, or government.
    Men are more likely than women to refer to the police, the courts, or justice system in general, while
    women are more likely than men to cite a business.
    The larger the city or town the residents lives in the more likely it is that an Aboriginal person has
    experienced racism in the past two years. Furthermore, those living in communities with a moderate
    incidence of Aboriginal people (between ten and 50 per cent of Aboriginal people relative to the entire
    population) report a higher incidence of racism or discrimination than do those living in communities
    with very low or high concentration of Aboriginal people within the population.
    Residents of the Prairies are more likely than those in other parts of the country to report racism. Those
    in British Columbia are more likely than others to say they experienced racism at work or through an
    employer, and are less likely to blame a non-Aboriginal person. Albertans are more likely than others to
    have experienced racism in school, while in Saskatchewan there is a greater tendency to identify
    businesses. In Manitoba, people are more likely than in other regions to cite the police as a source,
    while this is less likely to be the case than average in Atlantic Canada or Quebec.
    The university-educated are much more likely than those with less education to report racism or
    discrimination. This same segment, as well as the employed are more likely to cite businesses, or an
    employer as sources.
    Individuals with less income have a greater tendency than others to point to the police as a source.
    Aboriginal people with household incomes between $20,000 and $39,000 are more likely than others to
    cite a business. Finally, among those in the next household income bracket ($40,000 to $79,000),
    government is cited more often.
    French-speaking Aboriginal people are much less likely than others to have experienced racism
    recently, and are also less likely than others to identify police or businesses as sources. Those who
    speak an Aboriginal language are more likely than others to cite government, justice system or the
    courts as sources.
    Those who are content with their quality of life, with the performance of government, and who believe
relations between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people have improved are much less likely than others
to report racism over the past two years. They are also less likely than others to identify many of the
possible sources of racism or discrimination. Those whose current quality of life is poor and who have
negative perceptions of government performance are more likely than others to cite almost all of the
possible sources (except for businesses and a non-Aboriginal person in both cases).
Those who believe relations between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people are improving are less likely
than others to say they experienced racism through the police, or at the hands of a non-Aboriginal
person.
STATE OF RELATIONS BETWEEN ABORIGINAL
      AND NON-ABORIGINAL PEOPLE

             When asked about the current state of relations between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people, just
over half (53 per cent) report that they see the relationship between Aboriginal people and other Canadians as
staying about the same. One-quarter of Aboriginal people non- and off-reserve say things are improving, and slightly
fewer (17 per cent) say that the relationship is deteriorating. This is similar, although less positive than found among
First Nations people living on-reserve (and in 2005, before the 2006 conflict in Caledonia made national headlines
from southern Ontario).


                                              EMBED PowerPoint.Slide.8
The youngest and oldest Aboriginal people are more likely than others to see improvements in relations
    between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people.
    Residents of Atlantic Canada are more likely than others across the country to see improvements in the
    relationship, while those in Saskatchewan are the most apt to say that relations are worsening.
    People who are university-educated are more likely than others to believe that relations are getting
    worse.
    Among Métis, and residents of areas where the Aboriginal incidence relative to the rest of the
    population is low, Aboriginal people are more apt to say that the relationship is improving, while in areas
    where the incidence of Aboriginal population is moderate there is a greater tendency to believe that
    things are getting worse.
    Those who have recently experienced racism are also more likely than others to note a downturn in
    relations.
    Aboriginal people who are content with their current quality of life, as well as those who are satisfied
    with the performance of government are more likely than others to have a positive take on relations
    between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people.
              People with positive views of how relations between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people are unfolding
were subsequently asked to elaborate on their reasons for their point of view. One-third of Aboriginal people say
relations are improving because of better intercultural relations between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people, while
roughly one in four feel it is because non-Aboriginal society is better educated (than in the past). Smaller proportions
attribute improving relations to an increasingly educated Aboriginal population, to having more prominent Aboriginal
voices in the mainstream, or to the perception that Aboriginal claims to land and self-government are being met.


                                              EMBED PowerPoint.Slide.8


         Aboriginal men are more likely than women to give credit for improving relations to better intercultural
              relations between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people.
              Youth and those between the ages of 45 and 54 are more apt to credit better intercultural relations,
              while those between the ages of 25 and 34 have a greater tendency to say it is because non-Aboriginal
              people are better educated. Those between the ages of 35 and 44 are more likely than either younger
              or older Aboriginal people to say that improved relations are due to a better-educated Aboriginal
              population.
              Residents of British Columbia are more likely than others to credit a more highly educated Aboriginal
              population for improving relations.
              Individuals with less education and those with no fixed address are more likely than others to relate the
              improvement to better intercultural relations, whereas those with a university education are more likely
              than others to say improving relations are a result of the level of education of non-Aboriginal, and (to a
              lesser degree) Aboriginal people. Homeowners are less likely than others to give credit to improved
              intercultural relations.
              Improved intercultural relations is also more commonly cited by rural residents compared with those
              living in urban areas.


              Roughly one-quarter blame the deteriorating relationship between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people
on racism or intolerance, and two in ten say it comes from a sense of neglect or mistreatment by government.
Smaller proportions (15 per cent) believe that relations are worsening because non-Aboriginal people believe that
Aboriginal people receive preferred treatment by government. One in ten cite a lack of communications between
Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal society, and similar proportions attribute it to non-Aboriginal people being unaware of
Aboriginal culture.


                                              EMBED PowerPoint.Slide.8


         Métis are more likely than either Inuit or First Nations people to blame worsening relations on perceptions in
              the Aboriginal community of neglect and mistreatment by government, while First Nations people are
              more apt than others to blame racism or intolerance.
Racism and intolerance is also cited more often by women than by men, as well as by older Aboriginal
people, whereas those between the ages of 35 and 44 years are more likely than others to blame
worsening relations on the belief among non-Aboriginal people that Aboriginal people receive
preferential treatment from government.
The belief that Aboriginal people are neglected and mistreated by government is more often identified
as the cause of deteriorating relations among those with a university education than by others; this
cohort is also less likely than others to place the blame on racism or intolerance.
Residents of Alberta and in Manitoba are more likely than those in other regions to cite racism or
intolerance, whereas residents of British Columbia are least likely to share this view. People living in
rural areas are more likely than urban-dwellers to say government neglect and mistreatment of
Aboriginal people is a major factor.
French-speaking Aboriginal people are less likely than others to believe that worsening relations are
due to racism or intolerance; they are more apt than others to attribute it to perceived government
neglect and mistreatment among the Aboriginal population.
As might be expected, recent victims of racism are more likely than others to point to racism or
intolerance as the cause for deteriorating relations, and, they are more apt to cite perceptions of
government neglect or mistreatment, or a lack of communication as the primary reasons.
Aboriginal people who believe government performance has been sub-standard are less likely than
others to place the blame on the views held by non-Aboriginal people that Aboriginal people receive
preferential treatment from government. Those with a positive view of government performance have
greater tendencies to attribute it to perceptions of government neglect and mistreatment among the
Aboriginal population, and are less likely than others to attribute it to racism or intolerance.
Individuals reporting poor quality of life more often cite social problems as the main reason for
worsening relations.
GOVERNMENT

              This Chapter discusses the priority areas that Aboriginal people living off-reserve would like to see the
Government of Canada focus on, the frequency with which they seek information or assistance on a variety of topics,
and perceptions of the current quality of service delivered to Aboriginal people living outside of a reserve by each of
the three levels of government.


PRIORITIES
              The list of priority areas that Aboriginal people would like to see the Government of Canada focus on is
quite varied and far less concentrated than found in the general public. They place health care and education at the
top of the list of priorities for the Government of Canada (37 per cent and 35 per cent, respectively). Eighteen per
cent cite Aboriginal issues as top priorities, while similar proportions talk about social services, poverty, welfare, and
homelessness, or jobs and unemployment. These results represent a shift from 2003 with education rising in
importance (from three years ago when Aboriginal people living off-reserve identified health care as the top priority
for the Government of Canada, followed by Aboriginal treaty rights/issues, and with education in third place). One in
ten believe the top priority should be children and child poverty, and still smaller proportions identify housing, crime,
violence and justice, environmental issues and pollution, or lowering taxes as priorities.
                               EMBED PowerPoint.Slide.8 EMBED PowerPoint.Slide.8


         Inuit are less likely than either Métis or First Nations people to identify either health care or education as an
             important priority for the Government of Canada, and are more likely than the other two groups to focus
             on housing and Aboriginal issues.
             Women are more likely than men to say that both health care and education are top priorities. Parents
             are more apt than others to identify children or child poverty and social services as high priorities.
             Residents of Manitoba and Atlantic Canada are more likely than others across the country to cite jobs
             and unemployment as priority issues. Atlantic residents are also more likely than others to be
             concerned about health care, while Manitobans are more likely than others to view social services or
             poverty as a top priority. Albertans are the least likely across the country to identify Aboriginal issues as
             something requiring government attention.
             Rural residents are less likely than those living in more populated areas to believe that education
             should be a priority.
             The university-educated are more likely than others to say that education, health care, poverty and
             social services should be at the top of the list.
             Children and child poverty are issues of greater concern among those whose household income is
             between $40,000 and $79,000 than for those with higher or lower incomes.
             Those who speak an Aboriginal language more often prioritize Aboriginal issues at the top compared
             with those who do not speak an Aboriginal language. This is also true of those who have recently
             experienced racism.
             Aboriginal people who report poor quality of life and are pessimistic about the future are also more apt
             to suggest a focus on Aboriginal issues. This group is also more likely to prioritize crime, violence and
             justice issues, and tends to be less concerned than others about prioritizing health care.


FREQUENCY OF SEEKING ASSISTANCE
             This study also measures the demand for information and services in a range of areas by the frequency
with which people seek information, assistance or advice on five possible issues: credit, childcare, getting a ride to go
somewhere, employment, and government services.


             The most frequently sought after is government services, as 69 per cent of Aboriginal people living off-
reserve say that they look for information, assistance or advice in this area at least some of the time. In fact, 29 per
cent say that they do so occasionally or often. Employment is second on the list, with a total of 59 per cent of people
saying that they seek out assistance or information in this area (28 per cent say that they do so occasionally or
often). Arranging for a ride to go somewhere is third on the list, although fewer (44 per cent) than half are looking for
information or assistance in this area (with 22 per cent doing so occasionally or often). Information or assistance with
child care is required less often (39 per cent), with one in five (19 per cent) inquiring occasionally or often. Last on the
list is credit, with 50 per cent inquiring (16 per cent inquiring occasionally or often).
                                               EMBED PowerPoint.Slide.8


         Quebecers, Ontarians, and those in areas where the Aboriginal incidence is low have a greater tendency
             than others to say they never seek guidance on employment issues, while those in Saskatchewan and
             those in areas where the Aboriginal incidence is very high are more likely to regularly ask for assistance
             on this issue.
             Aboriginal people living in areas with low incidence, Quebecers and Atlantic Canadians have greater
             tendencies to never need help in arranging for a ride (for Atlantic Canadians, this is partly because
             three in ten have a car).
             Not surprisingly, older Aboriginal people (many of whom are no longer working) are far less likely than
             those who are younger to regularly seek guidance on employment issues, while those under the age of
             25 are more apt to do so often. This younger age group is also more apt than others to look for help in
             making arrangements for a ride to go somewhere, while this is least common among older Aboriginal
             people.
             Those between the ages of 25 and 34 years tend to seek help on child care more frequently than
             others, likely because they are just starting their families. Renters also have a greater tendency to
             regularly ask for assistance when it comes to child care, while those with a college degree are less
             likely to ask for assistance in this area.
             Renters, those with less than a high school education and those with lower incomes are more likely to
             frequently seek help on employment issues and in arranging for a ride to go somewhere than others.
             Aboriginal people who speak an Aboriginal language are more likely than others to regularly look for
             help in arranging for a ride to go somewhere, and on childcare issues.
             Naturally, parents are far more likely to seek information or assistance on child care, and are also more
             apt to seek information on government services.


PERCEPTIONS OF GOVERNMENT SERVICE
      DELIVERY
             In terms of the overall quality of government service delivered to Aboriginal people living off-reserve,
negative views generally outweight positive ones; in the case of the federal government, by a factor of two to one.
The most positive results, although tepid at best, relate to performance of local governments. One-quarter of
individuals are positive about their city or town government‘s service, and one-third have a negative perspective. Two
in ten are positive about the performance of the provincial government, although just over one-third provide negative
performance ratings. Fewer still believe the overall quality of service delivery from the Government of Canada to
Aboriginal people living off-reserve is good (12 per cent, down from 17 per cent in 2003), and four in ten give it a
negative rating.
                                             EMBED PowerPoint.Slide.8


        Inuit tend to be more satisfied with the quality of service provided by the Government of Canada, and by
            their provincial government than Métis or First Nations people. Métis are more likely than others to give
            positive ratings in connection with their local government.
            Those interviewed in-person are more apt than others to rate government performance (at all three
            levels) poorly.
            Older Aboriginal people are more apt (than their younger counterparts) to hold negative perceptions of
            service delivery provided by the Government of Canada, and by their provincial government.
            Rural residents, and those living in Quebec are more positive about service delivery from the
            Government of Canada and from their provincial governments. At the provincial level, Aboriginal people
            in Alberta are also more likely than others to have positive views on service delivery, while Aboriginal
            people in Atlantic Canada typically hold more negative views. Finally, Manitobans are less satisfied with
            the quality of service delivery provided by their city or town government than those living in other
            regions.
            The university-educated are generally more negative than their counterparts about the service delivery
            of all three levels of government.
            Those reporting household income of $40,000 to $79,000 are also more likely than those reporting
            higher or lower incomes to have lower ratings of the service delivery provided by the Government of
            Canada.
            Homeowners are more negative than others about provincial service delivery.
            Those who speak an Aboriginal language are more negative regarding the Government of Canada and
            local government.
            Aboriginal people who are currently less positive about their current and future quality of life, and
            relations between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people are also more negative about government
            service delivery (from all three levels of government).
            Parents are more likely than others to provide negative responses with respect to provincial and federal
            governments.


            ABORIGINAL REPRESENTATION
            AND SERVICES

            This Chapter examines the level of satisfaction of Aboriginal people living off-reserve with Aboriginal
representative organizations, the extent to which they prefer that programs and services be delivered to them by
Aboriginal organizations or staff, as well as the impact and use of Friendship Centres in off-reserve communities.


SATISFACTION WITH ABORIGINAL
       REPRESENTATIVE ORGANIZATIONS
             Aboriginal people living off-reserve are no more positive about the performance of Aboriginal
representative organizations than they are about their local governments (although they are marginally less negative
than they are about more senior levels of government). One-quarter of Aboriginal people say that their interests are
well represented by these organizations. More than a third (38 per cent) believe their interests are moderately
represented, and another third report dissatisfaction.


             Opinion is also very divided with regard to the information and communication people receive from
these Aboriginal representative organizations. Thirty-seven per cent are not satisfied with this information and
communication, and about the same proportion are content.
                                                EMBED PowerPoint.Slide.8


         Inuit respondents tend to be more satisfied with the representation of Aboriginal representative
              organizations than Métis or First Nations respondents. Inuit are also less likely than others to report
              dissatisfaction with the information and communication they receive from these organizations.
              Those interviewed in-person are more likely than others to feel that they are well-represented by
              Aboriginal organizations.
              Younger Aboriginal people are more likely than their older counterparts to say their interests are well
              represented by Aboriginal representative organizations, and to be satisfied with the information and
              communications that they receive from them.
              People living in Alberta, Saskatchewan, and in areas where the Aboriginal population density is
              moderate (relative to the overall population) are less apt than others to feel that their interests are
              sufficiently represented by Aboriginal representative organizations. Residents of Quebec are typically
              more positive, as are French-speaking Aboriginal people. Residents living in Saskatchewan are the
              least positive.
              The least educated (as well as the unemployed) are also more positive about Aboriginal representative
              organizations and the information and communications they receive from them, relative to those with
              more education (and the employed).
              Those with a strong sense of cultural identity (personally and in their community) are also more likely
              than others to feel well represented, and to be satisfied with the communication and information
              received from Aboriginal representative organizations.
              Positive views about representation (and the information and communications received) also coincide
              with positive reports regarding quality of life, relations between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people,
              and government performance.


ABORIGINAL REPRESENTATION
      IN PROGRAM AND SERVICE DELIVERY

              Half of Aboriginal people living off-reserve consider it important that the programs and services that
they use be delivered by an Aboriginal organization. Three in ten say it is moderately important, and it is not
important to only 17 per cent. Slightly fewer (41 per cent) say it is important that programs and services be delivered
by Aboriginal staff, but not necessarily by an Aboriginal organization. Another 35 per cent say this is moderately
important, but only two in ten feel that this is not important.


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Métis are less likely than Inuit or First Nations people to say that it is important that programs and services
    be delivered by an Aboriginal organization. Furthermore, those who responded to the survey in-person
    or through the snowball approach (and are more apt to be Inuit or First Nations people) are most likely
    to stress the importance of service and program delivery by an Aboriginal organization.
    Ontarians are more likely than others to prefer having services and programs delivered by an Aboriginal
    organization (and by Aboriginal staff). This is less important in Alberta and in Quebec than in other parts
    of the country. It is also less of an issue in areas where the Aboriginal incidence is relatively high
    compared with the rest of the population.
    Individuals with a university education are more likely than others to say that it is important that
    programs and services be delivered specifically by Aboriginal staff, but not necessarily by an Aboriginal
    organization.
    Those with the lowest household incomes ($20,000 or less) are more likely than others to feel that
    having Aboriginal organizations deliver the programs and services that they use is important.
    People who speak an Aboriginal language also have a greater tendency than others to stress the
    importance of service and program delivery by an Aboriginal organization.
    There is a greater preference for programs and services that are delivered by an Aboriginal
    organization (and staff, but not necessarily organization) among those with a stronger sense of
    personal cultural identity and community cultural identity.
    Individuals who have recently experienced racism, and who think that relations between Aboriginal and
    non-Aboriginal people are improving tend to place more importance than others do on service and
    program delivery by an Aboriginal organization, and Aboriginal staff (but not necessarily by an
    Aboriginal organization).
IMPACT OF FRIENDSHIP CENTRES
             As perhaps the most popular and best known Aboriginal community service organization across the
country, the impact of Friendship Centres on the community is viewed as positive by a majority of Aboriginal people
living outside of a reserve (57 per cent). Eighteen per cent feel the impact is neutral, and only one in ten say the
impact is negative.


                                              EMBED PowerPoint.Slide.8


         Individuals between the ages of 35 and 44 are the most positive about the impact of Friendship Centres on
             their community.
             Aboriginal people living in Manitoba and Ontario, and those living in the most populated areas also
             have a greater appreciation for the benefits of Friendship Centres in the community. Residents of the
             Atlantic and Quebecers are less likely than others to say that they have a positive impact.
             The positive aspects of having a Friendship Centre in one‘s community are more apt to be
             acknowledged by those with lower household incomes and renters than by those reporting more
             income or homeowners.
             Those with a stronger sense of cultural identity – both personally and in their community – are more
             likely than others to say that Friendship Centres have a positive impact on their community.
             Aboriginal people who are less satisfied with their quality of life and are less positive about the state of
             relations between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people also tend to be less enthusiastic about the
             impact of Friendship Centres in their community.
             Those who responded in-person or through the snowball approach are more apt to feel that Friendship
             Centres have had a positive impact.


