The Advanced Placement
Examination in Chemistry
Part II - Free Response Questions & Answers
1970 to 2005
Bonding and Molecular Structure page 2
1973 D Suppose that a molecule has the formula AB3. Sketch
Discuss briefly the relationship between the dipole and name two different shapes that this molecule may
moment of a molecule and the polar character of the have. For each of the two shapes, give an example of a
bonds within it. With this as the basis, account for the known molecule that has that shape. For one of the
difference between the dipole moments of CH2F2 and molecules you have named, interpret the shape in the
CF4. context of a modern bonding theory.
In order to have a dipole moment (i.e., to be a polar B
molecule) a molecule must have polar bonds and must
have a molecular geometry which is not symmetrical B B
(i.e., one in which the vector sum of the bond dipoles 0). B B B
In CH2F2 the C-F and C-H bonds are polar and the trigonal planar trigonal pyramid
molecule is not symmetrical; therefore, the molecules Example: trigonal planar, BF3; trigonal pyramid, NH3
is polar and would show a dipole moment.
For BF3, the boron atom is surrounded by three pairs of
In CF4 the C-F bonds are polar, but the molecule is
electrons, the arrangement that will minimize the
symmetrical; therefore, the molecule is non-polar and
repulsions is a flat (planar) arrangement with the
would not show a dipole moment.
electron pairs furthest apart at 120º angles. OR
The NH3 molecule has four pairs of electrons: three
bonding pairs and one non-bonding pair. The best
The possible structures for the compound dinitrogen
arrangement for four electron pairs is a tetrahedral
oxide are NNO and NON. By experimentation it has
structure (109.5º) with the lone (non-bonding) electron
been found that the molecule of dinitrogen oxide has a
pair at the apex requiring more space than the bonding
non-zero dipole moment and that ions of mass 44, 30,
pairs, compressing the bonding pairs to an angle of
28, 16, and 14 are obtained in the mass spectrometer.
107º. The molecular structure is always based on the
Which of the structures is supported by these data?
positions of the atoms, therefore it is a trigonal
Show how the data are consistent with this structure.
pyramid rather than a tetrahedron.
The correct structure is NNO. N-N=O; N-O bond di-
pole; non-linear structure, non-symmetrical; molecular
NF3 and PF5 are stable molecules. Write the electron-
dot formulas for these molecules. On the basis of
Spectral Data (mass of molecular fragments):
structural and bonding considerations, account for the
44 = NNO 28 = NN 14 = N 30 = NO 16 = O
fact that NF3 and PF5 are stable molecules but NF5 does
A fragment of 28 couldn’t be made if the structure was
1974 D .F. ..
.. .. .. .F.
The boiling points of the following compounds . .. . ..
. F .. P
increase in the order in which they are listed below: .. .. .
.F F ..
CH4 < H2S < NH3 .
.F. . .
Discuss the theoretical considerations involved and use Describe the sp3 bonding for NF3 and the sp3d for PF5.
them to account for this order. Nonexistence of NF5 because of no low energy d
Answer: orbital for N.
CH4 - weak London dispersion (van der Waals) forces
H2S - London forces + dipole-dipole interactions 1978 D
NH3 - London + dipole + hydrogen bonding State precisely what is meant by each of the following
four terms. Then distinguish clearly between each of
1975 D the two terms in part (a) and between each of the two
Bonding and Molecular Structure page 3
Butane, chloroethane, acetone, and 1-propanol all have
terms in part (b), using chemical equations or examples
where helpful. approximately the same molecular weights. Data on
(a) Bond polarity and molecular polarity (dipole their boiling points and solubilities in water are listed
moment) in the table below.
(b) For a metal M, ionization energy and electrode
Compound Formula Pt.(ºC) in water
Answer: Butane CH3CH2CH2CH3 0 insoluble
(a) Bond polarity - resulting from unequal sharing of Chloroethane CH3CH2Cl 12 insoluble
electrons between bonding atoms; or from O
bonding of atoms with different miscible
electronegativities. CH3C C CH3
Molecular polarity - result of the separation of the completely
centers of positive and negative charges in an 1-Propanol CH3CH2CH2OH 97 miscible
entire molecule (The dipole moment is a On the basis of dipole moments (molecular polarities)
measure).; or the result of the non-zero vector sum and/or hydrogen bonding, explain in a qualitative way
of bond dipoles and lone-pair electrons. the differences in the
Distinction (normally included within the (a) boiling points of butane and chloroethane.
definitions). (b) water solubilities of chloroethane and acetone.
(b) Ionization energy - energy required to remove an (c) water solubilities of butane and 1-propanol.
electron from an atom [if atom is described as (d) boiling points of acetone and 1-propanol.
gaseous or isolated - 1 additional point] Answer:
Electrode potential - related to energy associated (a) Butane is nonpolar; chloroethane is polar.
with oxidation or reduction or associated with a Intermolecular forces of attraction in liquid
tendency to gain or lose electrons. chloroethane are larger due to dipole-dipole
A quantity measured relative to the hydrogen attraction; thus a higher boiling point for
electrode or related to the energy changes in an chloroethane.
electrochemical cell. (b) Both chloroethane and acetone are polar.
Distinction (normally included within the However, acetone forms hydrogen bonds to water
definitions). much more effectively than chloroethane does,
resulting in greater solubility of acetone in water.
