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  Best practices
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                                     the knowledge source for safe driving
 
 Best Practices for Truck Safety




Submitted by:
  Brian Jonah, Dan Mayhew, Steve Brown, Ward Vanlaar, and
  Kyla Marcoux

  Traffic Injury Research Foundation
  171 Nepean Street, Suite 200
  Ottawa, Ontario K2P 0B4


Submitted to:


Trucking Safety Council of British Columbia




                           June, 2009
The Traffic Injury Research Foundation
The mission of the Traffic Injury Research Foundation (TIRF) is to reduce traffic-related
deaths and injuries.


TIRF is an independent, charitable road safety institute. Since its inception in 1964,
TIRF has become internationally recognized for it’s accomplishments in identifying the
causes of road crashes and developing program and policies to address them
effectively.




Traffic Injury Research Foundation
171 Nepean St. Suite 200
Ottawa, ON K2P 0B4
Ph: (613)238-5235
Fax: (613)238-5292
Email: tirf@tirf.ca
www.tirf.ca




June 2009
Copyright © 2009
ISBN: 978-0-920071-88-5
                                                          Table of Contents
                                                                                                                      Page

Acknowledgements …………………………………………………………………………………………. v
Executive Summary ………………………………………………………………………………………….vii
1.0 Introduction ......................................................................................................... 1
      1.1 Overview ....................................................................................................... 1
           1.1.1 Identifying the characteristics and causes of collisions involving
                 heavy trucks ..................................................................................... 1
           1.1.2 Identifying relevant programs and policies ....................................... 2
           1.1.3 Identifying best practices .................................................................. 3

2.0 The Crash Patterns of Heavy Trucks in British Columbia: A Comparative
    Analysis…………………………………………………………………………………. 5
       2.1 Fatal Collisions Involving Heavy Trucks ....................................................... 6
              2.1.1 Characteristics of drivers of heavy trucks ......................................... 7
              2.1.2 Crash characteristics ........................................................................ 7
              2.1.3 Temporal characteristics .................................................................. 8
              2.1.4 Vehicle characteristics ...................................................................... 8
              2.1.5 Roadway characteristics................................................................... 8
              2.1.6 Environmental characteristics........................................................... 9
              2.1.7 Summary of major regional differences in fatal collision
                    characteristics .................................................................................. 9
       2.2 Injury Collisions Involving Heavy Trucks....................................................... 9
              2.2.1 Characteristics of drivers of heavy trucks ....................................... 10
              2.2.2 Crash characteristics ...................................................................... 11
              2.2.3 Temporal characteristics ................................................................ 11
              2.2.4 Vehicle characteristics .................................................................... 11
              2.2.5 Roadway characteristics................................................................. 12
              2.2.6 Environmental characteristics......................................................... 12
              2.2.7 Summary of major regional differences in injury collision
                    characteristics ................................................................................ 13
       2.3 Fatal Collisions Involving Heavy Trucks Separated by Single versus
           Multiple Vehicle Involvement ...................................................................... 13
              2.3.1 Characteristics of drivers of heavy trucks ....................................... 13
              2.3.2 Crash characteristics ...................................................................... 14
              2.3.3 Temporal characteristics ................................................................ 14
              2.3.4 Vehicle characteristics .................................................................... 14
              2.3.5 Roadway characteristics................................................................. 14
              2.3.6 Environmental characteristics......................................................... 15
              2.3.7 Summary of major regional differences in injury collision
                    characteristics ................................................................................ 15
       2.4 Injury Collisions Involving Heavy Trucks Separated by Single versus
           Multiple Vehicle Involvement ...................................................................... 15
              2.4.1 Characteristics of drivers of heavy trucks ....................................... 15
              2.4.2 Crash characteristics ...................................................................... 16


                                                                                                                               i
                  2.4.3 Temporal characteristics ................................................................ 16
                  2.4.4 Vehicle characteristics .................................................................... 16
                  2.4.5 Road characteristics ....................................................................... 16
                  2.4.6 Environmental Characteristics ........................................................ 16
                  2.4.7 Summary of major regional differences in injury collisions by
                        single versus multiple vehicle involvement ..................................... 16
            2.5 Overall Summary of Bivariate analyses of Collision Data ........................... 17
            2.6 Logistic Regression Analyses ..................................................................... 18
            2.7 Driver At-Fault Analyses ............................................................................. 20
                  2.7.1 Method for at-fault analyses ........................................................... 20
                  2.7.2 Results of at-fault analyses ............................................................ 21
                  2.7.3 Discussion of results of at-fault analyses ....................................... 23
            2.8 Alcohol Involvement .................................................................................... 24
            2.9 Fatigue Involvement.................................................................................... 27
            2.10 Summary: Key Factors in Casualty Collisions Involving Heavy Trucks .... 30
     3.0 Current Truck Safety Activities ……………………………………………………33
          3.1 British Columbia .......................................................................................... 33
                3.1.1 Governmental organizations .......................................................... 33
                3.1.2 Industry organizations .................................................................... 36
                3.1.3 Non-governmental organizations ................................................... 40
          3.2 Other Canadian Jurisdictions and Organizations........................................ 40
                3.2.1 Governmental organizations .......................................................... 40
                3.2.2 Industry organizations .................................................................... 49
                3.2.3 Non-governmental organizations ................................................... 51
          3.3 United States .............................................................................................. 52
                3.3.1 Governmental organizations .......................................................... 52
                3.3.2 Non-governmental organizations ................................................... 60
          3.4 Europe ........................................................................................................ 65
                3.4.1 United Kingdom .............................................................................. 67
                3.4.2 Sweden .......................................................................................... 69
                3.4.3 Non-governmental organizations ................................................... 70
          3.5 Australia ...................................................................................................... 70
                3.5.1 Governmental organizations .......................................................... 70
                3.5.2 Non-governmental organizations ................................................... 73
          3.6 New Zealand ............................................................................................... 75
          3.7 Global Non-Governmental Organizations ................................................... 75
          3.8 Fleet Safety in the Private Sector ............................................................... 77
     4.0 Best Practices in Trucking Safety …………………………………………………83
          4.1 Government ................................................................................................ 84
                4.1.1 Understanding and managing the situation .................................... 84
                4.1.2 Increasing the safety of truck drivers .............................................. 85
                4.1.3 Increasing the safety of heavy trucks ............................................. 85
                4.1.4 Increasing the safety of the road infrastructure .............................. 86
                4.1.5 Increasing awareness and education about heavy trucks .............. 86
                4.1.6 Recognizing safe motor carriers ..................................................... 86
                4.1.7 Measurement and accountability .................................................... 86
          4.2 Industry ....................................................................................................... 87
                4.2.1 Understanding and managing the situation .................................... 87
                4.2.2 Increasing the safety of drivers ...................................................... 87
                4.2.3 Increasing the safety of vehicles .................................................... 88


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        4.2.4 Recognizing safe drivers ................................................................ 88
        4.2.5 Measurement and accountability .................................................... 88
  4.3 Police Services ........................................................................................... 88
        4.3.1 Understanding and managing the situation ................................... 89
        4.3.2 Increasing safety on the roads ....................................................... 89
References ………………………………………………………………………………. ..91
Appendices …………………………………………………………………………………93




                                                                                                                       iii
                                   Acknowledgements
The Traffic Injury Research Foundation would like to express its thanks to WorkSafeBC
for their generous funding to the Trucking Safety Council of British Columbia for this
project.




                                                                                         v
                                    Executive Summary


The primary purpose of this study was to identify the principal causes of casualty
collisions involving heavy trucks in British Columbia (B.C.) and to use this information as
the basis for identifying effective prevention programs and policies to improve safety on
B.C.’s highways. Firstly, the characteristics and causes of fatal and injury collisions
involving heavy trucks (gross vehicle weight of 4,536 kg and greater) in B.C. were
compared to those in other regions of Canada. Secondly, current practices for increasing
truck safety in B.C., other Canada jurisdictions, and other countries were identified and
reviewed by examining the literature, searching the internet, conducting a survey of
jurisdictions and contacting key informants. Thirdly, based on the characteristics of the
heavy truck collisions in B.C. compared to other regions and on the current practices to
improve truck safety, best practices were identified for government, the motor carrier
industry and police services.


Characteristics of Collisions Involving Heavy Trucks in British Columbia

Compared to other regions, fatal collisions involving heavy trucks in B.C. were more
likely to involve truck drivers aged 41 and older, truck drivers who were speeding, single-
vehicle collisions, run-off-the-road or head-on collision configurations, winter months,
curved roads with a gradient, poor road surface conditions, and poor weather conditions.
Compared to other regions, injury collisions involving heavy trucks in B.C. were more
likely to involve truck drivers’ speeding, inexperience, inattention, single-vehicle
collisions, run-off-the-road and head-on configurations, poor road surface conditions,
and curved roads with a gradient. The collision data were also analyzed separately by
single- versus multiple- vehicle involvement and differences were identified.


Logistic regression analyses were performed on the combined casualty (i.e., fatal and
injury) collision data separately for single- and multiple-vehicle collisions in order to
identify the major characteristics and contributing factors. Based on making a significant
contribution to explaining the differences in collision characteristics between B.C. and
the other regions as well as exhibiting differences from other regions which were at least



                                                                                              vii
       5%, B.C. single-vehicle collisions were more likely to involve a run-off-road configuration,
       undivided roads, poor road surface conditions, roads that were curved with a gradient,
       and truck drivers who were speeding, fatigued, or inattentive. Using the same criteria,
       B.C. multiple-vehicle collisions, were more likely to involve a head-on or run-off-the-road
       configuration, poor road surface conditions, curved roads with a gradient, and truck
       drivers who were inattentive or impaired, compared to other regions.


       Compared to other regions, at-fault analyses indicated that the truck drivers in B.C. were
       less likely to be at-fault for casualty collisions than the other driver involved, particularly
       for injury collisions. However, using charges laid by the police in B.C. as a result of the
       collision, it was found that truck drivers were slightly more likely to have been charged
       than the drivers of the other vehicles involved, particularly in the case of fatal crashes.


       Overall, the relative involvement of alcohol in heavy truck collisions depends on the
       measure used. If coroner data for fatally injured drivers are used, alcohol involvement by
       truck drivers was generally lower in B.C. (7%) than in other regions regardless of the
       Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) level. Alcohol involvement was considerably lower
       for heavy truck drivers than for other fatally injured drivers. However, if a surrogate
       measure is used for fatalities or injuries, then B.C. ranked a close second behind the
       Western region for all BAC levels. Given that the coroner data provides an actual
       measure of BAC for truck drivers, this measure is likely more reliable for fatalities.
       Furthermore, the surrogate measure of alcohol involvement does not indicate whether
       the truck driver or the other driver had been drinking prior to the collision.


       Using an operational definition of driver fatigue developed by the Canadian Council of
       Motor Transport Administrators, it was estimated that fatigue involvement in B.C. varied
       from 21% to 23% of collisions, depending on whether the collision involved a fatality or
       an injury and this involvement rate for B.C. was either lowest or second lowest among
       the regions. However, it should be emphasized that this surrogate measure of fatigue
       involvement did not distinguish between whether the truck driver or the driver of the
       other vehicle was fatigued.


       Based on these data analyses, the following key characteristics and contributing factors
       of heavy truck collisions are:


viii
   >   driver speeding;
   >   driver inattention;
   >   driver impaired by alcohol or drugs;
   >   driver fatigue;
   >   run-off-road collisions;
   >   head-on collisions;
   >   undivided roads;
   >   curved roads with gradient; and,
   >   poor road surface condition (i.e., wet, snow, ice).


Current Practices for Improving Heavy Truck Safety

Most Canadian jurisdictions are conducting research on heavy truck safety, passing new
laws and regulations addressing truck safety, improving the training and licensing
requirements for heavy truck drivers, carrying out commercial vehicle enforcement
campaigns, and conducting awareness and education campaigns for truck drivers as
well as the general driving public. In B.C.:


   >   the Truck Compliance Advisory Panel was formed in 2008 by the B.C Minister of
       Transportation and Infrastructure to promote continuous improvement in trucking
       safety;

   >   WorkSafeBC has developed the TruckSafe Strategy with its partners and
       conducts research as well as awareness and education programs to increase the
       safety of motor carrier operators;

   >   Trucking Safety Council of British Columbia will be implementing a safety
       certificate of recognition (COR) program for companies in WorkSafeBC’s General
       Trucking and Moving & Storage classification units;

   >   The British Columbia Forest Safety Council runs a very active program of
       research, advocacy, and awareness and education programs to reduce the
       involvement of logging trucks in collisions on B.C. roads.




                                                                                         ix
       Some of the leading Canadian jurisdictions are:

       >   Alberta with its’ Road Safety Action Plan, a Professional Driver designation on
           the driver’s licence of those drivers who take the Professional Driver Certificate
           course at Red Deer Community College and its’ Partners in Compliance program
           for carriers with excellent safety performance;

       >   Manitoba Public Insurance offers the Entry Level Professional Truck Driver
           Training Program which provides driver training and financial support to qualified
           candidates (100% tuition funding) who want to work in the Manitoba trucking
           industry

       >   Ontario has started using the Tall Wall concrete barrier, a high performance
           median barrier which is highly effective in reducing median crossover collisions
           not only for passenger vehicles but also for large tractor trailer combination
           vehicles

       >   Ontario and Quebec have both introduced legislation to limit the speed of heavy
           trucks to 105kph.

       >   Quebec has created a Government-Industry Advisory Committee on vehicle
           safety, which recommended various measures to improve road safety with
           respect to the circulation and operation of heavy vehicles in that province.



    The leading countries on improving heavy truck safety are the United States, the United
    Kingdom, Australia and New Zealand. These countries have very active programs on
    research, legislation and regulation, fleet safety management, and awareness and
    education in the area of trucking safety. In addition, there are many companies with
    fleets of vehicles which have adopted very progressive fleet safety management
    systems (e.g. Shell, British Telephone, Nestle). Unfortunately, most of these programs,
    whether they be from government, private sector, or non-governmental organizations,
    have not been evaluated to determine their effectiveness.




x
Best Practices for Increasing Heavy Truck Safety
Based on the characteristics and causes of collisions in B.C. and on the current
practices in Canada and other countries, the following best practices are provided for
governments, the motor carrier industry and for police services.



Government
Understanding and managing the situation:
   >   analyze collision data periodically to identify the magnitude and to understand the
       nature of fatal and injury collisions involving heavy vehicles as well as to identify
       trends or changes in the problem and in the key contributing crash factors (e.g.,
       driver speeding, driver inattention) – a review of the findings from this report
       would provide a starting point for understanding the current situation in British
       Columbia;
   >   establish a provincial multi-stakeholder committee as Quebec has done,
       including relevant government and police agencies and the trucking industry, to
       review the heavy truck collision situation in the province;
   >   based on this review, establish a provincial strategy for heavy truck safety,
       building on the TruckSafe strategy and adopting a safe system approach which
       addresses vehicles, road infrastructure, drivers and carrier management;
   >   develop specific action plans to implement the strategy and provide sufficient
       funding and staff to support the implementation of proven interventions; and,
   >   establish a measurable target for heavy truck safety in the province, as Australia
       has done (e.g., reduction in the percent of total fatalities that involve heavy trucks
       or in number of fatalities involving heavy trucks per million vehicle kilometers
       traveled) to be achieved during a reasonable timeframe (e.g., 5-10 years) based
       on the current situation and the proven interventions in the action plan that can
       be implemented given the resources.


Increasing the safety of truck drivers:
   >   encourage an independent review of the province’s commercial vehicle driver
       licensing standards and testing procedures to determine if they are adequately
       preparing novice truck drivers to drive safely;
   >   encourage more women to become truck drivers given that in general, they are
       less prone to risk taking;
   >   given the difficulty of getting new drivers into the trucking industry, establish a
       program that provides 100% tuition funding for truck driver training to qualified
       candidates, as Manitoba Public Insurance has done;




                                                                                                xi
         >   establish a Certificate of Professional Competence for truck drivers requiring
             mandatory training and apprenticeship similar to what the European Union has
             required; and,
         >   develop and evaluate a standard curriculum for driver training programs that
             could be used throughout the province or even nationally.


      Increasing the safety of heavy trucks:
         >   encourage government departments that have vehicle fleets to adopt a fleet
             safety program which adheres to international best practices;
         >   use the Safety Measurement System adopted by the U.S. Federal Motor Carrier
             Safety Administration’s Comprehensive Safety Analysis (2010) to more
             effectively target commercial vehicle enforcement resources;
         >   require electronic stability control on all heavy vehicles as the European Union
             has done;
         >   limit the maximum speed of heavy trucks to 105 kph as Ontario and Quebec
             have done;
         >   consider requirement of a tire under-inflation warning system and alcohol ignition
             interlocks; and,
         >   consider permitting the use of long combination vehicles in the province under
             certain operational restrictions similar to what Alberta permits.


      Increasing the safety of the road infrastructure:
         >   continue to twin highways so that opposing lanes are separated by medians or
             alternatively introduce 2+1 lanes as they have done in Sweden where a wire
             barrier is installed between opposing lanes on undivided highways;
         >   install concrete barriers on divided highways, such as the Tall Walls used in
             Ontario, to prevent vehicles crossing the median into opposing lanes;
         >   install rumble strips on the road edge and on the centre line to warn drivers that
             they are deviating from their lane;
         >   install high tension cable barrier systems on the shoulders of curved highways to
             provide greater protection from running off the road for large trucks as Alberta
             has been doing;
         >   install roadside variable messaging signs to warn drivers of poor driving
             conditions ahead, and,
         >   improve lane delineation and signage particularly for curves on the highway.


      Increasing awareness and education about heavy trucks:
         >   conduct awareness and education programs targeted at the drivers of passenger
             vehicles so that they are more knowledgeable about driving safely around heavy
             trucks (e.g., Share the Road programs); and,


xii
   >   conduct awareness and education programs targeted at the heavy truck industry
       and heavy truck drivers to inform them about the key crash factors such as
       driving on slippery roads, speeding, fatigue, inattention, and to provide guidance
       as to effective solutions that they should adopt to address the problem.


Recognizing safe motor carriers:
   >   establish a program such as Alberta has done with Partners in Compliance which
       recognizes safe carrier operations and provides them with some benefits to
       partially offset costs of meeting the program requirements.


Measurement and Accountability:
   >   measure changes in the magnitude and characteristics of heavy truck crashes to
       assess the extent to which the target is being achieved and to identify new
       effective solutions to address the problem;
   >   evaluate the safety impacts of new programs for fleet safety; and,
   >   produce annual reports on the safety of heavy trucks indicating actions taken and
       progress toward achieving the target.


Industry
Understanding and managing the situation
   >   using collision and other data, demonstrate to senior management why it is
       important to manage fleet safety in terms of the organization’s responsibility, the
       benefits to the organization as well as to the community (i.e., corporate social
       responsibility) and build a business case for the fleet safety management
       program to be adequately supported financially;
   >   adopt a fleet safety management model which incorporates leadership and
       accountability by senior management;
   >   adopt a safe systems approach when developing a fleet safety management
       program which not only looks at the drivers, vehicles and road infrastructure but
       also looks at the safety culture within the organization and in the society at large;
   >   adopt a multidisciplinary approach which considers civil and mechanical
       engineering, education, enforcement, medicine, and social sciences, when
       developing fleet safety policies and interventions;
   >   establish a fleet safety committee that includes both management and
       employees which meets regularly to discuss improving safety;
   >   set a measureable target for improvement in fleet safety;
   >   formally adopt a fleet safety policy which is signed by senior management and
       provide documentation of the policy to employees; and,
   >   organize and implement a fleet safety program, including management structure
       (i.e., what resources are needed and who is responsible for fleet safety), staff



                                                                                               xiii
             involvement (i.e., staff should support a positive safety culture based on
             competence, control, cooperation and communication), and planning and
             implementation of the program (i.e., what are the major risks that should be
             addressed first).


      Increasing the safety of drivers:
         >   develop and implement a valid driver recruitment and selection process using in-
             person applications, screening of employment and driving history, minimum
             driving experience, driving test, physical exams, personality tests (i.e., to assess
             risk taking potential) and personal interviews and conduct effective driver training
             programs, both initial and ongoing (i.e., every five years);
         >   develop a driver performance standard, a driver fitness standard, and specific
             policies on pre-trip inspections, drug and alcohol use, seat belt use, speeding,
             driver distraction including cell phone use, and driver fatigue and explain these
             standards and policies in a handbook provided to all drivers; and,
         >   implement a fatigue management program which addresses driver training, sleep
             disorders, and trip scheduling which maximizes drivers’ opportunity for sleep.


      Increasing the safety of vehicles:
         >   select safe fleet vehicles (e.g., anti-lock brakes, electronic stability control, lane
             positioning sensor; speed limiters) and conduct regular vehicle maintenance and
             servicing; and,
         >   use the latest technology to increase compliance with regulations and policies in
             order to promote safety (e.g., electronic on-board recording of hours of operation
             and speed, event data recording system to capture information about collisions,
             Intelligent Transportation Systems).


      Recognizing safe drivers:
         >   develop safe driver incentive programs which provide bonuses tied to drivers’
             performance assessments.