USE OF FRIENDSHIP CENTRES
             Just over half (52 per cent) of Aboriginal people living off-reserve report having used the services,
family access programs, or activities of a Friendship Centre on at least an annual basis. In terms of frequency of use,
two in ten use these services yearly, and similar proportions do so monthly. In fact, 14 per cent use these services,
programs or activities weekly.


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         Inuit are more likely than others to access Friendship Centres on a weekly basis. Métis are the least likely to
             use Friendship Centres at all.
              Women typically use Friendship Centres more frequently than men.
              Older Aboriginal people are less apt to use Friendship Centres than others, and when they do they
              typically use them less frequently. Youth are more likely than others to access Friendship Centres on a
              monthly basis.
              Those living in Atlantic Canada are more frequent users of Friendship Centres than others, while
              Albertans and those living in areas where there is low Aboriginal incidence (relative to the rest of the
              population) are less likely than others to access Friendship Centres at all.
              Low-income households and renters tend to use Friendship Centres more frequently than others. The
              majority of homeowners and those with higher incomes do not use their services.
              Aboriginal people who speak French are less frequent users of Friendship Centres.
              Those who currently report good quality of life, as well as individuals with positive perceptions of
              government performance are less likely than others to use Friendship Centres.


              PARTICIPATION IN CULTURAL
              AND CREATIVE ACTIVITIES

              This Chapter looks at the level of participation in community groups, events or organizations among
Aboriginal people living off-reserve; participation in unpaid volunteer work; the perceived strength of individual and
community cultural identity; participation in cultural and creative activities; and APTN viewership.


COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION
              When asked about participation in any groups, organizations or events in their community, just over two
in ten say that they participate weekly, while 27 per cent participate on a monthly basis. Twenty-four per cent are
active in this way on a yearly basis, and about one-quarter never participate. Among participants, six in ten say that
they typically participate in Aboriginal groups, organizations or events.


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Inuit who are active in their community are much more likely than Métis or First Nations people to say that
    their activities are generally with Aboriginal groups, organizations or events.
    Those 55 years old or over tend to be less active than others in their community through groups,
    organizations or events. Of those who are participating, older Aboriginal people are more likely than
    others to do so for an Aboriginal group, organization or event.
    Quebecers are far less likely than others to participate in community events, organizations or groups on
    a weekly basis, but are much more likely than others to do so on a monthly basis. Among those who
    are regular participants in such activities, Manitobans are more likely than others to say these are
    generally Aboriginal events, groups or organizations, while this is less likely to be true of Albertans and
    Quebecers.
    Participation is less frequent and less likely to be based mostly around Aboriginal groups, events and
    organizations in rural Canada, and in areas where Aboriginal incidence is low than in other areas.
    Weekly participation in such community activities is higher in areas where Aboriginal incidence is
    moderate than in other areas.
    Involvement in these types of community activities tends to be higher for those with university education
    than for others, and is lower than average among those with less than a high school education.
    Aboriginal people who have a college education and those with higher household incomes are less
    likely than others to have mostly restricted their activities to Aboriginal groups, organizations or events.
    Homeowners are less frequent participants in community events, groups or organizations than others.
    Those who are currently employed are less likely to say that these activities were generally Aboriginal-
    based.
    Aboriginal people who speak an Aboriginal language are more active than others in their community
    groups, events and organizations and are more likely than others to say these are generally Aboriginal-
    based activities; the same is also true of those with a stronger sense of cultural identity (both personally
    and in their community).
    Those who have recently experienced racism are also more regular participants in community activities,
    and in particular, Aboriginal groups, organizations or events.
    Aboriginal people who have a good quality of life and who are more positive about government
    performance are more likely than others to say that their participation in community activities tends to
    be around Aboriginal groups, organizations or events.
    Those who responded to the survey in-person or as a result of the snowball approach are more likely
    than others to participate in community activities (and do so more often). Furthermore, their
    participation is far more likely to be in Aboriginal groups, organizations or events.
VOLUNTEERING
             Just over half (56 per cent) of Aboriginal people living off-reserve report having done unpaid volunteer
work during the last 12 months. For those who did volunteer, the overwhelming majority (88 per cent) say they
enjoyed the experience.


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         Inuit are less likely than First Nations people or Métis to have volunteered in the past 12 months.
             Aboriginal people in Saskatchewan are the most likely to have volunteered, while those in Quebec are
             the least likely to have done so.
             Those with higher education and household income are more likely than others to have been active in
             volunteering over the past year. This is also more likely to be true of homeowners, those who use the
             Internet, and those who are employed.
             Individuals who speak an Aboriginal language are more apt than others to have volunteered in the past
             year.
             Recent victims of racism or discrimination have a greater tendency to have volunteered recently than
             others.
             Those with negative perceptions of their future quality of life, of government performance, and of
             relations between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people are more likely to have volunteered than those
             with a more positive perspective.
             Parents are more likely than others to have volunteered.


             For those who did not volunteer over the past 12 months, the most often cited reason is they do not
have enough time, or are too busy. This was expressed by 56 per cent of Aboriginal people not living on a reserve.
Twelve per cent did not do so due to health reasons or a disability, and 11 per cent had no interest. Fewer still say
the reason they did not volunteer is because they were not personally asked, because they are unwilling to make the
commitment, or that there is no opportunity to volunteer or no cause to volunteer for.


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         First Nations people are more likely than others to say that they did not volunteer because they were too
             busy to do so, while Métis are more likely than others to attribute it to a lack of interest.
             Older Aboriginal people are less likely than others to say they were unable to volunteer due to a lack of
             time, but are more likely to cite health reasons or a disability as the main obstacle.
             Albertans and those living in the most populated areas have a greater tendency to say that they have
             been too busy to volunteer; this argument is least likely to be made in Atlantic Canada. Those in rural
              areas are more likely than others to say they were not interested in volunteering.
              Internet users and those who are working are more apt than others to be too busy to volunteer, and
              less likely to say that health reasons or disabilities are obstacles. Conversely, Aboriginal people with the
              least education and income are less likely than others to blame lack of time as an obstacle to
              volunteerism, but are more likely to attribute it to health reasons or a disability.
              People reporting poor quality of life (as well as those who expect it to deteriorate over time) are more
              likely than others to say they have not volunteered because of health reasons or a disability, and are
              less apt than others to blame it on lack of time.
              Those who say that relations between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people are worsening are less
              likely than others to have an interest in volunteering.
              Parents who have not volunteered are more likely to cite a lack of time.


EXTENT OF CULTURAL IDENTITY
              Most Aboriginal people living off-reserve are more likely to rate their own cultural identity as strong, but
are much less likely to see the same strong sense of cultural identity in their community. Four in ten say that their
community has a strong cultural identity, while three in ten say it is moderately strong, and equal proportions believe
it is not strong at all. In comparison, six in ten believe their own sense of cultural identity is strong; two in ten say it is
moderately strong, and equal proportions believe it is not strong.


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Aboriginal people between the age of 45 and 54 years are more likely than others to rate both their personal
    sense of cultural identity and the cultural identity within their community as strong.
    Those in rural areas, in areas where there is a high or very high Aboriginal incidence, and those in
    British Columbia are more likely than others to say that their community has a strong sense of cultural
    identity. Albertans are less likely than others to share this view. Quebecers are less likely than others to
    say their own personal cultural identity is strong, while Atlantic Canadians are the most apt to do so.
    The view that there is a strong sense of cultural identity in one‘s community is stronger for those with a
    university education than for others. High school graduates are less likely than others to report a strong
    personal sense of cultural identity.
    Interestingly, when it comes to income, it is those with the lowest household incomes who are most
    likely to report a strong sense of cultural identity in their community; those with higher incomes are just
    as likely to give a low rating for the sense of cultural identity within their community as they are to rate it
    highly.
    Those who speak an Aboriginal language and who have a strong personal sense of cultural identity are
    more likely than others to see the same quality of cultural identity in their community, or have a strong
    sense of it themselves.
    Among those who have recently experienced racism, there is a greater tendency to claim a strong
    personal sense of cultural identity.
    Aboriginal people who have positive views about government performance, the state of relations
    between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people, and about their own quality of life are more apt than
    others to rate the cultural identity of their community as strong.
    Those who responded to the survey in-person or via the snowball approach are far more likely than
    others to rate their personal and community sense of cultural identity as strong (which is perhaps not
    surprising given their higher rates of community participation).
              Most Aboriginal people living off-reserve participated in some type of cultural activity in the 12 months
preceding the survey. In the past year, most have attended a live performance such as a play, concert or dance at
least once (37 per cent have not), with more than four in ten reporting that they have attended live performances
twice or more. Over half have attended a visual arts exhibit in the past year (with one-third attending a visual arts
exhibit twice or more in that time), and close to half have attended an exhibit of artifacts, historical objects or natural
history specimens. One-quarter have attended a media arts presentation in the past year.


                                                EMBED PowerPoint.Slide.8


         Inuit are less apt than First Nations people or Métis to have attended any live performances, visual art
              exhibits or exhibits of artifacts in the past year, likely because of their lack of access in remote
              communities.
              Men are less likely than women to have attended a live performance or visual art exhibit in the past
              year.
              Those aged 55 and over are less apt than their younger counterparts to have attended an exhibit of
              artifacts, live performance or visual art exhibit in the previous year.
              Residents of Quebec are less likely than those from other regions to have attended any live
              performances in the past year, whereas residents of Saskatchewan are more likely to have attended all
              the cultural activities listed in comparison to respondents from other regions.
              It is not surprising, given proximity, to see that residents of metropolitan areas are more likely than
              residents of rural or suburban areas to have attended a live performance, visual art exhibit or exhibit of
              artifacts within the past year.
              Parents are more likely than others to have attended live performances in the past year, and have
              attended more frequently (which may be a function more of the age relationship). They are also more
              likely to have attended an exhibit of artifacts or historic objects.
              Those who responded to the survey in-person are more apt than others to have attended a media arts
              presentation in the past year.
              Residents of areas with the highest Aboriginal density (50 per cent or more) are less likely to have
              attended a live performance, visual art exhibit or exhibit of artifacts than other residents, likely because
              these types of communities are often more remote and lack access to cultural events and infrastructure.
              The proportion that has attended any of the cultural activities listed increases with level of education
              and income. For example, those with university education are more apt to have attended each activity
              more frequently than those with less education. Similarly, those who use the Internet, and the employed
              are more apt to have attended all the cultural activities listed and to have attended more frequently in
              the past year.
              Those who describe their community or personal cultural identity as weak are less apt to have attended
              a live performance, media arts presentation or visual arts exhibit in the past year, compared to those
              with strong personal or community cultural identity.
Those who have been victims of racism are more likely than others to have attended the cultural
activities listed in the past year.
Those who responded to the survey in-person are more likely than others to have engaged in painting,
drawing or sculpting, and in creative writing.
Parents are also more likely than others to have engaged in creative writing in the past year.
             Roughly half to one-third of Aboriginal people living off-reserve have participated in creative activities.
For example, just under half (46 per cent) have done craft-work (pottery, ceramics, jewellery, leatherwork, sewing,
knitting, etc.) or have acted, danced, sung, composed or played music in the 12 months prior to the survey (44 per
cent). Just over one in three have done creative writing (38 per cent); painting, drawing or sculpture (36 per cent); or
made photographs, movies or videos (34 per cent) in the past year.


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         Women are far more likely than men to have engaged in craft work (e.g., pottery, weaving, sewing,
             jewellery), or creative writing in the past year.
             Youth (under 25) are more likely than others to have done craft work in the past year. The proportion
             that have painted, drawn or sculpted in the past year declines with age (from 51 per cent of youth under
             25 to 23 per cent of those 55 and older). The same is true of creative writing, acting, dancing and
             music.
             Residents of Manitoba are more apt to have engaged in painting, drawing or sculpting than are
             residents from other regions.
             Urban residents are more apt to have painted, drawn or sculpted; made photographs, movies or videos;
             or done creative writing than rural residents (perhaps as a result of proximity to facilities and courses in
             these areas).
             The incidence of participating in each creative activity increases with education, and also coincides with
             Internet use.
             Aboriginal people who describe their personal cultural identity as strong are more apt to have engaged
             in all the creative activities identified (although it is difficult to know which has resulted in the other, if
             indeed there is any causal relationship at all).
             Those who believe that relations between Aboriginal people and other Canadians are improving are
             more apt to have participated in painting, drawing or sculpting in the past year.


APTN VIEWERSHIP
             Roughly half (53 per cent, if you include the ―don‘t know‖ responses) of Aboriginal people living off-
reserve watch the Aboriginal Peoples‘ Television Network (APTN) on a daily basis. Of those who watch it regularly
(i.e., daily), most watch APTN for between one to two hours daily (41 per cent), and less than one in ten (eight per
cent) spend three or more hours each day watching APTN.


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         First Nations people and Inuit are more likely to be daily APTN viewers.
              APTN viewership increases with age: fewer than half of youth watch it daily, compared to 60 per cent of
              those 55 and over.
              Viewership is weakest in Quebec (although 40 per cent do watch it daily). Residents of Saskatchewan
              are the most likely to watch it daily (63 per cent).
              APTN viewership increases with the density of Aboriginal population, and tends to decline with city size.
              Similarly, Francophones are less apt to watch APTN daily (although 40 per cent do), while those
              speaking an Aboriginal language are most likely to view APTN daily, and typically spend more time
              watching it on a daily basis.
              Those with less than high school education are more likely to watch APTN on a daily basis, and to
              watch it for longer periods of time each day, compared to those with more education. Similarly, APTN
              viewership also declines with household income level (62 per cent of those with low household incomes
              watch APTN daily, compared with less than half of those with household incomes of $80,000 or more).
              Those who are currently working and those who use the Internet are also less apt to be APTN viewers
              compared to those not working or who are not Internet users.
              Those who rate their current and future quality of life positively are less likely to view APTN on a regular
              basis (compared to those who rate their quality of life as poor), as are those who rate government
              performance positively.
              Parents are more likely than others to be APTN viewers.


LANGUAGE

              This Chapter presents survey results that identify the languages spoken by Aboriginal people not living
on a reserve, views regarding the importance of preserving or re-learning Aboriginal languages, as well as
preferences regarding approaches to re-learning an Aboriginal language (for those who do not currently speak an
Aboriginal language).


              The vast majority of Aboriginal people living off-reserve speak English in their home and community
(93 per cent) and another two in ten speak French (18 per cent). Thirteen per cent speak Cree, six per cent speak
Ojibway, and a small proportion speak other Aboriginal languages. Overall, one in four (23 per cent) speak an
Aboriginal language.


              Most Aboriginal people living off-reserve who have an Aboriginal language learned the language as a
child (77 per cent).


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Younger respondents (34 and under) are more apt to have learned an Aboriginal language as adults (three
    in ten have) as are those with a post-secondary education, while those 35 and older (and those with
    less education) are more likely to have learned their language as a child.
    Aboriginal languages are more common among residents of areas where the Aboriginal population
    density (e.g., Inuktitut, Cree, Dene or Ojibway), and these residents are more likely to have learned
    their language as a child. Similarly, Aboriginal languages are more common in rural areas, compared
    with urban areas.
    As expected, languages spoken vary by province or region, with Cree more predominant in Alberta and
    Saskatchewan; French more predominant in Quebec; Ojibway more predominant in Manitoba and
    Ontario; Mic Mac more prevalent in Atlantic Canada; and English more common in B.C., Alberta,
    Manitoba and Ontario.
    Those who learned an Aboriginal language as an adult (and tend to be younger and better educated)
    are more apt to believe that relations between Aboriginals and other Canadians are getting worse, and
    to rate government performance poorly.
    There is a higher than average representation of people who speak Cree among those who describe
    their current quality of life as poor or fair. On the other hand, this is also true of those who believe that
    their quality of life will improve. This representation of Cree-speaking Aboriginal people is also higher
    among individuals who believe that relations between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people are getting
    worse, and those who report racism.
             Aboriginal people who currently speak an Aboriginal language all consider it important that their
language be passed on to future generations (95 per cent), and that they maintain their language skills through
speaking, reading, writing, storytelling and ceremonies (93 per cent).


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         Inuit and First Nations people typically place more importance on the maintenance of their Aboriginal
             language or the passing on of language to future generations.
             The importance of language also increases with age (with youth being typically less concerned).
             Perhaps related to age, those with less than high school education are also somewhat less likely to
             consider it important that their language be passed on to future generations.
             Those who describe their personal cultural identity as strong, and those who have been victims of
             racism are more apt than others to consider it important to maintain their Aboriginal language and pass
             it on to future generations.
              Those who do not speak an Aboriginal language were asked about the importance of keeping, learning
or re-learning their Aboriginal language, if given the opportunity. Close to two-thirds consider it important to be able to
speak their Aboriginal language (64 per cent), and only slightly fewer (61 per cent) consider it important that they be
able to read or write in this language. Compared with findings among First Nations people living on-reserve in 2005,
considerably fewer people living off-reserve (who do not speak an Aboriginal language) consider it important.


                                               EMBED PowerPoint.Slide.8


         Again Inuit and First Nations people are more apt to consider it important to speak, read and write in their
              (Aboriginal) language. Similarly, those who-responded to the survey in-person (where there is an over
              representation of First Nations people) are most apt to consider it important that they be able to read or
              write in their Aboriginal language.
              Women are more likely than men to consider it important that they be able to speak their language
              (72 per cent of women consider this important, compared to 55 per cent of men), or read and write in
              this language.
              Aboriginal people between 35 and 44 are also more apt to consider it important that they be able to
              speak their language than those who are younger or older.
              Residents of highly dense Aboriginal areas are much more likely than those in areas of lower density to
              consider it important that they be able to speak their Aboriginal language.
              The proportion that consider it important to speak, read or write their language declines with household
              income.
              Those who describe their own personal or community cultural identity as strong are more apt than
              others to consider it important to speak, read and write their language.
              Those who rate government performance poorly, or who describe their current quality of life as poor are
              also more apt than others to consider speaking, reading and writing in their language important.
              Aboriginal people reporting racism are much more likely than others to consider it important to be able
              to speak their language (80 per cent, compared to 55 per cent of those not reporting racism).


              A combination of traditional and multi-media approaches is the approach most preferred for learning or
re-learning an Aboriginal language (according to 52 per cent), while one-quarter (27 per cent) prefer learning or re-
learning their Aboriginal language solely using traditional approaches. The use of only modern multi-media methods
is a less popular choice (13 per cent). These findings are quite similar to those measured among First Nations people
living on-reserve in 2005, although the current results show an even stronger lean toward a combined approach.