1979 D (c) Butane is non-polar and cannot form hydrogen
Draw Lewis structures for CO2, H2, SO3 and SO32- and bonds; 1-propanol is polar and can form hydrogen
predict the shape of each species. bonds. 1-propanol can interact with water by both
Answer: dipole-dipole forces and hydrogen bonds. Butane
: O : C O:
: : : Linear or straight molecule can interact with water by neither means. Thus, 1-
: propanol is much more soluble.
H :S : Bent or angular molecule
: (d) Acetone molecules are attracted to each other by
van der Waals attraction and dipole-dipole
:O: attraction. 1-propanol molecules show these two
S Triangular planar molecule types of attraction. However, 1-propanol can also
: : : :
: : undergo hydrogen bonding. This distinguishing
feature results in the higher boiling point of 1-
: : : 2-
: O :S O : Trigonal pyramidal or dis-
: : :
:O : torted tetrahedral ion
Bonding and Molecular Structure page 4
(a) Draw the Lewis electron-dot structures for CO3 , terms of the electronic configurations given in part
CO2, and CO, including resonance structures (a).
where appropriate. (d) Element Q has the following first three ionization
(b) Which of the three species has the shortest C-O energies:
bond length? Explain the reason for your answer. I1 I2 I3
(c) Predict the molecular shapes for the three species. (kJ/mol)
Explain how you arrived at your predictions. Q 496 4568 6920
Answer: What is the formula for the most likely compound
(a) of element Q with chlorine? Explain the choice of
:O : :O : :O : formula on the basis of the ionization energies.
C C C
: : : : : : (a) Mg: 1s2 2s22p6 3s1
:O : :O : O: :O: :O : :O
Ar: 1s2 2s22p6 3s23p6
: : : :
O=C=O :O C O: :O C O: (b) Valence electrons for Mg and Ar are in the same
: : : :
principal energy level, but Ar atom is smaller and
:C O : has a greater nuclear charge. Thus, ionization
(b) CO has the shortest bond because there is a triple energies for Mg are less than those for Ar.
bond. OR because there is the greatest number of Removal of third electron from Mg atom is from n
electrons between C and O in CO. = 2 level and electrons in this level experience
strong nuclear attraction.
(c) CO32- trigonal planar (planar and triangular). C
bonding is sp2 hybrid - or - C has three bonding (c) Only MgCl2 forms. Mg atoms readily lose 2
pairs and no lone pair. valence electrons each. Ionization energy for third
CO2 linear. C bonding is sp hybrid - or - C has two electron very high. Electron affinity for Ar is low,
bonding pairs and no lone pairs - or - CO2 is and ionization energies for Ar atoms are high.
nonpolar and must be linear. (d) Formula is QCl. Very high second ionization
CO linear. Two atoms determine a straight line. energy indicates that there is only one valence
The values of the first three ionization energies (I1, I2, 1985 D
I3) for magnesium and argon are as follows: Substance Melting Point, ºC
I1 I2 I3 H2 -259
(kJ/mol) C3H8 -190
Mg 735 1443 7730 HF -92
Ar 1525 2665 3945 CsI 621
(a) Give the electronic configurations of Mg and Ar. SiC >2,000
(b) In terms of these configurations, explain why the (a) Discuss how the trend in the melting points of the
values of the first and second ionization energies substances tabulated above can be explained in
of Mg are significantly lower than the values for terms of the types of attractive forces and/or bonds
Ar, whereas the third ionization energy of Mg is in these substances.
much larger than the third ionization energy of Ar.
(b) For any pairs of substances that have the same
(c) If a sample of Ar in one container and a sample of
kind(s) of attractive forces and/or bonds, discuss
Mg in another container are each heated and
the factors that cause variations in the strengths of
chlorine is passed into each container, what
the forces and/or bonds.
compounds, if any, will be formed? Explain in
Bonding and Molecular Structure page 5
(a) H2 and C3H8 have low melting points because the (c) SiO2 is a covalent network solid. There are strong
forces involved were the weak van der Waals (or bonds, many of which must be broken
London) forces. simultaneously to volatilize SiO2. CO2 is
HF has a higher melting point because composed of discrete, nonpolar CO2 molecules so
intermolecular hydrogen bonding is important. that the only forces holding the molecules together
are the weak London dispersion (van der Waals)
CsI and LiF have still higher melting points forces.
because ionic lattice forces must be overcome to
break up the crystals, and the ionic forces are (d) In NF3 a lone pair of electrons on the central atom
stronger than van der Waals forces and hydrogen results in a pyramidal shape. The dipoles don’t
bonds. cancel, thus the molecule is polar.
While in BF3 there is no lone pair on the central
SiC is an example of a macromolecular substance
atom so the molecule has a trigonal planar shape
where each atom is held to its neighbors by very
in which the dipoles cancel, thus the molecule is
strong covalent bonds.