      Measurement and accountability:
         >   regularly conduct risk assessment and risk management using collision data,
             insurance costs, and reported incidents;
         >   conduct regular internal monitoring and measurement of progress toward target
             based on key performance indicators, and periodic third party audits and
             management reviews of the fleet safety program;
         >   carry out full in-depth investigations of all collisions involving heavy vehicles in
             order to better understand their causes and make adjustments to the fleet safety
             program;




xiv
   >   perform periodic bench marking by comparing the fleet’s safety performance with
       that of other similar operations; and,
   >   provide annual reports to senior management regarding fleet safety.


Police Services
Understanding and managing the situation
   >   using collision data and specialized software such as the RCMP’s Traffic
       Services Management Information Tool (TSMIT), identify high-risk corridors
       which have disproportionate numbers of serious collisions involving heavy trucks;
       and,
   >   establish multi-stakeholder committees, including the trucking industry, in
       communities where high-risk corridors are located in order to get local buy-in and
       support, as was done in the Fraser Canyon corridor.


Increasing safety on the roads
   >   conduct regular enforcement campaigns combined with awareness and
       education, in high-risk corridors to address problem areas (e.g., seat belt use,
       impaired driving by alcohol, drugs, distraction, inattention or fatigue, and
       speeding); and,
   >   establish hotlines in all communities where members of the public can phone in
       toll-free complaints about unsafe truck driver behaviour, such as the Fraser
       Canyon Watch program and the Forestry Safety Hotline.




                                                                                            xv
                                              1.0 Introduction
The primary purpose of this study is to identify the principal causes of collisions involving
heavy trucks (gross vehicle weight of 4,536 kg and greater) in British Columbia (B.C.)
and use this information as the basis for identifying effective prevention programs and
policies to improve safety on B.C.’s highways.


1.1 Overview
The study involves two interrelated activities designed to provide converging evidence
for the development of a set of best practices for heavy truck safety. Firstly, a
comprehensive analysis of contemporary data from a variety of sources was conducted
to provide reliable insights into the principal characteristics and contributing factors of
road collisions involving heavy trucks in B.C. compared to other regions of Canada.
Secondly, the principal characteristics identified through this analytical process formed
the basis for selecting the best elements from current heavy truck safety programs and
policies. These programs and policies were gathered and selected by means of a survey
supplemented by searches of the literature and the internet.


1.1.1 Identifying the characteristics and causes of collisions involving heavy
trucks. The primary data sources included in this study are the Traffic Accident
Information Database (TRAID) maintained by Transport Canada; the Insurance
Corporation of B.C. (ICBC) Traffic Accident System (TAS), and the national Fatality
Database, maintained by the Traffic Injury Research Foundation (TIRF) with funding
from the Canadian Council of Motor Transport Administrators and Transport Canada.


Many of variables that are contained in these data sets provide information about the
characteristics of collisions involving heavy trucks and the contributory factors
associated with them. These variables include: temporal factors (e.g., time of day, day of
week, month), vehicle factors (e.g., type, defects), crash characteristics (e.g., location,
configuration), environmental conditions (e.g., weather, road type and condition), and
driver factors (e.g., age, gender, alcohol, speeding, fatigue, inattention, distraction).




                                                                                                1
    The analyses of the collision data conducted in this phase included both a descriptive
    (primarily bivariate analyses) and explanatory (primarily multivariate analyses) segment.
    In the descriptive segment, in addition to profiling of crash patterns, the emphasis was
    on identifying the extent to which heavy truck crashes in B.C. differ from those in other
    jurisdictions in Canada. The explanatory segment included multivariate analyses
    designed to identify differences in factors associated with specific circumstances and
    specific subgroups of drivers ( e.g., single- versus multiple-vehicle crashes, differences
    as a function of driver age).


    The quasi-induced exposure method (DeYoung, et al., 1997) was used to calculate the
    relative risk of drivers being considered at-fault for a collision. This technique has been
    used successfully to take into account driving “exposure” differences in many areas of
    traffic safety. Its value in identifying high risk conditions and locations of collisions
    involving senior drivers has been reviewed by Mayhew et al. (2005). Other surrogate
    measures were employed to estimate the involvement of alcohol impairment and fatigue
    in the collisions.


    The outcome of these data analyses is a set of critical causal factors that need to be
    addressed by safety policies and programs to reduce the prevalence of crashes
    involving heavy trucks in B.C. These findings were used as guideposts for the
    development of best practices (i.e., they identify “what” contributory factors need to be
    addressed effectively). However, they provide little guidance in terms of “how” the
    causal factors should be addressed.


    1.1.2 Identifying relevant programs and policies. A survey of truck safety programs
    and policies was conducted, primarily for the purpose of obtaining as comprehensive an
    inventory as feasible. A questionnaire was sent to members of the Canadian Council of
    Motor Transport Administrators’ Compliance and Regulatory Affairs Standing Committee
    to collect information regarding current policies, regulations, and programs addressing
    heavy truck safety in Canada. Contact was made with a number of agencies in B.C.,
    other Canadian jurisdictions and other countries to ascertain if they have relevant
    programs and materials or if they are aware of others that do. Those that have programs
    and materials were asked to share such information. Hard copies of the programs were
    also sought so that the information could be reviewed independently. Contacts were also


2
asked to provide any data/information/reports they have on evaluations of the
effectiveness of their programs.


To ensure that key programs and program evaluations are not excluded, a literature
search of library holdings and computerized data bases in Canada and elsewhere was
also conducted to identify and review relevant reports and articles on heavy truck safety.
A search of the internet was also conducted to identify relevant websites with information
on recent activities on heavy truck safety.


1.1.3 Identifying best practices. The ultimate goal of this study was to provide a set of
best practices for heavy truck safety. The foundation for this is the objective data
obtained from the collision data analyses and the review of current practices. Essentially
this involves an assessment of what variables are most important as casual factors,
which are most amenable to control or regulation, and what approaches appear to most
effective in achieving reductions in collisions. These best practices were separated into
those that could be implemented by government, the motor carrier industry, and police
services.




                                                                                             3
                     2.0 The Crash Patterns of
                       Heavy Trucks in British
                     Columbia: A Comparative
                                     Analysis
This section of the report provides the results from analyses of the 2000-2006 Traffic
Accident Information Database (TRAID) data on fatal and injury collisions involving
heavy trucks in British Columbia (B.C.), and for comparison, the rest of Canada
categorized into three regions: Western (Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba);
Central (Ontario and Quebec) and Atlantic (Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Prince Edward
Island and Newfoundland and Labrador). TRAID is a national database maintained by
Transport Canada that contains police-reported information on collisions of all severity:
fatal, injury and property damage. 2006 is the most recent year for which TRAID has
complete data from all jurisdictions. Heavy trucks are defined by two vehicle types in
TRAID: a straight truck with a gross vehicle weight of 4,536 kg (10,000 lbs) or more and
a tractor trailer.


The focus in this study was on fatal and injury collisions because these data are more
routinely attended by police officers in jurisdictions across Canada. Police officers do
not always attend the scene of a collision involving property damage only, and this is
especially the case in B.C. Even when property damage only collisions are reported to
the police and/or a collision centre, detailed information is often missing or suspect
because the driver(s) has a vested interest in portraying themselves as not at-fault. For
these reasons, this study focuses on collisions in which someone died or was injured. In
some cases, only serious injury collisions were examined but only for the years 2005-
2006, since the police report form in B.C. has only separated serious injury collisions
since 2005.


Initially, the data for total fatal and injury collisions by region and by year were examined.
Then the characteristics of fatal and injury collisions were determined for each region
combining the years 2000-2006. Several years of data were combined to ensure the



                                                                                                 5
    numbers were large enough for meaningful analyses. Subsequent analyses separated
    the collisions into those which were single-vehicle (i.e., only a heavy truck involved) and
    multiple-vehicle (i.e., heavy truck involved in collision with one or more other vehicles).
    In addition, logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine which
    characteristics are most important in distinguishing between collision characteristics
    among the regions separately for single- and multiple-vehicle collisions.


    An analysis of multiple-vehicle collisions involving a heavy truck in B.C. was also
    conducted to determine whether either the truck driver or the driver(s) of the other
    vehicle(s) was more likely considered to be at-fault.


    The results of data analyses conducted on alcohol and fatigue involvement are also
    presented.


    2.1 Fatal Collisions Involving Heavy Trucks
    Figure 2.1 shows the number of fatal collisions involving a heavy truck for the years
    2000 to 2006 for B.C. and the other regions.

     Table 2.1: Fatal collisions Involving Heavy Trucks by Region and Year

     Region        2000      2001       2002      2003       2004      2005       2006 All Years
     BC              62        64         71        70         66        69         68        470
     Western        132        122       106        134       119        135       141              889
     Central        246        221       255        240       248        237       249            1,696
     Atlantic        23         30        27         31        23         17        28              179
     Total          463        437       459        475       456        458       486            3,234

    For the period 2000-2006, there were a total of 470 fatal collisions involving 518 heavy
    truck drivers in B.C. Overall, the number of fatalities is fairly stable over the seven years
    for B.C. and the other regions. Since the fatalities did not change much over time,
    subsequent analyses were conducted combining the data for 2000 to 2006.


    The detailed information on fatal collisions involving heavy trucks in British Columbia and
    the other three regions – Western, Central, and Atlantic is presented in Appendix 1. The
    results of the bivariate analyses are presented by region for the characteristics of the



6
drivers of the heavy trucks, and by crash, temporal, vehicle, roadway, and environmental
characteristics.


2.1.1 Characteristics of drivers of heavy trucks
  >       Heavy truck drivers in fatal collisions in B.C. were mostly male (94%) and this is
          the case in the rest of Canada as well;
  >       Heavy truck drivers in fatal collisions in B.C. were somewhat more likely to be aged
          41 and older (59%) than in the rest of Canada;
  >       The majority of heavy truck drivers in B.C. fatal collisions were wearing their seat
          belts (62%) as was the case in Central Canada; heavy truck drivers were less
          likely to be wearing their seat belt in Western and Atlantic Canada, although this
          may result from seat belt use being recorded as unknown for a relatively high
          percentage of drivers in these regions;
  >       The majority of heavy truck drivers in B.C. and the other three regions were not
          killed in the fatal collision; only 20% of the heavy truck drivers in these crashes in
          B.C were fatally injured;
  >       In B.C, about three-quarters of the heavy truck drivers in fatal collisions held a B.C.
          driver’s licence and one in five held an out of province driver’s licence; the
          percentage of heavy truck drivers in fatal collisions with an out of province drivers
          licence was higher in B.C. than in Central and Atlantic Canada but lower than in
          Western Canada;
  >       Most heavy truck drivers in fatal collisions in B.C. and the other three regions were
          not cited for a contributing human or driver condition although these citations were
          higher for B.C. (17%) and Atlantic (21%); the most frequently cited condition was
          driver inattention, particularly in B.C. (8%) and Atlantic (11%); and
  >       Heavy truck drivers in fatal collisions in B.C were more likely to be cited for a
          contributing human or driver action (23%) than in the other regions; the most
          frequently cited action in B.C. was driving too fast for conditions (13%).


2.1.2 Crash characteristics
      >    In B.C. and the other regions, most fatal collisions of heavy trucks involved only
           one death;
      >    Although the heavy truck driver was seldom the person fatally injured, heavy
           truck drivers in B.C. were slightly more likely than those in the other regions to
           have died in the fatal collision;
      >    In almost 40% of heavy truck fatal collisions in B.C. and the other regions,
           someone incurred a non-fatal injury; heavy truck drivers incurred a non-fatal
           injury in about one-quarter of the fatal collisions;
      >    The majority of heavy truck fatal collisions in B.C. and the other regions involved
           two-vehicles; single-vehicle fatal collisions (i.e., involving only the heavy truck),
           however, were slightly more common in B.C. (27%) than in the other regions;




                                                                                                    7
       >   Heavy truck fatal collisions in B.C. were more likely than those in most other
           regions to occur head-on (44%) and running off-road to the left or right (17%);
           and,
       >   In B.C. and the other regions, fatal collisions involving heavy trucks were seldom
           hit and run crashes.


    2.1.3 Temporal characteristics
       >   Fatal collisions involving heavy trucks in B.C. were slightly more likely to occur
           during winter months than in the other regions of Canada (i.e., November,
           December, January and February);
       >   In B.C. and the other regions, about 40% of fatal collisions occurred in the
           afternoon between noon and 6:00 pm; one third occurred in the morning between
           6:00 am and noon; and
       >   In B.C. and the other regions, one fifth of the fatal collisions involving heavy
           trucks occurred on Friday; fatal collisions involving heavy trucks were infrequent
           on Sunday across Canada.


    2.1.4 Vehicle characteristics

       >   The vehicle age is unknown for over 30% of the heavy trucks in fatal collisions in
           B.C. which makes it difficult to determine whether driving a more recent model
           vehicle is more or less characteristic in B.C. than in other regions;
       >   Heavy trucks involved in fatal collisions in B.C. were less likely to be going
           straight and more likely to have been manoeuvred in some other unspecified way
           than those in the other regions; however, going straight was still the vehicle
           manoeuvre recorded for over 70% of the heavy trucks involved in fatal collisions
           in B.C. and,
       >   The condition of the heavy truck was infrequently recorded (5%) as a contributing
           factor in fatal collisions in B.C. as well as the other regions.


    2.1.5 Roadway characteristics
       >   Fatal collisions involving heavy trucks were slightly more likely to occur at non-
           intersections in B.C. than in Western and Central Canada – comparisons to
           Atlantic Canada were not meaningful because of the high numbers recorded as
           unknown for roadway configuration (52%);
       >   Although three-quarters of fatal collisions involving heavy trucks in B.C. occurred
           on undivided highways, fatal collisions on freeways were more characteristic in
           B.C. than in Central Canada – comparisons to Western and Atlantic Canada are
           not meaningful because of the high numbers recorded as unknown for road
           category (50% and 20% respectively);
       >   Almost all of the fatal collisions of heavy trucks in B.C. and the other regions
           occurred on roads paved with asphalt;



8
   >   The fatal collisions involving heavy trucks in B.C. were much more likely than
       those in other regions to occur under adverse road surface conditions, especially
       wet, snow-covered, icy and slushy roads (45%);
   >   The fatal collisions involving heavy trucks in B.C. were more likely to occur on
       curved and gradient roads (32%), and to a somewhat lesser extent, on straight
       and gradient roads, than those in the other regions;
   >   About 80% of the fatal collisions of heavy trucks in B.C. and the other regions
       occurred in a non-traffic control location; and
   >   Almost half of the fatal collisions of heavy trucks in B.C. occurred on roads with
       posted speed limits of 60-90 km/h and about one-quarter occurred on higher
       speed roads. A similar pattern is apparent in Central and Atlantic Canada but not
       Western Canada where almost 60% of fatal collisions involving heavy trucks
       occurred on roads with a posted speed limit of 100 km/h or more. Fatal collisions
       of heavy trucks in B.C. were slightly more likely to occur on roads with low posted
       speeds of 50 km/h or less.


   2.1.6 Environmental characteristics
   >   About three-quarters of fatal collisions involving heavy trucks in B.C. and the rest
       of Canada occurred on rural roadways;
   >   Although most fatal collisions of heavy trucks occurred under clear weather
       conditions in all regions of Canada, B.C. had more occurring in raining and
       snowing conditions than in the other regions (24%);
   >   The majority of fatal collisions involving heavy trucks occurred during daylight
       conditions in all regions. However, dark conditions were slightly more
       characteristic of the fatal collisions involving heavy trucks in B.C. and Western
       Canada than in Central and Atlantic Canada; and,
   >   Environmental conditions were seldom recorded as contributing factors in the
       fatal collisions of heavy trucks in all regions of Canada. However, they were
       slightly more likely to be recorded in B.C. than elsewhere, especially slippery
       roads (5%) and road construction (2%).


2.1.7 Summary of major regional differences in fatal collision characteristics.
Compared to other regions, fatal collisions involving heavy trucks in B.C. were more
likely to involve truck drivers aged 41+, truck drivers who were speeding, single vehicle
collisions, running off the road or head-on collisions, winter months, curved roads with a
gradient, poor road surface conditions, and poor weather conditions.


2.2 Injury Collisions Involving Heavy Trucks
Figure 2.2 shows the number of injury collisions involving heavy trucks for the years
2000 to 2006 for B.C. and the other regions.



                                                                                              9
     Table 2.2 Injury collisions Involving Heavy Trucks by Region and Year

     Region         2000      2001       2002       2003      2004       2005      2006 All Years
     BC              979       950        925      1,022     1,021      1,060     1,091       7,048
     Western       1,742      1,800     2,092      2,334     2,416      2,687     2,881        15,952
     Central       4,949      4,641     4,972      5,010     5,126      5,258     4,783        34,739
     Atlantic        398        411       409        394       372        361       311          2,656
     Total         8,068      7,802     8,398      8,760     8,935      9,366     9,066        60,395



     Over this 7-year period, there were a total of 7,048 injury collisions involving 7,455 heavy
     truck drivers. Injury collisions increased by about 11% in B.C. between 2000 and 2006,
     increased by about two-thirds in the Western region, increased and then decreased in
     the Central region and declined 22% in the Atlantic provinces. Since there was no clear
     national trend in the injury collisions, further analyses were conducted combining the
     injury data for 2000 to 2006.


     The detailed information on injury collisions involving heavy trucks in British Columbia
     and the other three regions – Western, Central, and Atlantic is presented in Appendix 2.


     2.2.1 Characteristics of drivers of heavy trucks
        >    Heavy truck drivers in injury collisions in B.C. were mostly male (92%) and this
             was the case in the rest of Canada as well;
        >    The age distribution of heavy truck drivers in injury collisions is similar across the
             regions – the majority of the heavy truck drivers were aged 41and older (48%);
        >    The majority of heavy truck drivers in injury collisions in B.C. and Central Canada
             were wearing their seat belt (74%); heavy truck drivers were less likely to be
             wearing their seat belt in Western and Atlantic Canada although this may have
             resulted from seat belt use being recorded as unknown for a relatively high
             percentage of drivers in these regions;
        >    The majority of heavy truck drivers in B.C. and the other three regions were not
             injured in the injury collision; about 12% of the heavy truck drivers in these
             crashes in B.C. received minor to major injuries;
        >    In B.C., most heavy truck drivers in injury collisions held a B.C. drivers’ licence;
             the percentage of heavy truck drivers in injury collisions with an out of province
             drivers licence was highest in Western Canada;
        >    Heavy truck drivers in injury collisions in B.C. and Atlantic Canada were more
             likely to be cited for driver or human conditions as contributing factors (29% and
             35% respectively) than those in Western and Central Canada; the most



10
       frequently cited condition was driver inattention in B.C. (18%) and Atlantic
       Canada (19%), and driver inexperience in B.C. (5%); and,
   >   Heavy truck drivers in injury collisions in B.C. and Central Canada were more
       likely to be cited for a contributing human (29% and 35% respectively) or driver
       action (37% and 42% respectively) than in Western and Atlantic Canada; the
       most frequently cited action in B.C. was exceeding the limit or too fast for
       conditions (14%).

2.2.2 Crash characteristics
   >   In B.C. and the other regions, most injury collisions of heavy trucks involved only
       one injured person;
   >   The heavy truck driver was injured in about two-fifths of the injury collisions in
       B.C., Western and Atlantic Canada and about one-quarter of the injury collisions
       in Central Canada;
   >   The majority of heavy truck injury collisions in B.C. and the other regions involved
       two-vehicles; single-vehicle collisions (i.e., involving only the heavy truck),
       however, were more characteristic in B.C. (28%);
   >   Heavy truck injury collisions in B.C. were more likely than those in the other
       regions to have occurred head-on (13%) or run off-road to the left or to the right
       (23%); and,
   >   In B.C. and the other regions, injury collisions involving heavy trucks were
       seldom hit and run crashes.

2.2.3 Temporal characteristics
   >   The monthly distribution of injury collisions involving heavy trucks in B.C. and the
       other three regions in Canada is similar; the highest crash months were in
       January and December;
   >   In B.C. and the other regions, about 40% of injury collisions occurred in the
       afternoon between noon and 6:00 pm; about one third occurred in the morning
       between 6:00 am and noon; and,
   >   In B.C. and the other regions, one fifth of the injury collisions involving heavy
       trucks occurred on Friday; injury collisions involving heavy trucks were infrequent
       on Sunday across Canada


2.2.4 Vehicle characteristics
   >   The vehicle age was unknown for almost 30% of the heavy trucks in injury
       collisions in B.C., which makes it difficult to determine whether driving a more
       recent model vehicle is more or less characteristic in B.C. than in other regions;
   >   Heavy trucks involved in injury collisions in B.C. were slightly less likely to be
       going straight than those in the other regions; however, going straight was still
       the vehicle maneuver recorded for 58% of the heavy trucks involved in injury
       collisions in B.C.; and,



                                                                                              11
        >   The condition of the heavy truck was infrequently recorded as a contributing
            factor in injury collisions (5%) in B.C. as well as the other regions.