                                               EMBED PowerPoint.Slide.8
         Métis have a stronger than average preference for a mixed approach, compared with Inuit or First Nations
             people.
             Aboriginal people who are 55 and older tend to prefer traditional learning approaches, while those 25 to
             44 prefer a blend of multimedia and traditional approaches.
             Those with less than high school education (who also tend to be older) prefer traditional approaches,
             while those with college and university education prefer a mixed approach. The preference for a mixed
             approach also increases with household income. Similarly, those who use the Internet and those who
             are currently working prefer a mixed approach.


INTERNET USE AND
    WEBSITES OF INTEREST

             This Chapter highlights Internet access and usage off-reserve, as well as the level of interest and use of
various types of websites.


             Roughly three-quarters of Aboriginal people living off-reserve (74 per cent) have used the Internet in the
past three months. Half of those who have not used the Internet recently point to lack of access as the main reason,
followed by a lack of familiarity with the Internet and how to use it (21 per cent), or general disinterest in using the
Internet (17 per cent). Ultimately, only 13 per cent of Aboriginal people living off-reserve lack access to the Internet
(since 74 per cent have used it and only half of non-users report a lack of access).


             This degree of usage of the Internet is very high. In fact, it is in line with figures reported by the general
public more broadly and is considerably higher than the usage reported among First Nations people living on a
reserve (at 54 per cent). The most recent incidence of Internet usage in the general public is 78 per cent.


                                              EMBED PowerPoint.Slide.8
         As found in the broader general public (or among First Nations people living on-reserve), Internet use
             declines dramatically with age (from 90 per cent of youth to 42 per cent among those who are 55 and
             older). Further, individuals who are 45 and older are more apt to cite a lack of familiarity with the
             Internet as a reason for not accessing it.
             Women are more likely than men to cite lack of access as the reason for non-use.
             Parents are far more likely than others to have used the Internet in the past three months.
             Internet use increases with education and household income, as well as with employment status (from
             57 per cent of those with less than high school education to 93 per cent of those with university
             education, for example).
             Residents of areas that are high in Aboriginal population density (which are more often rural) are less
             apt to access the Internet. Similarly, those residing in large cities are more apt to access the Internet.
             Those who rate their current and future quality of life positively are more apt to use the Internet.


             Most Internet users commonly access the Internet at home (71 per cent, up from 62 per cent in 2003),
although some access it primarily at work (22 per cent, virtually unchanged since 2003) or at school (16 per cent, up
from 11 per cent in 2003).


                                              EMBED PowerPoint.Slide.8
         Naturally, youth (under 25) are more apt to access the Net at school or the homes of friends and family,
              while those who are older are more apt to access at home or work.
              Similarly, those with less than high school education are more apt to access the Internet at school or
              the homes of friends and family; those with high school or college education are more likely to have
              accessed the Internet at home; and those with college or university education are more likely than
              others to have accessed the Internet at work.
              The proportion who have accessed the Internet at home or work also increases with household income;
              while those with the lowest household incomes (under $20,000) are more apt to have accessed the
              Internet at school, a community centre or library, the homes of friends and family, or at an Aboriginal
              organization.
              Those who completed the survey in-person are much less likely to access the Internet at home (and
              more apt than others to access in other locations such as at the homes of friends and family, an
              Aboriginal organization, school, community centres or libraries).


              For Internet users, websites that target people of their culture, ethnic origin or language on the topic of
education and learning are the most popular, according to almost three-quarters of Internet users. In particular, half
access websites with specific content related to education or learning of their culture or language, and over four in
ten access sites related to the expression of their culture or heritage (43 per cent). Local community events or news
specific to their culture or language are also popular (40 per cent). Visiting websites to shop for goods and services is
cited one in four times (24 per cent) by Internet users.


                                               EMBED PowerPoint.Slide.8
         Women are more likely than men to visit websites pertaining to education or learning, and expressions of
              their culture.
              Those 55 and older are less apt to visit sites pertaining to education or learning, and youth (under 25)
              are less likely than others to access sites featuring information about community events, the option to
              purchase goods and services, or expressions of Aboriginal culture.
              Residents of Saskatchewan are more likely than those from other regions to have accessed sites
              related to education, local community events, and expressions of culture.
              Rural residents are less apt to have accessed websites featuring education or local community events
              than are residents of medium to large cities.
              Usage of the full range of sites increases with education.
              Those who speak an Aboriginal language are more likely than those speaking English or French to
              have accessed all of the culture-related sites listed.
              Naturally, those who describe their personal cultural identity as strong are more apt than those who
              describe it as weak to have accessed most of the types of sites listed (except for sites pertaining to the
              purchase of goods and services).
              Those who rate their current quality of life and government performance poorly are more apt than
              others to have accessed sites with education and learning, or expressions of Aboriginal culture.
              Similarly, those who believe that their quality of life will worsen are more apt to have accessed
              educational sites, than those who believe their quality of life will remain unchanged or improve.


              In the survey, Internet users were also asked to rate their level of interest in visiting various types of
websites with Aboriginal language or cultural content. The greatest interest was expressed about websites featuring
expressions of Aboriginal culture, arts, heritage, language and traditions (53 per cent are very interested and a
further 28 per cent are somewhat interested); and websites pertaining to the role of Aboriginal peoples in Canada
(55 per cent are very interested and 29 per cent are somewhat interested). Close to half are very interested in
websites providing information on local community events and news (47 per cent are very interested), and over one-
third have a high level of interest in a website in an Aboriginal language (37 per cent are very interested).


              Although still fairly strong, the level of interest is muted compared with that expressed by First Nations
residents living on a reserve which in the case of local community events and news may simply be a function of living
in a smaller community.
             Those interested in a website pertaining to an Aboriginal language were asked to specify the language
they are most interested in. The language that the greatest number of people are interested in is Cree (45 per cent
express an interest in websites in or related to Cree), followed by Ojibway (23 per cent). Fewer than one in ten
Internet users expressed interest in websites in other Aboriginal languages.


                                             EMBED PowerPoint.Slide.8



                                             EMBED PowerPoint.Slide.8
         Métis are less interested in websites with expressions of their culture, arts, heritage and language, or
             websites in an Aboriginal language than Inuit or First Nations people. First Nations respondents also
             express the greatest interest in websites with community events and news, and the role of Aboriginal
             peoples in Canada.
             Consistent with patterns of website use, women are more likely than men to express an interest in
             websites with expressions of their culture, arts, heritage and language; with local community events and
             news; and websites in an Aboriginal language.
             Similarly, youth (under 25) express less interest than those older in all the types of websites tested.
             Residents of areas with high Aboriginal population density are more apt than those in lower density
             areas to express interest in websites in an Aboriginal language.
             As with use of websites, interest in all the types of websites tested tend to increase with educational
             attainment.
             Those who speak an Aboriginal language are also more likely to express a strong interest in all the
             types of websites tested compared to those who speak English or French. Also, those with a strong
             personal or community cultural identity express a stronger interest in websites with community events
             and news, and websites in an Aboriginal language.
             Those who rate their current quality of life and government performance poorly are more apt than
             others to express a strong interest in all websites tested. The same is true of those who have
             experienced racism.


POST-SECONDARY EDUCATION

             This Chapter explores the views of Aboriginal people living off-reserve regarding the importance of
post-secondary education, the relative proximity of post-secondary institutions to respondents, and the likelihood their
own children will pursue a post-secondary education. As well, awareness of government PSE savings programs is
discussed, in addition to current saving behaviour, use of RESPs, and potential and preferred information sources on
RESPs.


VIEWS ON POST-SECONDARY EDUCATION
             Aboriginal people agree that the cost of a post-secondary education is a good investment. Over three-
quarters say that it is important for young people, because it will lead to better jobs with higher wages. (Only
fourteen per cent are neutral, and seven per cent disagree.) Just over two-thirds of people also agree that more and
more these days, the financial support from parents is a big part of what decides whether children are able to get a
post-secondary education. (Two in ten are neutral and another one in ten disagree). There is no significant difference
between the views of parents and other Aboriginal people in this regard.


              In spite of high levels of agreement and appreciation for the value of post-secondary and the need for
financial support of parents, results are nonetheless considerably lower than found among parents in the general
public. The difference in responses between Aboriginal respondents and the general public regarding the value of
education may be attributable in large part to depressed local economies in some regions of the country. On the
other hand, lower reported saving activity among off-reserve Aboriginal parents for post-secondary education
compared to the general public is very likely owing to the existence of a dedicated financial support program in place
for Aboriginal youth to attend post-secondary education, making the role of parental support perhaps viewed as less
critical (and less obvious).
                                     EMBED PowerPoint.Slide.8


Inuit are less likely than Métis or First Nations people to agree that the cost of a post-secondary education is
    a good long term investment for young people. Inuit are also less likely than others to agree that the
    financial support from parents is a big part of what decides whether children are able to get a post-
    secondary education.
    Older Aboriginal people (55 and above) tend to see post-secondary education as a better investment
    than younger people do. Youth are less apt than others to say that financial support from parents is a
    deciding factor as to whether children can get a post-secondary education.
    Rural residents are less likely than urban dwellers to believe that parental financial support is an
    important factor for a child‘s opportunity to attend a post-secondary institution (although this difference
    is not observed among parents specifically).
    Those households reporting a higher-income have a greater tendency to agree that financial support
    from parents is key to a child‘s ability to have a post-secondary education.
    Those who responded to the survey in-person (who also report lower incomes) are less likely to agree
    that the cost of post-secondary education is a good investment.
    People who are more positive about relations between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people, the
    performance of government, and about their current and future quality of life are also more positive
    about the value of post-secondary education, despite the costs. Those reporting a good quality of life
    are more likely than others to agree that the financial support of parents is important in determining
    whether a child will be able to attend a post-secondary institution.
AWARENESS OF GOVERNMENT POST-
     SECONDARY EDUCATION SAVINGS
     PROGRAMS
             Ability to identify the RESP savings mechanism (or their associated incentive programs, including
Canada Education Savings Grant and the Canada Learning Bond) specifically by name is lower than found among
other Canadian families. Fourteen per cent of Aboriginal families living off-reserve were able to do so (in an
unprompted questions). This might be expected in a population where specifically targeted programs are available to
support youth attending post-secondary. Fifteen per cent said they know of some programs that exist, but could not
cite specific ones. Over half (58 per cent) could not provide an answer.


             Aboriginal parents living off-reserve, in particular, demonstrate somewhat greater awareness of RESPs
(or the Canada Education Savings Grant and the Canada Learning Bond) than non-parents, with 20 per cent of
parents identifying RESPs. Although there is no difference between parents and others in terms of the level of
awareness of other programs or funding sources, non-parents are generally less aware of any of the government
programs identified. It should be noted, however, that the 19 per cent awareness of RESPs among parents at least,
is definitely an underestimation of the proportion that are actually aware of RESPs (but perhaps not aware of the
specific name in an unprompted question). This is substantiated by the fact that 20 per cent of parents indicate that
they are currently saving using RESPs and another 16 per cent are saving outside an RESP for reasons relating to
RESPs themselves (e.g., easier to save outside RESPs, RESPs don‘t yield enough return, or are too complicated).
These results are laid out in more detail in Section 9.5. The same phenomenon also occurs among parents in the
broader public although the gap between those who identified RESPs in the unprompted awareness question and
those who later indicate that they are saving through an RESP is smaller.


                                             EMBED PowerPoint.Slide.8
           Top of mind recall of RESPs is higher for those between the age of 25 and 44 than for others.
               RESPs are also more often cited as a government program in more populated areas than in rural
               areas.
               As might be expected (and also found among other Canadian families) those with higher education and
               higher household income are more likely to be aware of RESPs than those with less education or lower
               household income.


CHILDREN AT HOME, AND PROXIMITY OF POST-
      SECONDARY INSTITUTIONS
               Just over half of Aboriginal households off-reserve have children under the age of 18 (at home or away
from home). Seventeen per cent have one child, while two in ten have two children, and fourteen per cent have three
or more.


               When asked about the proximity of a post-secondary institution, eight in ten report that there is a post-
secondary institution within daily driving distance of their community, while 16 per cent do not have such access.
Proximity to a school is slightly higher among parent respondents than others; 83 per cent of parents report that there
is a post-secondary institution within daily driving distance, versus 78 per cent of non-parents. Proximity to a school is
considerably higher than found among First Nations parents living on a reserve.


                                                EMBED PowerPoint.Slide.8
           First Nations people are more likely than others to have a post-secondary institution within daily driving
               distance of their community, while Inuit are less likely.
               Those who responded to the survey in-person are less likely to have children at home. They are also
               less apt to indicate that there is a post-secondary institution within driving distance, and more likely to
               not know or not be aware of one.
               The presence of children under the age of 18 in the home naturally coincides with the age of the
               respondent, with the highest frequency among individuals between the ages of 25 and 44.
               Aboriginal people living in areas where there is a low Aboriginal incidence are less likely than others to
               have children in the home (and if they do, they have fewer children). Those in high or very high
               incidence areas are more likely than others to have three or more children under the age of 18.
               Aboriginal people living in areas with very high incidence and those from Quebec are less likely than
               others to say there is a post-secondary institution within daily driving distance of their community, while
               those in more populated areas are more apt than others to say this access exists locally.
               Those with a college or university education, with higher household incomes ($80,000 or more), and
               who are working are more likely than others to have a post-secondary institution within daily driving
               distance of their community.
French-speaking Aboriginal people are less likely to have children, or as many children as those who
speak English or an Aboriginal language. Those who speak an Aboriginal language are more likely than
others to have three or more children under the age of 18.
IMPORTANCE, AND LIKELIHOOD OF ACCESS TO
      POST-SECONDARY EDUCATION
               For respondents with children in the home, virtually everyone (93 per cent) says it is important for their
children to get a post-secondary education. Similarly, when asked about expectation of attendance at a post-
secondary institution, 89 per cent of households with one child expect the child to attend post-secondary, and 78 to
79 per cent of households with more than one child expect all of their children to attend (and very few expect none to
attend).


                                               EMBED PowerPoint.Slide.8


           Inuit are less likely than others to see the importance of a post-secondary education. Métis are marginally
               less likely to say that all children in the household will get a post-secondary education.
               Parents who responded to the survey in-person are less likely to consider it important that their children
               pursue a post-secondary education.
               The youngest Aboriginal parents (under the age of 25) are more likely than others to say that their
               children will receive a post-secondary education.
               Those with higher incomes are more likely than others to say that their children will receive a post-
               secondary education. Those with less than a high school education are less likely than others to say it
               is very important that their children get a post-secondary education and fewer of them expect all
               children in the home to get higher education (although three in four households in this segment do).


SAVING FOR POST-SECONDARY EDUCATION
               A total of 43 per cent of Aboriginal parents who are expecting a child to attend post-secondary
education are currently saving for the child‘s post-secondary education. This is fewer than the proportion of parents
found in the general Canadian population.


                                               EMBED PowerPoint.Slide.8
         Métis are more likely than Inuit or First Nations people to be contributing towards savings for a child‘s post-
             secondary education.
             Those who responded to the survey in-person (and are less apt to be Métis) are far less likely than
             others to be saving for a child‘s post-secondary education.
             Men and those under the age of 25 are more apt to be saving for a child‘s post-secondary education
             than women or those who are older.
             Homeowners, Internet users, those with higher household incomes and those who are employed are all
             more likely to be actively contributing towards savings for a child‘s post-secondary education.
             People who are more satisfied with government performance and with their own quality of life have a
             greater tendency than others to be contributing towards savings for post-secondary education.


             Among those who are actively saving, about half (48 per cent) have contributed to a RESP. Two-thirds
of those who have used an RESP are aware that the Canada Education Savings Grant contribution is added to the
RESP. In fact, two in ten say it is not added (and 12 per cent do not know). This is also lower than found among all
Canadian parents who are saving for a child‘s post-secondary education (where it was measured at 60 per cent in
2005).


                                              EMBED PowerPoint.Slide.8
         Of those using an RESP, women are more likely than men to say that the Canada Education Savings Grant
              contribution is added to their RESP.
              Aboriginal people living in areas of very high incidence are much less likely than others to be using an
              RESP as a savings vehicle for a child‘s post-secondary education.
              Residents of Saskatchewan who are using an RESP are more likely than others to be aware that the
              Canada Education Savings Grant contribution is added to their RESP savings.
              Savers with higher education and income are more apt to be using an RESP to save for post-secondary
              education. This is also more likely among homeowners, Internet users, and the employed.
              Awareness of the Canada Education Savings Grant contribution increases with education.


              For those who are saving for a child‘s post-secondary education but not using RESPs as a savings
vehicle, two in ten say they are not using RESPs because they did not know about them, and an equal proportion say
that it is because it is easier to save outside of an RESP. Twelve per cent cite financial limitations as a barrier, while
similar proportions just have not yet considered using RESPs. A few Aboriginal people say that RESPs do not
provide sufficient returns, are too complicated, or think there is a risk of losing earnings if the child does not attend
post-secondary education.


                                              EMBED PowerPoint.Slide.8
         Those between the ages of 35 and 44 are more likely than others to cite financial limitations as their main
              reason for not using an RESP to save for a child‘s post-secondary education.
              British Columbian parents are also more apt than others to refer to financial limitations as an obstacle.
              Those with a university education are more likely than others to say that they do not contribute to an
              RESP because it is easier to save outside of them.
              Among those whose household income is between $20,000 and $39,000, there is a greater tendency
              than others to blame financial limitations. Those in the next income bracket ($40,000 to $79,000), who
              are employed, and homeowners are more likely than others to say it is easier to save outside of an
              RESP. Finally, for those with the highest household income, they have a greater tendency to say they
              do not contribute to RESPs because RESPs do not provide sufficient returns.


GETTING INFORMATION
      ABOUT RESPS

              When asked what they would do to get information about how to set up an RESP, most Aboriginal
people say they would go to a financial institution (40 per cent), while a smaller proportion (15 per cent) would visit a
website. Less popular ways of getting information about RESPs include going to a financial advisor, speaking with
family members or friends, visiting a government department, or using a community resource. Very few say that they
would go to an educational institution/college, or call a 1-800 number.


              Parents are more apt than others to say that they would visit a website (18 per cent versus 11 per cent
of non-parents) or go to a financial institution for information (45 per cent versus 36 per cent).
                                     EMBED PowerPoint.Slide.8


Inuit are less likely than Métis or First Nations people to say they would get information about setting up an
    RESP from a financial institution.
    Albertans are more likely than others to say they would visit a website, while Manitobans are less likely
    than others to choose this option.
    College- and university-educated Aboriginal people, those who are employed and Internet users have
    greater tendencies than others to say they would go either to a financial institution or website. Those
    with no fixed address would be less likely than others to choose to go to a financial institution for
    information.
PREFERRED RESP
      INFORMATION SOURCES
              More Aboriginal parents living off-reserve regard their bank or employees of the financial institution
where they do their banking as the most trustworthy source of information on establishing an RESP than regard other
sources as trustworthy (by 32 per cent). This is followed by friends or family members (24 per cent) and financial
advisors (19 per cent). Only a small minority consider other sources, including government to be trustworthy.