(b) C3H8 and H2: There are more interactions per
molecule in C3H8 than in H2. OR C3H8 is weakly 1989 D
polar and H2 is nonpolar. CF4 XeF4 ClF3
LiF and CsI: The smaller ions in LiF result in a (a) Draw a Lewis electron-dot structure for each of
higher lattice energy than CsI has. Lattice energy the molecules above and identify the shape of
U is proportional to r r . (b) Use the valence shell electron-pair repulsion
(VSEPR) model to explain the geometry of each
1988 D of these molecules.
Using principles of chemical bonding and/or Answer:
intermolecular forces, explain each of the following. (a)
(a) Xenon has a higher boiling point than neon has. : :
:F: : : : : :F:
: : : F F
(b) Solid copper is an excellent conductor of : F :C: F : : : : : : :
: Cl : : :
: : : : : Xe : : : : F :
electricity, but solid copper chloride is not. :F: F : F :F:
: : : : : :
tetrahedral square planar T-shaped
(c) SiO2 melts at a very high temperature, while CO2
is a gas at room temperature, even though Si and (b) CF4 = 4 bonding pairs around C at corners of
C are in the same chemical family. regular tetrahedron to minimize repulsion
(d) Molecules of NF3 are polar, but those of BF3 are (maximize bond angles).
not. XeF4 = 4 bonding pairs and 2 lone pairs give
Answer: octahedral shape with lone pairs on opposite sides
(a) Xe and Ne are monatomic elements held together of Xe atom
by London dispersion (van der Waals) forces. The ClF3 = 3 bonding pairs and 2 lone pairs give
magnitude of such forces is determined by the trigonal bipyramid with one pairs in equatorial
number of electrons in the atom. A Xe atom has positions 120º apart.
more electrons than a neon atom has. (Size of the
atom was accepted but mass was not.)
(b) The electrical conductivity of copper metal is The melting points of the alkali metals decrease from
based on mobile valence electrons (partially filled Li to Cs. In contrast, the melting points of the halogens
bands). Copper chloride is a rigid ionic solid with increase from F2 to I2.
the valence electrons of copper localized in (a) Using bonding principles, account for the decrease
individual copper(II) ions. in the melting points of the alkali metals.
Bonding and Molecular Structure page 6
(b) Using bonding principles, account for the decrease The actual structure is intermediate among the 3
in the melting points of the halogens. resonance forms, having 3 bonds that are equal
(c) What is the expected trend in the melting points of and stronger (therefore, shorter) than an S-O
the compounds LiF, NaCl, KBr, and CsI? Explain single bond.
this trend using bonding principles. (d) The central I atom has 3 lone pairs and 2 bonding
Answer: : : : :
: I :I : I :
(a) Alkali metals have metallic bonds: cations in a sea pairs around it. : : :
of electrons. As cations increase in size (Li to Cs), To minimize repulsion, the 3 lone pairs on the
charge density decreases and attractive forces (and central atom are arranged as a triangle in a plane
melting points) decrease. are right angles to the I-I-I- axis.
(b) Halogen molecules are held in place by dispersion
(van der Waals) forces: bonds due to temporary
Experimental data provide the basis for interpreting
dipoles caused by polarization of electron clouds.
differences in properties of substances.
As molecules increase in size (F2 to I2), the larger
electron clouds are more readily polarized, and the
attractive forces (and melting points) increase.
Compound Point (ºC) Conductivity of
(c) Melting point order: LiF > NaCl > KBr > CsI Molten State (ohm-1)
Compounds are ionic. Larger radii of ions as BeCl2 405 0.086
listed. Larger radii -> smaller attraction and lower MgCl2 714 > 20
melting points. SiCl4 -70 0
MgF2 1261 > 20
1990 D (Required)
Use simple structure and bonding models to account TABLE 2
for each of the following. Substance Bond Length
(a) The bond length between the two carbon atoms is (angstroms)
shorter in C2H4 than in C2H6. F2 1.42
(b) The H-N-H bond angle is 107.5º, in NH3. Br2 2.28
(c) The bond lengths in SO3 are all identical and are
shorter than a sulfur-oxygen single bond. Account for the differences in properties given in
(d) The I3 ion is linear. Tables 1 and 2 above in terms of the differences in
Answer: structure and bonding in each of the following pairs.
(a) C2H4 has a multiple bond; C2H6 has a single bond. (a) MgCl2 and SiCl4 (c) F2 and Br2
Multiple bonds are stronger and, therefore, shorter (b) MgCl2 and MgF2 (d) F2 and N2
than single bonds. Answer:
(b) NH3 has 3 bonding pairs of electrons and 1 lone (a) MgCl2 is IONIC while SiCl4 is COVALENT. The
pair. Bonding pairs are forced together because electrostatic, interionic forces in magnesium
repulsion between lone pair and bonding pairs is chloride are much stronger then the intermolecular
greater than between bonding pairs. (dispersion) forces in SiCl4 and lead to a higher
(c) The bonding in SO3 can be described as a melting point for MgCl2. Molten MgCl2 contains
combination of 3 resonance forms of 1 double and mobile ions that conduct electricity whereas
2 single bonds. molten SiCl4 is molecular, not ionic, and has no
:O : : : conductivity.
O :O :
: : : (b) MgF2 has a higher melting point than MgCl2
: : :S : : S
: : :: :
: : because the smaller F- ions and the smaller
:O: :O : O: :O: : O : :O
Bonding and Molecular Structure page 7
interionic distances in MgF2 cause stronger forces NO2 NO2 NO2+
and higher melting point. Nitrogen is the central atom in each of the species
(c) The bond length in Br2 is larger than in F2 because given above.
the Br atom is bigger (more shells) than the F (a) Draw the Lewis electron-dot structure for each of
atom. the three species.
(d) The bond length in N2 is less than in F2 because (b) List the species in order of increasing bond angle.
the NN bond is triple and the F-F is single. Triple Justify your answer.
bonds are stronger and therefore shorter than (c) Select one of the species and give the
single bonds. hybridization of the nitrogen atom in it.