     2.2.5 Roadway characteristics
        >   Injury collisions involving heavy trucks are slightly more likely to occur at non-
            intersections in B.C. than in Western and Central Canada – comparisons to
            Atlantic Canada are not meaningful because of the high numbers recorded as
            unknown for roadway configuration;
        >   Although three-quarters of injury collisions involving heavy trucks in British
            Columbia occurred on undivided highways, injury collisions on freeways are
            more characteristic in B.C. than in Central Canada – comparisons to Western
            and Atlantic Canada are not meaningful because of the high numbers recorded
            as unknown for road category;
        >   Almost all of the injury collisions of heavy trucks in B.C. and the other regions
            occur on roads paved with asphalt although unpaved roads were slightly more
            common in B.C.;
        >   About three-quarters of the injury collisions involving heavy trucks in B.C. and the
            other regions occurred on dry, normal road surfaces. However, injury collisions
            involving heavy trucks in B.C. were slightly more likely (40%) than those in other
            regions to occur on road surfaces with poor conditions (i.e., wet, snowy, icy);
        >   Overall, injury collisions involving heavy trucks were more likely to occur on
            straight and level roads in B.C. and the other regions. The injury collisions
            involving heavy trucks in B.C., however, were more likely to have occurred on
            curved and gradient roads (21%), and to a somewhat lesser extent, on straight
            and gradient roads, than those in the other regions;
        >   The majority of the injury collisions of heavy trucks in B.C. and the other regions
            occurred in a non-traffic control location; and,
        >   Two fifths of the injury collisions of heavy trucks in B.C. occurred on roads with
            posted speed limits of 60-90 km/h and 36% occurred on lower speed roads.


     2.2.6 Environmental characteristics
        >   About half of the injury collisions involving heavy trucks in B.C. and the rest of
            Canada occurred on urban roadways;
        >   Although most injury collisions of heavy trucks occurred under clear weather
            conditions in all regions of Canada, B.C. had slightly more occurring in raining
            conditions (12%) than in the other regions;
        >   The majority of injury collisions involving heavy trucks occurred under daylight
            conditions in all regions. However, lower light conditions were slightly more
            characteristic of injury collisions involving heavy trucks in B.C. and Western
            Canada than in Central and Atlantic Canada; and,
        >   Environmental conditions were seldom recorded as contributing factors in the
            injury collisions of heavy trucks in all regions of Canada. However, they were




12
       slightly more likely recorded in B.C. and Atlantic Canada than in Western and
       Central Canada, especially slippery roads and animal actions.

2.2.7 Summary of major regional differences in injury collision characteristics.
Compared to other regions, injury collisions involving heavy trucks in B.C. were more
likely to involve truck drivers’ speeding, inexperience, inattention, single-vehicles, run-
off-the-road and head-on collision configurations, poor road surface conditions, and
curved roads with a gradient.


2.3 Fatal Collisions Involving Heavy Trucks Separated by Single
versus Multiple Vehicle Involvement
The initial bivariate analyses suggested that there may be differences between single-
and multi-vehicle collisions involving heavy trucks and that these differences may vary
by region and level of severity. The detailed information on fatal collisions involving
heavy trucks in British Columbia and the other three regions (i.e., Western, Central, and
Atlantic) is presented by multiple-vehicle and single-vehicle involvement in Appendices 3
and 4, respectively.


2.3.1 Characteristics of drivers of heavy trucks
   >   Heavy truck drivers in fatal collisions in B.C. are slightly more likely to be aged 41
       and over than in other regions, particularly in multiple-vehicle collisions;
   >   Drivers were considerably more likely to have been wearing seat belts in
       multiple-vehicle collisions compared to single-vehicle collisions and there was a
       trend for belt use to be higher in B.C. than in other regions but this trend was
       largely due to higher levels of unknowns in other regions;
   >   Drivers were slightly more likely to have been fatigued or fell asleep in single-
       vehicle collisions in B.C. than other regions;
   >   Inattention was higher in B.C. and the Atlantic region than in the other regions
       and it was more commonly cited in single-vehicle crashes;
   >   Speed (fast for conditions/over limit) was cited much more often in single-vehicle
       compared to multiple-vehicle collisions and more often in B.C. than other regions;
       and
   >   B.C. drivers were more likely to have been driving in the wrong direction in
       multiple-vehicle collisions.




                                                                                                13
     2.3.2 Crash characteristics
        >   Single-vehicle collisions were more likely to result in the vehicle going off road to
            the left or right while multiple-vehicle collisions were more likely to be head-on
            and this latter difference was somewhat greater for B.C. than for other regions.


     2.3.3 Temporal characteristics
        >   Injury collisions were more likely to occur in the winter months (Nov-Feb) in B.C.
            than in other regions; this difference did not vary by single-versus multiple-
            vehicle involvement.


     2.3.4 Vehicle characteristics
        >   There was a somewhat higher percentage of single-vehicle collisions in B.C. than
            in other regions;
        >   Fewer vehicles were going straight in single- than in multiple-vehicle collisions
            and in B.C. than in other regions (i.e., lowest percentage going straight was in
            single-vehicle collisions in B.C. where turning right was more common); and,
        >   The condition of the heavy truck was infrequently recorded (5%) as a contributing
            factor in fatal collisions in B.C. as well as the other regions but it was more
            common for single-vehicle collisions in B.C. and the Atlantic region.

     2.3.5 Road characteristics
        >   Multiple-vehicle collisions were less likely to occur at intersections in B.C. than in
            other regions but there was not much difference across regions for single-vehicle
            collisions;
        >   Single- and multiple-vehicle collisions were more likely to be on undivided roads
            in B.C.;
        >   Single-vehicle collisions were more likely to have occurred on gravel, earth, dirt
            roads in B.C. than in other regions but there was not much difference for
            multiple-vehicle crashes;
        >   Single-vehicle collisions were more likely to have occurred when the road surface
            condition was poor (i.e., wet, snow, ice, slush) compared to multiple-vehicle
            collisions and poor road conditions were more common in B.C. than in other
            regions; and,
        >   Many more fatal collisions occurred in B.C. when the road was curved and had a
            gradient in B.C. than in other regions regardless of the number of vehicles
            involved.




14
2.3.6 Summary of major regional differences in fatal collisions by single-
versus multiple-vehicle involvement. Single-vehicle fatal collisions were somewhat
more common in B.C. than in other regions. For single-vehicle collisions, B.C. heavy
truck drivers were more likely to have been fatigued/fell asleep or speeding, than in other
regions whereas for multiple-vehicle collisions, there was a greater incidence of drivers
traveling in the wrong direction in B.C. and truck drivers aged 41+ compared to other
regions.


Single-vehicle collisions were more likely to have been run-off-the-road while multiple-
vehicle collisions were more likely to have been head-on collisions compared to other
regions. Single-vehicle fatal collisions were more likely to have occurred on gravel or dirt
roads in B.C. than in other regions but there was not much difference for multiple-vehicle
collisions. Regardless whether it was a single-vehicle or multiple-vehicle collision, it was
more likely to have occurred on an undivided highway in B.C. than in other regions. Poor
road surface conditions were more likely in B.C. that other regions, particularly in single-
vehicle collisions. Fatal collisions were more likely to occur on roads with a curve and a
gradient in B.C than other regions regardless of whether the collision was single- or
multiple-vehicle. Poor weather conditions were more likely in B.C. particularly for single-
vehicle collisions.


2.4 Injury Collisions Involving Heavy Trucks Separated by Single-
versus Multiple-Vehicle Involvement
The detailed information on injury collisions involving heavy trucks in British Columbia
and the other three regions – Western, Central, and Atlantic is presented by multiple-
and single-vehicle involvement in Appendices 5 and 6 respectively.


2.4.1 Characteristics of drivers of heavy trucks
    >   There was a slight trend for truck drivers to be more like to be 41 or over in B.C.
        compared to other regions, regardless of single- versus multiple-vehicle
        involvement;
    >   Drivers were considerably more likely to have been wearing seat belts in
        multiple-vehicle collisions compared to single-vehicle collisions and there was a
        trend for belt use to be higher in B.C. than in other regions but this trend was
        largely due to higher levels of unknowns in other regions;
    >   Drivers were slightly more likely to have been fatigued or fell asleep in single-
        vehicle collisions and more likely in B.C. than other regions, at least for single-


                                                                                               15
            vehicle collisions (i.e., fatigued/fell asleep was greatest for single vehicle
            collisions in B.C.);
        >   Inattention was higher in B.C. and the Atlantic region than in the other regions
            regardless of whether the collision was single-vehicle or multiple-vehicle; and,
        >   Speed (fast for conditions/over limit) was cited much more often in single-vehicle
            compared to multiple-vehicle collisions and more often in B.C. than other regions,
            particularly for single-vehicle collisions (i.e., speeding was most common in
            single-vehicle collisions in B.C.)

     2.4.2 Crash characteristics
        >   Single-vehicle collisions were more likely to result in the vehicle going off road to
            the left or right and this was slightly greater in B.C., while multiple-vehicle
            collisions were more likely to be head-on in B.C. than in other regions.

     2.4.3 Temporal characteristics
        >   Single-vehicle collisions were slightly more likely to be in the winter months (Nov-
            Feb) in B.C. than in other regions but multiple-vehicle collisions were slightly less
            likely to be during the winter months compared to other months.

     2.4.4 Vehicle characteristics
        >   Single-vehicle collisions were less likely to involve the vehicle going straight
            ahead in B.C. but there was no difference for multiple-vehicle collisions;
        >   Single-vehicle collisions were slightly more common in B.C. than other regions;
            and,
        >   The condition of the heavy truck was infrequently recorded (5%) as a contributing
            factor in injury collisions in B.C. as well as the other regions but it was more
            common for single-vehicle collisions in B.C. and the Atlantic region.

     2.4.5 Road characteristics
        >   There was a tendency for the road surface to be poorer in B.C. (i.e., wet, snow,
            ice, slush) than in other regions for both single- and multiple-vehicle collisions;
            and,
        >   Many more injury collisions occurred when the road alignment was curved and
            had a gradient in B.C. than in other regions regardless of the number of vehicles
            involved.

     2.4.6 Environmental characteristics
        >   The weather conditions were more likely to be poor (i.e., rain, snow, sleet) in B.C.
            than other regions, particularly for single-vehicle collisions.

     2.4.7 Summary of major regional differences in injury collisions by single- versus
     multiple-vehicle involvement. B.C. drivers were more likely to have been fatigued or


16
fell asleep or speeding in single-vehicle collisions compared to other regions but not for
multiple-vehicle collisions. Single-vehicle injury collisions were more likely to be run off
the road while multiple-vehicle collisions were more likely to be head-on than in other
regions. Compared to other regions, single-vehicle collisions in B.C. were more likely to
be in the winter months while multiple-vehicle collisions were less likely to occur in these
months. Road condition was poorer in B.C. than in other regions regardless of whether
the collision was single- or multiple-vehicle. Injury collisions in B.C. were more often on
roads with a curve and a gradient compared to other regions, particularly for single-
vehicle collisions.


Overall, the differences for injury collisions between single- and multiple-vehicle and
among the regions were similar but less pronounced than those observed for fatal
collisions.


2.5 Overall Summary of Bivariate Analyses of Collision Data
The collision characteristics and contributing factors which exhibited differences between
B.C. and other regions were the following:
    >   driver age 41 and older
    >   fatigue/fall asleep
    >   inattention
    >   speeding
    >   undivided roads
    >   road curved with gradient
    >   poor road conditions
    >   unpaved roads
    >   run-off-road or head-on configurations
    >   winter months

A scenario that one might develop which combines the above factors could be the
following: An older driver who has not been sleeping well, is driving fatigued and is
somewhat inattentive. The winter weather is bad so the undivided road is snow covered
and slippery. Since he is behind schedule, he is driving faster than he should. He is
going down an undivided road with a gradient and negotiating a curve when he loses
control of his truck on the slippery road. He tries to regain control but the vehicle leaves


                                                                                               17
     the road to the right and hits a rock face or crosses the centre line and hits a passenger
     vehicle coming the other way. It is not suggested that this is a common scenario in B.C.
     However, the results of these bivariate analyses suggest that it is more common in B.C.
     than in other regions.


     It should be recognized that there is no available exposure to risk data (i.e., distance
     traveled) so it was not possible to determine whether some of the regional differences
     reflect differences in demographics (e.g., age of driver), geography (e.g., more
     mountains which result in more roads with gradients and curves), climate (e.g., more
     snow and rain and hence poorer road conditions), and road infrastructure (e.g.,
     undivided highways, unpaved roads).


     2.6 Logistic Regression Analyses
     Based on the bivariate analyses presented above, logistic regression analyses were
     conducted on the fatal and injury collisions to determine which of the differences
     between B.C. and other regions in collision characteristics are statistically significant.
     The dependent variable was B.C. versus the other regions and the independent or
     predictor variables were the characteristics of the collisions which the bivariate analyses
     had indicated were different among the regions. Initially, the regression analyses were
     conducted separately for fatal and injury collisions. However, given that the results were
     very similar, the final regression analyses combined fatal and injury collisions. Given the
     bivariate analyses showed that there were differences between single-vehicle and
     multiple-vehicle collisions, regression analyses were conducted separately for these
     collision configurations. The models were simplified by taking out predictor variables
     which were not significant and the final results of the regression analysis for single-
     vehicle collisions are shown in Table 2.3.




18
Table 2.3: Logistic Regression on Single Vehicle Collisions
-----------------------------------------------------------
 Predictors        | Odds Ratio   Std. Err.      z    P>|z|
-------------+---------------------------------------------
Off-road vs others | 40.03159     4.577245    32.27   0.000
Divided/undivided |    1.582718    .1671276    4.35   0.000
Unpaved road       |   0.3340352   .0471553   -7.77   0.000
Poor road condition|   1.60985     .1680656    4.56   0.000
Gradient/curved    |   3.578612    .3737091   12.21   0.000
Speed              |   2.022406    .2115834    6.73   0.000
Fatigue            |   2.012055    .3416       4.12   0.000
Inattention        |   1.969931    .2254983    5.92   0.000
Truck driver 41+   |   1.34142     .12188      3.23   0.001
-----------------------------------------------------------

B.C. truck drivers involved in fatal and non-fatal injury single-vehicle crashes were more
likely to be speeding, fatigued, inattentive, and aged 41 and over compared to other
regions. In addition, these single-vehicle collisions were more likely to have a run-off-the-
road configuration and occur on undivided roads, roads with poor surface conditions
(i.e., wet, snow covered, icy, etc.), and roads where there was a curve and a gradient.
This model accounted for 44% of the variance in the difference between B.C. and the
other regions.


Table 2.4: Logistic Regression on Multiple Vehicle Collisions

-----------------------------------------------------------
 Predictors          Odds Ratio   Std. Err.      z    P>|z|
-----------+-----------------------------------------------
 Head-on vs run off |   .1259978   .0172631 -15.12    0.000
 Rear-end vs run off|   .0632089   .0085158 -20.50    0.000
 Poor road condition| 1.371982     .0625494    6.94   0.000
 Gradient/curve     | 3.900005     .2524568   21.02   0.000
 Inattention        | 2.853598     .1720498   17.39   0.000
 Impairment         | 2.724633     .5457562    5.00   0.000

The results for multiple-vehicle collisions show that collisions in B.C. were more likely to
have a run-off-the-road or head-on configuration rather than rear-end compared to other
regions. In addition, the B.C. collisions were more likely to have been on roads in poor
condition and they were more likely to have been on curved roads with a gradient. The
truck drivers in B.C. were more likely to have been considered to be inattentive or
impaired by alcohol or drugs compared to drivers from other regions. This regression
model accounted for 11% of the variance in the difference between B.C. and the other
regions.


                                                                                               19
     The results of these regression analyses indicate statistically significant differences in
     the characteristics of the collisions between B.C. and other regions but given the large
     number of collisions in the database (i.e., 60,000+), a significant relationship does not
     necessarily mean that it is a meaningful one. Therefore, it was decided to consider only
     those significant predictors from the regression analyses where the differences between
     B.C. and other regions were five or more percentage points as being a meaningful
     difference. Based on this decision rule, compared to other regions, B.C. single-vehicle
     collisions were more likely to involve a run-off-road configuration, undivided roads, poor
     road conditions, roads that were curved with a gradient, and truck drivers who were
     speeding, fatigued, or inattentive. Compared to other regions, B.C. multiple-vehicle
     collisions, were more likely to involve a head-on or run-off-the-road configuration, poor
     road conditions, curved roads with a gradient, and truck drivers who were inattentive or
     impaired.


     Again, it should be emphasized that the analyses reflect differences between B.C. and
     other regions on these collisions characteristics. They do not necessarily mean that
     these characteristics were common to collisions involving heavy trucks in B.C.


     2.7 Driver At-Fault Analyses
     2.7.1 Method for at-fault analyses. The 2000-2006 TRAID collision data for B.C. and
     other regions were analyzed using multi-vehicle collisions (i.e., two or more) to
     determine whether the driver of the heavy truck or the drivers of the other vehicles were
     deemed at-fault by the police for the collision. An induced exposure technique was used
     in order to determine responsibility for a collision (DeYoung, Peck and Helander, 1997).
     If a Human Condition or a Human Action was noted by the police in their collision report,
     implying some responsibility on the part of the driver, then that driver was considered to
     be at-fault. Specifically, fault was assessed if the police collision reports indicated that 1)
     the Human Condition was one of the following: inattention, fatigue, fell asleep, drinking,
     impaired by alcohol, presence of illicit drugs or 2) any of Human Actions (e.g., speeding,
     impairment, etc.) were checked except pedestrian error. If both drivers were considered
     at-fault, these collisions were not included in the analyses since it was not possible to
     distinguish truck driver fault from the fault of the other driver.




20
An involvement rate (IR) was calculated for heavy truck drivers and for the drivers of the
other vehicles by dividing the percent considered at-fault by the percent not at-fault for
each. Then the relative involvement rate (RIR) for heavy truck drivers compared to
drivers of other vehicles was calculated by dividing the involvement rate for heavy truck
drivers by that for the drivers of other vehicles. Ratios greater than 1.0 indicate that the
truck drivers were more likely to have been considered to be at-fault than the drivers of
the other vehicles.


2.7.2 Results of at-fault analyses. The results for 2000-2006 multi-vehicle casualty
collisions (i.e., fatal or injury), which are presented in Table 2.5, show that for Canada as
a whole, 26.6% of the truck drivers and 26.2% of the other drivers were considered to be
at-fault. The involvement rates (IR) for truck drivers and other drivers were 0.36
(26.6/73.4) and 0.36 (26.2/73.8), resulting in a relative involvement rate (RIR) of 1.00
(0.36/0.36). In B.C., the driver of the other vehicle was responsible 40.9% of the time
and the driver of the truck was considered responsible 35.3% of the time, yielding an
RIR of 0.78 (35.3/64.7//40.9/51.1=.54/.69=0.78). The comparable numbers for other
regions are 28.5% for truck and 28.6% for passenger drivers for the Western region,
22.2% and 23.7% for Central Canada, and 38.3% and 35.8% for Atlantic Canada.
Overall, these results indicate that where fault is attributed to one driver in multi-vehicle
casualty collisions based on human condition or action, the driver of the heavy truck is
at-fault equally as often as the driver of the other vehicle, although this was somewhat
less common in B.C.


Table 2.5: Drivers At-Fault in Casualty Collisions (Fatal and Injury) by Region

Region         Truck          Other          Truck Driver      Other Driver       Relative
               Driver At-     Driver At-     Involvement       Involvement        Involvement
               Fault (%)      Fault (%)      Rate (TIR)        Rate (OIR)         Rate (RIR)
B.C.             35.3          40.9             0.54              0.69              0.78
Western          28.6          28.5             0.40              0.40              1.00
Central          23.7          22.2             0.31              0.29              1.07
Atlantic         35.8          38.3             0.56              0.62              0.90
Canada           26.6          26.2             0.36              0.36              1.00

The analyses were repeated separately for fatal and injury collisions. The results for fatal
collisions, which are summarized in Table 2.6, indicate that the driver of the other vehicle
was much more likely to have been considered at-fault for fatal collisions than the truck



                                                                                                21
     driver, regardless of region. For all fatal collisions in Canada, the relative at-fault
     involvement rate is 0.22 indicating the driver of the other vehicle was much more likely to
     have been at-fault in fatal collisions than the truck driver. The relative involvement rate
     for B.C. is 0.17 denoting that truck driver at-fault fatal collisions were slightly more likely
     than in the Western and Atlantic regions but less likely than in the Central region.


     Table 2.6: Drivers At-Fault in Fatal Collisions by Region
     Region         Truck           Other          Truck Driver       Other Driver      Relative
                    Driver At-      Driver At-     Involvement        Involvement       Involvement
                    Fault (%)       Fault (%)      Rate (TIR)         Rate (OIR)        Rate (RIR)
     B.C.             18.9           57.0             0.23               1.33             0.17
     Western          14.8           56.9             0.17               1.30             0.13
     Central          10.0           26.6             0.11               0.36             0.31
     Atlantic         12.2           58.9             0.14               1.43             0.10
     Canada           12.5           38.8             0.14               0.63             0.22

     The results for injury collisions, which are shown in Table 2.7, indicate that for all of
     Canada, the truck driver was slightly more likely to be considered at-fault than the driver
     of the other vehicle (RIR=1.12). The truck driver was considered slightly more at-fault
     for injury collisions in all regions except in B.C. where it was the other driver who was
     slightly more likely to be at-fault (RIR=0.86).