                                               EMBED PowerPoint.Slide.8


         Women are more likely than men to consider their bank or employees of their bank to be a trustworthy
              source of information on RESPs.
              The proportion placing their trust in friends or family members declines with age (from 41 per cent of
              youth under 25, to 12 per cent of those 55 and older). Youth (under 25) place less trust in banks or
              bank employees than average. Those 55 and older are less apt than their younger counterparts to
              identify any trustworthy information source.
              Although there are no strong regional differences, residents of areas with a high Aboriginal density are
              less apt to identify any trustworthy information source.
              Those with college or university education are more apt to identify a financial advisor as a trustworthy
              information source on RESPs, while high school graduates are more apt to place trust in friends and
              family members for information on this topic. Similarly, the extent to which financial advisors are
              identified as a trustworthy information source increases with household income, as well as use of the
              Internet, while trust in friends and family members declines with income level.
              English-speaking respondents are less likely to consider friends and family to be a trustworthy
              information source, compared to those who speak French or an Aboriginal language. Similarly, those
              who describe their community or self cultural identity as strong are less apt to be able to identify a
              trustworthy information source on RESPs.


              PARTICIPATION IN SPORT

              This Chapter examines participation in sport among Aboriginal people living off-reserve. This includes a
look at the nature of involvement in sports; involvement in coaching, training and competition in sporting activities; the
perceived benefits of participation; and factors preventing participation in sport.


              Four in ten (39 per cent) Aboriginal people living off-reserve participate in sports. This is similar to the
45 per cent of First Nations people living on-reserve who said the same in 2005. Of those involved in sporting activity,
most participate as a player (83 per cent), while 15 per cent participate as coaches, and 14 per cent as volunteers. A
small proportion participates as a referee or official (six per cent), an assistant coach (four per cent), a manager
(three per cent), or in other roles. These patterns of participation are similar on-reserve.


                                               EMBED PowerPoint.Slide.8


         Men are far more likely than women to be involved in sporting activities (51 per cent of men are, compared
              with 29 per cent of women). Men are also more likely to be involved as players, coaches or as officials
              than are women.
              Participation in sport declines with age (from 60 per cent of youth, to 19 per cent of those 55 and older).
              Youth are more apt than those older to be involved as players. Coaching or volunteering is more
              popular among those 25 to 54 than any other age group.
              Participation in sport increases with household income (from 29 per cent of those with household
              incomes of less than $20,000 to 50 per cent of those with household incomes of $80,000). Participation
              in a volunteer capacity also increases with household income. Those who are currently working and
              those who use the Internet are all more likely than others to participate in sports. In particular, Internet
              users and the employed are more likely than others to participate in sport as players.
              Those who speak an Aboriginal language are more apt than Anglophones or Francophones to
              participate as coaches, officials or volunteers.
              Not surprisingly, parents are more likely than non-parents to have coached or volunteered in sport
              activities


              Of those involved in sport, most indicate that this involves competition (84 per cent), and takes place
primarily in a structured and organized environment (75 per cent), both of which are similar to the picture on-reserve.
Coaches and training are present just over half of the time (54 and 59 per cent, respectively), which is slightly less
often than found on reserves.


                                               EMBED PowerPoint.Slide.8
         Men are more likely than women to be involved in a sport involving training or competition, as are youth.
              Among rural residents involved in sport, fewer are coached. Rural residents are also less likely to say
              their sport activities are structured and organized.
              Manitoba residents involved in sport are also less apt to have a coach, while those in Quebec are more
              likely to be coached, compared to other regions.
              Those with the highest household incomes are more apt than those with lower incomes to be involved
              in sport activities that feature training.
              Those who responded to the survey in-person are less likely to indicate that their sport activities are
              structured or coached.
              Those with higher household incomes are more likely than others to say their sport activities are
              primarily done in a structured and organized environment.


              Despite the many benefits that come from participating in sport, many are unable or uninterested in
doing so. The factor which presents the greatest obstacles to participation for those not involved in sport is lack of
time (42 per cent), followed by health concerns or a disability (22 per cent), and lack of interest (17 per cent). One in
ten cite age (believing that they are too old) or financial concerns as obstacles to participation. Lack of sport facilities
or transportation are cited by a minority as obstacles to participation.


              By comparison, First Nations people living on-reserve are less apt to cite lack of time (32 per cent do)
or lack of interest (13 per cent) as obstacles, and are slightly more likely to cite age (14 per cent feel that they are too
old) as an issue.
                                               EMBED PowerPoint.Slide.8


         Inuit are more likely than Métis or First Nations people to cite lack of interest, and less likely to point to a
              lack of time.
              Those who responded to the survey in-person are more apt than others to point to lack of facilities,
              money, or transportation, and to health concerns as barriers to participation.
              Men are more apt to cite lack of time as a barrier, while women are more likely to point to health issues
              or lack of interest.
              Parents are more likely than others to cite a lack of time.
              Not surprisingly, lack of time is more often cited by those aged 25 to 44, health issues or age are more
              often cited by those 45 and older, and youth (under 25) more often cite lack of money.
              Rural residents are more apt to cite a lack of facilities as an obstacle to participation.
              Those with less than high school education (who also tend to be older) are more apt to cite health
              concerns, while those with college or university education are more apt than those with less education
              to point to a lack of time. The proportion identifying lack of time also increases with household income,
              while the proportion citing health concerns declines with income. Similarly, those who are currently
              working, and those who use the Internet are more apt to cite a lack of time compared to those who are
              not working or using the Internet.
              Aboriginal people living off-reserve who describe their current quality of life as good are more apt to cite
              lack of time, while those with poor life quality are more apt to point to health concerns (since quality of
              life is largely related to socio-economic and age factors).
              For those participating in sport, the primary benefit of participation is perceived to be physical fitness
(64 per cent), followed by socializing or getting to know people (36 per cent), general well-being (25 per cent), and
learning to be part of a team (22 per cent). Personal or life skills, enjoyment, and self-esteem are cited as key
benefits of sport by fewer than one in ten.


              Although fitness is also at the top of the list among First Nations people living on-reserve, it was cited
by fewer, as was socializing, which seems to be a larger issue for Aboriginal people living off-reserve.


                                               EMBED PowerPoint.Slide.8


         Women are more likely than men to identify well-being and team participation as benefits of sport.
              Aboriginal people living in areas with a high density of Aboriginal population are less likely to identify
              benefits of sport, or to have responded to this question.
              Those residing in rural areas are more apt to identify physical fitness as a key benefit, while those in
              metropolitan areas are more apt to identify socializing or team participation as key benefits.
              Those with less than high school education are less apt to identify benefits in general (including fitness,
              well-being, socializing, team participation), while those with college and university education typically
    cite many benefits.
    Internet users are more likely than non-users to identify fitness, socializing and team participation as
    key benefits.
    Francophones are more likely than others to describe physical fitness as a primary benefit.
    Those who describe their current quality of life as good are more apt to identify physical fitness as a key
    benefit than those who rate their quality of life poorly. Respondents who expect their quality of life to
    worsen are less apt than others to identify key benefits to sport.


    CONCLUSIONS

    General Social Conditions:
Generally, most Aboriginal people living outside of a reserve perceive their overall quality of life to be good
    and improving over time. While this is positive to see, economic and some social conditions suggest
    that quality of life is not as high as might be found in the broader Canadian population, and that this is
    not the primary driver of the positive views about quality of life.
    There is a fairly high degree of geographic mobility within this population (relative to the general
    Canadian population), given that roughly one in four have moved within the twelve months preceding
    the survey. Most are moving within their community or to a new community, and quality of housing is
    the primary impetus.
    Four in ten Aboriginal people living outside of reserve own their own residence, which is fairly high, but
    lower than the 60 to 65 per cent found in the broader general public. At the same time, this population is
    typically younger than the rest of the population, which is likely part of the difference. A full 15 per cent
    of Aboriginal people living off-reserve are living in a more temporary setting, with friends and extended
    family members, suggesting an element of transience and economic insecurity.


    Relations Between Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal People, and Racism:
While the proportion of Aboriginal people living off-reserve reporting racism or discrimination because of
    their Aboriginal origin is essentially unchanged from a previous measure collected in 2003 (at roughly
    four in ten), this is nonetheless an astounding number. It is disappointing to see that this has not gone
    down over the last few years.
    Further disturbing findings suggest the possibility of racism or discrimination occurring even more
    frequently from some sources, including non-Aboriginal businesses (up to 42 per cent from 20 per cent
    in 2003), schools (up to 28 per cent from 17 per cent in 2003), and employers (up to 25 per cent from
    six per cent in 2003). This is difficult to ascribe, however, since coding on this open-ended item has
    likely changed over time.
    Many renters in the survey indicated that they often or always experience discrimination from landlords;
another disturbing finding.
Despite these results, one in four respondents in the survey said that relations between Aboriginal and
non-Aboriginal people are improving with time, suggesting that this trend may decrease over time in the
future.
Participation in Cultural and Creative Activities:
Participation in community through groups, organizations and events is quite high, with three in four
    indicating some level of involvement. Most participation is taking place within the Aboriginal community
    (through Aboriginal groups, organizations or events) specifically.
    Furthermore, over half have done some type of unpaid volunteer work in the past year, with virtually
    unanimous enjoyment of the experience.
    Most Aboriginal people living outside of a reserve rate their own sense of cultural identity as being quite
    strong. They rate the cultural identity in their community as being somewhat weaker, but still reasonably
    strong.
    Many have participated in some type of cultural activity in the past year, with over half having attended
    a performance or visual art exhibit at least once in that time. Participation in creative activities is also
    quite frequent.
    Collectively, these findings begin to suggest some of the reasons for Aboriginal people living off-reserve
    providing fairly high and optimistic ratings of quality of life. While economic and some social indicators
    (related to racism and sense of inclusion in the broader society) are not very positive, the elements of
    quality of life that relate to culture, and identity are stronger and more positive.


    Language:
Overall, roughly two in ten Aboriginal people living off-reserve report having an Aboriginal language. This is
    considerably lower than found among First Nations people living on a reserve. The vast majority speak
    English in their home and community, while two in ten speak French. Thirteen per cent speak Cree,
    six per cent speak Ojibway (or Saulteaux), and a small proportion speak other Aboriginal languages.
    Most learned to speak an Aboriginal language as a child, although two in ten learned as an adult.
    Those who do speak an Aboriginal language consider it important that this language be maintained and
    passed on to future generations. Most of those who do not currently speak an Aboriginal language
    would consider it important that they learn to speak, or read and write in their Aboriginal language if
    they had an opportunity to do so. At the same time language appreciation is significantly lower in this
    group than it is among those who have an Aboriginal language (or among First Nations people living
    on-reserve).


    Internet Use and Websites of Interest:
Access to and use of the Internet among Aboriginal people living off-reserve is high and follows the typical
    patterns found in the broader public. Only 13 per cent report a lack of access to the Internet (since
    74 per cent have used it and only half of non-users report lack of access).
    For Internet users, websites that target people of their culture, ethnic origin or language on the topic of
    education and learning are most popular, followed by sites relating to the expression of their culture or
    heritage. These results again point to a strong sense of culture and identity within the Aboriginal
    community, and the Internet as an important tool to learn through and stay in touch with one‘s heritage
    and identity.


    Government Services and Aboriginal Organizations :
As in 2003, health care remains a top priority that Aboriginal people living off-reserve would like to see the
    Government of Canada address. They also identify education as a top priority for the federal
    government, signaling a rise in the importance placed on this issue since 2003. Aboriginal issues are in
    third place as a federal government priority, while they had been identified as the second top priority
    (ahead of education) in 2003.
    Aboriginal people living off-reserve most frequently seek information, advice or assistance on
    government services, followed by employment, suggesting an important role for the government to play
    in assisting Aboriginal people in their daily lives.
    As has typically been the case in the past in both the broader public and among Aboriginal people,
    assessment of performance of government is quite negative, with negative views generally outweighing
    positive ones in terms of quality of service delivered. Aboriginal people are most harsh in their
    assessment of the performance of the federal government, in particular, which has been a growing
    trend over the past five years.
    At the same time, Aboriginal people living off-reserve are also fairly negative in their assessment of the
    performance of Aboriginal representative organizations; with only one-quarter agreeing that their
    interests are well represented by these organizations. Furthermore, opinion is also divided with regard
    to the information and communication received from Aboriginal representative organizations, with more
    than one-third expressing dissatisfaction.
    In spite of this, most Aboriginal people living off-reserve still prefer to have programs and services
    delivered to them by Aboriginal organizations (and staff, although this is less important than the
    Aboriginal perspective brought to bear in an Aboriginal organization).
    Friendship Centres are viewed in quite a positive light by most Aboriginal people not living on a reserve;
    having had a positive impact in their own community. In fact, just over half of Aboriginal people living
    off-reserve have used the programs, services or activities of an Aboriginal Friendship Centre.


    Post-Secondary Education:
The Aboriginal population not living on a reserve has a high appreciation for the value of post-secondary
    education. In fact, it is almost as high as found in the broader general public, where education levels of
    parents are typically higher (and perceived value of education is typically strongly correlated with
    parental education in the general public). This population is less appreciative of the role for parental
    financial support in attendance at the post-secondary level, which is not surprising, given the higher
    level of dedicated funding from government for post-secondary among Aboriginal youth. It is
    nonetheless interesting to hear that it is not obvious to many parents that some level (albeit a
    considerably smaller portion) of financial support may be required in order to ensure the attendance
          and success of youth in attaining a post-secondary level of education.
          Very high aspirations are held for youth in terms of attending post-secondary and reasonably high
          proportions of parents who expect a child to attend say that they are actively saving for PSE. The
          incidence of saving is not as high as found in the broader public, although this is not surprising given
          the lower levels of reported household income and education than found in the broader public (which
          are key predictors of saving in the general public).


          Participation in Sport:
      Just under four in ten participate in sports; most as players. For those not participating in sports, lack of time
          is the most commonly cited reason, followed by health concerns and lack of interest. For those
          participating, the primary benefits are perceived to be physical fitness, followed by socializing, general
          well-being, and learning to be part of a team.




                                      APPENDIX A
                    TELEPHONE SURVEY INSTRUMENT
Hello, my name is...and I'm calling from EKOS Research Associates. We are
speaking to people 16 years of age or older to get their opinions on a number of
issues facing Aboriginal people today to tell the government of Canada and
others what's REALLY important to Aboriginal people.

It's voluntary, but lots of people like having a chance to give their opinions
to the government.

Answers for YOU PERSONALLY will NEVER be given to anybody.
It takes about 20 minutes and we can do it right now, or I can call you back?
@F6 @intro
Notes
@NOT1
@NOT2
@NOT3
@NOT4
@not5
@not6


38:                                                                      ABO
Are you an Aboriginal person, that is, a status or non-status First
Nation, Métis or Inuit?
Yes                                                         1
No -> Thank and terminate-Code as IS                        2     => INT
DK/NR -> Thank and terminate-Code as IS                     9     => INT

39:                                                                      ABO2
READ LIST
Are you . . .?
Status First Nations                                         01
Non-Status First Nations                                     02
Métis                                                        03
Inuit                                                        04
Other (SPECIFY)                                              77    O
DK/NR                                                        99    X

40:                                                               ONOFF
=> +1 if     NOT (ABO2=#1)
Over the last twelve months, have you been living primarily on
reserve or off reserve?
On reserve - Thank and terminate-Code as OR            1     => INT
Off reserve                                            2
DK/NR                                                  9

41:                                                                        SEX
DO NOT ASK
Record gender of respondent
Male                                                         1
Female                                                       2

42:                                                                      INS2X
How would you rate your current quality of life? Please rate your
response on a scale from 1, very bad to 5, very good with 3 meaning
neither good nor bad.
1.Very bad                                                        1
2                                                                 2
3.Neither good nor bad                                            3
4                                                                 4
5.Very good                                                       5
DK/NR                                                             9

43:                                                                          QUALL
Overall, thinking about your own quality of life in the next 12 months,
do you think it will get much better, slightly better, worsen slightly, or
worsen a lot?
Get much better                                                   1
Get slightly better                                               2
(Volunteered) The same                                            3
Worsen slightly                                                   4
Worsen a lot                                                      5
DK/NR                                                             9

44:                                                                           OFI2
In general, do you think that the relationship between Aboriginal
people and other Canadians is getting better or worse or staying
about the same?
Getting worse                                             1
About the same                                            2
Getting better                                            3
DK/NR                                                     9

45:                                                                          OFI2A
=> +1 if   NOT(OFI2=#3)
Why do you think that the relationship between Aboriginal people and
other Canadians is getting better? Do you wish to provide further
details?
Response                                                      77   O
DK/NR                                                         99
ABORIGINAL PEOPLE FURTHER INTEGRATED INTO
NON-ABORIGINAL ECONOMY,IE. THE WORKPLACE                      01   N
ABORIGNAL CLAIMS TO LAND/SELF-GOVERNMENT BEING MET                              02   N
NON-ABORIGINAL SOCIETY INCREASINGLY BETTER EDUCATED/
KNOWLEDGEABLE,MORE AWARENESS/UNDERSTANDING OF
ABORIGINAL SOCIETY                                            03   N
BETTER INTERCULTURAL RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN
ABORIGINAL AND NON-ABORIGINAL PEOPLE,IE.WITHIN
COMMUNITIES,LESS PREDJUDISM,MORE ACCEPTING,
COMMUNICATION                                                 04   N
MORE PROMINENT ABORIGINAL VOICE/PRESENCE IN
MAINSTREAM SOCIETY(EX.POLITICS,MEDIA)                      05    N

46:                                                                    OFI2B
=> +1 if   NOT(OFI2=#1)
Why do you think that the relationship between Aboriginal people and
other Canadians is getting worse? Do you wish to provide further
details?
Response                                                      77   O
DK/NR                                                         99
FEELINGS AMOUNGST NON-ABORIGINAL SOCIETY OF
UNDESERVED/UNEQUAL GOVERNEMTN TREATMENT/
ASSISTANCE TO ABORIGINAL PEOPLE(EX.TAX EXEMPTION) 01                      N
FEELINGS AMOUNGST ABORIGINAL SOCIETY OF NEGLECT/
MISTREATMENT BY GOVERNMENT                                    02   N
LACK OF COMMUNICATION BETWEEN ABORIGINAL AND NON-
ABORIGINAL SOCIETY                                            03   N

47:                                                                     OFI1
=> +1 if     NOT(ROT1=#1); 1/2 SAMPLE
DO NOT READ LIST; ACCEPT UP TO 3 RESPONSES
Thinking about the issues facing Canada as a whole today, which are
your top priorities (in order of importance) that the Government of
Canada should focus on most?
Medicare/Health Care                                         01
Jobs/Unemployment                                            02
Education/Schools                                            03
Social services/Poverty/The poor/Welfare/Homeless            04
Deficit/Debt/Government Spending                             05
Environment/Pollution                                        06
National unity/Quebec's future                               07
Crime/Violence/Justice                                       08
Housing                                                      09
National Security/Defense                                    10
Managing the economy/Canadian dollar                         11
Aboriginal issues                                            12
International affairs (e.g., war in Iraq)                    13
Children/child poverty                                       14
Taxes/Lower Taxes                                            15
Other (Specify)                                              77   O
DN/NR                                                        99   X
DRUG ADDICTION/ALCOHOLISM                                    16   N
SENIORS                                                      17   N
COST OF LIVING,IE.ENERGY,GAS PRICES                          18   N
48:                                                                     OFI4
How would you rate the three levels of government on the overall
quality of the service it delivers to ABORIGINAL PEOPLE LIVING
OFF-RESERVE? Please use a 5-point scale, where 1 means very
bad, 5 means excellent and the mid-point, three, means neither good
nor bad. How would you rate ...