(d) Identify the only one of the species that dimerizes
1992 D and explain what causes it to do so.
Explain each of the following in terms of atomic and
molecular structures and/or intermolecular forces. . :
(a) Solid K conducts an electric current, whereas solid : : :: : : : :: : : :
: O : :O : O: :O : ::
O :N O
KNO3 does not. (a) : :
(b) SbCl3 has measurable dipole moment, whereas (b) NO2- < NO2 < NO2+
SbCl5 does not. NO2- - 3 charge centers around N; lone pair of
(c) The normal boiling point of CCl4 is 77ºC, whereas electrons on N
that of CBr4 is 190ºC. NO2 - 3 charge centers around N; single electron
(d) NaI(s) is very soluble in water, whereas I2(s) has a
NO2+ - 2 charge centers on N
solubility of only 0.03 gram per 100 grams of
water. (c) NO2+ is linear, has sp hybridization - or -
NO2/NO2- have sp2 hybridization
(a) K conducts because of its metallic bonding - or – (d) NO2 will dimerize, because it contains an odd
“sea” of mobile electrons (or free electrons). electron that will pair readily with another,
KNO3 does not conduct because it is ionically forming N2O4.
bonded and has immobile ions (or immobile
electrons). 1994 D
Use principles of atomic structure and/or chemical
(b) SbCl3 has a measurable dipole moment because it
bonding to answer each of the following.
has a lone pair of electrons which causes a dipole -
or - its dipoles do not cancel - or - it has a trigonal (a) The radius of the Ca atom is 0.197 nanometer; the
pyramidal structure - or - a clear diagram radius of the Ca2+ ion is 0.099 nanometer. Account
illustrating any of the above. for this difference.
(c) CBr4 boils at a higher temperature than CCl4 (b) The lattice energy of CaO(s) is -3,460 kilojoules
because it has stronger intermolecular forces (or per mole; the lattice energy for K2O(s) is -2,240
van der Waal or dispersion). These stronger forces kilojoules per mole. Account for this difference.
occur because CBr4 is larger and/or has more Ionization Energy
electrons than CCl4. (kJ/mol)
(d) NaI has greater aqueous solubility than I2 because K 419 3,050
NaI is ionic (or polar), whereas I2 is non-polar (or
Ca 590 1,140
covalent). Water, being polar, interacts with the
ions of NaI but not with I2. (Like dissolves like (c) Explain the difference between Ca and K in regard
accepted if polarity of water is clearly indicated.) to
(i) their first ionization energies,
1992 D (ii) their second ionization energies.
Bonding and Molecular Structure page 8
(d) The first ionization energy of Mg is 738 kilojoules
per mole and that of Al is 578 kilojoules per mole.
Account for this difference.
Answer: Source of
(a) The valence electrons in a calcium atom are the Direct Current
4s2. In a calcium ion these electrons are absent and
the highest energy electrons are 3p, which has a
much smaller size because the (-)/(+) charge ratio
is less than 1 causing a contraction of the electron
(b) Lattice energy can be represented by Coulomb’s The results of the tests are summarized in the
Q 1Q 2
following data table.
law: lattice energy = k r , where Q1 and Q2 are AgNO3 Sucrose Na H2SO4 (98%)
the charges on the ions, in CaO these are +2 and -2 Melting 212º 185º 99º Liquid at
respectively, while in K2O they are +1 and -2. The Point (ºC) Room Temp.
r (the distance between ions) is slightly smaller in Liquid ++ - ++ +
CaO, combined with the larger charges, thus (fused)
Water ++ - ++ (1)
accounts for the larger lattice energy.
(c) Electron arrangements: K = [Ar] 4s1, Ca = [Ar] 4s2 Solid - - ++ Not Tested
(i) Potassium has a single 4s electron that is easily Key: ++ Good conductor
removed to produce an [Ar] core, whereas, + Poor conductor
calcium has paired 4s electrons which require - Nonconductor
greater energy to remove one. (1) Dissolves, accompanied by evolution of
(ii) a K+ ion has a stable [Ar] electron core and (2) Conduction increases as the acid is added slowly
requires a large amount of energy to destabilize it and carefully to water
and create a K2+ ion. Ca+ has a remaining 4s1 Using models of chemical bonding and atomic or
electron that is more easily removed than a core molecular structure, account for the differences in
electron, but not as easily as its first 4s electron. conductivity between the two samples in each of the
(d) Electron arrangements, following pairs.
Mg = [Ne] 3s2, Al = [Ne] 3s2, 3p1 (a) Sucrose solution and silver nitrate solution.
It is easier to remove a shielded, single, unpaired (b) Solid silver nitrate and solid sodium metal.
3p electron from the aluminum than to remove (c) Liquid (fused) sucrose and liquid (fused) silver
one electron from a paired 3s orbital in nitrate.
magnesium. Liquid (concentrated) sulfuric acid and sulfuric
1995 D (Required)
The conductivity of several substances was tested
using the apparatus represented by the diagram below. (a) Sucrose, composed of all non-metals, is a
covalently bonded molecule that does not ionize in
water and, therefore, does not produce a
conducting solution. Silver nitrate has an ionic
bond between the silver cation and the nitrate
anion that is hydrated in water producing a
conducting ionic solution.