     Table 2.7: Drivers At-Fault in Injury Collisions by Region

     Region         Truck          Other          Truck Driver      Other Driver       Relative
                    Driver At-     Driver At-     Involvement       Involvement        Involvement
                    Fault (%)      Fault (%)      Rate (TIR)        Rate (OIR)         Rate (RIR)
     B.C.             36.6          39.8             0.57              0.66              0.86
     Western          29.4          26.8             0.42              0.37              1.14
     Central          24.4          22.0             0.32              0.28              1.14
     Atlantic         37.5          36.8             0.60              0.58              1.03
     Canada           27.4          25.5             0.38              0.34              1.12

     In a separate analysis, B.C. traffic charges were analyzed using the Traffic Accident
     System for the period 2000-2006 to determine whether the truck driver or the driver of
     the other vehicle(s) was charged either under the Criminal Code or under the B.C.
     Highway Traffic Act as a result of a fatal or injury collision. If more than one driver was
     charged, these collisions were not included. Involvement rates and relative involvement
     rates were calculated as noted above. Charges for other provinces were not available so
     regional comparisons could not be performed.


22
Using traffic violation charges for B.C. for the period 2000-2006, it was found that for all
casualty collisions, 19.1% of truck drivers were charged compared to 17.8% of the
drivers of the other vehicles involved. The involvement rates were 0.24 and 0.22
respectively, yielding a relative risk rate of 1.09, indicating that truck drivers were slightly
more likely to be charged.


For fatal collisions, 4.6% of truck drivers were charged as a result of fatal multi-vehicle
collisions compared to 1.0% of the drivers of other vehicles yielding a relative
involvement rate of 5.0 (i.e., truck driver more likely to be charged). However, the
absolute number of charges for fatal collisions was very small for both groups (truck
drivers=18, other drivers= 4) so the RIR for fatal collisions may not be very reliable. For
injury collisions, 20.1% of truck drivers were charged compared to 18.9% of the drivers
of other vehicles yielding a relative involvement rate of 1.09 indicating that the truck
driver was slightly more likely to have been charged than the other driver.


2.7.3 Discussion of results of at-fault analyses. Overall, the at-fault analyses indicate
that for Canada as a whole, truck drivers were equally likely to be considered at-fault for
casualty collisions as the other drivers involved. However, the results depended on the
severity of the collision. Fatal collisions were much more likely to be considered the fault
of the other driver while for injury collisions, the truck driver was slightly more likely to be
at-fault. Compared to other regions, the truck drivers in B.C. were less likely to be at-
fault than the other driver, particularly for injury collisions. The results based on charges
show that the truck drivers were slightly more likely to be considered at-fault.


The U.S. Large Truck Crash Causation Study (FMCSA, 2006), which was based on in-
depth investigations, found that for serious collisions involving one truck and one
passenger vehicle, 44% had a critical reason for the crash assigned to the truck or truck
driver, while 56% had a critical reason assigned to the other vehicle or driver. The vast
majority of these reasons (about 90%) were related to driver factors (e.g., recognition
errors, decision errors, performance errors, and non-performance) and only about 10%
were assigned to vehicle factors.


Dingus et al. (2005) examined critical events (i.e., hard braking, severe steering)
involving large trucks and light vehicles in a naturalistic observation study. They found



                                                                                                   23
     that car drivers were identified at-fault for 56% of the events, while truck drivers were
     only considered at fault for 32% of the events. Hanowski et al. (2007) using a similar
     methodology found that 78% of critical incidents were initiated by drivers of light vehicles
     and only 22% by truck drivers and the vast majority of the reasons were driver related.
     Council et al. (2003), however, found that truck drivers were assigned fault in 48% of
     crashes of all severity occurring in North Carolina from 1994-1997, compared to 40% for
     car drivers. The results of these earlier in-depth investigations and naturalistic studies
     are similar to those found in the current study where the at-fault involvement rate for
     truck drivers was not that different from the rate for passenger car drivers.


     2.8 Alcohol Involvement
     TIRF maintains a fatality database which includes the results of blood tests conducted
     by coroners and medical examiners on most (80%+) fatally injured drivers. This
     database was analyzed for the years 2000-2006 for the drivers of heavy trucks and the
     results are presented in Table 2.8. For all of Canada, about 11% of heavy truck drivers
     had been drinking prior to the collision. In B.C., it was found that 7.2% of the fatally
     injured truck drivers had a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) greater than .01 compared
     to 14.7% in the Western, 9.4% in Central, and 15.8% in Atlantic regions. It was found
     that for BAC’s of .05 and higher, the rates were 4.8% in B.C., 13.9% in the Western
     region, 4.7% in the Central region, 5.3% in the Atlantic region, and 7.7% for all of
     Canada. Considering the legal limit in the Criminal Code (i.e., over .08), the rates were
     2.4% for B.C., 13.1% in the Western region, 4.7% in the Central region, 5.3% in the
     Atlantic region, and 5.5% for all of Canada.


     Overall, the involvement of alcohol at any BAC level in truck driver fatalities appears to
     be lower in B.C. than in other regions. However, the testing rate for alcohol was
     somewhat lower in B.C. (74.1%) than in other regions (testing rate ranged from 81.3% to
     89.0%). Since it is more likely that fatally injured drivers with positive BAC’s were tested,
     the percentages for B.C. may actually be over-estimating the involvement of alcohol
     which further suggests relatively low involvement of alcohol in truck driver fatalities. It is
     noteworthy that 37% of all fatally injured drivers had positive BAC’s in 2006 in Canada.




24
Table 2.8 BAC’s of Fatally Injured Drivers of Heavy Trucks: Canada 2000-2006

                   Drivers   Drivers                     BAC Categories
Region              Killed   Tested    zero     1 thru 49 50 thru 80 81 thru 160   >160
British Columbia    112        83        77        2           2          0          2
                             (74.1)    (92.8)    (2.4)       (2.4)      (0.0)      (2.4)
Western             146       130       111        1           1          4          13
                             (89.0)    (85.4)    (0.8)       (0.8)      (3.1)      (10.0)
Ontario/Quebec      209       170       154        8           0          2          6
                             (81.3)    (90.6)    (4.7)       (0.0)      (1.2)      (3.5)
Atlantic             23        19        16        2           0          0          1
                             (82.6)    (84.2)    (10.5)      (0.0)      (0.0)      (5.3)

Total               490       402       358       13           3          6         22
                             (82.0)    (89.1)    (3.2)       (0.7)      (1.5)      (5.5)



TIRF has also been using a surrogate measure to estimate the involvement of alcohol in
collisions. A “surrogate” or “indirect” measure is used to estimate alcohol involvement
because drivers in injury crashes are seldom tested for alcohol. A driver is identified as
having been involved in an alcohol-related injury crash if the crash in which someone
was injured involved a single vehicle, at night (SVN), or if, in the case of a non-SVN
injury crash, the police reported alcohol involvement – i.e., they noted that at least one
drinking driver was involved in the crash. This surrogate measure was used to estimate
alcohol involvement in heavy truck collisions of varying injury severity (i.e., fatal, serious
injury, all injuries) for B.C. and the other regions. However, this measure does not
indicate whether the truck driver or the driver of the other vehicle had been drinking.


For the years 2000-2006 combined, alcohol was involved in 21.9% of B.C. fatal crashes
compared to 25.4% in the Western region, 13.4% in the Central region and 17.3% in the
Atlantic region. For 2005-2006, alcohol was involved in 16.8% of B.C. serious injury
crashes compared to 16.9% in the Western region, 10.6% in Central, and 16.5% in
Atlantic. Considering all injury collisions from 2000-2006, alcohol was involved in 12.4%
of cases, compared to 10.3% in the Western region, 5.9% in the Central region and
8.3% in the Atlantic region. Depending on the severity of the collision, the alcohol
involvement rate in B.C. was either first or second among all the regions.




                                                                                                 25
         Table 2.9: Alcohol-Related Fatal Crashes Involving Heavy
              Trucks Based on Surrogate Measure of Alcohol
                     Involvement*: Canada, 2000-2006

                                                        Region
                                           BC      Western Central     Atlantic

          Alcohol Involvement               98       221      225        31
                                          (21.9)    (25.4)   (13.4)    (17.3)


          Total Crashes                 447          871      1675       179
                                      (100.0)      (100.0)   (100.0)   (100.0)


     *    based on criteria set by TIRF




     Table 2.10: Alcohol-Related Serious Injury Crashes Involving
        Heavy Trucks Based on Surrogate Measure of Alcohol
                   Involvement*: Canada, 2005-2006

                                                        Region
                                           BC      Western Central     Atlantic

          Alcohol Involvement               46       153      107        16
                                          (16.8)    (16.9)   (10.6)    (16.5)


          Total Crashes                 273          906      1012       97
                                      (100.0)      (100.0)   (100.0)   (100.0)


     *    based on criteria set by TIRF




26
  Table 2.11: Alcohol-Related Injury Crashes Involving Heavy
        Trucks Based on Surrogate Measure of Alcohol
               Involvement*: Canada, 2000-2006

                                                   Region
                                      BC      Western Central     Atlantic

     Alcohol Involvement              816       1589     1917       217
                                     (12.4)    (10.3)    (5.9)     (8.3)


     Total Crashes                 6595        15452     32536     2605
                                  (100.0)     (100.0)   (100.0)   (100.0)


     based on criteria set by TIRF
 *


Overall, the relative involvement of alcohol in heavy truck collisions depends on the
measure used. If coroner data for fatally injured drivers is used, involvement is generally
lower in B.C. than in other regions regardless of the BAC level but if the surrogate
measure is used, then B.C. ranks a close second behind the Western region. Given that
the coroner data provides an actual measure of BAC for truck drivers, this measure is
likely more reliable, at least for fatalities. In addition, the involvement of alcohol using
either the coroner data or the surrogate measure is generally higher than what was
observed in the analyses of the characteristics of collisions described earlier. This is
likely due to the difficulty the police have in determining whether a driver had been
drinking prior to a collision. Furthermore, the surrogate measure of alcohol involvement
does not indicate which driver had been drinking.


2.9 Fatigue Involvement
Fatigue is a major concern in the motor carrier industry given tight delivery schedules.
The initial bivariate analyses of the collision data suggested that driver fatigue was more
likely to have been a contributing factor for B.C. truck drivers involved in fatal crashes,
particularly for single-vehicle collisions, although the percentage was rather small (7%).
Since it is difficult for investigating police officers to determine whether fatigue played a
role in a collision, particularly a single-vehicle collision where the truck driver is killed,
another approach was adopted to investigate the role of fatigue.



                                                                                                 27
     The Canadian Council of Motor Transport Administrators’ Strategy to Reduce Impaired
     Driving has developed a model which allows for the estimation of fatigue involvement by
     a process of elimination. If the collision did not involve mechanical defects, road
     conditions other than dry pavement, alcohol or other drugs, speeding, medical condition,
     turning left or right, angle or sideswipe, or hitting an animal or pedestrians, then it is
     inferred that fatigue was likely a contributing factor.


     An analysis of the fatal and injury collision data was conducted, excluding Alberta and
     Quebec since these provinces do not report some of the variables needed for the
     estimate. Table 2.4 shows that for fatal collisions, fatigue was somewhat less common in
     B.C. (20.6%) than in other regions (23.6- 30.2%). Table 2.5 indicates that for injury
     collisions, the estimate for fatigue for B.C. (23.1%) was similar to the Western and
     Atlantic regions but lower than that for the Central region. Separating the data into
     single-vehicle versus multiple-vehicle collisions did not make much difference to these
     results.


     The involvement of fatigue in these collisions involving heavy trucks is based on a
     surrogate measure which may not represent the true level of fatigue. However, it does
     permit a comparison across regions. Moreover, the estimate indicates only whether
     fatigue may have been involved for either driver, not necessarily the truck driver. These
     estimates are higher than those observed in the analyses of the Human Condition factor
     noted earlier, likely due to the difficulty that the police have in detecting fatigue.




28
      Table 2.12: Fatigue-Related Fatal Crashes Involving Heavy
     Trucks Based on Sum of Operational Definition* Plus Police-
           Reported Fatigue Crashes**: Canada, 2000-2006

                                                        Region
                                          BC      Prairies¹ Central²   Atlantic

      Operational Definition              70         61        184        38
                                        (14.9)     (18.7)     (20.8)    (21.2)

      Police-Reported (Not                27         23        25         16
      Captured by Operational
      Definition)                        (5.7)      (7.0)     (2.8)      (8.9)


      Combination of Two Indicators       97         84        209        54
                                        (20.6)     (25.7)     (23.6)    (30.2)


      Total Crashes                       470       327        884        179
                                        (100.0)   (100.0)    (100.0)    (100.0)


      based on criteria set by CCMTA Subgroup on Fatigue
*     Definition

**    based on TRAID data with crashes where driver is identified as 'fatigued'
      or 'fell asleep' but was not captured by operational definition

 ¹    excluding Alberta

 ²    excluding Quebec




                                                                                  29
           Table 2.13: Fatigue-Related Injury Crashes Involving Heavy
           Trucks Based on Sum of Operational Definition* Plus Police-
                 Reported Fatigue Crashes**: Canada, 2000-2006

                                                              Region
                                                BC      Prairies¹ Central²     Atlantic

            Operational Definition             1391        1214      10118       598
                                              (19.7)      (19.9)     (29.1)     (22.5)

            Police-Reported (Not               234         124        316         76
            Captured by Operational
            Definition)                        (3.3)      (2.0)       (0.9)      (2.9)


            Combination of Two
            Indicators                         1625        1338      10434       674
                                              (23.1)      (21.9)     (30.0)     (25.4)


            Total Crashes                      7048       6114       34739       2656
                                              (100.0)    (100.0)    (100.0)     (100.0)


      *     based on criteria set by CCMTA Subgroup on Fatigue Definition

      **    based on TRAID data with crashes where driver is identified as
            'fatigued' or 'fell asleep' but was not captured by operational definition

       ¹    excluding Alberta

       ²    excluding Quebec



     2.10 Summary of Key Factors in Casualty Collisions Involving
     Heavy Trucks
     Based on the analyses of the collision characteristics, single-vehicle collisions in B.C.
     were more likely than those in other regions to involve a run-off-road configuration,
     undivided roads, poor road conditions, a road curved with gradient, and truck drivers
     who were speeding, fatigued, or inattentive. Multiple-vehicle collisions in B.C. were more
     likely to involve a collision configuration that was head-on or run-off-the-road, poor road
     conditions, a curved road with gradient, and truck drivers who were inattentive or
     impaired. The at-fault analyses indicated that for all regions, the driver of the heavy truck
     was somewhat less likely to be at-fault than the driver of the other vehicle, although it
     depended on the severity of the collision. Alcohol involvement varied from about 7% to



30
22% in B.C. and was generally higher in B.C. and the Western region than in the other
regions, although this depended on the measure used for alcohol involvement and the
severity of the collision. The estimate of fatigue involvement in B.C. varied from 21% to
23% of collisions, depending on whether the collision was a fatal or injury and this
involvement rate was either lowest or second lowest among all the regions. However, it
should be emphasized that the surrogate measures of alcohol and fatigue involvement
did not distinguish between whether the truck driver or the driver of the other vehicle had
been drinking or was fatigued.




                                                                                              31
                                            3.0 Current Truck
                                             Safety Activities
In order to identify current activities and best practices with respect to heavy truck fleet
safety, several approaches were adopted: review of the literature, review of program
information on websites or relevant organizations, discussion with key informants, and a
survey of governmental organizations’ current activities to increase trucking safety. The
activities in B.C., the rest of Canada and other leading countries are reviewed below, as
are the activities of some private sector companies who have fleets and international
organizations.


3.1 British Columbia
3.1.1 Governmental organizations. WorkSafeBC, a provincial agency responsible for
promoting workplace health and safety, developed the TruckSafe Strategy in 2006 with
its B.C. partners (e.g., B.C. Trucking Association, Insurance Corporation of B.C., B.C.
Ministry of Transportation, B.C. Safety Council). The strategy’s vision is “Safe drivers,
trucks, loads, and roads for the people and drivers of British Columbia” and its mission is
“To reduce or eliminate serious injuries and deaths related to trucking incidents by
improving the safety of the driver, truck, load and the road”. The goals of the strategy are
to:
      >   partner with key agencies, organizations and companies on TruckSafe initiatives;
      >   improve the health and safety of the truck driver;
      >   improve the level of safety in the trucking industry
      >   improve the safety of roads and road users; and
      >   improve the safety of trucks and loads.


Under each of these goals, a number of objectives are being pursued by WorkSafeBC in
collaboration with their lead partners. For example, the Trucking Safety Council of B.C.
was created in collaboration with the B.C. Trucking Association. The B.C. Forest Safety
Council was also established as a part of the TruckSafe strategy in collaboration with the
forestry industry in B.C.




                                                                                               33
     WorkSafeBC conducts research such as a 2005 survey of fatigue among truck drivers
     conducted at truck stops in B.C. This survey showed that 75% of drivers reported that
     they had experienced at least one driver error as a result of fatigue while driving a truck
     in the previous month. In response to the findings of this research, an awareness and
     education campaign on fatigue targeted at truck drivers was developed by WorkSafeBC.


     As part of TruckSafe, the RCMP has been conducting road checks on rural roads in B.C.
     While a truck driver is pulled over by the RCMP as a result of a Highway Traffic Act
     offence, an officer from the B.C. Commercial Vehicle Safety and Enforcement Branch
     inspects the vehicle and the driver for violations of the commercial vehicle and driver
     regulations. WorkSafeBC is also working with the RCMP on the Inform Program
     whereby all truck driver violations recorded by the police are passed on to the driver’s
     employer for their information and action.


     WorkSafeBC is conducting pilot projects in northern B.C. to encourage resource
     companies to operate their vehicles on resource roads more safely to avoid incidents on
     these roads. To assist in the improvement of these operations, WorkSafeBC has
     developed an extensive set of Resource Road Safety Practices which are available on
     their website. They have also created videos on issues such as safe log hauling, put
     information about trucking safety on YouTube, and created a primer for owner-operators
     regarding truck driver health and safety. WorkSafeBC also attends truck driver
     exhibitions and rodeos to raise awareness regarding truck safety.


     Insurance Corporation of British Columbia’s Driver Risk Premium, beginning in 2009,
     applies to all drivers, including heavy truck drivers, who have traffic convictions (e.g.,
     excessive speed, running red lights), roadside suspensions, and Criminal Code
     convictions. For example, convicted impaired drivers have to pay $905 per year extra for
     three years for insurance premiums. It is expected that these higher premiums will serve
     as an incentive to avoid further traffic convictions.


     ICBC has also recently issued a revised Fleet Safety Manual which provides fleet safety
     managers with information regarding the creation of management safety policy, driver
     screening and selection, driver development (i.e., rules regarding speeding, alcohol and
     drug use, following too closely, leaving space cushion around vehicle, passing safely),


34
creating driver records, driver responsibilities, vehicle maintenance, collision/incident
prevention meetings, and collision investigations.


The Truck Compliance Advisory Panel was formed in 2008 by the B.C Minister of
Transportation and Infrastructure to promote continuous improvement in trucking safety.
It was comprised of senior representatives from the ministry, the B.C. Trucking
Association and the Teamsters Union. The Panel examined out of service (OOS) rates,
safety inspection and enforcement practices in B.C. and other jurisdictions across North
America. Findings show that OOS rates in B.C. conform closely to national values. At
times, higher rates have been reported, although the differences are generally related to
focused enforcement campaigns, where inspections are conducted only on those
vehicles exhibiting conditions that inspectors feel should be examined more closely. The
Panel acknowledged that there was a very small percentage of non-conforming
commercial vehicles operating on British Columbia’s highways. However, efforts will
continue to be made by the province to increase compliance and improve safety. To that
end, the Panel examined current data and experiences from other jurisdictions and
recommended that B.C. consider four different strategies:
   >   Premium Carrier Program – to provide incentives for carriers to follow best
       practices and therefore prevent conditions that would lead to vehicles being
       placed OOS; these programs can either be based on the National Safety Code
       (NSC) carrier profiles (creating a higher threshold category of “excellent” in
       addition to the satisfactory, conditional, and unsatisfactory categories) or can be
       a separate voluntary program that requires carriers to demonstrate they have
       safety programs and practices that exceed NSC requirements;
   >   Shipper Liability – to provide deterrents to shipper actions that can lead to
       increased OOS rates but which are largely outside the control of carriers and
       operators;
   >   Strengthened Roadside Enforcement – to remove unacceptable vehicles from
       the traffic stream providing a powerful deterrent to carriers and operators through
       added expense, disruption of operations and public exposure; and,
   >   Enhancements to the Commercial Vehicle Inspection Program (CVIP) – to
       improve timeliness and effectiveness of inspection, follow-up and audit
       processes resulting in better detection and correction of defects and providing
       incentives for carriers to take preventive action by making it more likely that
       offenders will be caught and sanctioned.


In 2008, the B.C. Commercial Vehicle Safety and Enforcement Branch conducted
about 28,000 vehicle inspections, with an out-of-service rate of 22%.




                                                                                             35
     Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) recognized that in order to meet the targets
     of Road Safety Vision 2010, Canada’s national road safety program, a tool was needed
     to encourage traffic officers to align service delivery with the fatal and serious injury
     crash problem. The Traffic Services Management Information Tool (TSMIT) was
     developed and tested by the RCMP in B.C. as a means to enable the police to do that.
     In 2004, TSMIT was selected by RCMP’s National Traffic Services as the means to
     effectively manage and analyze traffic data. The newer version of TSMIT is being piloted
     in Saskatchewan and Manitoba and is based on ground information systems (GIS)
     technology that requires mapping software and Global Positioning System (GPS) units.