49:                                                                    OFI4A
Rate... RE Aboriginal people living off-reserve
The overall performance of the Government of Canada
1.Very bad                                                   1
2                                                            2
3.Neither good nor bad                                       3
4                                                            4
5.Excellent                                                  5
DK/NR                                                        9

50:                                                                    OFI4B
Rate... RE Aboriginal people living off-reserve
The overall performance of your provincial government
1.Very bad                                                   1
2                                                            2
3.Neither good nor bad                                       3
4                                                            4
5.Excellent                                                  5
DK/NR                                                        9

51:                                                                    OFI4C
Rate... RE Aboriginal people living off-reserve
The overall performance of your city or town government?
1.Very bad                                                   1
2                                                            2
3.Neither good nor bad                                       3
4                                                            4
5.Excellent                                                  5
DK/NR                                                        9

52:                                                                    PCH1
READ LIST
How well do you feel your interests are being represented by an
Aboriginal representative organization? Would you say they are . . .
Not represented at all                                       1
Not well represented                                         2
Moderately well represented                                  3
Well represented                                             4
Very well represented                                            5
DN/NR                                                            9

53:                                                                        PCH2
READ LIST
How satisfied are you with the information and communication you
receive from Aboriginal representative organizations? Would you say
you are . . .
Not at all satisfied                                         1
Not very satisfied                                           2
Moderately satisfied                                         3
Satisfied                                                    4
Very satisfied                                               5
DN/NR                                                        9

54:                                                                        PCH6
READ LIST
What impact do you feel that Friendship Centers are having on your
community? Would you say . . . IF NECESSARY: Positive impact in
community means providing sense of Aboriginal community, sense of
personal well-being, level of social support, preservation of Aboriginal
languages and cultures
Very negative                                                   1
Somewhat negative                                               2
Neither positive nor negative                                   3
Somewhat positive                                               4
Very positive                                                   5
DN/NR                                                           9

55:                                                                         OFI5
If you were to access programs and services, please indicate the
level of importance of the following delivery considerations. Please
respond on a scale of 1 to 5 where 1 is not at all important, 5 is very
important, and the midpoint 3 - moderately important to you.

56:                                                                        OFI5C
Importance that it's ... when you access programs and services
delivered by Aboriginal staff, but not necessarily by an Aboriginal
organization
1.Not at all important                                        1
2                                                             2
3.Moderately important                                        3
4                                                             4
5.Very important                                              5
DK/NR                                                         9
57:                                                                    OFI5D
Importance that it's ... when you access programs and services
delivered by an Aboriginal organization
1.Not at all important                                        1
2                                                             2
3.Moderately important                                        3
4                                                             4
5.Very important                                              5
DK/NR                                                         9

58:                                                                     PCH7
READ LIST
How often do you or your family access programs, services, or
activities from an Aboriginal Friendship Centre? Would you say . . .
Weekly                                                        1
Monthly                                                       2
Yearly                                                        3
Never                                                         4
DN/NR                                                         9

59:                                                                     PCH5
READ LIST
How often do you participate in any groups, organizations or events
in your community? Would you say . . .
Weekly                                                       1
Monthly                                                      2
Yearly                                                       3
Never                                                        4
DN/NR                                                        9

60:                                                                    PCH5A
=> +1 if    NOT (PCH5=#1-#2)
Are these generally Aboriginal groups, organizations or events?
Yes                                                           1
No                                                            2
DN/NR                                                         9

61:                                                                     PCH3
How would you rate the sense of cultural identity within your
community? Please respond on a scale of 1 to 5 where 1 is not at all
strong and 5 is very strong. IF ASKED: A positive cultural identity
means having pride in your culture, or in other words expressed as
having positive self-esteem or a positive feeling about who they are
in terms of their Aboriginal identity.
1.Not at all strong                                           1
2                                                             2
3                                                             3
4                                                             4
5.Very strong                                                 5
DN/NR                                                         9

62:                                                                      PCH4
And using the same scale how would you rate your own sense of
cultural identity? IF ASKED: A positive cultural identity means having
pride in your culture, or in other words expressed as having positive
self-esteem or a positive feeling about your Aboriginal identity.
1.Not at all strong                                               1
2                                                                 2
3                                                                 3
4                                                                 4
5.Very strong                                                     5
DN/NR                                                             9

63:                                                                      PCH20
How often do you contact friends or family seeking information,
assistance or advice on the following topics? Would you say you
contact them often, occasionally, sometimes, rarely or never? How
about ...

64:                                                                      PC20A
How often do you seek information, assistance or advice about ...
Employment
Often                                                        1
Occasionally                                                 2
Sometimes                                                    3
Rarely                                                       4
Never                                                        5
Not applicable - don't work                                  8
DK/NR                                                        9

65:                                                                      PC20B
How often do you seek information, assistance or advice about ...
Credit (such as access to credit and managing credit).
Often                                                        1
Occasionally                                                 2
Sometimes                                                    3
Rarely                                                       4
Never                                                         5
Not applicable                                                8
DK/NR                                                         9

66:                                                                 PC20C
How often do you seek information, assistance or advice about ...
Arranging for a ride to go somewhere
Often                                                        1
Occasionally                                                 2
Sometimes                                                    3
Rarely                                                       4
Never                                                        5
Not applicable - have a car/access to a car                  8
DK/NR                                                        9

67:                                                                 PC20D
How often do you seek information, assistance or advice about ...
Government services
Often                                                        1
Occasionally                                                 2
Sometimes                                                    3
Rarely                                                       4
Never                                                        5
Not applicable                                               8
DK/NR                                                        9

68:                                                                 PC20E
How often do you seek information, assistance or advice about ...
Child care
Often                                                        1
Occasionally                                                 2
Sometimes                                                    3
Rarely                                                       4
Never                                                        5
Not applicable-don't have young children at home             8
DK/NR                                                        9

69:                                                                  OFI8
Over the last two years, have you been a victim of racism or
discrimination because of your Aboriginal origin?
Yes                                                    1
No                                                     2
DN/NR                                                  9

70:                                                                  OFI9
=> +1 if       NOT (OFI8=#1)
READ LIST; ACCEPT AS MANY AS APPLY
Can you tell me by who? Was it, for example. ..
Police                                            01
Courts or justice system                          02
Schools                                           03
Landlord/housing authority                        04
Businesses (stores, restaurants)                  05
Bank / credit institutions                        06
Utilities (telephone, hydro)                      07
Work/employer                                     08
Government                                        09
A non-Aboriginal person                           10
An Aboriginal person                              11
Other (specify)                                   77   O
DN/NR                                             99   X

71:                                                        MOB1
Have you moved within the past year?
Yes                                               1
No                                                2
DK/NR                                             9

72:                                                        MOB2
=> +1 if     NOT(MOB1=#1)
READ LIST
Was this a move from . . .
A reserve                                         1
Another community                                 2
Within your current community                     3
DK/NR                                             9

73:                                                        MOB3A
=> +1 if    NOT(MOB1=#1)
DO NOT READ LIST; RESPOND FOR "MOST RECENT" IF MORE
THAN 1
What was your main reason for this move?
Education opportunities                         01
Employment opportunities                        02
Housing or quality housing                      03
Better/more services or quality of services     04
Medical reasons                                 05
Separation, divorce or break-up of relationship 06
Domestic violence                               07
Family reason                                   08
Day care services                                                 09
Transit services                                                  10
Wanted to experience urban life                                   11
Other (specify)                                                   77    O
Haven't move                                                      98    X
DN/NR                                                             99    X

74:                                                                         MOB10
=> +1 if       MOB3A=#1; SKIP IF MOVED FOR EDUCATION
How likely would you be to move to another community to get more
education on a scale where 1 is not at all likely, 5 is extremely likely
and the midpoint 3 is moderately likely.
1.Not at all likely                                             1
2                                                               2
3.Moderately likely                                             3
4                                                               4
5.Extremely likely                                              5
DN/NR                                                           9

75:                                                                         MOB11
=> +1 if       MOB3A=#2; SKIP IF MOVED FOR EMPLOYMENT
How likely would you be to move to another community to get a
better job on a scale where 1 is not at all likely, 5 is extremely likely
and the midpoint 3 is moderately likely.
1.Not at all likely                                              1
2                                                                2
3.Moderately likely                                              3
4                                                                4
5.Extremely likely                                               5
DN/NR                                                            9

76:                                                                         PCH29
In the past 12 months, did you do any unpaid volunteer work for any
community organization?
Yes                                                          1
No                                                           2
DK/NR                                                        9

77:                                                                         PC29A
=> +1 if     NOT (PCH29=#1)
Using a scale from 1 to 5, with 1 being you didn't enjoy it at all and 5
being you enjoyed it very much, how would you rate your overall
volunteering experience in the past year.
1.Didn't enjoy it at all                                    1
2                                                           2
3                                                           3
4                                                           4
5.Enjoyed it very much                                      5
DK/NR                                                       9

78:                                                                   PCH30
=> +1 if     NOT (PCH29=#2)
DO NOT READ; ACCEPT UP TO 3 RESPONSES
What were the factors which prevented you from volunteering over
the past 12 months?
Do not have enough time/Too busy                          01
Too busy                                                  02   N
Unwilling to make the commitment                          03
Had not been personally asked                             04
No interest                                               05
Other (specify)                                           77   O
DK/NR                                                     99   X
HEALTH REASONS/DISABILITY                                 06   N
LACKING OPPORTUNITY/NO CAUSE TO VOLUNTEER FOR IN
COMMUNITY(EX.ISOLATED,REMOTE COMMUNITY)                   07   N

79:                                                                     P3A
In the following questions, I will be talking about post-secondary
education. By this, I mean education beyond high school, including
universities, community colleges, trade, technical and vocational
schools and apprenticeship programs.

80:                                                                    P3B
To what extent do you agree or disagree with the following
statements on a scale where 1 is completely disagree, 5 is
completely agree and the mid-point 3 is neither agree nor disagree.

81:                                                                    Q3B
To what extent do you agree or disagree that.....
The cost of a post-secondary education is a good long term
investment for young people, because it leads to better jobs with
higher wages
1. Completely disagree                                     1
2                                                          2
3. Neither agree nor disagree                              3
4                                                          4
5. Completely agree                                        5
DK/NR                                                      9
82:                                                                   E9G
To what extent do you agree or disagree that.....
More and more these days, the financial support from parents is a
big part of what decides whether children are able to get a post-
secondary education.
1. Completely disagree                                     1
2                                                          2
3. Neither agree nor disagree                              3
4                                                          4
5. Completely agree                                        5
DK/NR                                                      9

83:                                                                   AWARE
DO NOT READ LIST
Have you heard of any federal or provincial government programs
that exist to help parents to save and pay for their children's post-
secondary education?
Government student loans                                      01
Canada Education Savings Grant                                02
Government matching program/Contribution program (Cannot specify name) 03
Canada Learning Bonds                                         04
Alberta Centennial Education savings plan/ Learning bond      05
Registered Education Savings Plans (RESP's)                   06
General mention of savings plan (cannot specify name)         07
Other sources (specify)                                       77    O
Yes, but can't name any                                       97    X
None of the above                                             98    X
DK/NR                                                         99    X

87:                                                                   KIDS
How many children do you have under the age of 18, including any
that do not live at home? <kidck >
DK/NR                                                     99

88:                                                                  MANY
=> INFO2 if KIDS==99 OR KIDS==0
How many of these children do you expect will get post-secondary
education in the future? IF NEEDED: This includes any of those who
have already started to attend PSE or already attended PSE
None                                                         00
DK/NR                                                        99

89:                                                                  KIDCK
=> * if        IF((KIDS==99 OR MANY==99),1,IF((MANY>KIDS),2,3))
Dk's forget it                                           1
NUMBER ATTENDING CANNOT BE LESS THAN TOTAL               2      => KIDS
All's fine                                               3

90:                                                                       E22
=> INFO2 if MANY=#1; SKIP IF NOT EXPECTING CHILDREN TO
              ATTEND PSE
READ LIST
Thinking about your children who are under 18 years old, how
important is it to you that they get a post-secondary education?
Would you say ...
Not at all important                                     1
Not very important                                       2
Moderately important                                     3
Important                                                4
Very important                                           5
DK/NR                                                    9

91:                                                                       P8
Some people are in a position to save for a child's education,
however, many are not in this position. Are you currently contributing
toward savings for a child's post-secondary education, that is their
education beyond high school?
Yes                                                            1
No                                                             2
DK/NR                                                          9

92:                                                                      P8C
=> Q15 if  NOT (P8=#1); SAVERS ONLY
Have you contributed to a Registered Education Savings Plan or
RESP to save for any of your children's education?
Yes                                                     1
No                                                      2
DK/NR                                                   9

93:                                                                      P8D
=> +1 if    NOT(P8C=#1)
Is the Canada Education Savings Grant contribution from the
government, matching some of the money that you have put in,
added to the RESP?
Yes                                                   1
No                                                    2
DK/NR                                                 9
94:                                                                           Q15
=> +1 if      NOT (P8C=#2); HAVE NOT CONTRIBUTED
What is the main reason that you are not using a Registered
Education Savings Plan (RESP) to save for your child or children's
post-secondary education?
Child ineligible for RESP of the Canada Education Savings Grant (CESG)         01
Not aware of RESP's                                             02
Expected returns on an RESP are not sufficient                  03
RESP's are too complicated                                      04
Easier to save outside of an RESP                               05
Risk of losing earnings if child does not attend post-secondary education      06
Other (Specify)                                                 77   O
DK/NR                                                           99   X

95:                                                                         INFO2
DO NOT READ LIST
What would you do to get information about how to set up a
Registered Education Savings Plan (RESP)?
Phone 1-800 number                                          01
Visit website                                               02
Visit government department                                 03
Go to a financial institution (bank, etc.)                  04
Go to a financial advisor (broker, financial planner, etc.) 05
Other (specify)                                             77 O
Nothing                                                     98 X
DK/NR                                                       99 X
SPEAK WITH FAMILY MEMBER/FRIEND                             06 N
COMMUNITY RESOURCE,IE.COMMUNITY CENTRE,FRIENDSHIP
CENTRE                                                      07 N
GO TO AN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTION/COLLEGE                    08 N

96:                                                                         TRUST
Who do you consider to be the most trustworthy source of
information about whether or not it's a good idea to set up an RESP?
Bank/bank employees                                             01
Financial advisor                                               02
Government                                                      03
Friend/family member                                            04
Other                                                           77  O
DK/NR                                                           99  X

97:                                                                         HRD11
Is there a post-secondary institution within daily driving distance of
your community?
Yes                                                              1
No                                                               2
DK/NR                                                            9

98:                                                                         PCH18
Now on a different topic, I am going to read a list of different types of
live performances and arts events. For each one, please tell me
approximately how many times you have attended each type in the
last twelve months. INTERVIEWER NOTE: Take number of times
and code accordingly.

99:                                                                         PC18A
How many times in the last 12 months have you attended . . . ?
A live performance such as a play, musical, music concert, dance
performance, opera, storytelling.
Once                                                          1
2 to 3 times                                                  2
4 to 6 times                                                  3
7 to 10 times                                                 4
More than 10 times                                            5
None                                                          8
Cannot Recall/No Answer                                       9

100:                                                                        PC18B
How many times in the last 12 months have you attended . . . ?
A media arts presentation such as an installation, media arts video or
arts film screening, media arts audio presentation or new media
work.
Once                                                            1
2 to 3 times                                                    2
4 to 6 times                                                    3
7 to 10 times                                                   4
More than 10 times                                              5
None                                                            8
Cannot Recall/No Answer                                         9

101:                                                                        PC18C
How many times in the last 12 months have you attended . . . ?
A visual art exhibit such as sculpture, painting, photography, mixed
media or crafts.
Once                                                          1
2 to 3 times                                                  2
4 to 6 times                                                  3
7 to 10 times                                                 4
More than 10 times                                            5
None                                                              8
Cannot Recall/No Answer                                           9

102:                                                                       PC18D
How many times in the last 12 months have you attended . . . ?
An exhibit of artifacts, historic objects or natural history specimens.
Once                                                               1
2 to 3 times                                                       2
4 to 6 times                                                       3
7 to 10 times                                                      4
More than 10 times                                                 5
None                                                               8
Cannot Recall/No Answer                                            9

103:                                                                       PCH19
Now I'm going to read you a list of some artistic or cultural activities
that people might be involved in at home or in their community. For
each item, please tell me whether or not you participated in any of
these activities in the last twelve months.

104:                                                                       PC19A
Have you participated in ... in the last twelve months
Working with pottery, ceramics, jewelry, doing leatherwork or
metalwork, or weaving, crocheting, quilting, needlepoint, or sewing
Yes                                                             1
No                                                              2
DK/NR                                                           9

105:                                                                       PC19B
Have you participated in ... in the last twelve months
Painting, drawing, sculpture or printmaking activities
Yes                                                               1
No                                                                2
DK/NR                                                             9

106:                                                                       PC19C
Have you participated in ... in the last twelve months
Making photographs, movies, or video tapes as an artistic activity
Yes                                                            1
No                                                             2
DK/NR                                                          9

107:                                                                       PC19D
Have you participated in ... in the last twelve months
Creative writing such as stories, poems or plays, or storytelling
Yes                                                               1
No                                                                2
DK/NR                                                             9

108:                                                                  PC19E
Have you participated in ... in the last twelve months
Acting, dancing, or writing or composing music, playing a musical
instrument or singing
Yes                                                        1
No                                                         2
DK/NR                                                      9

109:                                                                  PCH8
On an average day, about how many hours do you spend watching
television on APTN, the Aboriginal Peoples' Television Network?
None                                                          1
1 hour                                                        2
2 hours                                                       3
3 hours                                                       4
4 hours                                                       5
5 hours                                                       6
6 hours or more                                               7
DN/NR                                                         9

110:                                                                  SPINT
Now I would like to ask you some questions about sport. For the
following questions, when we talk about sport we mean physical
activities that USUALLY involve competition AND RULES and
develop SPECIFIC skills.