(b) Silver nitrate has covalent bonds in the nitrate
anion and an ionic bond between the cation and
Bonding and Molecular Structure page 9
anion but in the solid state these ions are not free
to move and conduct an electric current. In
sodium, a metal crystal, it has a large number of a a
closely spaced molecular orbitals that form a a _ a _
virtual continuum of levels called bands. Empty
E a _ a _ a _ a _
molecular orbitals are close in energy to filled
molecular orbitals. Mobil electrons are furnished a _ a _
when electrons in filled molecular orbitals are a _ a _
excited into empty ones. These conduction
electrons are free to travel throughout the metal Molecular Orbital Energy Level Diagrams
crystal Paramagnetism causes a substance to be attracted
(c) Fused sucrose does not contain any ions to carry into the inducing magnetic field. Paramagnetism is
an electrical charge whereas the ions in silver associated with unpaired electrons, as in oxygen
nitrate are now free to move in the liquid and but diamagnetism (repelled from the inducing
conduct the charge. magnetic field) is associated with paired electrons
(d) Concentrated sulfuric acid has very little water to as in nitrogen. Any substance that has both paired
hydrolyze its ions and is only slightly ionized. As and unpaired electrons will exhibit
it is added to water, appreciable amounts of ions paramagnetism, since that effect is stronger than
are present as the molecular H2SO4 is dissociated diamagnetism.
into hydrogen and sulfate ions. (b) .. ..
S S .. ..
:O = C = O:
:O: :O: :O:
.. .. :O:
Explain the following in terms of the electronic
structure and bonding of the compounds considered. There is a dipole moment between the oxygen and
the sulfur in sulfur dioxide and a bond angle of
(a) Liquid oxygen is attracted to a strong magnet,
119º. This results in a net dipole in the molecule.
whereas liquid nitrogen is not.
While there is a dipole in the carbon-oxygen bond,
(b) The SO2 molecule has a dipole moment, whereas the 180º bond angle cancels the dipole moment in
the CO2 molecule has no dipole moment. Include the molecule.
the Lewis (electron-dot) structures in your (c) A cobalt(II) ion has the electron configuration of
explanation. [Ar] 3d7. It has 2 paired d electrons and 3 unpaired
(c) Halides of cobalt(II) are colored, whereas halides electrons. According to crystal field theory, as the
of zinc(II) are colorless. chloride ion approaches the cobalt(II) ion,
(d) A crystal of high purity silicon is a poor conductor repulsion between the chloride lone pairs and the
of electricity; however, the conductivity increases metal electrons affects the metal d orbitals
when a small amount of arsenic is incorporated differently (the x2-y2 and z2 more than the xy, xz,
(doped) into the crystal. and yz). There is an energy difference between the
sets of d orbitals. The energy difference between
sets of d orbitals is comparable to the energy of
visible light. In zinc ions, all the d orbitals are
N2 O2 paired and all the orbitals are degenerate.
(d) Arsenic atoms have one more valence electron
than silicon atoms and can lose an electron to form
As+ ions which can occupy some of the lattice
points in the silicon crystal. If the amount of
arsenic is kept small then these ions don’t interact.
The extra electrons from the arsenic occupy
orbitals in a narrow band of energies that lie
Bonding and Molecular Structure page 10
between the filled and empty bands of the silicon. 1997 D (Required)
This structure decreases the amount of energy Consider the molecules PF3 and PF5.
required to excite an electron into the lowest-
(a) Draw the Lewis electron-dot structures for PF3 and
energy empty band in the silicon and increases the
PF5 and predict the molecular geometry of each.
number of electrons that have enough energy to
cross this gap. (b) Is the PF3 molecule polar, or is it nonpolar?
1996 D (c) On the basis of bonding principles, predict
Explain each of the following observations in terms of whether each of the following compounds exists.
the electronic structure and/or bonding of the In each case, explain your prediction.
compounds involved. (i) NF5
(a) At ordinary conditions, HF (normal boiling point (ii) AsF5
= 20ºC) is a liquid, whereas HCl (normal boiling Answer:
point = -114ºC) is a gas.
(a) PF3 = tripod (pyramid); PF5 = trigonal bipyramid
(b) Molecules of AsF3 are polar, whereas molecules of
AsF5 are nonpolar.
(c) The N-O bonds in the NO2- ion are equal in length,
whereas they are unequal in HNO2.
(d) For sulfur, the fluorides SF2, SF4, and SF6 are (b) polar; net dipole moment toward the non-
known to exist, whereas for oxygen only OF2 is symmetrical position of the fluorines.
known to exist.
(c) (i) NF5 - doesn’t exist, nitrogen can’t hybridize to
Answer: form the dsp3 orbitals and is also too small to
(a) hydrogen bonding (dipole-dipole attraction) is accommodate 5 fluorine atoms around it.
much larger in HF than in HCl.
(ii) AsF5 - does exist, arsenic can hybridize to
(b) AsF3 forms a pyramidal shaped molecule with a form the dsp3 orbitals and is large enough to
lone pair of electrons creating an asymmetrical accommodate 5 fluorine atoms around it.
region opposite the three highly electron-affinitive
fluorine in the base. The AsF5 molecule has a 1998 D
highly symmetrical trigonal bipyramidal shape
Answer each of the following using appropriate
with no lone electron pairs.