     The implementation of TSMIT enables users to:
        >   identify the high injury and fatality areas in their district and their associated
            target groups;
        >   acquire and analyze the crash record data (What, Where, When and Why the
            crashes are taking place);
        >   focus towards building of partnerships, education and enforcement in problem
            solving;
        >   create accountability and facilitate problem solving to concentrate on the root
            causes of the crash problem based on factual data; and,
        >   provide short and long term analysis of the responses to given problems, to
            measure success and failure.


     TSMIT could be used by the RCMP throughout B.C. to identify those highway corridors
     where serious collisions involving heavy trucks are over-represented and manage the
     allocation of enforcement resources and monitor impacts of the police activity.


     3.1.2 Industry organizations. British Columbia Trucking Association (BCTA) is a
     province-wide non-profit motor carrier association formed solely to advance the interests
     of B.C motor carriers. Founded in 1913, BCTA members include for-hire and private
     carriers hauling manufactured goods, heavy specialized commodities, bulk products,
     household goods and general freight. BCTA also represents bus, courier, ready-mixed
     concrete and waste management companies and suppliers to the industry. Its members
     operate about 14,000 vehicles and employ about 26,000 people in the province.


     Through its website and other media, BCTA makes known the industry’s position on
     safety-related issues such as hours of service for drivers, improved driver record


36
information (e.g., creation of a national commercial driver licensing information system),
driver sanction programs for those who violate regulations, improved standards for driver
training and licensing, more severe sanctions for carriers whose vehicles have defects, a
load securement standard, and improved enforcement of the National Safety Code
(NSC). BCTA also offers courses on such topics as the NSC program, transportation of
dangerous goods and workplace alcohol and drug training for supervisors. It also does
advocacy work on behalf the industry such as posting an article on their website
regarding the safety record of the motor carrier industry.


A study was conducted for the BCTA and its partners by Mayhew (2007) examining the
current commercial vehicle licensing standards in B.C. and elsewhere. The priority
recommendations of this study were that BCTA:
   >   encourage B.C. to conduct an independent review and assessment/evaluation of
       their commercial vehicle driver licensing standards and testing procedures to
       determine the extent to which they are adequately preparing novices to drive
       safely;
   >   consider advocating a commercial probationary licence which requires earlier
       driver improvement actions and certification of a certain number of driving hours
       during the probationary period;
   >   advocate that minimum licensing ages be retained for a full licence to operate a
       heavy truck;
   >   advocate that learner requirements should include a minimum holding period of
       several months and/or a certain number of certified practice hours.


Trucking Safety Council of British Columbia (TSCBC) was established by the BCTA
in 2008 and is funded by WorkSafeBC to serve the occupational health and safety needs
of the trucking industry. The TSCBC is in the process of creating a business plan. In
April 2009, WorkSafeBC approved the TSCBC’s application to implement a safety
certificate of recognition (COR) program for companies in WorkSafeBC’s General
Trucking and Moving & Storage classification units. A COR program is a major
component of WorkSafeBC’s voluntary Partners in Injury and Disability Prevention
Program, which offers incentives to employers who implement health and safety
management systems in their workplaces to reduce injuries and to help injured workers
to return to work safely. Employers who join the Partners Program agree to work with a
Certifying Partner – in this case, the TSCBC – to implement a safety management




                                                                                             37
     system and meet a set of audit standards to earn a COR. In return, certified employers
     earn rebates of up to 15 percent off their WorkSafeBC premiums.


     British Columbia Forest Safety Council (BCFSC) was established in 2004 as a not-
     for-profit society dedicated to promoting forest safety in the province. It includes all of the
     major forestry organizations and is funded by the forest industry through a percentage of
     forest companies’ Workers Compensation Board remittances. The BCFSC focuses on
     promoting cultural change within the forest industry to ensure that safety is treated as an
     over-riding priority and a shared responsibility by management, to promote a safety
     conscious legal regime in which laws, regulations and compliance programs encourage
     and support safety, and to develop a competent and confident workforce where workers
     are trained and certified and encouraged to work safely. The BCFSC works in
     partnership with other agencies including RoadHealth, ICBC, and WorkSafeBC.


     While the BCFSC addresses all aspects of safety within in the forest industry, motor
     vehicle collisions involving logging trucks are a major cause of deaths and injuries of
     workers in this sector. A 2005 report by BCFSC described the magnitude and nature of
     the problem of logging truck collisions in B.C. This report notes that just over 50% of
     logging truck collisions occur in B.C.’s North Central Region and that the worst months
     occur from November to March when the logging activity is most prevalent. Half of
     logging truck collisions occurred on resource roads while the other half are on the
     highway. Half of the collisions were single logging trucks and about half of those were on
     resource roads where the responsibility is under the Ministry of Forests and not the
     Ministry of Highways. The primary contributors to the collisions were poor driver
     judgement (36%) and poor road conditions (23%). Common driver problems included
     alcohol use, speeding, distraction (e.g., cell phones, eating), following too closely and
     fatigue, particularly since logging truck drivers often operate long hours in the bush.


     The BCFSC has an action plan called “On the Road to Safety” which addresses:
        >   responsibility and accountability by management (e.g., developing a culture of
            safety which advocates personal responsibility and decision making, encouraging
            regulatory bodies to sort out jurisdictional gaps, dealing with substance abuse);
        >   increasing enforcement and compliance both on and off-road;
        >   education and communication (e.g., have meetings at which truck drivers learn
            more about regulations, their responsibilities, best practices; make presentations


38
       at conferences about road safety; provide information on SAFE companies; issue
       a newsletter called “Rumblings” every two weeks; produce radio ads on sharing
       the road; provide information on safety on their website; provide an information
       clearing house; provide information on driving during the winter; provide a
       Forestry Safety Hotline which allows members of the public to report unsafe
       driving by logging truckers);
   >   improving roads and maintenance (e.g., deal with greater use of public roads by
       logging trucks due to changes in the industry regarding increased processing of
       timber; improve resource road standards; discuss road maintenance and forest
       traffic with municipal leaders and First Nation communities located on resource
       roads);
   >   vehicles and technology (e.g., benefits of GPS tracking systems, appropriate in-
       vehicle radio use);
   >   mobilizing stakeholders (e.g., hold trucking safety meetings in communities;
       facilitate working groups on sharing the road with other industries); and
   >   addressing driver health issues (e.g., fatigue, substance use, fitness, driver
       training needs).


A commercial radio campaign that reached 1.1 million listeners across the province with
road safety messages was conducted by the BCFSC using funding from private
enterprise, the Wildlife-Vehicle Crash Avoidance program, radio networks, and
government ministries, such as Ministry of Labour, Ministry of Transport and Ministry of
Forests. The messages which ranged from safe driving and weather tips, to information
on crashes and high-risk situations were transmitted to promote the sharing of the road
with heavy trucks.


The BCFSC has also identified good industry practices on their website which they say
have been evaluated and found to be effective. They also highlight the top ten rules of
the road for operating trucks on resource roads in BC which are particularly oriented
toward good communication among vehicle operators on resource roads. An audit of
5,000 companies, including owner/operators, is being conducted to determine what
safety programs have been introduced.


Over the first three years that the BCFSC has been in existence, the BCFSC claims that
forestry-related driving deaths have declined by 80%.




                                                                                           39
     3.1.3 Non-Governmental organizations. Fraser Canyon Traffic Safety Committee
     was formed in 1997 as a result of a high rate of collisions involving trucks on the
     TransCanada Highway (#1) from Cache Creek to Hope B.C. and the desire to remedy
     the situation. A three-E approach (i.e., engineering, education, enforcement) was
     adopted to address the safety problem in this corridor. Research had suggested that
     aggressive driving, including speeding, was a common factor in these truck-related
     collisions and as a result, the Fraser Canyon Watch program was established in 2000
     so that people could record and report aggressive driving behaviour to the police. A
     special 1-888 number was established so that people could stop at a local business
     along the corridor and phone in their information. The local RCMP detachment
     conducted enforcement focused on speed and aggressive driving by truck drivers and
     the B.C. Commercial Vehicle Safety and Enforcement Branch performed more
     commercial vehicle safety checks. The Ministry of Transportation changed advisory
     speed signs and carried out road improvements along the corridor, including shoulder
     rumble strips, roadside delineation, and roadside barricades. Commercial vehicle fatal
     crashes were down 79%, injury crashes down 27%, and PDO’s down 19% after the
     enforcement campaign was implemented. The intent of these initiatives was to make the
     Fraser Canyon the first truck safety corridor in Canada and make it a model for other
     B.C. corridors.


     3.2 Other Canadian Jurisdictions and Organizations
     3.2.1 Governmental organizations. Transport Canada’s (TC) Road Safety
     Directorate has a Motor Carrier Division which develops policies, regulations, and
     programs and conducts research to improve the safety of interprovincial motor carriers
     operating on Canadian roads. This division has recently conducted research in
     collaboration with the Canadian Council of Motor Transport Administrators (CCMTA) on
     speed limiters and electronic on-board recorders for heavy vehicles and on fatigue
     management programs. In 2007, TC introduced new hours of service regulations (a
     maximum of 13 hours of driving plus 1 hour for loading/unloading within each 24 hour
     period) under the authority of the Motor Vehicle Transport Act for interprovincial carrier
     operations. TC worked with provinces and territories through CCMTA to develop a new
     carrier safety rating system, intended to assist shippers identify safer motor carrier
     operations, which is being implemented at the provincial/territorial level. TC currently
     provides funding to the provinces/territories to conduct motor carrier enforcement in


40
order to increase compliance with the motor carrier regulations. These jurisdictions,
which are responsible for intra-jurisdictional motor carrier operations, conduct
enforcement for both intra-provincial and interprovincial carrier operations.


Transport Canada’s Transportation Development Centre (TDC) has developed the
North American Fatigue Management Program to provide Canadian and American
motor carriers and their drivers with information and tools to enhance their current
fatigue management practices. The program provides a framework for driver training and
education on fatigue management, work and rest practices, and on sleep disorder
screening and treatment. It aims to enhance the existing safety culture within the
industry, reduce fatigue-related incidents, and decrease personal and economic costs of
fatigue-related incidents to drivers, companies, workers' compensation programs, and
insurance companies (TDC, 2005).

A pilot study was recently conducted for the TDC to implement a comprehensive FMP
protocol on carriers in Quebec, California and Alberta to assess its impacts on a wide
range of driver measures (sleep-wake log, mood/fatigue assessment, workload
assessment, critical incidents, factors contributing to fatigue, Psychomotor Vigilance
Test) as well as on corporate measures (crashes, violations, absent days, total driving
time, total waiting time during duty, total rest time, distances traveled, panic brake,
excessive speed, workers’ compensation data, black box data, insurance claims and
sleep apnea claims).

TDC and the U.S. Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) have joined
efforts in a scientific examination of napping strategies for commercial vehicle drivers.
The objective of the overall project is to develop scientifically sound napping guidelines
that reflect the needs of the motor carrier industry. In a comprehensive research
program on the issue, Transport Canada and the FMCSA have completed a detailed
review of existing napping protocols and practices within and outside the motor carrier
industry. This has included a review of different factors in the recovery of fatigue such as
irregular shifts, night driving, daytime sleeping, periods of recovery (during the week and
weekends), and the differences among drivers when recovering from fatigue.


Alberta Infrastructure and Transportation (AT) released the report “Saving Lives on
Alberta’s roads” in June 2004 which detailed recommendations for a comprehensive


                                                                                               41
     approach to road safety, with links among education, awareness, enforcement,
     engineering, legislation and standards, and social policy areas. In response to these
     recommendations, AT is implementing its’ Road Safety Action Plan throughout the
     province. This action plan has adopted the Road Safety Vision 2010 target for
     commercial vehicles, seeking a reduction of 20% in fatalities and injuries by 2010. Some
     of the activities in the plan include:


     National Safety Rating System
         >   Continue to monitor all NSC (National Safety Code) carriers for compliance
             application with safety laws;
         >   Continue to review, at least monthly, each carrier’s history for convictions,
             Commercial Vehicle Safety Alliance (CVSA) inspections and collisions; and
         >   Continue to provide training to all certified CVSA inspectors in Alberta through
             Lethbridge College.


     Hours of Service Regime
         >   Continue to enforce the new Federal Commercial Vehicle Drivers Hours of
             Service Regulation based the national implementation strategy; and
         >   Implement Alberta’s provincial regulations.

     NSC Threshold
         >   Continue to harmonize and enforce Alberta’s NSC truck weight threshold
             (11,794kg.) ; and
         >   Continue to press for the national threshold to be raised to 11,794kg.

     Trip Inspection
         >   Continue to monitor the current legislation and review and recommend new
             regulations that require inspections to be documented and records to be
             maintained by carriers.

     Education/Community Mobilization/Marketing
         >   Continue educating carriers, drivers and enforcement personnel on new
             legislation; and
         >   Continue to educate and train industry and enforcement personnel on the new
             federal Commercial Vehicle Driver’s Hours of Service Regulations that came into
             effect on January 1, 2007.




42
AT also provides a Professional Driver designation on the driver’s licence of those
drivers who take the Professional Driver Certificate course at Red Deer Community
College. Drivers take a voluntary, one year apprenticeship program that includes six
weeks of classroom training, six weeks on-board training and the rest of the year they
drive under professional mentoring. This program provides drivers with skills in driving,
cargo securement, fatigue management, dangerous goods management, vehicle
maintenance, and safe vehicle operation in all types of terrain and weather. Graduating
students are often hired by their mentoring carriers and the carrier gets a reduction in
their insurance premiums for these drivers with a Professional Driver designation.


AT also has a trusted carrier program called Partners in Compliance (PIC) which
establishes benchmarks and best practices for member carriers and requires reporting
and auditing to ensure carriers are meeting the program safety requirements. Member
carriers are provided with government benefits such as free driver abstract searches and
administrative permits, inspection station bypass using transponders, and a rating of
“excellent” as their motor carrier safety rating, to partially cover the costs of meeting the
requirements. PIC is delivered jointly by AT and the Alberta Motor Transport Association.


In Alberta, legislation has been in place since the early 1980s that apportions liability to
shippers for contraventions of transportation regulations. While few charges have been
laid, this measure is seen as a tool which, coupled with education, has improved
compliance.


Alberta has a policy regarding the use of long combination vehicles (LCV’s) which
permits the operation of Rocky Mountain Doubles, Turnpike Doubles, and Triple Trailers
on specific routes within the provincial road system, typically 4-lane highways or high
standard 2-lane highways (about 20% of roads). A study by Woodrooffe et al. (2004)
determined that these vehicles had collision rates per distance traveled for the years
1995-1998 which were 13-20% of the rate for regular tractor-trailers. Woodrooffe et al.
attributed this lower collision rate to the fact that Alberta places restrictions on who can
drive these LCV’s (i.e., drivers must have Class1 licence, passed recognized air brake
course/have endorsement, have minimum of 24 month or 150,000 kms of experience
driving articulated vehicles, passed medical exam, taken Professional Driver
Improvement Course in last 2 years, passed Canadian Trucking Alliance’s Longer



                                                                                                43
     Combination Vehicles Driver Training Course, been instructed on regulations/permit
     conditions related to LCV’s, and have relatively few traffic violations in last 36 months),
     where and when they can be driven (e.g. mostly non-urban roads and off-peak hours),
     and not in inclement weather. As a result of these restrictions, the potential risk
     associated with the operation of LCV’s is managed and collision involvement is low.


     AT has also made modifications to the road infrastructure over the past three years.
     Modern roundabout guidelines have been adopted at intersections with significant
     turning volumes in lower speed environments where the collision record is poor. These
     roundabouts enhance safety by slowing down the speed of all entering traffic and
     eliminating "head-on" conflicts. Wide medians have been constructed especially on
     routes to allow large trucks to take refuge in the median while crossing the highway and
     thereby enhance safety at these intersections. The use of high tension cable barrier
     systems has been introduced to provide greater protection for large trucks against
     running off the road than conventional systems do. They have been tested and approved
     for 8,000 kgs truck collisions. Durable pavement markings have been used in high traffic
     locations to provide better visibility year round but particularly during "wet night"
     conditions. A plan has been adopted to provide rest areas on highways based on
     spacing criteria and washrooms have been added to many rest areas that did not have
     them in the past in order to increase their usage and effectiveness in reducing fatigue.


     Saskatchewan Government Insurance’s (SGI) website provides information on
     commercial vehicles such as carrier profiles, its compliance review program, the
     National Safety Code (NSC) certificate of safety fitness, and NSC facility audits. SGI is
     working with the Saskatchewan Trucking Association to develop an educational
     campaign on driver fatigue. Saskatchewan has legislation similar to Alberta’s, limiting
     over-weight and over-dimensional loads. The driver retains responsibility for the vehicle
     but the shipper can also be found liable for loading infractions.


     Manitoba Public Insurance (MPI) has created a Professional Driver Manual which can
     be downloaded from its website. This manual addresses: classes of licence, medical
     standards, testing, safe vehicle operation (e.g., driving while impaired, braking, visibility,
     following distances, driving in adverse weather conditions) as well as information about
     skids, turning, reversing, loading, pre-trip inspections, including checking tires. MPI also


44
offers the Entry Level Professional Truck Driver Training Program which provides driver
training and financial support to qualified candidates who want to work in the Manitoba
trucking industry. Recognizing the difficultly of getting new drivers into the trucking
industry, this program provides 100% tuition funding to qualified candidates and
supports the training efforts of participating trucking companies. Since drivers who want
an air brake endorsement on their licence must pass an MPI test, an Air Brake Manual is
also provided on the MPI website.


Manitoba has broad provisions which hold shippers liable for transportation offences, for
a range of contraventions of the Highway Traffic Act or regulations. A shipper may be
liable for offences for which a carrier or driver may be liable, regardless of whether or not
the carrier or driver has been prosecuted. Although few charges have been laid, the risk
of potential charges appears to have led to improved compliance.


Ministry of Transportation of Ontario (MTO) amended Regulation 340/94 of the
Highway Traffic Act (HTA) of Ontario, effective June 16, 2008, prohibiting those drivers,
who passed a Class A road test using a smaller and less complex vehicle, from
subsequently driving larger, more complicated tractor-trailers. This new restrictive Class
A licence condition prohibits drivers from operating (a) a motor vehicle pulling double
trailers; and (b) a motor vehicle pulling a trailer with air-brakes. To qualify for a full
priviledge Class A licence, drivers must pass a road test using a vehicle configuration
having a manual transmission, a fifth wheel coupling, a single trailer having an overall
length of at least 45 feet; and a full air brake system on both the truck and trailer.


Although driver training is not mandated, those schools that offer training over 40 hours
or $1000 in cost must abide by the curriculum standards for drivers as set out by the
Ontario Ministry of Training, Colleges and Universities.


MTO has started using the Tall Wall concrete barrier, a high performance median barrier
which is highly effective in reducing median crossover collisions not only for passenger
vehicles but also for large tractor trailer combination vehicles. It has been installed on
Hwy 401 throughout the Greater Tortonto Area and continues to be constructed in the
median of Highway 401 in West Region in the Chatham area and in East Region in the
Kingston area. Shoulder rumble strips, which are warning devices intended to reduce



                                                                                                45
     run-off-road collisions for cars and trucks, continue to be installed on provincial
     highways. They provide audible (noise) and tactile (vibration) cues to alert the driver of a
     vehicle departing the highway to steer back onto the travelled portion of the highway.
     Shoulder rumble strips are primarily intended to be installed on rural highways where
     drivers may become inattentive or fall asleep while driving. Many bridge barrier walls in
     Ontario have also been upgraded to meet the U.S. crash criteria standards.


     MTO has introduced a requirement effective January 1, 2009 such that all heavy trucks
     driven in Ontario have to be fitted with electronic speed limiters which cap their speed at
     105 kph. An educational campaign is being conducted during the first six months of the
     implementation so that carriers can set the speed on their vehicles during the normal
     course of maintenance.


     MTO is considering the requirement of electronic on-board recording devices on heavy
     vehicles. MTO has also provided information on its website to passenger vehicle drivers
     about how to drive around large trucks as part of its Share the Road campaign.


     MTO’s Commercial Vehicle Safety and Enforcement Branch, inspects heavy vehicles
     and their drivers for compliance with the regulations. Ontario has provisions that hold
     shippers accountable for transportation related offences and is contemplating changes
     to broaden the scope of the regulations to include audits and investigations. In
     2007/2008, the Ministry of Transportation conducted over 104,000 inspections on
     commercial vehicles. Of those inspections, approximately 40,000 inspections were
     CVSA level 1 and 2 inspections. The out-of-service rate for Level 1 and 2 inspections
     conducted in 2007/2008 was 35%. Commercial vehicles that are found to have “critical
     defects” are impounded for a minimum of 15 days. A “critical defect” is defined
     specifically by regulation under the Ontario Highway Traffic Act and pertains to air
     brakes, hydraulic brakes, steering, wheels, rims, tires, suspension and frame
     components. Annually, Ontario also participates in RoadCheck, a North American
     initiative to determine the effectiveness of its inspection programs. The primary focus of
     special initiatives may be to target areas of low enforcement exposure or to target
     specific compliance issues such as seat belt usage, dangerous goods, weights and
     dimensions, vehicle fitness or driver behaviour.