111:                                                                  SP1A
Do you participate in sport? (IF NEEDED: By sport we mean physical
activities that USUALLY involve competition AND RULES and
develop SPECIFIC skills.
Yes                                                        1
No                                                         2
Don't know                                                 8
Refused                                                    9

112:                                                                  SP1B
=> SP9A if   NOT (SP1A=#1)
Are you involved in sport as a player, coach, assistant coach,
manager, a referee or official, other type of paid personnel, on a
board of directors, or as a volunteer in another capacity?
Player                                                          01
Coach                                                           02
Assistant coach                                                 03
Manager                                                         04
A referee or official                                           05
Other type of paid personnel (i.e. head coach or technical director) 06
On a board of directors                                         07
Volunteer in some other capacity                                08
Other (specify)                                                 77   O
Don't know                                                      98   X
Refused                                                         99   X

113:                                                                      PSP
For the sports that you play most often, ...

114:                                                                      SP3A
For the sports that you play most often ...
Are they primarily done in a structured AND organized environment
(e.g. Private facilities, sports or community club)?
Yes                                                         1
No                                                          2
DK/NR                                                       9

115:                                                                      SP4A
For the sports that you play most often, do they ...
involve a coach?
Yes                                                           1
No                                                            2
DK/NR                                                         9

116:                                                                      SP5A
For the sports that you play most often, do they ...
involve training?
Yes                                                           1
No                                                            2
DK/NR                                                         9

117:                                                                      SP6A
For the sports that you play most often, do they ...
involve competition?
Yes                                                             1
No                                                              2
DK/NR                                                           9

118:                                                                         SP9A
MAKE SURE TO PROBE FOR AS MANY RESPONSES AS
POSSIBLE
What MOST prevents you from participating in sport more often than
you currently do? (If necessary:” Is there anything else that prevents
you?")
Lack of time                                                      01
Lack of available-choice of facilities/organized sports/participants in community 02
Disability/Injury/Health issue                                    03
Lack of interest (general)->unmotivated, not into sports, out of shape 04
Age/too old                                                       05
Lack of transportation                                            06
Lack of money                                                     07
Weather/temperature                                               08
Other (Specify)                                                   77     O
Nothing, already participate a lot                                97     X
Don't know                                                        98     X
Refused                                                           99     X

119:                                                                        SP10A
MAKE SURE TO PROBE FOR AS MANY RESPONSES AS
POSSIBLE
What do you believe is A KEY benefit to participating in sport? (If
necessary: "Are there any other key benefits?")
Fitness/in good shape                                      01
General well-being                                         02
Get to know people/socialize                               03
Learn to be part of a team                                 04
SELF ESTEEM/ACCEPTANCE/COMFIDENCE                          05     N
PERSONAL SKILLS DEVELOPMENT/NECESSARY LIFE SKILLS
(VARIOUS:AMBITION, DICIPLINE, MOTIVATION...)               06     N
SPORTSMANSHIP/GOOD HEALTHY COMPETITION                     07     N
GOOD FOR THE COMMUNITY e.g.,: BEING A GOOD ROLE MODEL,
GETTING INVOLVED, FUNDRAISING, FAMILY TIES                 08     N
ENJOYMENT-COMBARS BOREDOM/STRESS                           09     N
KEEPS CHILDREN/YOUTH OUT OF TROUBLE                        10     N
Specify                                                    77     O
Don't know                                                 98     X
Refused                                                    99     X

120:                                                                        INAC9
DO NOT READ - CODE ALL THAT APPLY
In this section, I would like to ask you what languages you speak at
home or in your community? ... Any others?
English                                                       01
French                                                        02
Inuktitut                                                     03
Blackfoot                                                     04
Carrier                                                       05
Chipewyan                                                     06
Cree                                                          07
Dene                                                          08
Dogrib                                                        09
Gwich'in                                                      10
Innu                                                          11
Mic Mac                                                       12
Montagnais-Naskapi                                            13
Ojibway                                                       14
Slavey                                                        15
Tutchone                                                      16
Other European (German, Italian, Spanish)                     17
Other (SPECIFY)                                               77   O
None                                                          98   X
DK/NR                                                         99   X

121:                                                                      PCH10
=> PRPC4 if NOT (INAC9=#3-#16)
Did you first learn your aboriginal language as a child or as an adult?
Child                                                            1
Adult                                                            2
DK/NR                                                            9

122:                                                                      PCH11
READ LIST
How important is it that you maintain your aboriginal language skills
through speaking, reading, writing, storytelling and ceremonies? Is
it...?
Very important                                               1
Important                                                    2
Not very important                                           3
Not at all important                                         4
(DO NOT READ) DK/NR                                          9

123:                                                                      PCH12
And using the same scale, how important is it to you that your
aboriginal language be passed on to future generations in your
community?
Very important                                          1
Important                                               2
Not very important                                      3
Not at all important                                    4
(DO NOT READ) DK/NR                                     9

124:                                                                     PRPC4
=> NET if INAC9=#3-#16
If you had the opportunity to keep, learn or re-learn your Aboriginal
language how important is it for you to:

125:                                                                     PCH4A
Be able to speak your Aboriginal language? Would you say . . . (IF
NEEDED: If you had the opportunity to keep, learn or re-learn your
Aboriginal language how important is it that you:)
Very important                                              1
Important                                                   2
Not very important                                          3
Not at all important                                        4
(DO NOT READ) DK/NR                                         9

126:                                                                     PCH4B
Be able to read or write your Aboriginal language? Would you say . .
. (IF NEEDED: If you had the opportunity to keep, learn or re-learn
your Aboriginal language how important is it that you:)
Very important                                              1
Important                                                   2
Not very important                                          3
Not at all important                                        4
(DO NOT READ) DK/NR                                         9

127:                                                                     PCH4C
READ LIST
If you had the opportunity to keep, learn or re-learn your Aboriginal
language would you most prefer to do this . . .
using modern multimedia materials, such as audio-visual, CDs,
DVDs, computer games, internet, etc.                             1
using traditional approaches, such as Elders and cultural activities 2
using a mixed approach of modern multimedia and traditional 3
(DO NOT READ) using other methods or approaches                  4
(DO NOT READ) not interested in learning Aboriginal language 7
(DO NOT READ) no opinion                                        8
(DO NOT READ) DK/NR                                             9

128:                                                                       NET
Have you used the Internet in the past three months?
Yes                                                             1
No                                                              2
DK/NR                                                           9

129:                                                                       NET2
=> +1 if      NOT(NET=#2)
DO NOT READ LIST; ACCEPT AS MANY AS APPLY
Why haven't you used the Internet in the past 3 months?
No reason to lately                                             01
No interest in the Internet                                     02
No access to the Internet                                       03
Don't know how to use the Internet                              04
Other (specify)                                                 77    O
DK/NR                                                           99    X

130:                                                                       NET3
=> +1 if     NOT(NET=#1)
DO NOT READ LIST; ACCEPT AS MANY AS APPLY
Where do you currently use the Internet most often?
At home                                                         01
At work                                                         02
At school                                                       03
At friends/family                                               04
At an Aboriginal organization / Friendship centre               05
At a community centre or library on the reserve                 06
Somewhere elsewhere on the reserve                              07
At a community centre or library off of the reserve             08
Do not have access anywhere                                     98    X
DK/NR                                                           99    X

131:                                                                       CH1
=> INC6 if NOT (NET=#1)
READ LIST - Select all that apply
Do you visit web sites targeted to people of your culture, ethnic origin
or language on the following topics ...?
Education/learning                                               1
Local community events and news                                  2
Shopping for goods and services                                  3
Expressions of your culture, arts, heritage, language and traditions 4
(DO NOT READ) None of the above                                 8X
(DO NOT READ) DK/NR                                             9X

132:                                                                   PRCH2
How interested are you in visiting web sites with the following?
Please respond using a 5 point scale where 1 means not at all
interested, 5 means very interested and the mid-point 3 means
moderately interested

133:                                                                    CH2A
How interested are you in visiting a web site with . . .
Expressions of your culture, arts, heritage, language and traditions
1.Not at all interested                                          1
2                                                                2
3.Moderately                                                     3
4                                                                4
5.Very interested                                                5
DK/NR                                                            9

134:                                                                   CH2B
How interested are you in visiting a web site with . . .
Local community events and news
1.Not at all interested                                         1
2                                                               2
3.Moderately                                                    3
4                                                               4
5.Very interested                                               5
DK/NR                                                           9

135:                                                                   CH2C
How interested are you in visiting a web site about the . . .
Role of Aboriginal peoples in Canada.
1.Not at all interested                                         1
2                                                               2
3.Moderately                                                    3
4                                                               4
5.Very interested                                               5
DK/NR                                                           9

136:                                                                   CH2D
How interested are you in visiting a web site . . .
In an Aboriginal language.
1.Not at all interested                                         1
2                                                               2
3.Moderately                                                    3
4                                                               4
5.Very interested                                               5
DK/NR                                                           9

137:                                                                     CH2D2
=> +1 if    NOT (CH2D=#4-#5)
What language(s) are you interested in finding a web site in?
OJIBWAY                                                         01
CREE                                                            02
MONTAGNAIS                                                      03
MIC MAC (Often pronounced "migmah")                             04
MOHAWK                                                          05
DAKOTA                                                          06
BLACKFOOT                                                       07
CAYUGEA                                                         08
DENE/CHIPAWAN                                                   09
SAULTAUEX                                                       10
ALGONQUIN                                                       11
Inuktitut                                                       12
Michif                                                          13
Other Aboriginal language (specify)                             77   O
DK/NR                                                           99   X

138:                                                                      INC6
Thinking about where you are living right now, do you own or rent
this place, are you staying with family or friends, or is there some
other arrangement?
Rent                                                           1
Own                                                            2
Staying with friends/family                                    3
Other                                                          7
DK/NR                                                          9

139:                                                                      INC7
=> +1 if    NOT(INC6=#1)
DO NOT READ LIST; ACCEPT UP TO 3 RESPONSES
Beyond any money considerations, are there other reasons that you
choose not to own your own home?
No other reason                                            00
Cannot afford the down payment                             01   N
Cannot get a home in neighborhood of choice                02
Unable to secure financing/interest rates                  03   N
Dont want to deal with financial institutions              04
Dont want to/unable to maintain a property/home            05
Lack of home ownership/rent to own incentives                  06
Not interested in the responsibility of being a homeowner      07
Moving back to the reserve                                     08
Other (specify)                                                77    O
DK/NR                                                          99    X

140:                                                                     INAC1
=> +1 if     NOT(INC6=#1); RENTERS ONLY
READ LIST
As a renter, when you are meeting a landlord to view a place that you
would like to rent, how often do you feel that you experience
discrimination? Would you say . . .
Always                                                         1
Sometimes                                                      2
Rarely                                                         3
Never                                                          4
Not applicable                                                 8
DK/NR                                                          9

141:                                                                     DEMIN
Now, in these last few questions, I would like to get some information
to help us group your answers with others that have taken this
survey.

142:                                                                     AGE2X
IF HESTITANT MOVE ONTO NEXT QUESTION
In what year were you born? NOTE: ANSWER THE FULL YEAR, I.E.
1977 as "1977"
HESITANT                                             9999

143:                                                                     AGE2Y
=> +1 if     NOT (AGE2X=#1)
May I place your age into one of the following general age
categories?
Under 18                                            01
18-24 years                                         02
25-34 years                                         03
35-44 years                                         04
45-54 years                                         05
55-64 years                                         06
65 years or older                                   07
(DO NOT READ) DK/NR                                 99

144:                                                                     EMPLO
Are you employed? IF Yes-"Which of the following categories best
describes your CURRENT status?"(READ TOP FIVE) IF No -"Which
of the following categories best describes your CURRENT status?
(READ FROM OPTION 6 DOWN)
Self-employed                                             01
Employed full-time                                        02
Employed part-time                                        03
Seasonal employment                                       04
Term employment                                           05
Unemployed                                                06
Unemployed but looking for work                           07
Student/Attending school full-time                        08
Retired                                                   09
Not in work force/Full-time Homemaker                     10
Disability / sick leave                                   11
Maternity / paternal leave                                12
(DO NOT READ) Other (please specify)                      98   O
(DO NOT READ) DK/NR                                       99

145:                                                                    EDUC
What is the highest level of formal education that you have
completed?
Grade 8 or less                                               01
Some high school                                              02
High school graduate                                          03
Some college                                                  04
Technical/Vocational/College/CEGEP graduate                   05
Some university                                               06
Undergraduate university degree (e.g., BA, BSc)               07
Graduate or post graduate university degree (e.g., M.A., MSc., Ph.D.)      08
Other (specify)                                               77    O
DK/NR                                                         99

146:                                                                    INCME
What is the total annual INCOME, from all sources, for the entire
household before deductions? **Your best guess is fine, we are only
looking for a range**
Less than $10,000                                           01
$10-$19K                                                    02
$20-$29K                                                    03
$30-$39K                                                    04
$40-$49K                                                    05
$50-$59K                                                    06
$60-$69K                                                    07
$70-$79K                                                    08
$80K or above                                                09
DK/NR                                                        99

147:                                                                        ORAB
That is the end of the survey. As you can see, we are trying to speak to people
in Aboriginal households that are not on a reserve, which can be hard to find.
Would you be able to give us another telephone number of an Aboriginal household
in your community to call for this survey? We will just call the number - we
don't need a name.

@orab 1 - Yes
 2 - No

Record telephone number including area code XXX-XXX-XXXX :
@orab2

Alternative telephone number:
@orab3


150:                                                                    PANEL
As you probably know there are a number of surveys that happen each year that
are aimed at improving the lives of people in the Aboriginal community. Would we be
able to add your name to a pool of households that we can contact again in the future
for another survey on other topics?
 1-Yes, 2-No @panel

That's great - thank you! I just need your first name, to know who to ask for
when we call you again, and your email address, in case we decide to do an
internet survey, so we can email you an invitation - we won't use it for any
other reason.
**NOTE: To enter name/e-mail press "1" and record below, if refused press "2"**

@namex 1 - Provides name; Record below
 2 - Refused
Enter name here: @name

@emx 1 - Has e-mail; Record below
 2 - Does not have an e-mail address/does not want to give e-mail address
Enter e-mail here: @em


155:                                                                        THNK
End of Interview
Thank you for your cooperation and time!
Completion                                                   1D
                          APPENDIX B
     FACE TO FACE SURVEY INSTRUMENT
           Aboriginal In-Person Interview


1.                      How would you rate your current quality of
                        life? (Read scale)

           VERY                             VERY              DON’T KNOW/
           BAD          NEITHER             GOOD              NO ANSWER



            1       2       3        4        5               9



2.                      Overall, thinking about your own quality of
                        life in the next 12 months, do you think it
                        will get much better, stay about the same, or
                        worsen a lot? (Read scale)

         GET MUCH        ABOUT             WORSEN             DON’T KNOW/
          BETTER        THE SAME            A LOT             NO ANSWER



            1       2       3        4        5               9
3.                          In general, do you think that the relationship
                            between Aboriginal people and other
                            Canadians is getting better or worse or
                            staying about the same?

     Getting worse                                               1
     About the same                                              2
     Getting better                                              3
     Don‘t know/No answer                                        9
4.   IF “RELATIONSHIP GETTING
     BETTER” (Q3): Why do you think that the
     relationship between Aboriginal people and
     other Canadians is getting better? Can you
     provide further details?




5.   IF “RELATIONSHIP GETTING
     WORSE” (Q3): Why do you think that the
     relationship between Aboriginal people and
     other Canadians is getting worse? Can you
     provide further details?
6.                                          Thinking about the issues facing Canada as
                                            a whole today, which are your top priorities
                                            that the Government of Canada should focus
                                            on most? [DO NOT READ LIST – TAKE AS
                                            MANY ANSWERS AS GIVEN]

        Medicare/Health Care                                                           01
        Jobs/Unemployment                                                              02
        Education/Schools                                                              03
        Social services/Poverty/The poor/Welfare/Homeless                              04
        Deficit/Debt/Government Spending                                               05
        Environment/Pollution                                                          06
        National unity/Quebec‘s future                                                 07
        Crime/Violence/Justice                                                         08
        Housing                                                                        09
        National Security/Defense                                                      10
        Managing the economy/Canadian dollar                                           11
        Aboriginal issues                                                              12
        International affairs (e.g., war in Iraq)                                      13
        Children/child poverty                                                         14
        Taxes/Lower Taxes                                                              15
        Other (PLEASE SPECIFY)                                                         16
        Don‘t know/no answer                                                           99



7.                                          How would you rate the three levels of
                                            government on the overall quality of the
                                            service it delivers to Aboriginal people
                                            living off-reserve? How would you rate the
                                            overall performance of...? (Read scale)

                                                                        NEITHER GOOD                    DON’T KNOW/
                                                      VERY BAD            NOR BAD           EXCELLENT
                                                     NO ANSWER




a.   The Government of Canada                            1            2        3       4        5           9
     b.                                                Your provincial government               1           23
     c.                                                Your city or town government             1           23
8.                           How well do you feel your interests are
                             being represented by an Aboriginal
                             representative organization? Would you say
                             they are…(read scale)?

      NOT REPRESENTED       MODERATELY          VERY WELL          DON’T KNOW/
           AT ALL           REPRESENTED        REPRESENTED         NO ANSWER



            1           2        3        4          5             9


9.                           How satisfied are you with the information
                             and communication you receive from
                             Aboriginal representative organizations?
                             Would you say you are…(read scale)?

        NOT AT ALL          MODERATELY            VERY             DON’T KNOW/
         SATISFIED           SATISFIED          SATISFIED          NO ANSWER



            1           2        3        4          5             9



10.                          What impact do you feel that Friendship
                             Centers are having on your community?
                             Would you say…? (Read scale) [NOTE:
                             Positive impact in community means
                             providing sense of Aboriginal community,
                             sense of personal well-being, level of social
                             support, preservation of Aboriginal
                             languages and cultures.]

          VERY                                    VERY             DON’T KNOW/
         NEGATIVE             NEITHER            POSITIVE          NO ANSWER



            1           2        3        4          5             9



11.                          If you were to access programs and services,
                             how important would each of the following
                             delivery considerations be to you? (Read
                             scale)
                                                            NOT AT             MODERATELY                VERY     DON’T KNOW/
                                                          IMPORTANT             IMPORTANT             IMPORTANT
                                                          NO ANSWER



a.   Delivered by Aboriginal staff, but not necessarily
     by an Aboriginal organization                            1          2          3          4          5           9
     b.                                                     Delivered by an Aboriginal organization                   12
12.                          How often do you or your family access
                             programs, services, or activities from an
                             Aboriginal Friendship Centre? Would you
                             say…(Read list)?

      Weekly                                                        1
      Monthly                                                       2
      Yearly                                                        3
      Never                                                         4
      Don‘t know/no answer                                          9



13.                          How often do you participate in any groups,
                             organizations or events in your community?
                             Would you say…(Read list)?