(c) The N-O bonds in the nitrite ion are stabilized by
(c) Dimethyl ether, H3C-O-CH3, is not very soluble in
resonance and are of equal length, but in HNO2,
water. Draw a structural isomer of dimethyl ether
with a hydrogen attached to an oxygen, resonance
that is much more soluble in water and explain the
is no longer possible.
.. .. .. .. .. ..
basis of its increased water solubility.
[: O :: N : O :]
.. [: O : N :: O :]
.. In each case, justify your choice.
(d) There are only four orbitals in the valence shell of HH
oxygen, one s and three p’s. As a result, oxygen
can hold no more than eight valence electrons, H–O–C–C–H | |
which it gets when it forms OF2. The valence (c) H H
The O-H bond in ethyl
orbitals of sulfur are in the n = 3 shell and includes alcohol is very polar and will allow the molecule
empty d orbitals that can be used to expand its to be attracted to and dissolve in the polar water.
valence shell. Sulfur has 10 valence electrons in 1999 B
forming SF4 and 12 valence electrons to form SF6
Answer the following questions regarding light and its
(sp3d2 hybrid orbitals).
interactions with molecules, atoms, and ions.
Bonding and Molecular Structure page 11
(a) The longest wavelength of light with enough en- 1 1
∆E = –2.17810–18 ( – 2 ) J = 4.8410–19 J
ergy to break the Cl–Cl boned in Cl2(g) is 495 nm. 2 2
(i) Calculate the frequency, in s–1, of the light. OR
(ii) Calculate the energy, in J, of a photon of the c E 4.84 1019 J
light. ; =
E 6.626 10-34 J sec
(iii) Calculate the minimum energy, in kJ mol–1,
of the Cl–Cl bond.
(b) A certain line in the spectrum of atomic hydrogen c 3.00 1018 m/sec
is associated with the electronic transition of the H 7.30 10 sec
atom from the sixth energy level (n = 6) to the sec- OR
ond energy level (n = 2).
(6.626 1034 J sec)(3.00 1017 nm/sec)
(i) Indicate whether the H atom emits energy or
4.84 1019 J
whether it absorbs energy during the transi-
tion. Justify your answer. = 411 nm
(ii) Calculate the wavelength, in nm, of the radia- (iii) the He+ has a nuclear charge of 2+ vs H with
tion associated with the spectral line. a 1+, therefore, it has a stronger hold on the
electron. This requires more energy for the
(iii) Account for the observation that the amount electron to move to higher energy levels and when
of energy associated with the same electronic the electron moves from higher to lower energies,
transition (n = 6 to n = 2) in the He+ ion is it releases more energy.
greater than that associated with the corre-
sponding transition in the H atom. 1999 D
Answer Answer the following questions using principles of
c 3.00 108 m / s chemical bonding and molecular structure.
(a) (i) c = = =
? 495 10 m
(a) Consider the carbon dioxide molecule, CO2, and
= 6.06 1014 waves/sec the carbonate ion, CO32–.
(ii) ∆E = (i) Draw the complete Lewis electron-dot struc-
= (6.6310–34 joule.s)(6.061014 s–1) ture for each species.
(ii) Account for the fact at the carbon-oxygen
= 4.0210–19 J
bond length in CO32– is greater than the car-
(iii) (4.0210–19 J)(6.021023 mol–1) = bon-oxygen bond length in CO2.
= 241,870 J = 242 kJ
(b) Consider the molecules CF4 and SF4.
(b) (i) emits energy. The n = 6 state is at a higher
energy than n = 2, the electron must release energy (i) Draw the complete Lewis electron-dot struc-
go to the lower state. ture for each molecule.
(ii) In terms of molecular geometry, account for
(ii) E2 = = –5.44510–19 J the fact that the CF4 molecule is nonpolar,
22 whereas the SF4 molecule is polar.
2.1781018 J Answer
E6 = = –6.0510–20 J
∆E = E6 – E2 = 4.8410–19 J
OR (a) (i) , there are two other
similar resonance structures for the carbonate ion.
(ii) the pi O=C double bond in CO2 is shorter than
Bonding and Molecular Structure page 12
a single O-C resonance sigma-bond (all are identi- (a) all the isotopes have 34 protons but a different
cal and are about 1 1/3 bond) found in a carbonate number of neutrons in the nucleus.
ion. (b) 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p4
F 2 unpaired electrons. 4s  4p [ ][ ]
•• •• •• Hund’s rule indicates that each of the orbitals will
F C F
•• •• •• be filled with a single electron before it gets
(c) (i) in Se, the single paired 4p electrons has 1 elec-
(ii) in the tetrahedral CF4, the polar C-F bonds are
tron easily removed to create the 3 unpaired 4p
cancelled out by the equiangular pull of the 4 orbitals which is energetically favorable; in
bonds. With an expanded octet and trigonal bromine, the removal of 1 electron still leaves a
bipyramidal structure, SF4 has a pair of unbonded paired 4p orbital.
electrons at the center of the bipyramid, this gives
(ii) the shielding effect is stronger in Te and
a ―seasaw‖ shape to the molecule and an uneven
makes it easier to remove a electron (lower
pull to the polar S-F bonds.
·· ·· F
·F· ·F ·
· · · · ·
· · · ·
·· ·· F
(d) see-saw shape
2000 D Because F is very electronegative and the
molecule is asymmetric with respect to the
Answer the following questions about the element
fluorines, this molecule is polar.
selenium, Se (atomic number 34).