46
Ontario Workplace Safety and Insurance Board set up its Road Safety Think Tank in
October 2004, which consists of the ministries of Transportation and Labour, as well as
the Insurance Bureau of Canada, and the Transportation Health and Safety Association
of Ontario (THSAO). This Think Tank is focusing on social marketing, education,
legislation, enforcement, and infrastructure interventions to improve work-related vehicle
collisions. Although not specifically focused on heavy vehicles, it is addressing issues
such as driver distraction, fatigue and aggression. The THSAO has a website on which it
posts information for truck drivers in order to help them maintain their personal safety
while driving and loading/unloading vehicles. The THSAO also provides worksheets on
its website to assist fleet safety managers in identifying driving hazards, conducting risk
analyses and risk management check-ups.


Societe d’assurance automobile du Quebec (SAAQ) provides the Prospective Heavy
Vehicle Driver manual on its website for drivers who want to obtain a licence to operate
a heavy truck (Class 1 or 3) and provides manuals on hours of service, vehicle
inspection and driving a heavy vehicle on their website. SAAQ recently changed the
length of the learner's license according to previous licence class obtained, years of
expericnce and age of the driver.


SAAQ has a division called the Controle Routier Agence which enforces the motor
carrier regulations in the province, including the new provincial hours of service
regulation and provides information brochures on its website for drivers regarding
Criminal Code offences (e.g., impaired driving), load weight, load securement, the
mechanical condition of the vehicle, and the transportation of dangerous goods. A safety
rating system for drivers similar to the system in place for owners and operators is in
preparation and is scheduled to be fully implemented by 2010. Quebec has also
introduced a requirement for speed limiters (105kph) on heavy vehicles similar to that of
Ontario. It became effective January, 2009 with an educational effort being conducted
during the first six months.


Quebec has made modifications to roadways to improve the safety of heavy vehicles
such as on La Grande Côte road in the town of Les Éboulements in Charlevoix, the site
of a major bus crash in the late 1990’s. The grade of the hill is being reduced to12% and
the profile and geometry of the road are being modified.



                                                                                              47
     Quebec also has established a government-industry advisory committee on vehicle
     safety, which has produced a report proposing various measures to improve road safety
     with respect to the circulation and operation of heavy vehicles in Quebec.


     Nova Scotia’s Workers’ Compensation Board (NSWCB) is partnering with the Nova
     Scotia Trucking Safety Association (NSTSA) to issue a Certificate of Recognition to
     good performing carriers in the province’s trucking industry. WCB Nova Scotia and the
     NSTSA now jointly sign these Certificates of Recognition. The NSTSA facilitates the
     delivery of quality, effective training programs to ensure a safe working environment and
     a skilled workforce in the trucking industry, in compliance with industry and government
     regulation. Over the past 8 years, WCB claim rates have been reduced by 40% in the
     forestry sector.


     New Brunswick Department of Transportation (NBDOT) has a website on which the
     newsletter “Copy That” can be found. This newsletter provides information to motor
     carriers about changes to the NSC, road closures, spring weight restrictions, and so
     forth. While the website also provides information regarding regulatory issues related to
     commercial vehicles, it does not appear to have information specific to trucking safety.
     NBDOT recently announced that it is going to require speed limiters on heavy trucks.


     Prince Edward Island Department of Transportation and Public Works amended its
     driver licence regulation in April 2007 such that an individual could not apply for a Class
     1, 2, or 3 licence until they had exited the Graduated Driver Licence Program. It is also
     considering computerized testing that employs a computer terminal and random
     question selection from a bank of questions. Road infrastructure improvements have
     been made including paved shoulders, turning lanes, increased passing lanes, and
     roundabouts, all of which will facilitate safer transportation of trucks. PEI has also
     participated in the Commercial Vehicle Safety Alliance’s (CVSA) Operation Air Brake
     and Operation Safe Driver campaigns and uses radar speed equipped patrol vehicles for
     commercial vehicle enforcement.


     Newfoundland and Labrador Department of Government Services has an approved
     truck driver training curriculum for the province, although it does not require training. It


48
conducted 1,350 vehicle inspections in 2008 of which 18% failed. It has also participated
in the CVSA Operation Air Brake and Road Check programs.


3.2.2 Industry organizations. Canadian Trucking Alliance (CTA) is a federation of
seven provincial and regional trucking associations, including the BCTA, with its head
office in Ottawa. CTA represents a broad cross-section of the trucking industry including
4,500 carriers, owner-operators and industry suppliers. CTA lobbies, both in Canada and
the U.S., on behalf of the entire Canadian trucking industry with support and feedback
from BCTA and the other provincial and regional associations. CTA regularly meets with
key Canadian federal ministers and is in regular contact with political staff, Members of
Parliament and a wide range of federal officials regarding trucking issues. CTA
represents the industry’s viewpoint on national and international policy, regulatory and
legislative issues that affect trucking and works to raise the profile of the trucking
industry. CTA regularly deals with such issues as the development of National Safety
Code Standards, including changes to Canadian and U.S. hours of service,
amendments to the Canada Labour Code Part III, and U.S. customs programs.


Canadian Trucking Human Resource Council’s (CTHRC) mission is to assist the
Canadian trucking industry to recruit, train, and retain the human resources needed to
meet current and long-term requirements. As part of its effort to promote testing and
licensing which meet more stringent, industry acceptable, national standards, the
CTHRC surveyed the jurisdictions to determine the requirements for obtaining a Class
1/A licence which permits the operation of any semi-trailer or truck-trailer combination
(CTHRC, 2008). At that time, only three jurisdictions had dedicated commercial driver
handbooks for Class 1/A drivers providing detailed information about National Safety
Code issues, provincial highway codes, and transportation of dangerous goods; four
jurisdictions had handbooks that provided some information on NSC requirements,
highway codes; and four jurisdictions had no dedicated manual but provided some
information on commercial driver licences in a couple of chapters of their generic drivers’
handbook.


With respect to the competencies for driving the vehicle, all jurisdictions provided
information in their handbook regarding the basic operation of a tractor-trailer
combination, and they conducted theory and practical testing. This was the same for



                                                                                              49
     executing vehicle manoeuvres, adapting driving to operating requirements and
     managing emergency situations. However, few jurisdictions addressed operating a
     tractor bobtail or specialized equipment. Few jurisdictions provided information regarding
     trip planning or tested on this competency or addressed any of the cargo handling
     competencies. While most jurisdictions included knowledge and theory and practical
     assessment on performing pre-trip inspections, few covered other maintenance issues
     (e.g., preventative maintenance, post-trip inspections). A few jurisdictions addressed the
     maintenance of a log book by drivers and the preparation of inspection reports. About
     half of the jurisdictions addressed compliance with laws, regulations, policies and
     standards relating to hours of service, highway safety codes, and weights and
     dimensions, alcohol and drugs, dangerous goods requirements but hardly any covered
     occupational health and safety and the Canada Labour Code requirements. Compared
     to other Canadian jurisdictions, B.C. covered more of the competencies in their
     handbook and conducted more theory and practical testing on these competencies.


     An earlier survey of truck driver training schools determined that most Class 1/A drivers
     had gone to a truck driver training school (CTHRC, 2003). It was concluded that there
     was a need for the standardization of candidate selection, course material and the
     financing of training across the country. There was also considerable variation across
     the country in the percentage of school graduates who passed the licensing tests on
     their first attempt and there was no uniform accreditation approach to deal with truck
     driver training schools.


     CTHRC has also created profiles of people taking Class 1/A driving tests across Canada
     (CTHRC, 2007a) to determine demographic information, training sources, hours spent in
     different types of training (e.g., in-class, in-cab at school, in-cab at work), and barriers to
     training. Only 7% of those taking the test were women. It also created a profile of newly
     hired Class 1/A drivers addressing similar questions as in the other survey, noting
     among other things, that very few (6%) of these drivers were women (CTHRC, 2007b).


     Ontario Trucking Association’s (OTA) Road Knights Team is a group of 10
     professional transport drivers with first class driving records who make presentations on
     how car and truck drivers can safely share the road. The Team's mission is to help make
     roadways safer by encouraging all road users to be partners in safety. During their two-


50
year term of service, the Road Knights participate in media interviews and speaking
engagements in order to help improve road safety and increase awareness of the
economic and social importance of the trucking industry. The Road Knights meet with
the media and community groups such as business clubs, driving schools, community
associations, and community schools with their trucks to introduce young people to the
trucking industry. The Road Knights also meet with truck driving students to emphasize
the importance of safety, professionalism and courtesy.


3.2.3. Non-governmental organizations. Canadian Council of Motor Transport
Administrators (CCMTA) is a non-profit organization comprising representatives of the
provincial, territorial and federal governments of Canada which, through a collective,
consultative process, makes decisions on administration and operational matters dealing
with licensing, registration and control of motor vehicle transportation and highway
safety, including motor carrier safety. It also comprises associate members whose
expertise and opinions are sought in the development of strategies and programs.


Compliance and Regulatory Affairs (CRA) Standing Committee of CCMTA is
concerned with regulatory and compliance activities related to commercial drivers and
vehicles, transportation of dangerous goods and motor carrier operations. Its’ main role
is to encourage the adoption of the National Safety Code (NSC) standards for motor
carrier safety in a uniform manner across the country. The 15 NSC standards address
licensing, training, medical standards, carrier and driver profiles, hours of service,
inspections, cargo securement, safety ratings, and facility audits, among others. In
recent years, CRA has developed new regulations for drivers’ hours of service, which
have been implemented by the federal and most of the provincial/territorial governments,
a motor carrier safety rating system, as well as a North American load securement
standard and a motor vehicle inspection standard, which are also being adopted by
jurisdictions. CRA is currently looking at issues of training and licensing of motor carrier
operators through its’ Commercial Vehicle Driver Licence program.


One of the targets of the CCMTA’s Road Safety Vision (RSV) 2010 program is to reduce
the number of fatalities and serious injuries involving heavy vehicles by 20% by 2010
compared to the baseline period of 1996-2001. The CRA Committee has taken
responsibility for the achievement of this target. One of the activities initiated by CRA to



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     achieve the RSV 2010 target is a current research project being conducted to identify
     human factors related to collisions involving heavy vehicles (Thiffault, 2009).


     Canada Safety Council (CSC) offers the Professional Driver Improvement Course
     which through visual aids and qualified instructors, shows commercial vehicle drivers
     how to avoid dangerous situations. This CSC course addresses the responsibilities of
     professional drivers, basic premises of defensive driving, proper conduct at
     intersections, avoiding head-on collisions while passing, the role of alcohol, drugs,
     fatigue, emotional factors in single-vehicle collisions, and how to avoid collisions while
     backing up.


     3.3 United States
     3.3.1 Governmental organizations. Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration
     (FMCSA), within the United States Department of Transport, supported the Large Truck
     Crash Causation Study (LTCCS). Craft (2008), having analyzed the data from this study,
     concluded that “…Commercial Motor Vehicle (CMV) crash causes lay mainly with
     drivers, that Heavy Vehicle (HV) drivers are in better condition to drive than Light Vehicle
     drivers involved in CMV crashes, that recognition and decision errors are central for HV
     drivers and that vehicle issues are clearly secondary”. His results suggest that decision
     errors (e.g., following too closely, illegal manoeuvres, too fast for conditions) and
     recognition errors (e.g., inadequate surveillance, inattention) should be the primary
     targets for interventions.


     In January, 2009, FMCSA announced its’ final rule governing hours of service for
     commercial vehicle drivers. Drivers can only drive a maximum of 11 hours and work a
     total of 14 hours in a 24 hour period and must have 10 consecutive hours off-duty.
     FMCSA has also recently proposed a performance-oriented standard for electronic on-
     board recorders which would assist in determining how long a driver has been behind
     the wheel and standards for mandatory training requirements for commercial vehicle
     drivers on driver medical qualification and drug/alcohol testing, driver hours of service
     rules, driver wellness, and whistleblower protection.


     Federal safety regulations require carriers in the U.S. to test all commercial drivers for
     drugs before employment. Carriers must test for both alcohol and drugs after crashes


52
and if a driver is suspected by a supervisor of using drugs or alcohol while at work.
Random testing requirements specify that carriers must randomly test 10% of their
Commercial Driver Licence operators for alcohol and 50% of their operators for a
specified set of controlled substances each year. A driver with a blood alcohol
concentration (BAC) at or above 0.02% is not permitted to perform safety-sensitive
functions for at least 24 hours. Drivers with BAC’s of 0.04% or above must be evaluated
by a substance abuse professional and undergo additional testing before being allowed
to return to duty. Drivers are tested for marijuana, cocaine, opiates, amphetamines, and
PCP and cutoff levels are specified for determining violations.


The FMCSA issues standards for testing and licensing commercial vehicle drivers but
the testing and licensing functions are administered by the individual states. The
standards require drivers to pass knowledge and skills tests. Operators of certain types
of commercial vehicles (e.g., tank vehicle, double or triple trailer) must pass additional
tests. The states’ tests must be at least as stringent as these federal standards. Other
states, employers, training facilities, governmental departments and agencies, and
private institutions can serve as third-party testers for a state if the tests are the same as
those given by the state and if the examiners meet the same qualifications as state
examiners and other guidelines are met.


The U.S. Secretary of Transportation formed the Commercial Driver’s License Advisory
Committee to study and address current impediments and foreseeable challenges to the
Commercial Driver’s License (CDL) program under the auspices of the FMCSA. The
Committee’s report, issued in December 2008, recommended that FMCSA focus on
existing CDL program fundamentals, provide stakeholders with additional automated
tools, and use technological advances. It also identified two special considerations: fraud
regarding CDL operations and the sanctioning of states by FMCSA for non-compliance
with CDL program standards and practices. A number of recommendations were also
made including increasing and expanding the FMCSA CDL training program,
implementing a nationwide drug and alcohol positive-test reporting system, integrating
medical certification tracking with the CDL, implementing a nationwide proactive
employer notification system to notify employers of CMV operators’ convictions and
licence withdrawals, developing and implementing minimum training and qualification
standards, and simplifying FMCSA regulations.



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     In 1997, FMCSA began a research project to design, develop, and evaluate a model
     truck and bus driver wellness program which led to the development of the Gettin’ in
     Gear (GIG) Program to provide heightened awareness and interest in driver health and
     wellness. The GIG research project included a survey of 448 experienced, mostly long-
     haul drivers, who reported that insufficient family time, lack of exercise, personal body
     weight, poor diet, sleep loss, and fatigue were their priority health and wellness
     concerns. Very few trucking companies have wellness programs so a core wellness
     program was prepared for the FMCSA. The GIG project recruited CMV drivers and other
     industry personnel to participate directly in the development of the program.


     In a pilot test of the program’s educational and motivational materials on basic health
     and fitness, information was distributed to employees in the truck and bus industries.
     The GIG Program had a positive health impact on the participants, both initially and in
     the follow-up. This impact was shown in both lifestyle habits (e.g., exercising, resting,
     eating balanced meals) and in physical lifestyle data (e.g., Body Mass Index, pulse,
     diastolic blood pressure, aerobic, strength, and fitness levels).


     From this core GIG wellness program, FMCSA subsequently developed a train-the-
     trainer course entitled Gettin’-in-Gear: Wellness, Health, and Fitness for Commercial
     Drivers. The FMCSA and American Trucking Research Institute offered training to
     members of the trucking industry from October 2002 through the midyear 2005: the GIG
     train-the-trainer class was conducted more than 25 times around the United States and
     more than 500 people attended the GIG health and wellness training courses. Most
     attendees were trucking industry risk-and-safety managers, with some participation by
     health and occupational medicine specialists working in large trucking firms across the
     country.


     FMCSA has launched Comprehensive Safety Analysis (CSA) 2010 in order to expand
     the reach of their compliance program to more carriers and drivers and thereby improve
     their ability to identify motor carrier safety problems earlier. FMCSA has created a new
     Safety Measurement System (SMS) which is a performance based approach to
     determine the level of motor carrier and driver safety based on violations identified
     through roadside inspections. The SMS uses specific Behavior Analysis Safety
     Improvement categories shown to be most closely linked to collisions in the FMCSA’s


54
(2006) Large Truck Collision Causation Study (e.g., unsafe driving, fatigued driving, poor
driver fitness, poor vehicle maintenance) to identify carriers for different levels of
investigations by inspectors. These violations are weighted by their seriousness to
determine which carriers and drivers are most at risk of a crash. Different types of
interventions are then used depending on the severity of the risk (e.g., warning letters,
focused on-site investigations, comprehensive on-site investigations, notices of violation,
out of service orders, etc.).


An operational field test for CSA 2010 is being conducted between February 2008 and
June 2010 by the University of Michigan’s Transportation Research Institute in Colorado,
Georgia, Missouri, and New Jersey. Preliminary results show that four times as many
contacts are being made by inspectors with carriers, about six times as many warning
letters are being sent, almost twice as many investigations are being conducted, most of
which are focused offsite, and twice as many carriers are carrying out corrective actions
to address investigation findings. General carriers are showing 50% reductions in unsafe
driving and deficiency in terms of fatigued driving, and a 30% decrease in deficient
vehicle maintenance. Over an eight month period, there was a drop by two-thirds in the
number of carriers that were deficient in at least one risky behaviour. While this project is
still underway, it holds promise as a way for commercial vehicle regulators to more
efficiently and effectively monitor the safety of motor carrier operations.


FMCSA provides educational and outreach programs to the motor carrier industry.
Educational material targeted for small motor carriers covers the full range of safety
practices that fleet owners can implement to reduce crashes and stresses the high costs
of crash involvement and the benefits of crash prevention. The program does not result
in punitive actions to the carrier.


Ongoing FMCSA research is addressing driver training, fatigue management, driver
health and wellness, driver assistance technologies and enforcement tools, among other
topics.


National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), which is a part of the
Centers for Disease Control, has been interested in studying road crashes involving
employees for a number of years. NIOSH conducts research on the problem, develops



                                                                                                55
     interventions to improve road safety in the workplace, conducts inspections of
     employers’ sites, and provides information to employers and employees about safety in
     the workplace. In February 2009, NIOSH hosted an International Conference on Road
     Safety at Work. Murray (2009) prepared a white paper intended to provide delegates to
     this conference with a global assessment of occupational road safety and to stimulate
     discussion that would lead to a ‘proceedings’ document from the conference. This white
     paper provides a wealth of information about what various countries are currently doing
     to improve workplace road safety, including heavy truck drivers.

     Washington State ran a major trucking safety program on the Interstate-5 in 2005
     focused on drivers of passenger vehicles and trucks who cut in front of heavy trucks
     without leaving sufficient space (Blomberg et al., 2006). The program was called
     Ticketing Aggressive Cars and Trucks (TACT). A multi-agency steering committee was
     created including representatives from the National Highway Traffic Safety
     Administration, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, Federal Highway
     Administration, Washington State Patrol’s Commercial Vehicle Division, Washington
     Association of Sheriffs, Police Chiefs representing local law enforcement, and the
     Washington Trucking Association, among others. The broad representation on this
     committee was cited as one of the critical factors in the success of this program.


     Initial analyses of citation data were used to identify four segments of the I-5 which had
     experienced high levels of citation of drivers who cut in front of trucks. Cutting-in was
     defined as not leaving one car length for every 10mph of speed (e.g., if truck is traveling
     at 60 mph, then the passing vehicle should leave six car lengths in front of the truck).
     Two I-5 road segments were designated as intervention sites and the other two were
     used as control sites.


     The campaign which was conducted in July of 2005 and again in September 2005,
     consisted of awareness and education (i.e., road signs, posters, radio and television
     PSA’s, print ads) and enforcement activity by state and local police. The nature of this
     enforcement was based on an earlier program called STEP and RIDE which placed
     police officers in the cabs of trucks. In the TACT program, a semi-tractor trailer was
     driven back and forth on the road segment with a police officer in the cab who was
     looking for drivers who cut in front of their truck. When a driver did cut in, information



56
describing the driver’s vehicle was radioed ahead to a police officer who would pull the
vehicle over and ticket the driver. In addition, an airplane from the State Police was used
to spot drivers who cut in front of trucks. The aircraft marked vehicles cutting in front of
any heavy trucks and radioed a police officer downstream to intercept the vehicle and
ticket the driver.


In order to evaluate the effectiveness of this campaign, surveys were conducted at State
licensing offices near the intervention and control road segments to obtain information
about awareness of the campaign (i.e., percent who saw the signs and ads, were aware
of the message about leaving room in front of trucks, reported that they had changed
their driving behaviour to leave more room when passing semi-trucks). This survey was
conducted before the campaign, toward the end of the first two-week enforcement
period, a month after this enforcement, and toward the end of the second two-week
enforcement period. In order to measure changes in driver behaviour, drivers were video
taped as they passed heavy trucks by a police officer following the truck in an unmarked
car. The video tapes were analyzed later to see if the drivers had left sufficient room
when they pulled in front of the truck. Five waves of the observational survey were
conducted before, during and after the campaign for both the intervention and the control
road segments.


The licensing office survey showed that drivers were aware of the campaign (e.g., 67%
had seen or heard about the campaign, 40% had seen the road signs, 18% had heard
the radio ads) and reported that they were more likely to leave more space when
passing trucks (i.e., an increase from 16 to 24%) compared to the non-intervention sites
which showed no change. The video data showed that for the intervention road
segments, the number of violations per hour declined from 23-46% from the baseline
measure, depending on the type of analysis performed. There was no change for the
control sites. Based on the ratings of the passing behaviour of drivers, drivers were
considered to be less of a crash risk during and after the campaign than before and
again there was no change for the control sites. This TACT campaign clearly succeeded
in changing the behaviour of drivers around heavy trucks.