      Weekly                                                        1
      Monthly                                                       2
      Yearly                                                        3
      Never                                                         4
      Don‘t know/no answer                                          9



14.                          IF PARTICIPATE IN GROUPS,
                             ORGANIZATIONS OR EVENTS
                             WEEKLY OR MONTHLY (Q13): Are
                             these generally Aboriginal groups,
                             organizations or events?

      Yes                                                           1
      No                                                            2
      Don‘t know/no answer                                          9



15.                          How would you rate the sense of cultural
                             identity within your community? (Read
                             scale) [NOTE: A positive cultural identity
                             means having pride in your culture, or in
                             other words expressed as having positive
                             self-esteem or a positive feeling about who
                             they are in terms of their Aboriginal
                             identity.]
NOT AT ALL                      VERY    DON’T KNOW/
 STRONG          NEITHER       STRONG   NO ANSWER



    1        2      3      4      5     9
16.                                 How would you rate your own sense of
                                    cultural identity? (Read scale)

        NOT AT ALL                                        VERY            DON’T KNOW/
         STRONG                      NEITHER             STRONG           NO ANSWER



            1              2            3          4        5             9



17.                                 How often do you seek information,
                                    assistance or advice about employment?
                                    (Read scale)

          OFTEN                     SOMETIMES            NEVER         NOT APPLICABLE/ DON’T
KNOW/
                     OCCASIONALLY               RARELY                 DON’T WORK NO ANSWER



            1              2            3          4        5         6                 9



18.                                 How often do you seek information,
                                    assistance or advice about credit (such as
                                    access to credit and managing credit)?
                                    (Read scale)

          OFTEN                     SOMETIMES            NEVER         NOT APPLICABLE/ DON’T
KNOW/
                     OCCASIONALLY               RARELY                 DON’T WORK NO ANSWER



            1              2            3          4        5         6                 9



19.                                 How often do you contact them to arrange
                                    for a ride to go somewhere? (Read scale)

          OFTEN                     SOMETIMES            NEVER         NOT APPLICABLE/ DON’T
KNOW/
                     OCCASIONALLY               RARELY                 DON’T WORK NO ANSWER



            1              2            3          4        5         6                 9
20.                                             How often do you seek information,
                                                assistance or advice about government
                                                services? (Read scale)

                         OFTEN                  SOMETIMES            NEVER         NOT APPLICABLE/ DON’T
KNOW/
                                 OCCASIONALLY               RARELY                 DON’T WORK NO ANSWER



                           1           2            3          4       5          6                 9


21.                                             How often do you seek information,
                                                assistance or advice about child care?
                                                (Read scale)

                         OFTEN                  SOMETIMES            NEVER         NOT APPLICABLE/ DON’T
KNOW/
                                 OCCASIONALLY               RARELY                 DON’T WORK NO ANSWER



                           1           2            3          4       5          6                 9



22.                                             Over the last two years, have you been a
                                                victim of racism or discrimination because
                                                of your Aboriginal origin?

        Yes                                                                              1
        No                                                                               2
        Don‘t know/no answer                                                             9



23.                                             IF EXPERIENCED RACISM OR
                                                DISCRIMINATION (Q22): Can you tell
                                                me by who? Was it, for example…? [DO
                                                NOT READ LIST – TAKE AS MANY
                                                ANSWERS AS GIVEN]

        Police                                                                           01
        Courts or justice system                                                         02
        Schools                                                                          03
        Landlord/housing authority                                                       04
        Businesses (stores, restaurants)                                                 05
        Bank/credit institutions                                                         06
      Utilities (telephone, hydro)                                          07
      Work/employer                                                         08
      Government                                                            09
      A non-Aboriginal person                                               10
      An Aboriginal person                                                  11
      Other (PLEASE SPECIFY)                                                12
      Don‘t know/no answer                                                  99



24.                                  Have you moved within the past year?

      Yes                                                                   1
      No                                                                    2
      Don‘t know/no answer                                                  9
25.                                         IF MOVED IN PAST YEAR (Q24): What
                                            was your main reason for leaving your
                                            community? [DO NOT READ LIST – TAKE
                                            AS MANY ANSWERS AS GIVEN]

      Education opportunities                                                  01
      Employment opportunities                                                 02
      Housing or quality housing                                               03
      Better/more services or quality of services                              04
      Medical reasons                                                          05
      Separation, divorce or break-up of relationship                          06
      Domestic violence                                                        07
      Family reason                                                            08
      Day care services                                                        09
      Transit services                                                         10
      Wanted to experience urban life                                          11
      Other (PLEASE SPECIFY)                                                   77
      Don‘t know/no answer                                                     99



26.                                         How likely would you be to move to
                                            another community to get more education?
                                            (Read scale)

                     NOT AT ALL             MODERATELY        EXTREMELY         Don’t Know/
                       LIKELY                 LIKELY            LIKELY          NO ANSWER



                         1           2           3       4        5             9



27.                                         How likely would you be to move to
                                            another community to get a better job?
                                            (Read scale)

                     NOT AT ALL             MODERATELY        EXTREMELY         Don’t Know/
                       LIKELY                 LIKELY            LIKELY          NO ANSWER



                         1           2           3       4        5             9



28.                                         In the past 12 months, did you do any
                                            unpaid volunteer work for any community
                                          organization?

      Yes                                                      1
      No                                                       2
      Don‘t know/no answer                                     9


29.                                       IF DID UNPAID VOLUNTEER WORK
                                          (Q28): How would you rate your overall
                                          volunteering experience in the past year?

                     DID NOT                                   ENJOYED IT               DON’T KNOW/
                     ENJOY IT                                  VERY MUCH                NO ANSWER



                        1          2         3         4           5                    9



30.                                       IF DID NOT DO UNPAID VOLUNTEER
                                          WORK (Q28): What were the factors
                                          which prevented you from volunteering over
                                          the past 12 months? [DO NOT READ LIST
                                          – TAKE AS MANY ANSWERS AS GIVEN]

      Do not have enough time/ Too busy                                                     1
      Unwilling to make the commitment                                                      2
      Had not been personally asked                                                         3
      No interest                                                                           4
      Other (PLEASE SPECIFY)                                                                5
      Don‘t know/no answer                                                                  9



31.                                       In the following questions, we are talking
                                          about post-secondary education. By this, I
                                          mean education beyond high school,
                                          including universities, community colleges,
                                          trade, technical and vocational schools and
                                          apprenticeship programs.
                                          To what extent do you agree or disagree
                                          with the following statements? (Read scale)

                                                 COMPLETELY             NEITHER AGREE           COMPLETELY
                                                 DON’T KNOW/
                                                  DISAGREE              NOR DISAGREE                  AGREE   NO ANSWER
a.   The cost of a post-secondary education is a good
     long term investment for young people, because it
     leads to better jobs with higher wages               1         2          3           4          5          9
     b.                                                  More and more these days, the financial support from parents is a big
32.                                      Have you heard of any federal or provincial
                                         government programs that exist to help
                                         parents to save and pay for their children’s
                                         post-secondary education? Which ones have
                                         you heard of? [DO NOT READ LIST –
                                         TAKE AS MANY ANSWERS AS GIVEN]

      Government student loans                                                   01
      Canada Education Savings Grant (CESG)                                      02
      Government matching program/Contribution program (Cannot specify
      name)                                                                      03
      Canada Learning Bonds                                                      04
      Alberta Centennial Education savings plan/ Learning bond                   05
      Registered Education Savings Plans (RESPs)                                 06
      General mention of savings plan (cannot specify name)                      07
      Other sources (PLEASE SPECIFY)                                             08
      Yes, but can‘t name any                                                    09
      None of the above                                                          10
      Don‘t know/no answer                                                       99



33.                                      How many children do you have under the
                                         age of 18, including any that do not live at
                                         home?




      None                                  0 --> IF NO CHILDREN, GO TO QUESTION 42
      Don‘t know/no answer                  9 --> GO TO QUESTION 42



34.                                      IF HAS CHILDREN UNDER THE AGE
                                         OF 18 (Q33): How many of these children
                                         do you expect will get post-secondary
                                         education (PSE) in the future?




      None                                  0 --> IF DO NOT EXPECT ANY CHILDREN TO GET PSE, GO TO Q42
      Don‘t know/no answer                  9 --> GO TO QUESTION 42
35.                                 IF ANY CHILDREN TO GET PSE
                                    (Q34): Thinking about your children who
                                    are under 18 years old, how important is it
                                    to you that they get a post-secondary
                                    education? Would you say...? (read scale)

                   NOT AT ALL       MODERATELY            VERY            DON’T KNOW/
                   IMPORTANT         IMPORTANT         IMPORTANT          NO ANSWER



                       1        2        3       4         5              9



36.                                 Some people are in a position to save for a
                                    child’s education, however, many are not in
                                    this position. Are you currently contributing
                                    toward savings for a child’s post-secondary
                                    education, that is their education beyond
                                    high school?

      Yes                                             1
      No                                              2 --> GO TO QUESTION 40
      Don‘t know/no answer                            9 --> GO TO QUESTION 40



37.                                 IF SAVING FOR CHILD’S POST-
                                    SECONDARY EDUCATION (Q36):
                                    Have you contributed to a Registered
                                    Education Savings Plan or RESP to save for
                                    any of your children’s education?

      Yes                                             1
      No                                              2--> GO TO QUESTION 41
      Don‘t know/no answer                            9--> GO TO QUESTION 41



38.                                 IF SAVING (Q36) CONTRIBUTING TO
                                    A REGISTERED EDUCATION
                                    SAVINGS PLAN (RESP) (Q37): Is the
                                    Canada Education Savings Grant
                                    contribution from the government, matching
                                    some of the money that you have put in,
                                    added to the RESP?
Yes                    1 --> GO TO QUESTION 40
No                     2
Don‘t know/no answer   9 --> GO TO QUESTION 40
39.                                           IF SAVING (Q36) BUT NOT
                                              CONTRIBUTING TO A REGISTERED
                                              EDUCATION SAVINGS PLAN (RESP)
                                              (Q37): What is the main reason that you are
                                              not using a Registered Education Savings
                                              Plan (RESP) to save for your child or
                                              children’s post-secondary education? [DO
                                              NOT READ LIST – TAKE ONLY ONE
                                              ANSWER]

      Child ineligible for RESP of the Canada Education Savings Grant (CESG)          1
      Not aware of RESPs                                                              2
      Expected returns on an RESP are not sufficient                                  3
      RESPs are too complicated                                                       4
      Easier to save outside of an RESP                                               5
      Risk of losing earnings if child does not attend post-secondary education       6
      Other (PLEASE SPECIFY)                                                          7
      Don‘t know/no answer                                                            9



40.                                           IF NOT CONTRIBUTING TO A
                                              REGISTERED EDUCATION SAVINGS
                                              PLAN (RESP) (Q37): What would you do
                                              to get information about how to set up a
                                              Registered Education Savings Plan (RESP)?
                                              [DO NOT READ LIST – TAKE AS MANY
                                              ANSWERS AS GIVEN]

      Phone 1-800 number                                                              1
      Visit website                                                                   2
      Visit government department                                                     3
      Go to a financial institution (bank, etc.)                                      4
      Go to a financial advisor (broker, financial planner, etc.)                     5
      Other (PLEASE SPECIFY)                                                          6
      Nothing                                                                         7
      Don‘t know/no answer                                                            9



41.                                           Who do you consider to be the most
                                              trustworthy source of information about
                                              whether or not it’s a good idea to set up an
                                              RESP? [DO NOT READ LIST – TAKE
                                              ONLY ONE ANSWER]
              Bank/bank employees                                                                  1
              Financial advisor                                                                    2
              Government                                                                           3
              Friend/family member                                                                 4
              Other (PLEASE SPECIFY)                                                               5
              Don‘t know/no answer                                                                 9


42.                                               Is there a post-secondary institution within
                                                  daily driving distance of your community?

              Yes                                                                                  1
              No                                                                                   2
              Don‘t know/no answer                                                                 9


Now on a different topic, I am going to read a list of different types of live performances and arts events.
For each one, please tell me approximately how many times you have attended each type in the last twelve
months.



43.                                               How many times in the last 12 months have
                                                  you attended…?


                                                             2 TO 3      4 TO 6     7 TO 10   MORE THAN            CANNOT RECALL/
                                                  ONCE       TIMES       TIMES       TIMES     10 TIMES     NONE     NO ANSWER
a.      A live performance such as a play,
        musical, music concert, dance
        performance, opera, storytelling            1            2             3          4            5         6      7
        b.                                   A media arts presentation such as an installation, media arts video or arts film screening
        c.                                   A visual art exhibit such as sculpture, painting, photography, mixed media or crafts
        d.                                   An exhibit of artifacts, historic objects or natural history specimens          1
Now I‘m going to read you a list of some artistic or cultural activities that people might be involved in at
home or in their community. For each item, please tell me whether or not you participated in any of these
activities in the last twelve months.


44.                                                    Have you participated in ... in the last twelve
                                                       months?

                                                                                                     DON’T KNOW/
                                                                YES                  NO               NO ANSWER
a.      Working with pottery, ceramics, jewellery,
        doing leatherwork or metalwork, or weaving,
        crocheting, quilting, needlepoint, or sewing             1                      2                     9
        b.                                                Painting, drawing, sculpture or printmaking activities             1
        c.                                                Making photographs, movies, or video tapes as an artistic activity
        d.                                                Creative writing such as stories, poems or plays, or storytelling
e.      Acting, dancing, or writing or composing
        music, playing a musical instrument or singing           1                    2                    9



45.                                                    On an average day, about how many hours
                                                       do you spend watching television on APTN,
                                                       the Aboriginal Peoples’ Television
                                                       Network? [PROVIDE ANSWER TO THE
                                                       NEAREST HOUR]

HOURS



                      Don‘t know/no answer                                9
Now I would like to ask you some questions about sport. For the following questions, when we talk about
sport we mean physical activities that usually involve competition and rules and develop specific skills.


46.                                                  Do you participate in sport?

              Yes                                                                            1
              No                                                                             2
              Refused                                                                        3
              Don‘t know/no answer                                                           9


IF DOES NOT PARTICIPATE IN SPORT (Q46) -> GO TO QUESTION 50


47.                                                  Are you involved in sport as a player, coach,
                                                     assistant coach, manager, a referee or
                                                     official, other type of paid personnel, on a
                                                     board of directors, or as a volunteer in
                                                     another capacity? [DO NOT READ LIST –
                                                     TAKE AS MANY ANSWERS AS GIVEN]

              Player                                                                         01
              Coach                                                                          02
              Assistant coach                                                                03
              Manager                                                                        04
              A referee or official                                                          05
              Other type of paid personnel (i.e., head coach or technical director)          06
              On a board of directors                                                        07
              Volunteer in some other capacity                                               08
              Other (PLEASE SPECIFY)                                                         09
              Refused                                                                        10
              Don‘t know                                                                     99



48.                                                  For the sports that you play most often, are
                                                     they primarily done in a structured AND
                                                     organized environment (e.g. private
                                                     facilities, sports or community club)?

              Yes                                                                            1
              No                                                                             2
              Don‘t know/no answer                                                           9
49.                                                 For the sports that you play most often, do
                                                    they…?

                                                                                             DON’T KNOW/
                                                               YES                    NO      NO ANSWER
a.    Involve a coach                                           1                     2           9
      b.                                                 Involve training                         1        2   9
      c.                                                 Involve competition                      1        2   9




50.                                                 What MOST prevents you from
                                                    participating in sport more often than you
                                                    currently do? [DO NOT READ LIST –
                                                    TAKE AS MANY ANSWERS AS GIVEN]

            Lack of time                                                                   01
            Lack of available-choice of facilities/organized sports/participants in
            community                                                                      02
            Disability/Injury/Health issue                                                 03
            Lack of interest (general)- not into sports                                    04
            Age/too old                                                                    05
            Lack of transportation                                                         06
            Lack of money                                                                  07
            Weather/temperature                                                            08
            Other (PLEASE SPECIFY)                                                         09
            Nothing, already participate a lot                                             10
            Refused                                                                        11
            Don‘t know/no answer                                                           99
51.                                         What do you believe is A KEY benefit to
                                            participating in sport? [DO NOT READ
                                            LIST – TAKE AS MANY ANSWERS AS
                                            GIVEN]

      Fitness/in good shape                                                         01
      General well-being                                                            02
      Get to know people/socialize                                                  03
      Learn to be part of a team                                                    04
      Self esteem/acceptance/confidence                                             05
      Personal skills development/necessary life skills (various: ambition,
      discipline, motivation...)                                                    06
      Sportsmanship/good healthy competition                                        07
      Good for the community e.g.: being a good role model, getting involved,
      fundraising, family ties                                                      08
      Enjoyment-combats boredom/stress                                              09
      Keeps children/youth out of trouble                                           10
      Other (PLEASE SPECIFY)                                                        11
      Refused                                                                       12
      Don‘t know/no answer                                                          99


52.                                         In this section, I would like to ask you what
                                            languages you speak at home or in your
                                            community? [TAKE AS MANY ANSWERS
                                            AS GIVEN]

      English                                                                       01
      French                                                                        02
      Inuktitut                                                                     03
      Blackfoot                                                                     04
      Carrier                                                                       05
      Chipewyan                                                                     06
      Cree                                                                          07
      Dene                                                                          08
      Dogrib                                                                        09
      Gwich‘in                                                                      10
      Innu                                                                          11
      Mic Mac                                                                       12
      Montagnais-Naskapi                                                            13
      Ojibway                                                                       14
      Slavey                                                                        15
      Tutchone                                                                      16
      Other European (German, Italian, Spanish)                                     17
      Other (PLEASE SPECIFY)                                                        18
      None                                                                          19
      Don‘t know/no answer                                                          99
IF NO ABORIGINAL LANGUAGE  GO TO QUESTION 56

53.                                         Did you first learn your Aboriginal language
                                            as a child or as an adult?

         Child                                                                          1
         Adult                                                                          2
         Don‘t know/no answer                                                           9



54.                                         How important is it that you maintain your
                                            Aboriginal language skills through
                                            speaking, reading, writing, storytelling and
                                            ceremonies? Is it...? (Read scale)

         Very important                                                                 1
         Important                                                                      2
         Not very important                                                             3
         Not at all important                                                           4
         Don‘t know/no answer                                                           9



55.                                         How important is it to you that your
                                            Aboriginal language be passed on to future
                                            generations in your community? (Read
                                            scale)

                      VERY                          NOT VERY          NOT AT ALLDON’T KNOW/
                   IMPORTANT    IMPORTANT          IMPORTANT          IMPORTANT NO ANSWER



                      1             2                  3              4             9


IF HAVE AN ABORIGINAL LANGUAGE  GO TO QUESTION 59


56.                                         If you had the opportunity to keep, learn or
                                            re-learn your Aboriginal language how
                                            important is it for you to be able to speak
                                            your Aboriginal language? (Read scale)
   VERY                  NOT VERY   NOT AT ALLDON’T KNOW/
IMPORTANT   IMPORTANT   IMPORTANT   IMPORTANT NO ANSWER



   1            2           3       4             9
57.                                              If you had the opportunity to keep, learn or
                                                 re-learn your Aboriginal language how
                                                 important is it for you to be able to read or
                                                 write your Aboriginal language? (Read
                                                 scale)

                       VERY                              NOT VERY           NOT AT ALLDON’T KNOW/
                    IMPORTANT        IMPORTANT          IMPORTANT           IMPORTANT NO ANSWER



                       1                 2                  3              4              9



58.                                              If you had the opportunity to keep, learn or
                                                 re-learn your Aboriginal language would
                                                 you most prefer to do this…?[DO NOT
                                                 READ LIST – TAKE ONLY ONE ANSWER]

         Using modern multimedia materials, such as audio-visual, CDs, DVDs,
         computer games, internet, etc.                                                       1
         Using traditional approaches, such as Elders and cultural activities                 2
         Using a mixed approach of modern multimedia and traditional                          3
         Using other methods or approaches                                                    4
         Not interested in learning Aboriginal language                                       5
         No opinion                                                                           6
         Don‘t know/no answer                                                                 9


59.                                              Have you used the Internet in the past three
                                                 months?