(a) Samples of natural selenium contain six stable 2001 D
isotopes. In terms of atomic structure, explain
Account for each of the following observations about
what these isotopes have in common, and how
pairs of substances. In your answers, use appropriate
principles of chemical bonding and/or intermolecular
(b) Write the complete electron configuration (e.g., forces. In each part, your answer must include
1s2 2s2... etc.) for a selenium atom in the ground references to both substances.
state. Indicate the number of unpaired electrons in
(a) Even though NH3 and CH4 have similar molecular
the ground-state atom, and explain your reasoning.
masses, NH3 has a much higher normal boiling
(c) In terms of atomic structure, explain why the first point (-33C) than CH4 (-164C).
ionization energy of selenium is
(b) At 25C and 1.0 atm, ethane (C2H6) is a gas and
(i) less than that of bromine (atomic number 35), hexane (C6H14) is a liquid.
(c) Si melts at a much higher temperature (1,410C)
(ii) greater than that of tellurium (atomic number than Cl2 (-101C).
(d) MgO melts at a much higher temperature
(d) Selenium reacts with fluorine to form SeF4. Draw (2,852C) than NaF (993C).
the complete Lewis electron-dot structure for SeF4 Answer:
and sketch the molecular structure. Indicate
(a) NH3 exhibits hydrogen bonding (H attached to
whether the molecule is polar or nonpolar, and
nitrogen, attracted to N in adjacent molecule)
justify your answer.
between molecules which creates a larger IMF
Bonding and Molecular Structure page 13
than CH4 which doesn’t exhibit H-bonding, only stable 3p orbital electron in its noble gas kernel,
weak London dispersion forces). More energy is which requires a great deal more energy.
required to overcome this higher IMF in NH3 and, (c) the carbon-to-carbon bond in C H is a double
therefore, has a higher boiling point. bond, which is stronger than the carbon-to-carbon
(b) Both ethane’s and hexane’s IMF consist mainly of single bond in C2H6.
weak London dispersion forces. The greater
(d) Cl2 has 34 electrons and Br2 has 70 electrons.
number of electrons in hexane (50 vs. ethane’s 18)
more electrons mean greater vander Waals attrac-
creates a greater IMF, enough to make it a liquid
o tions in Br2, more energy to overcome them when
at 25 C but for ethane, the fewer electrons make a
smaller IMF and that is not strong enough to cause it boils and, therefore a higher boiling point than
ethane to condense. Cl2.
(c) Si forms strong network covalent bonds (4 per
atom) to create a high melting solid. The non- 2003 D (repeated in organic)
polar molecules of Cl2 (covalent bond, Cl–Cl) do Compound Compound ∆H˚vap
not form strong IMF, only weak London Name Formula (kJ mol-1)
dispersion forces and that makes it easy to melt at Propane CH3CH2CH3 19.0
a low temperature.
Propanone CH3COCH3 32.0
(d) Magnesium oxide is a Mg2+O2– ionic compound
while sodium fluoride is a Na+F– ionic compound. 1-propanol CH3CH2CH2OH 47.3
The larger ionic charge creates a stronger Using the information in the table above, answer the
Coulombic attraction between the anion and following questions about organic compounds.
cation in MgO and a higher temperature is (a) For propanone,
required to overcome it and melt it.
(i) draw the complete structural formula
(showing all atoms and bonds);
2002 D Required
Use the principles of atomic structure and/or chemical (ii) predict the approximate carbon-to-carbon-to-
bonding to explain each of the following. In each part, carbon bond angle.
your answer must include references to both (b) For each pair of compounds below, explain why
substances. they do not have the same value for their standard
(a) The atomic radius of Li is larger than that of Be. heat of vaporization, ∆H˚vap. (You must include
specific information about both compounds in
(b) The second ionization energy of K is greater than each pair.)
the second ionization energy of Ca.
(i) Propane and propanone
(c) The carbon-to-carbon bond energy in C2H4 is
(ii) Propanone and 1-propanol
greater than it is in C2H6.
(c) Draw the complete structural formula for an
(d) The boiling point of Cl2 is lower than the boiling isomer of the molecule you drew in, part (a) (i).
point of Br2.
(d) Given the structural formula for propyne below,
(a) Be has 1 more electron in the 2s orbital than Li, |
not in another larger orbital. Be also has 1 more H—C—CC—H
proton to ―pull in‖ the 2s orbital, making it smaller |
than Li. H
(b) the second ionization energy (IE2) removes the (i) indicate the hybridization of the carbon atom
second 4s orbital in calcium, leaving a noble gas indicated by the arrow in the structure above;
kernel. The IE2 in potassium is removing a very
Bonding and Molecular Structure page 14
(ii) indicate the total number of sigma () bands (c) The shape of ICl4 ion is square planar, whereas
and the total number of pi (π) bonds in the the shape of BF4– ion is tetrahedral.
(d) Ammonia, NH3, is very soluble in water, whereas
phosphine, PH3, is only moderately soluble in
(a) F2 is a smaller & lighter molecule than I2, at the
same temperature F2, on average is faster than I2.