There were several key factors which contributed to the program’s success. First, the
multi-agency steering committee resulted in good cooperation amongst police,



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     government agencies and the trucking industry and it provided policing support from the
     local services to the State Police, thereby providing greater visibility of enforcement
     activity. It also sent a strong message to the public that the police were serious about
     addressing aggressive driving. The road sign was also an important component of the
     campaign because it made drivers aware that there are risks associated with not leaving
     enough room in front of trucks. The print, radio and television advertisements were also
     very important in raising the public’s perception about the problem and informing them
     what they could do to protect themselves.


     The project is currently being repeated in Washington State using the control sites from
     the earlier campaign as the intervention sites this time. Also, collision data is being
     analyzed to determine the impact of this follow up program on crashes. Given its
     success in Washington, the TACT program is now being used in other states such as
     Kentucky, Tennessee, Pennsylvania and Ohio, with support from FMCSA.


     The Gray’s Harbor County Sheriff’s Office in Washington State conducted an
     enforcement campaign focused on poorly maintained trucks, drivers who were impaired,
     and speeding drivers. Special police officers were trained to conduct the enforcement
     activity in this rural county. Many of the trucks that were stopped and found to have
     safety problems were logging trucks.


     Oregon created its “Trusted Carrier” program 10 years ago based on Alberta’s PIC
     program. The program is intended to help the Oregon Department of Transportation
     direct its motor carrier enforcement efforts to where they are most needed. Carriers must
     have a transponder and be enrolled in Oregon’s green light program (weigh in motion)
     and they must pass a review of their compliance with registration, tax, and safety
     requirements. In the review of safety records, trusted carriers cannot have an
     unsatisfactory safety rating, their driver and vehicle out-of-service percentage must be at
     or below the national average, and there can be no serious safety violations on record.
     Carriers benefit from being in the Trusted Carrier program through public recognition and
     by exemption from random safety inspection or safety compliance reviews, unless
     warranted. Also, they qualify for a waiver of surety bond requirements.




58
Tennessee Department of Safety has an Alternative Commercial Enforcement
Strategies (ACES) program that provides compliance-related information to fleets in a
non-threatening way. Specially trained officers provide as much information as possible
to help fleets become more proactive in avoiding safety and compliance problems. The
training services provided range from demonstrating vehicle inspection procedures to
reviewing compliance paperwork requirements to training new drivers. Subsequent visits
may be enforcement-oriented but this initial visit is advisory and permits fleet operators
to improve their practices. The ACES program is based on the concept of community-
oriented policing where the “community” is the commercial vehicle industry of the state.


Colorado has a Circuit Rider program where veteran carrier safety managers visit motor
carriers that have requested a consultation. The consultation could include a review of
carrier operations, staffing levels, equipment, driver files, insurance, a review of carrier’s
approach to compliance with key FMCSA regulations, or advice on building a stronger
safety program for their fleet. In addition, the program offers safety workshops for motor
carrier managers, drivers, and dispatchers.


Michigan Truck Safety Commission (MTSC) was created by the Michigan legislature
to improve truck safety by providing Michigan’s trucking industry and its citizens with
effective educational programs and by addressing significant truck safety issues. Its
vision is that all roadway users arrive SAFELY at their destinations. To support the
mission and vision of the MTSC, emphasis areas and strategies to address them were
identified in their strategic plan for 2008-2010:
   >   improve Commercial Motor Vehicle (CMV) driver performance through education
       and enforcement;
   >   reduce fatigue-related crashes;
   >   strengthen CDL programs;
   >   increase knowledge on how CMVs and cars can “share the road” ;
   >   improve maintenance of heavy trucks;
   >   identify and correct unsafe roadway infrastructure and operational
       characteristics;
   >   improve and enhance truck safety data; and,
   >   deploy truck safety initiatives, technologies, and best safety practices.




                                                                                                 59
     The objectives of the MTSC strategic plan based on the above referenced emphasis
     areas, are to:
        >   decrease the number of CMV-involved fatal crashes by 5% per year;
        >   decrease the percentage of CMV-involved fatalities per 100 million
            commercial vehicle miles traveled (CVMT) by 5% per year;
        >   increase the CMV safety belt usage from 74% to 84% by 2010; and,
        >   track the CMV simulator use and determine baseline measures to be able to
            calculate the effectiveness of this training by the end of 2008.


     This is one of the few programs for commercial motor vehicle safety that have actually
     set performance targets.


     Michigan Center for Truck Safety (MCTS) is responsible for the day-to-day operation
     of educational programs sponsored by the Michigan Truck Safety Commission. The
     Center is operated through a grant to the Michigan Trucking Association Educational
     Center, Inc. (MTA) and is housed at the MTA headquarters in Lansing. The MCTS
     provides free and low-cost training and consultation to truck drivers and carrier safety
     managers. Training includes driver coaching, “decision” driving courses (conducted on
     skid pad to teach drivers dynamic safety maneuvers such as pulling out of a jackknife),
     defensive driving, fatigue management, inspection training, load securement, and safety
     manager training.


     3.3.2 Non-governmental organizations. Commercial Vehicle Safety Alliance
     (CVSA) is an international not-for-profit organization comprised of local, state, provincial,
     territorial and federal motor carrier safety officials and industry representatives from the
     United States, Canada, and Mexico. Their mission is to promote commercial motor
     vehicle safety and security by providing leadership to enforcement, industry and policy
     makers.


     The CVSA launched its annual Brake Safety Week, a comprehensive program to
     promote commercial vehicle brake safety across North America in September 2008.
     CVSA-certified inspectors conducted a variety of enforcement and educational activities
     emphasizing the importance of proper commercial vehicle brake inspection,
     maintenance and operation. Drivers received educational material and other information,
     such as the CVSA brochure “Have You Checked Your Brakes Today?,” as well as


60
CVSA’s “Spot Check” brake adjustment indicators that drivers can install to help
measure if their brakes are in proper adjustment. In addition, drivers could tune into a
podcast that had experts answering drivers’ brake safety questions.


In partnership with the FMCSA and state and local police agencies, the CVSA
sponsored Operation Safe Driver in October 2008 across the United States, Canada and
Mexico aimed at increasing commercial vehicle and non-commercial vehicle traffic
enforcement (i.e., safety belt enforcement, driver roadside inspections, driver regulatory
compliance), implementation of commercial driver educational and awareness programs
for the motor carrier population, and raising awareness in the motoring public about safe
operations around commercial motor vehicles.


Network of Employers for Traffic Safety (NETS) provides employers with information
regarding how to improve the safety of their fleets, including heavy truck fleets, and is
the only organization dedicated exclusively to traffic safety in the workplace.
Government and industry leaders created the NETS in 1989 to address both the human
and economic impact of traffic crashes on the nation's workforce and to reduce traffic-
related deaths and injuries by developing safety policies, workplace informational and
training programs, safety campaigns, and corporate community activities. NETS'
programs, resources, and services are designed to reach all employees and their
families, whether an employee drives for work or to and from work. The NETS website
includes studies on the economic costs of traffic collisions to employers, estimated to be
$15 billion per year in the U.S., and guidelines to employers to reduce crashes such as
the following:
   >   implement and enforce mandatory seat belt use policies;
   >   ensure that no worker is assigned to drive on the job if he or she does not have a
       valid driver’s licence which is appropriate for the type of vehicle to be driven;
   >   provide fleet vehicles that offer the highest possible levels of occupant protection
       in the event of a crash;
   >   maintain complete and accurate records of workers’ driving performance, in
       addition to drivers’ license checks for prospective employees, periodic rechecks
       after hiring;
   >   incorporate fatigue management into safety programs;
   >   ensure that workers receive the training necessary to operate specialized motor
       vehicles or equipment;



                                                                                              61
        >   offer periodic screening of vision and general physical health for all workers for
            whom driving is a primary job duty;
        >   avoid requiring workers to drive irregular hours or to extend their workday far
            beyond their normal working hours as a result of driving responsibilities;
        >   establish schedules that allow drivers to obey speed limits and follow applicable
            hours-of-service regulations;
        >   set safety policy in accordance with state graduated driver licensing laws so that
            company operations do not place younger workers in violation of these laws;
            and,
        >   assign driving-related tasks to young drivers in an incremental fashion, beginning
            with limited driving responsibilities and ending with unrestricted assignments.


     Transportation Research Board (TRB), which is part of the National Academy of
     Sciences, has established a Commercial Truck and Bus Safety Synthesis Program to
     summarize and integrate research on truck and bus safety. A number of reports have
     been issued over the past five years. Knipling et al. (2003) looked at effective
     commercial truck and bus safety management techniques by asking fleet safety
     managers and experts in commercial vehicle safety what they thought the most
     important safety problems were and what they thought the most effective measures
     were to address these problems. Fleet managers and experts generally agreed on the
     problems: high-risk driving (e.g., speeding, tailgating), high-risk drivers who engage in a
     variety of high-risk behaviours, driver health and wellness, lifestyle, lack of defensive
     driving skills, delays associated with loading and unloading (resulting in long working
     hours, driver fatigue/drowsiness), and aggressive driving (i.e., “road rage”).


     The following were the most effective safety methods identified by fleet safety managers
     to deal with these problems: regularly scheduled vehicle inspection and maintenance,
     hiring based on criteria related to driver crash, violation, or incident history; continuous
     tracking of drivers’ crashes/ incidents/violations, requiring that new hires meet or exceed
     a minimum number of years of driving experience, crash and incident investigation by
     carrier management, standardized training for all new hires, and within carrier
     management, alignment of operational and safety functions. The methods on which the
     safety experts agreed with the fleet safety managers were: continuous tracking of
     drivers’ crashes/incidents/violations, hiring based on criteria related to driver crash,
     violation, or incident history, and standardized training for all new hires.




62
Knipling et al. (2004) surveyed commercial vehicle fleet safety managers and experts in
commercial vehicle fleet safety regarding high-risk drivers. For both groups of
respondents, about three-quarters believed that the10% of drivers considered highest
risk account for at least 40% of the problems. Two-thirds of both groups felt that the
problem of risky driving was consistent and not transient. There was also a high level of
concordance on the high-risk driver factors (e.g., young and inexperienced, aggressive,
impatient/impulsive, inattentive, being unhappy with the job or family life, sleep
disorders, etc.).


These views are consistent with an earlier instrumented vehicle study of 42 local/short-
haul (LSH) truck drivers who were observed driving a total of 28,000 vehicle miles
(Hanowski et al., 2000). The study identified 249 critical incidents, which were defined as
significant unsafe driver actions or “near-crashes.” Of particular interest was the
observation that the drivers who were considered to be high-risk accounted for 12% of
the hours of driving but 38% of these incidents. Similarly, when looking at drowsy
driving, high-risk drivers accounted for 7% of the driving but 37% of the drowsy driving
episodes.


A review of the literature by Knipling et al. (2004) indicated that future driving
performance in terms of collisions and violations can be predicted by lack of commercial
vehicle driving experience, past driving record (i.e., collisions, violations, exceeding
hours of service, driving while disqualified, inspection violations), problems with sleep
deprivation, sleep apnea, driver fatigue, personality characteristics (e.g., impulsiveness,
sensation seeking, aggressivity, extraversion) and stress created either by job or family
problems.


The fleet managers and safety experts generally agreed that before hiring a driver, there
should be a motor vehicle record search, a test drive, a test for alcohol or drug problems,
and a check of past driving history either through previous employers or through a third
party service. For hired drivers, the two groups agreed with conducting continuous
tracking of crashes, violations, use of on-board electronic monitoring, and periodic
observation of driving. However, fleet safety managers were more likely to prefer tough
measures such as monetary penalties, written reprimands, suspensions, or counseling
by managers while the safety experts favoured monetary rewards, remedial training, and



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     ride-alongs by senior drivers as mentors. Both groups thought that disciplinary measures
     were more effective with high-risk drivers whereas rewards worked better with drivers in
     general.


     Rogers and Knipling (2007) promote a macroergonomic perspective of the motor carrier
     industry in which economic, organisational and regulatory (e.g. dispatch, schedules, pay
     method, HOS) issues are integrated with driver factors (attitudes, motivation,
     behaviours) in a systemic analysis of motor carrier safety. Such a perspective enables a
     comprehensive understanding of this complex system that has significant impacts on
     public health through road crashes. It is also efficient for generating new global
     approaches to safety such as Safety Management Systems, or Behaviour Based Safety,
     two approaches that aim to generate positive changes in safety-related behaviorus by
     modifying the safety culture, both at the organizational and the individual, driver level.


     Rogers and Knipling (2007) also noted that the growing driver shortage due to
     retirements could be addressed by the hiring of more women who only represent about
     5% of drivers in the U.S. In Canada, only 2% of experienced drivers are women but 13%
     of new drivers are women (CTHRC, 2007). Women typically are safer drivers due to
     their lower propensity for risk-taking and collision involvement.


     Bergoffen, et al. (2007) in another TRB synthesis, reviewed a number of studies on
     carrier safety management and summarized the key practices which characterized those
     carriers whose safety performance exceeded the norm as follows:
        >   make a commitment to safety by top management who use comprehensive and
            integrated approach across all aspects of operations;
        >   use driver hiring practices which include in-person applications, screening of
            employment and driving history, minimum driving experience, driving test,
            physical exams, personality tests and personal interviews;
        >   conduct employee training which includes apprenticeship and finishing programs
            for new hires, regular refresher training, regular safety meetings, remedial
            training for problem drivers;
        >   encourage and reinforce safe driver behaviour with incentive programs,
            disciplining of drivers for unsafe driving;
        >   establish fatigue management programs which incorporate fatigue education,
            medical evaluation for sleep problems, and improved scheduling practices to
            maximize opportunity for sleep;



64
   >   create driver wellness training programs for drivers regarding issues like diet,
       exercise, sleep, etc.;
   >   monitor driver performance by doing ride-alongs, using on-board monitoring
       technology to determine compliance, tracking driver collisions and violations,
       tracking overall fleet safety, conducting collision investigations;
   >   introduce employee retention programs to retain drivers who have shown their
       ability to drive safely;
   >   obtain vehicles with latest collision avoidance systems (e.g., lane departure
       warning); and,
   >   emphasize vehicle inspection and maintenance.


Bergoffen et al. (2007) also noted that there are a number of organizations that can
provide third party evaluation and measurement of fleet safety performance including
ISO 9000 certification, the Canadian Standards Association Carrier Safety Management
System, and the Partners in Compliance program in Alberta which establishes
benchmarks and best practices for member carriers and conducts auditing.


3.4 Europe
The European Commission and the International Road Transport Union (IRU, 2007)
conducted a study, entitled: A scientific study: European Truck Accident Causation
(ETAC) that involved a team of experts who investigated 624 truck crashes on the basis
of more than 3000 factors. The methodology included investigations at the crash scene,
analysis of the data and crash reconstruction. The causality factors identified are human
factors: 85.2% (25% of which were caused by the heavy vehicle drivers), vehicle
failures: 5.3%, infrastructure conditions: 5.1% and weather conditions: 4.4%.


Table 3.1 shows that the major role that human factors play in truck crashes as well as
the importance of light vehicle drivers’ behaviors in a significant proportion of these
crashes. The analysis reveals that more than 30% of intersections crashes - regardless
of who is at fault - are caused by violation of intersection rules and non-adapted speed
(i.e., speed over limit, too fast for conditions), that more than 50% of crashes in queue
(i.e., rear end) are caused by non-adapted speed, improper safety distance (i.e.,
tailgating) or inattention, that more than 50% of lane departure crashes are caused by
non-adapted speed, bad maneuvers, loss of road friction, lack of experience and
improper turning maneuver, that 45% of overtaking crashes, when the truck is at fault,



                                                                                            65
     are caused by improper overtaking maneuver, fatigue, non-adapted speed, lack of
     experience and crossing lines. More than 50% of single-truck crashes are caused by
     non-adapted speed, fatigue/asleep and loss of road friction.

     Table 3.1: Causal factors per type of crash for HV and LV drivers from ETAC Study

     Crash                                            Causal factors
     Category       HV driver responsible for         %      LV driver responsible for crash    %
                    crash
     Intersection No respect of intersection rule     20.1    No respect of intersection rule   28.2
                    Non-adapted speed                 13      Non-adapted speed                 10.9
                    Improper manoeuvre when turning   7.8     Lack of driving experience        9.2
     Crash in       Non-adapted speed                 22.1    Non-adapted speed                 28.8
     queue          Insufficient safety distance      16.2    Insufficient safety distance      12
                    Inattention                       12.8    Inattention                       11
     Lane           Non-adapted speed                 19.7    Non-adapted speed                 14.4
     departure      Loss of road friction             13.7    Crossing lines                    9.4
                    Technical failure                 9.1     Loss of road friction             8.5
     Overtaking     Improper overtaking manoeuvre     15.7    Improper overtaking manoeuvre     30
                    Fatigue                           8.8     Non-adapted speed                 22.5
                    Non-adapted speed                 6.7     Lack of driving experience        10
     Single         Non-adapted speed                 20.3
     truck crash    Fatigue/asleep                    18.6                    Not applicable.
                    Loss of road friction             11.9


     Some of the proposed interventions to deal with non-adapted speed include adaptive
     cruise control, speed control system related to the infrastructure, increased police
     enforcement, and better signage regarding speed limits. Those related to intersections
     included ultrasonic guard systems for protection of vulnerable road users, blind spot
     mirrors, better truck driver training, greater enforcement by police, awareness
     campaigns and better trip planning. With respect to improper manouevres when
     changing lanes, the interventions recommended included lane guard controls, stability
     control systems, improved road friction, and greater refresher training for drivers.


     In 2003, the European Union (EU) passed Directive 2003/59/EC (Certificate of
     Professional Competence) on compulsory training for drivers of heavy goods vehicles
     and buses (see Appendix 7). EU member states are expected to pass legislation such
     that these requirements would come into effect in their countries by September 2008 for
     bus drivers and September 2009 for drivers of heavy goods vehicles. These laws would
     require either a compulsory initial training program (of 280 hours or an accelerated 140
     hour program for drivers 21 years of age or older) or a compulsory licensing test


66
composed of an enhanced 4 hour theoretical and 90 minute practical test and case
studies. It also lays down a minimum of 35 hours of training every 5 years for all
professional drivers of these kinds of vehicles.


3.4.1 United Kingdom. United Kingdom (UK) implemented the EU Directive 203/59 in
September, 2008 for buses and is planning to implement it for heavy goods vehicles in
September 2009, opting for the compulsory test option for the initial qualification of
drivers.


The UK has set up a year-round road safety, public awareness campaign called THINK!,
which focuses on child safety, vulnerable road users, drinking and driving, as well as
driving for work. The campaign for employees who drive for work targets distractions
such as cell phone use and reading a map, speeding and driving while tired. The target
audience includes heavy goods vehicle drivers as well as employees who drive
company cars. The campaign is being conducted by radio advertising, online
advertising, variable message signs, posters on vehicles, as well as providing tips for
safe driving at work on their website.


UK Department for Transport in collaboration with the Transport Research Laboratory
has developed policy guidelines on Driving for Work for employers who are legally
responsible for their employees who drive while at work. The following essential
elements have been designed by Norwich Union Insurance to assist companies to meet
this duty of care. These guidelines are:


Management policy
   >   assign a senior manager with specific responsibility for managing driving at work;
   >   incorporate a driving for work policy within existing Health and Safety policy;
   >   routinely undertake, record and act on the findings of risk assessments dealing
       with all aspects of driving at work including driver safety, vehicle safety and
       journey planning; and,
   >   ensure that every incident involving any vehicle driven on behalf of the company
       is recorded and that collective information is regularly analyzed for action to be
       taken to reduce recurrence.




                                                                                            67
     Driver safety
        >   provide a driver’s handbook that includes road safety guidance and sets out
            individual driver responsibilities, in support of the company’s policies and
            procedures (e.g., what to do in the event of an incident); and,
        >   ensure that all employees driving on behalf of the company are initially vetted,
            inducted and regularly assessed, to establish that they are properly licensed,
            competent, suitably trained and medically fit to do so.


     Vehicle safety
        >   ensure that when choosing vehicles to be used on behalf of the company, that
            they are entirely suitable for their intended purpose and that utmost importance is
            placed on safety features; and
        >   ensure that all vehicles used on behalf of the company are regularly inspected
            and strictly maintained using the manufacturer’s recommended service
            schedules (and if applicable, in accordance with operator licence requirements).


     Journey planning
        >   check whether a road journey is really necessary and encourage the use of
            alternative modes of communication/transport where this is practical; and,
        >   ensure that necessary journeys are scheduled to a realistic timetable and are
            planned to take into account the essential need for adequate rest periods.


     UK Department for Transport and the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) in
     collaboration with the Think! Campaign, have published “Driving for Work” which notes
     that road risks should be managed as a health and safety issue. It points out what
     employers’ responsibilities are regarding health and safety in the workplace, provides
     guidance to employers about how to assess transportation related risk in their company,
     and how they can go about reducing it.


     In a survey commissioned by the HSE, Lancaster and Ward (2002) determined that
     about two-thirds of the 680 Scottish companies contacted claimed to have a policy on
     safe driving procedures, mainly in order to reduce costs. Such a policy was more
     common in the transport, communications and utilities sectors (88%). The most common
     procedures adopted were conducting driver training (56%), having a written policy
     statement (41%) on collision prevention practices, and performing driver assessments
     (35%). About a third of the companies with collision prevention policies reported that
     their policy was successful in terms of collisions and insurance claims. Senior



68
management commitment, involvement of employees in procedure development and
risk assessment, and accurate data with which to measure improvement were common
to these successful programs.