         Yes                                                                                  1
         No                                                                                   2
         Don‘t know/no answer                                                                 9


IF USE INTERNET (QUESTION 59)  GO TO QUESTION 61


60.                                              IF NOT USING THE INTERNET (Q59):
                                                 Why haven’t you used the Internet in the
                                                 past 3 months? [DO NOT READ LIST,
                                                 TAKE ONLY ONE ANSWER]
         No reason to lately                                                         01
         No interest in the Internet                                                 02
         No access to the Internet                                                   03
         Don‘t know how to use the Internet                                          04
         Other (specify)                                                             77
         DK/NR                                                                       99

IF NO INTERNET USE (QUESTION 59)  GO TO QUESTION 65

61.                                             IF USING THE INTERNET (Q59):
                                                Where do you currently use the Internet
                                                most often? [DO NOT READ LIST – TAKE
                                                ONLY ONE ANSWER]

         At home                                                                          01
         At work                                                                          02
         At school                                                                        03
         At friends/family                                                                04
         At an Aboriginal organization / Friendship centre                                05
         At a community centre or library on the reserve                                  06
         Somewhere elsewhere on the reserve                                               07
         At a community centre or library off of the reserve                              08
         Do not have access anywhere                                                      09
         Don‘t know/no answer                                                             99



62.                                             IF USING THE INTERNET (Q59): Do
                                                you visit web sites targeted to people of
                                                your culture, ethnic origin or language on
                                                the following topics...? [DO NOT READ
                                                LIST, TAKE AS MANY ANSWERS AS
                                                GIVEN]

         Education/learning                                                               1
         Local community events and news                                                  2
         Shopping for goods and services                                                  3
         Expressions of your culture, arts, heritage, language and traditions             4
         None of the above                                                                5
         Don‘t know/no answer                                                             9



63.                                             IF USING THE INTERNET (Q59): How
                                                interested are you in visiting web sites with
                                                the following? (Read scale)
                                                    NOT AT ALL          MODERATELY              VERY      DON’T KNOW/
                                                    INTERESTED          INTERESTED           INTERESTED
                                                    NO ANSWER



a.   Expressions of your culture, arts, heritage,
     language and traditions                             1          2         3          4        5           9
     b.                                               Local community events and news             1           23
     c.                                               Role of Aboriginal peoples in Canada                    12
     d.                                               In an Aboriginal language                   1           23
64.                                        IF USING THE INTERNET (Q59): What
                                           language(s) are you interested in finding a
                                           web site in? [DO NOT READ LIST, TAKE
                                           AS MANY ANSWERS AS GIVEN]

      Ojibway                                                                       01
      Cree                                                                          02
      Montagnais                                                                    03
      Mic Mac                                                                       04
      Mohawk                                                                        05
      Dakota                                                                        06
      Blackfoot                                                                     07
      Cayugea                                                                       08
      Dene/Chipawan                                                                 09
      Saultauex                                                                     10
      Algonquin                                                                     11
      Inuktitut                                                                     12
      Michif                                                                        13
      Other Aboriginal language (PLEASE SPECIFY)                                    14
      Don‘t know/no answer                                                          99



65.                                        Thinking about where you are living right
                                           now, do you own or rent this place, are you
                                           staying with family or friends, or is there
                                           some other arrangement?

      Rent                                                                     1
      Own                                                                      2
      Staying with friends/family                                              3
      Other                                                                    7
      Don‘t know/no answer                                                     9


66.                                        IF RENTING THEIR HOME OR
                                           APARTMENT (Q65): Beyond any money
                                           considerations, are there other reasons that
                                           you choose not to own your own home?
                                           [DO NOT READ LIST – TAKE UP TO 3
                                           ANSWERS]

      No other reason                                                          00
      Cannot get a home in neighbourhood of choice                             02
      Don‘t want to deal with financial institutions                           04
      Don‘t want to/unable to maintain a property/home                         05
      Lack of home ownership/rent to own incentives                            06
              Not interested in the responsibility of being a homeowner                        07
              Moving back to the reserve                                                       08
              Other (PLEASE SPECIFY)                                                           09
              Don‘t know/no answer                                                             99


67.                                                    IF RENTING THEIR HOME OR
                                                       APARTMENT (Q65): As a renter, when
                                                       you are meeting a landlord to view a place
                                                       that you would like to rent, how often do
                                                       you feel that you experience discrimination?

                                                                                         NOT             DON’T KNOW/
                             ALWAYS        SOMETIMES           RARELY           NEVER APPLICABLE         NO ANSWER



                               1               2                 3              4          5                   9


Now, in these last few questions, I would like to get some information to help us group your answers with
others that have taken this survey.


68.                                                    In what year were you born?

1                        9




69.                                                    What is your current employment status?
                                                       [READ LIST IF NECESSARY – TAKE
                                                       ONLY ONE ANSWER]

              Self-employed                                                                         01
              Employed full-time                                                                    02
              Employed part-time                                                                    03
              Seasonal employment                                                                   04
              Term employment                                                                       05
              Unemployed                                                                            06
              Unemployed but looking for work                                                       07
              Student/Attending school full-time                                                    08
              Retired                                                                               09
              Not in work force/Full-time Homemaker                                                 10
              Disability / sick leave                                                               11
              Maternity / paternal leave                                                            12
              Other (PLEASE SPECIFY)                                                                13
              Don‘t know/no answer                                                                  99
70.                                         What is the highest level of formal
                                            education that you have completed? [READ
                                            LIST IF NECESSARY – TAKE ONLY ONE
                                            ANSWER]

      Grade 8 or less                                                              01
      Some high school                                                             02
      High school graduate                                                         03
      Some college                                                                 04
      Technical/Vocational/College/CEGEP graduate                                  05
      Some university                                                              06
      Undergraduate university degree (e.g., BA, BSc)                              07
      Graduate or post graduate university degree (e.g., M.A., MSc., Ph.D.)        08
      Other (PLEASE SPECIFY)                                                       09
      Don‘t know/no answer                                                         99



71.                                         What is your total annual INCOME, from
                                            all sources, for the entire household before
                                            deductions? [READ LIST IF NECESSARY –
                                            TAKE ONLY ONE ANSWER]

      Less than $10,000                                                            01
      $10,000-$19,999K                                                             02
      $20,000-$29,999K                                                             03
      $30,000-$39,999K                                                             04
      $40,000-$49,999K                                                             05
      $50,000-$59,999K                                                             06
      $60,000-$69,999K                                                             07
      $70,000-$79,999K                                                             08
      $80,000K or above                                                            09
      Don‘t know/no answer                                                         99



72.                                         What do you consider your primary
                                            Aboriginal identity to be? [READ LIST–
                                            TAKE AS MANY ANSWERS AS GIVEN]

      First Nations (status Indian)                                                01
      Non-Status Indian                                                            02
      Métis                                                                        03
      Inuit                                                                        04
      Other (PLEASE SPECIFY)                                                       09
      Don‘t know/no answer                                                         99
73.                                 We would like to be able to do a survey like
                                    this one, once or twice a year with
                                    Aboriginal people. Could we contact you
                                    again in three to six months for another 15
                                    minutes or so?

      Yes                                                               1
      No                                                                2
      Don‘t know/no answer                                              9



74.                                 IF AGREE TO BE CONTACTED
                                    AGAIN: Please write down your first name
                                    and your e-mail address if you have one that
                                    we could send you an invitation to, so that
                                    we will know who to ask for the next time
                                    we call you.


      Provides Name; record below 1
      Refused ………………………………………………. 2



      NAME: ___________________________________

      EMAIL ADDRESS:__________________________



                  Thank you for your cooperation and time!


75.                                 Record gender of person being interviewed:

      Male                                                                  1
      Female                                                                2
                          APPENDIX C
 INSTRUCTIONS ON FACE TO FACE SURVEY
                         Guide to the EKOS In-Person Interview

WHO IS EKOS RESEARCH?

EKOS is a well-recognized and respected name in public opinion and applied social research in Canada. For more
than twenty-five years, EKOS has been transforming research into credible knowledge and reliable advice. EKOS is
a longstanding member of MRIA, the Market Research and Intelligence Association (formerly known as CAMRO, The
Canadian Association of Marketing Research Organizations), and meets or exceeds all industry standards.

WHO IS SPONSORING THIS STUDY?

This study is being sponsored by the federal government of Canada; specifically Indian and Northern Affairs,
Canadian Heritage and Human Resources and Skills Development Canada. These departments are interested in
gaining a better understanding of the Aboriginal point of view on a range of issues. A number of surveys have been
conducted with First Nations residents who are currently living on a reserve, but few surveys have captured the views
of the larger portion of the Aboriginal population that do not live on a reserve.

WHAT IS THIS QUESTIONNAIRE ABOUT?

The study includes questions about:
    Interest, awareness and use of Government of Canada programs and services;
    Interest in and participation in cultural activities, such as: sports, Aboriginal languages, internet and related
    activities, the arts, identity and volunteerism;
    Perceptions of the Government of Canada and other levels of government; and,

Demographic, socio-economic and other characteristics of respondents, including the respondent's self-
defined Aboriginal identity.




Three important guidelines

1) Each interviewer should read through the entire questionnaire and become familiar with it before doing the first
   interview.

2) Enough blank copies should be made of the questionnaire, so that a new questionnaire is filled out for each
   interview.

3) It is very important that interviewers conduct the interview themselves – this means that interviewers must
   read out the questions and record the answers of the person they are interviewing. Please do not give the
   people being interviewed a copy of the questionnaire to complete themselves as this may affect the quality of the
   data that is collected.
WHAT CRITERIA DO PEOPLE HAVE TO MEET BEFORE THEY CAN COMPLETE THE INTERVIEW?


    Must be a status or non-status First Nation, Métis, or Inuit person
    Must not have lived on a reserve for more than a few of the last twelve months
    Must not have a listed telephone number. This includes people who do not have a home phone. It also includes
    people who do not have a home phone, but do have a mobile phone/cell phone or an unlisted telephone
    number.

HOW LONG WILL THE INTERVIEW TAKE TO COMPLETE?


This questionnaire takes between 20 and 25 minutes to complete (but can take more or less time depending on the
interviewer and the person being interviewed.)



HOW DO I FOLLOW THIS QUESTIONNAIRE AND CONDUCT THIS INTERVIEW?


We want to make sure that the questionnaire is as easy to follow as possible for interviewers and people being
interviewed.
    Each question should be read as it is written.
           If the question is not clearly understood, please repeat the question again, emphasizing the
           words that you think will help the person to understand the question.
           Explanations should only be provided if absolutely needed (after the person has not
           understood it the first few times).
    For scaled questions, please read the text of the question and also provide the respondent with the numbered
    scale and the end and middle points (e.g., ―The scale is 1-5 on this one, and 1 is ―very bad‖, 5 is ―very good‖ and
    3 is ―neither‖).
    Unless otherwise noted, one response only is required for each question. When there are questions with an
    option for more than one answer (e.g., ―Take as many answers as given‖), circle all the answers given by the
    person being interviewed.
    Sometimes there are questions that ask for more detail – in these cases, try to ask the person who is answering
    the questionnaire to be as specific as possible, and then try to write down what they said as accurately and
    completely as you can.
    You may see questions with a long list of possible answers, but in the question, it says ―DO NOT READ LIST”.
    This means we want to see what the person answering the questionnaire will say on his or her own, without a list
    to choose from, so please do not read this list out loud. Instead, listen to what the person being interviewed says,
    and then try to match it up with the most appropriate category on the list.
           If you think an answer fits but are not sure, you can read the answer you feel is the best
           match and ask them if that is the right one to match their answer.
      If their answer is not on the list at all, or is not close to one of the categories, there is usually
      a category called ‗Other‘ – you can record it there, writing down specifically what they said.
      Even though a question may say ―DO NOT READ LIST‖, if a person is not understanding
      what is needed after 2 or 3 times repeating the question, then reading a few of the answers
      from the list may help --> if this happens please try not to always pick the top 2-3 answers
      on the list (mix them up a bit).
Each question has a Don‘t Know/No Response answer. It is not necessary to read this answer, but you can use
it where the person has volunteered that they don‘t know or unwilling to provide a reply.
Beyond the instructions in each question in the questionnaire (e.g., DO NOT READ LIST. TAKE ONLY ONE
ANSWER), there are only a few additional notes about individual items:
      Q4 & Q5 – get the person to be as specific as possible so that anyone can understand what
      they mean (not just the person having the conversation with the person being interviewed at
      the time)
      Q7 – the federal government is referring to the previous (i.e., Liberal) government, if anyone
      asks, since the current government may have been in place for too little time to be rated
      Q8 – Examples include: First Nations and its affiliated organizations (Band Councils and
      Tribal Councils); the Métis National Council and its provincial affiliates; the Congress of
      Aboriginal Peoples and its provincial/territorial affiliates; the Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami and its
      regional affiliates; the Pauktuutit Inuit Women's organization; and the Native Women's
      Association of Canada and its provincial/territorial affiliates.
      Q23 – only use ―Aboriginal person‖ and ―non-Aboriginal person‖ if the answer is not
      captured in the other answers higher up on the list. We only want to know if the person is
      Aboriginal or non-Aboriginal if the person discriminating is not part of an organization. We
      are not looking for whether it is an Aboriginal or non-Aboriginal person within an
      organization in the list.
      Q32 – In some cases where a person is not understanding, showing them the list or reading
      some of the answers does helps. In the case of q32, try not to read the person (or show
      them) the list, since these are the answers to an awareness question.
      If no children in the home - Q33 - there is a big skip through most of the section
      If there is only 1 child in the home - Q33 - then Q34 does not apply and can be skipped.
      Q50 and Q51 are meant for everyone, including people who have (and have not)
      participated in sport.
      Q66 is not trying to capture financial barriers. It is asking about any other reasons that
      someone may prefer not to own a home (e.g., the responsibility of being a homeowner,
      mobility, etc). It is a more hypothetical question and is not asking if people have the money
      to own a home.
In most cases, the questions on the survey are asked and answered in sequence. At certain points in the
questionnaire, how a person answers a question will determine the next question they get – you can tell which
questions these are, because they have instructions written in bolded, capital letters. Sometimes the instructions will
tell you to “go to” a question that is later in the questionnaire. This is entirely based on the person‘s answer.


Most of the time, if you read through the questionnaire, it is easy to see the logic behind why certain questions are
skipped for people, depending on their answers. (The saving for post-secondary education section is harder than the
rest to follow in terms of skips. If you have any questions, please e-mail us and we will help sort it all out.)

WHAT DO I DO WITH THE COMPLETED FORMS?


We are asking you to complete 15 interviews with clientele with no telephones over a two week period. We would like
you to try to vary the type of people you ask to complete it. If this is who your clientele are we would like you to
interview some young people, some older, some men, some women and so on, so that the 15 people chosen are as
varied as possible in terms of their age, gender and experiences. Another way to help make the type of people
selected be as varied as possible is to do some interviews with people who come in during the day, some with people
who come in in the evening and some with people who come in on the weekends. Try to complete only one or two
interviews a day over a longer period of time (stretched over at least a week of the two week period).


We would like you to e-mail a brief progress report to Anishinabek Consultants (see contact information below) at
least two times from the time you start the interviewing to the time that you have completed all of the 15 interviews.
This e-mail report should give:

the total number of interviews completed (for men and women separately)
any difficulties in doing the interviews
about how long they are taking (as a general average time)
how many people have refused to do the interview.

When you have finished the targeted number of interviews, please send the completed forms to EKOS at the address
below using a FedEx or Priority Post envelope.

WHO CAN I CONTACT IF I HAVE ANY QUESTIONS?


If you have any questions about the questionnaire, or the project in general, please feel free to contact Anishinabek
Consultants Inc. or EKOS Research Associates Inc.



E.J. Fontaine, President/CEO
Anishinabek Consultants Inc.
202B - 1215 Henderson Highway
Winnipeg, MB R2G 1L8
Tel: (204) 336-0554 / Fax: (204) 336-0568
 HYPERLINK "mailto:anishinabek@shaw.ca" anishinabek@shaw.ca Gina Bishop, Senior Consultant
EKOS Research Associates Inc.
99 Metcalfe Street, Suite 1100
Ottawa, Ontario K1P 6L7
Tel: (613) 235 7215 / Fax: (613) 235 8498
 HYPERLINK "mailto:gbishop@ekos.com" gbishop@ekos.com
                          APPENDIX D
  RESPONSE RATES TO TELEPHONE SURVEY
                                   Response Rates to Telephone Survey

Total Sample                                                   67,016

Numbers not in service                                         11,336

Fax modem or Business lines                                    1,926

Duplicates                                                      56

Numbers blocked by Phone companies                              155

Total functional sample                                        53,543

No answers                                                     9,832

Retired numbers(called 10+times)                               3,545

Language difficulty                                             619

Other                                                           232

Unavailable                                                     48

Total Asked                                                    39,267

Refusals                                                       12,279

Cooperative Callbacks                                          26,988

Completes                                                      1,462
Ineligible.                                                                                            25,526

Response Rate                                                                                           27.5%

Participation Rate                                                                                      50.4%

Started March 13th, 2006. Completed May 16th.

Average time 23.1 minutes



              The margin of error is a measure of the accuracy of the results. It indicates how far the survey‘s results are likely to stray from
              the true value in the entire population most of the time (i.e., the finding will be accurate to within a certain number of
              percentage points 19 times out of 20).
                         While it appears as though the relative importance placed on health care has grown substantially since 2003 (when
              19 per cent identified this as a top priority) this is largely due to a difference in the way the question was asked. In the 2003
              survey, respondents were asked to identify the one top priority the Government should focus on, while in 2006 multiple
              responses or priorities were accepted.
                         It should be noted that in the First Nations 2005 sample everyone was asked the question, however, those with an
              English or French mother tongue were not significantly different from others in their responses.
                         EKOS Research, Information Highway, 2005.




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