(ii) 120˚ The I2 molecule has 106 electrons to the 18 of the
(b) (i) propane, 26 electrons, molar mass = 44 F2 and, therefore, exhibits a greater vander Waal
propanone, 32 electrons, molar mass = 58 attraction.
higher # electrons means larger van der Waal (b) each ion in NaF has a smaller size than the corre-
forces, larger molar mass means a slower sponding ion in CsCl. This smaller size creates a
molecule, the oxygen creates a polar molecule larger charge density and greater ion Coulombic
and dipol–dipole interactions attraction in the NaF, making it harder to melt.
– 3 2
(ii) 1-propanol has an –OH which creates a site for (c) The ICl4 ion contains the sp d hybridization due
hydrogen bonding with other –OH on adjacent to the expanded octet around the central iodine.
molecules increasing intermolecular forces that The chlorides are equatorially bonded in a square
must be overcome in order to vaporize the liquid. around the iodine with the extra pairs of electrons
along the axis. The BF4– ion has sp3 hybridization
which characteristically has the tetrahedral shape.
(d) ammonia is a more polar molecule than phospine
(c) and can make hydrogen bonds with the solvent,
water. This creates a greater solute-solvent attrac-
tion and greater solubility.
2005 D Required
6. Answer the following questions that relate to
(a) In the boxes provided, draw the complete Lewis
structure (electron-dot diagram) for each of the
(d) (i) sp three molecules represented below.
(ii) 6 sigma, 2 pi
Use appropriate chemical principles to account for
each of the following observations. In each part, your
response must include specific information about both
(a) At 25˚ C and 1 atm, F2 is a gas whereas I2 is a
(b) The melting point of NaF is 993˚ C, whereas the
melting point of CsCl is 645˚. PF5
Bonding and Molecular Structure page 15
(b) (i) 109.5˚
(c) (i) 4 sigma, 1 pi
(ii) structure 1;
In structure 1, oxygen has a formal charge of 0 (6
valence electrons – 6 assigned electrons), each flu-
orine is 0 (7 valence electrons – 7 assigned elec-
trons), phosphorus is 0 (5 valence electrons – 5
In structure 2, oxygen has a formal charge of –1 (6
valence electrons – 7 assigned electrons), each flu-
orine is 0 (7 valence electrons – 7 assigned elec-
trons), phosphorus is +1 (5 valence electrons – 4
According to the electroneutrality rule, the better
Lewis structure is the one with the smallest
(b) On the basis of the Lewis structures drawn above, separation of formal charge, i.e., structure 1.
answer the following questions about the
particular molecule indicated. 2005 D
(i) What is the F-C-F bond angle in CF4? Use principles of atomic structure, bonding and/or
(ii) What is the hybridization of the valence or- intermolecular forces to respond to each of the
bitals of P in PF5? following. Your responses must include specific
information about all substances referred to in each
(iii) What is the geometric shape formed by the question.
atoms in SF4?
(a) At a pressure of 1 atm, the boiling point of NH3(l)
(c) Two Lewis structures can be drawn for the OPF3 is 240 K, whereas the boiling point of NF3(l) is
molecule, as shown below. 144 K.
: O: ..
: O: (i) Identify the intermolecular forces(s) in each
.. .. .. .. substance.
: F P F: :F P F:
.. .. .. ..
: F: : F: (ii) Account for the difference in the boiling
.. .. points of the substances.
Structure 1 Structure 2 (b) The melting point of KCl(s) is 776˚C, whereas the
(i) How many sigma bonds and how many pi melting point of NaCl(s) is 801˚C.
bonds are in structure 1? (i) Identify the type of bonding in each sub-
(ii) Which one of the two structures best repre- stance.
sents a molecule of OPF3? Justify your an- (ii) Account for the difference in the melting
swer in terms of formal charge. points of the substances.
Answer: (c) As shown in the table below, the first ionization
energies of Si, P, and Cl show a trend.
(a) Element First Ionization Energy
Bonding and Molecular Structure page 16
P 1012 to separate the molecules by boiling them.
Cl 1251 (b) (i) both compounds have ionic bonding
(i) For each of the three elements, identify the (ii) the sodium ion in NaCl is a smaller size than
quantum level (e.g., n =1, n = 2, etc.) of the the corresponding potassium ion in KCl. This
valence electrons in the atom. smaller size creates a larger charge density and
greater ion Coulombic attraction in the NaCl,
(ii) Explain the reasons for the trend in the first
making it harder to melt.
(c) (i) Si, n = 3; P, n = 3; Cl, n = 3
(d) A certain element has two stable isotopes. The
mass of one of the isotopes is 62.93 amu and the (ii) in terms of atomic radius, Si > P > Cl and
mass of the other isotope is 64.93 amu. nuclear charge Cl > P > Si, the smaller and higher
charged chlorine atom has the greatest attraction
(i) Identify the element. Justify your answer.
for its electrons than the other two. This means
(ii) Which isotope is more abundant? Justify your that it takes more energy to remove an electron
answer. from chlorine that the other two. The opposite is
Answer: true for silicon and it should have the smallest
(a) (i) value.
force NH3 NF3 (d) (i) copper; since the atomic mass of an element is
the weighted average of its natural isotopes, then
London dispersion + +
the atomic mass of the element must be between
polar attraction + + 62.93 and 64.94.
hydrogen bonding + - (ii) 62.93; the isotope that is closer to the atom
ionic attraction - - mass of the element is more abundant of the two
(63.546 – 62.93 = 0.616; 64.94 – 63.546 = 1.384)
(ii) the ability of ammonia to create intermolecular
hydrogen bonds, leads to higher amount of energy