The Occupational Road Safety Alliance (ORSA) in the UK brings together employers,
trade unions, local authorities, police forces, safety organizations and professional and
trade associations to promote safety while driving at-work. It believes that employers
should manage at-work road risk within the framework that they should already have in
place for managing all other occupational health and safety risks. ORSA believes that all
employers, large or small, private or public, should seek to develop a systematic
approach to managing occupational road risk that is appropriate to their business, for
example by:
   >   gathering and analyzing key safety and risk data on their vehicles, journeys,
       drivers, crashes, causes and costs;
   >   setting and communicating clear corporate road safety objectives;
   >   ensuring everyone understands their role in achieving them;
   >   introducing targeted safety measures based on suitable risk assessment (backed
       by standards, targets and timescales);
   >   monitoring performance and learning from collisions and incidents; and,
   >   carrying out periodic performance reviews in order to provide lessons learned.


ORSA believes that employers should commit themselves to achieving a cycle of
continuous improvement in road safety performance, ensuring that this approach is
underpinned by a proactive, positive road safety culture led by all senior managers with
full workforce consultation and participation.


3.4.2 Sweden. Sweden’s Vision Zero program focuses on special safety measures for
the most dangerous roads and safer traffic movement in built-up areas, emphasizing
road user responsibility, safer cycling conditions, and compulsory use of studded winter
tires. A number of companies which have truck fleets have installed alcohol ignition
interlock systems in their vehicles in order to prevent their drivers from operating the
vehicles after drinking. Sweden has also developed the 2+1 concept for undivided
highways whereby a cable barrier is installed between opposing lanes of traffic. Passing
lanes are provided periodically for traffic traveling in each direction. This technique has
been very effective in reducing head-on collisions.


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     3.4.3 Non-Governmental organizations. European Transport Training Association
     (EuroTRA) was established in 1990 in order to develop links between the various
     European transport training organizations and to share information about training
     programs, education support and practical training courses. Its’ mission is to serve the
     road transport industry by developing and training human capital. Two of its goals are to
     promote road safety and to increase the access to and quality of vocational training in
     the EU.


     3.5 Australia
     3.5.1 Governmental organizations. Australia has a very active fleet safety program
     involving government, industry, academia, and non-governmental organizations.


     National Transport Commission (NTC) in Australia has a National Heavy Vehicle
     Safety Strategy 2003-2010 which has been approved by the Australian Transport
     Council, the latter being comprised of federal, state and territorial ministers with transport
     responsibilities. The strategy’s vision is “Safe road use for the whole community by
     making a significant improvement in heavy vehicle safety outcomes”. This strategy,
     which complements Australia’s National Road Safety Strategy, lays out a number of
     principles as well:
        >   the road toll should not be accepted as inevitable and increasing heavy vehicle
            activity need not present a barrier to significant reductions in the level of heavy
            vehicle road trauma;
        >   the priority given to road safety should reflect the high value that the community
            places on the preservation of human life;
        >   there is a balance to be struck between furthering many legitimate community
            objectives and increasing exposure to the risk of road trauma, including
            economic and employment benefits associated with greater road freight cartage
            and other vehicle traffic;
        >   policy development must be guided by sound data and research;
        >   safety measures that can be justified in terms of overall community benefits
            should be implemented;
        >   responsibility is shared between the road transport industry and the community
            for reducing the number and severity crashes involving heavy vehicles; and
        >   progressive industry management promotes safety in their transport operations.




70
This National Heavy Vehicle Safety Strategy sets a target of bringing the Australian
heavy vehicle crash rate per 100 million kms travelled as close as possible to best
international practice which currently is 1.7 fatalities per 100 million truck kms travelled.
The Australian rate is 2.5 fatalities per 100 million truck kms travelled. This translates
into a targeted reduction in the fatality rate of about one-third. This program is one of the
few that have set measureable targets for improvement.


The strategic objectives of the National Heavy Vehicle Safety Strategy are the following:
   >   safer roads;
   >   more effective speed management;
   >   reduced driver impairment, particularly fatigued driving;
   >   safer heavy vehicles;
   >   increased seat belt usage by heavy vehicle drivers;
   >   enhanced driver and industry management;
   >   effective enforcement; and,
   >   targeted research and education.


Figure 3.1: Expected Benefits of Australian NTC‘s Strategic Objectives




Of particular interest, the NTC has conducted data modeling to determine where they
were most likely to see the greatest benefits in achieving their strategic objectives, given
the interventions that are available. Figure 3.1 shows that the greatest benefits are
expected from safer roads, better speed management and reduced driver impairment.



                                                                                                71
     In addition to the National Heavy Vehicle Safety Strategy, the NTC also developed three
     year National Heavy Vehicle Safety Action Plans which indicate how the strategic
     objectives would be achieved, what activities have been accomplished during the
     previous period, what progress is being made toward the targets set for these strategic
     objectives, and what activities will be pursued in the next action plan period. The most
     recent action plan for the period 2005-2007 indicated that fatal crashes for articulated
     heavy vehicles had declined by 27% between 2002 and 2004. Some of the actions being
     pursued to address speed involving heavy vehicles include:
        >   improving the effectiveness of speed limiting to enhance the performance of the
            devices and limit opportunities for tampering;
        >   evaluating technology and examine the merits of a coordinated national
            approach to the use of technology to enforce speed limits at both low and high
            violation levels;
        >   reducing speeding through stricter penalties and improved enforcement;
        >   developing and implementing national compliance and enforcement (including
            chain of responsibility) provisions that specifically address speed;
        >   reviewing speed limits for all vehicles urban and rural roads with high crash rates
            to determine whether there is any benefit in changing the speed limit; and,
        >   developing and promoting an evidence-based guide on best practices in
            speed enforcement for all vehicles taking into account evidence that hidden
            speed cameras achieve greater casualty reductions.

     There are also actions for increasing seat belt use by heavy truck drivers including
     improved seat belt design standards, education programs and enhanced police
     enforcement activity. The actions related to impaired driving are primary directed at
     fatigued driving but also address the use of stimulants by truck drivers.


     The NTC also provides a number of publications on its website including Assessing
     Fitness to Driver, Heavy Vehicle Driver Fatigue (Trucks), Driver Licensing, Driving and
     Your Health. These documents are very detailed “how to” manuals intended for fleet
     safety managers as well as for drivers. For example, the Driver Fatigue manual talks
     about the chain of responsibility which includes the employer of a driver, the prime
     contractor of a driver (if different from the employer), the operator of a vehicle, the
     scheduler of goods or passengers for transport by the vehicle and also the scheduler of
     its drivers, both the consignor and consignee of the goods transported by the vehicle,
     and the loading manager who supervises loading or unloading of the vehicle. Under new



72
Australian state laws, everyone in the responsibility chain must take ‘reasonable steps’
to prevent driver fatigue and ensure that a driver does not drive a heavy vehicle while
impaired by fatigue. Carrier managers and customers are held accountable for
dangerous work schedules and long truck queues, which are known to be major causes
of driver fatigue. If poor business practices are found to endanger the lives of other road
users, there are severe penalties for those responsible. Penalties escalate sharply for
offences which pose a serious road safety risk, including court-imposed fines of up to
$50,000.


The NTC’s fatigue manual also describes the legal provisions for hours of service,
providing various options, depending on whether the motor carrier has a fatigue
management program. The standard option is a maximum of 12 hours of work for drivers
in a 24 hour day but with a certified Fatigue Management Program (FMP), the time can
be extended to 14 hours. The FMP gives drivers a greater say in when they can work
and rest provided the risks of working long hours and night shifts are properly managed
by the carrier. The manual also describes signs of fatigue and how drivers can deal with
the situation such as taking short naps before they continue their trip or better still, taking
a nap before they leave on a long trip. This napping approach appears to be particularly
effective for older drivers since as we age, we sleep less at night and therefore feel more
sleepy in the daytime. Also, older drivers are more prone to sleep disorders (e.g., sleep
apnea) which deprive them of the sleep that they really need to feel rested before a long
driving trip. The fatigue manual also provides information on a fatigue risk management
approach for fleet safety managers that includes the identification, assessment, and
control of risk, and monitoring and review.


The NTC, in conjunction with states and territories, developed legislation and
Administrative Guidelines for the National Driver Licensing Scheme to ensure that, as far
as practicable, national road transport reforms are implemented consistently across
varying local conditions and by different administrators. It describes the types of
licences, testing of knowledge, driving ability, medical fitness to drive and provides
information about demerit points and licence suspensions.

3.5.2 Non-governmental organizations. AustRoads (2008) has developed fleet
management best practices which address company and organizational responsibilities



                                                                                              73
     (i.e., who should take responsibility for fleet safety, developing fleet safety policy,
     managing access to vehicles, fleet monitoring and record keeping, and incident
     reporting), driver responsibilities (i.e., pre-drive activities such as fitness to drive,
     impairment, fatigue; driving activities such as belt use, speeding, use of phones and CB
     radios; vehicle safety (i.e., selecting safer vehicles, maintenance, driver management
     (i.e., driver selection by looking at driving record, medical assessment, assessing
     competency; driver education and training; driver monitoring through on-going
     assessment of health, performance, incident reporting), and task management (i.e.,
     hours of service, night work, minimum sleep periods, breaks). These best practices are
     described on their website.


     Centre for Accident Research and Road Safety, Queensland University of
     Technology has conducted research on aberrant driving behaviours among fleet drivers
     in Australia. For example, Freeman et al. (2008) found that while drivers saw drinking
     and driving and following too closely to be unacceptable, they saw speeding as an
     acceptable behaviour, suggesting a culture of speeding. Moreover, there was evidence
     that those more likely to speed were also more likely to commit aggressive violations
     and other risky behaviours. Drivers with lenient attitudes toward speeding were also
     more likely to have accumulated demerit points on their driver record. This research
     suggests that there is a relatively small group of high-risk drivers who are responsible for
     most of the problems.


     Australian College of Road Safety has issued a fleet safety policy which encourages
     employers to purchase safer vehicles (e.g., those scoring higher in crash tests in
     Australian New Car Assessment Program and those with anti-lock brakes, air bags,
     daytime running lights, etc.) and to implement policies regarding vehicle operation (e.g.,
     safe driving culture which means no speeding, use of alcohol, cell phone use while
     driving, driving while fatigued).


     Transport Industry Safety Group, which is comprised of Australian governmental,
     employer and union representatives has issued a Fatigue and Drugs guidebook to raise
     the awareness among heavy vehicle drivers about the risks of driving while impaired by
     drugs (e.g., cannabis, methamphetamine, ecstasy) or while fatigued.




74
3.6 New Zealand
Land Transport New Zealand has issued guidelines to assist employers in selecting
safe vehicles for their fleet and has produced a comprehensive guide to fleet safety
policy. After explaining the economic benefits of having fleet safety policies, this guide
provides the following ‘must haves’ (i.e., the minimum that the policy should be built
around):
   >   choose vehicles with a high safety rating;
   >   maintain them properly;
   >   create safer drivers through training and education;
   >   address driver fatigue, distraction, speed and drink-driving; and,
   >   promote use of safety belts and other safety features.


There are also the following ‘could haves’ which are recommended:
   >   include some focus on fuel efficiency;
   >   use employee incentives for safe driving behaviour;
   >   incorporate safe driving policy into the company health
   >   and safety policy; and,
   >   encourage healthy eating, sleep, work and exercise habits that
       assist safe driving.


These policy elements apply to any fleet whether it is made up of passenger vehicles or
tractor-trailer combinations. The guide provides a number of case studies which show
how these components can be incorporated into fleet safety policies. It provides a
sample fleet safety management policy which addresses a code of conduct,
responsibilities of the drivers and the managers, cell phone use, incentives for collision
free driving, measuring success, among other issues.


3.7 Global Non-Governmental Organizations
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) has created a
working group on Heavy Vehicles: Regulatory, Operational and Productivity
Improvements the purpose of which is “… to respond to community demand for
improved road safety, amenity and environmental outcomes as well as society and
industry needs for increased productivity, in the context of projected demand for freight



                                                                                             75
     transport and the expectation that road transport will continue to carry a major part of
     this demand” (OECD, 2007). The working group is benchmarking the levels of fleet
     safety among member countries, examining the effect of current operational practices
     and procedures related to speed, driver hours, the effects of regulatory measures,
     potential changes to current practices regarding enforcement and compliance methods,
     and identifying possible regulatory, technological and operational improvements. The
     report of this working group is expected to be released by the end of 2009.


     United Nations Road Safety Collaboration, was created by the United Nations
     General Assembly in 2005 to raise public awareness about the growing global road
     safety problem, particularly in low and middle income countries. In collaboration with its
     partners, the World Health Organization, as the leader of the Collaboration, has
     developed a number of “how to” manuals on impaired driving, speeding, helmet use,
     seat belt use, and data systems.


     The WHO has worked with the Fleet Forum and other partners to develop Fleet Safety
     Guidelines to help aid and development organizations reduce, and ultimately eliminate,
     the number of fatal and serious injury road transport incidents by providing guidance on
     how to develop and implement a Fleet Safety Management System. These guidelines
     cover the benefits of having a fleet safety management system, the fleet management
     policy in terms of risk assessment, management, leadership and accountability,
     monitoring and measurement, audit and review, requirements and recommendations for
     driver safety (e.g., driver standards, driver fitness, training and testing, alcohol/drug use,
     cell phone use, fatigue, etc.), vehicle safety (e.g., vehicle selection, maintenance, vehicle
     checks by drivers), planning of trips, and communication with employees. These
     comprehensive guidelines are applicable to any organization whose employees drive as
     part of their work regardless of the type of vehicle that they operate.


     The Fleet Forum also has an on-line fleet safety audit questionnaire which consists of
     ten questions about having a fleet safety policy, conducting risk assessments, driver
     selection and training, driver supervision, monitoring and improvement, vehicle selection
     and employee well being, etc. Fleet safety managers can use this questionnaire to
     assess their safety operations.




76
International Road Transport Union (IRU) based in Geneva, Switzerland, represents
the motor carrier industry worldwide with member associations from 67 countries. The
IRU passed a Road Safety Charter for Transport Operators in 2004 which states that:


“The public authorities at all levels have a responsibility to improve road safety by
cooperating with one another and with all relevant partners, including the road transport
industry, represented by the IRU and its national member associations, to:
   >   identify scientifically, on an internationally harmonized basis, the major causes of
       road collisions so as to concentrate the limited resources available on their
       elimination;
   >   plan and maintain safe road infrastructure appropriate to current and foreseeable
       traffic demand by the various categories of user and, in particular, of buses,
       coaches and trucks through a permanent and preventive dialogue with the IRU
       national member associations; and,
   >   enact and enforce harmonized legislation to ensure that:
                   »   use of the road infrastructure is compatible with the demands both
                       of road safety and of the mobility of persons and goods;
                   »   all categories of road users are trained to share road space
                       responsibly and safely with one another and that the effect of
                       such training is not lost.

   >   appropriate incentives are given to transport operators who apply the IRU Road
       Safety Charter;
   >   the rules on access to the profession require that commercial vehicle operators
       have sufficient competence and adequate financial means to assume their
       responsibilities for transport and safety; and,
   >   the principals in passenger and goods road transport are legally liable for
       demands they make on transport operators which infringe transport legislation. “


The IRU Academy is developing a Certificate of Professional Competence training
program and is promoting the harmonization of driver training standards among its
members through the use of a competency based approach. The IRU Academy also
accredits training programs by ensuring that the training material, teaching methods and
procedures, examinations and testing conform to international best practice.


3.8 Fleet Safety in the Private Sector
Many companies have employees whose work is driving or who must drive in order to
get to where they do their work. Many of these companies have fleet safety programs of


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     one type or another. This section summarizes the experience of several companies
     around the world in order to indicate the kinds of measures that have been implemented
     and where available, the success achieved.


     Bison Transport, based in Winnipeg, operates from Quebec to British Columbia as well
     as in each of the 48 continental U.S. states. Bison was the first trucking company in
     Canada to invest in a computer-based skills development program that incorporates the
     same simulator technology used successfully in the aviation industry and military.
     Bison’s Tatonka program utilizes interactive learning, instructor-led workshops, and full
     motion simulators, giving drivers real-life experiences in driving techniques. This
     experience provides drivers with a clear measure of competency and a better
     understanding of how their actions affect safe vehicle control in every type of situation.
     Tatonka works toward reducing collisions, emissions, equipment maintenance and risk
     management expenses through courses that drivers attend on a regular basis.


     Robert Transport based in Quebec is currently testing a device called the Cognitive
     Resources Available Manager (CRAM), which is able to generate warnings very early in
     the development of fatigue. The CRAM device detects early signs of lowered ability to
     monitor the environment and as such could be a useful tool to address the driver fatigue
     problem. Such a system would enable drivers to act early in the development of fatigue
     and therefore prevent further sliding on the alertness continuum by making use of proper
     countermeasures.


     CEVA Logistics which operates a fleet of 3,000 heavy goods trucks in Europe
     participated in a fleet safety benchmarking pilot in 2005 which permitted the company to
     identify areas for improving its fleet safety performance. It worked with its insurance
     department to relate insurance data to driver performance and gathered more
     information on collisions (e.g., drivers, routes, vehicle types) to identify causes. It ran a
     one-day course on defensive and economical driver training for all its drivers which
     included theory and on-road sessions to assess driver performance and help them
     develop better maneuvering, observation, planning and hazard perception skills. CEVA
     has found a 16% reduction in at-fault collisions among its drivers over a one-year period.




78
Suckling Transport which operates 112 oil/petrol tankers in Europe, participated in a
benchmarking program in 2004 and since that time collects data on crashes and near-
misses by having its drivers complete reports and provide them to their manager. This
company has banned cell phone use while driving which is enforced by the use of an
electronic device which only allows phones to be used when the handbrake is engaged.
Also, managers conduct regular safety sessions on driver fatigue, driving under the
influence of alcohol, illicit drugs and prescription drugs. Regular eyesight and medical
examinations for drivers are being conducted and there is an incentive program whereby
drivers who remain incident-free for a month receive prizes. Driver risk assessments are
conducted online to identify the need for additional training among current drivers as well
as to assess new drivers. Suckling Transport reports that its’ fleet collision rate per
distance traveled has declined by 65% between 2001 and 2006.


Oil companies such as Shell, Exxon and British Petroleum all have major fleet safety
programs which are implemented around the world wherever they have operations. For
example, Shell discovered that about 60% of their employee fatalities were the result of
road collisions. In response, Shell developed a mandatory Shell-wide Road Safety
Standard which requires seat belt use, prohibits cell phone use while driving, allows
driving only when the driver is rested and the driver is not exceeding prescribed hours of
service, requires attendance by professional drivers at defensive driving and fatigue
management courses and requires them to have regular medical assessments of fitness
to drive. Their vehicles are fitted with monitoring and data recording systems, and are
subject to regular maintenance.


More specifically, on Russia’s Sakhalin Island, a project has been conducted by Shell to
reduce the collisions among employees by raising road safety awareness and changing
their behaviour. The focus was on seat belt use, drinking and driving, speeding and
improving poor road conditions. Fatalities were cut from 4 per year to 0 over a two year
period as a result of the interventions. More recently, Shell has worked in partnership
with the local community, police, and government to increase seat belt use on Sakhalin
Island by employees and by local residents. This program resulted in significant
increases in seat belt use.




                                                                                             79
     In New Zealand, Shell’s transport contractor Alexander implemented a Road Transport
     Safety Management program and saw nine months free of “at-fault” crashes, no “at fault”
     incidents during 2005-2008, and 1,150 days free of lost-time injury.


     Nestle Group which operates a fleet of 30,000 vehicles worldwide, established the Keep
     it Safe and Sustainable (KISS) program throughout their company. Driving safety is
     incorporated into their occupational safety and health program, a global road safety
     standard is being formalized, driver safety audits are being conducted, and online driver
     risk assessments, monitoring and improvement implementations have been carried out
     in some countries.


     Nestle Logistics USA has added additional loss prevention measures such as
     improved vehicle safety features, better employee recruitment and induction procedures,
     hazard awareness training, the Very Best Driver Program, creation of a driver ranking
     model based on risk assessment, monitoring and improvement outcomes, and the use
     of on-board electronic warning of hazards and an electronic dispatching system to
     provide real time information and direction to destinations. Reportable incidents were
     found to have decreased by 20% from 2005 to 2006 and collisions dropped by 12%
     since the introduction of this KISS program in the U.S.


     Several companies in the UK have been recognized as having superlative fleet safety
     programs, such as Royal Mail, British Telecom and Wolseley. The latter, a worldwide
     plumbing company, has a PROACTIVE program which includes Policy (do it, rather than
     have it), Risk Audits (preferably by independent third party), Occupational health and
     safety integration, Assess and train managers, Crash analyses and investigations to
     identify targets, Trade off analyses (benefits versus costs), Implementation and change
     management, Very enthusiastic management champion for road safety, and Evaluation
     to see if it is working. Wolseley claims to have cut their vehicle fleet collision rate by half
     in five years as a result of their program.


     British Telecom (BT) has used the Virtual Risk Manager assessment tool developed by
     Interactive Driving Systems (Murray, 2009) to identify high-risk fleet drivers. This high-
     risk group which was 5% of their drivers, accounted for 45% of the collisions. Based on
     the areas of weakness identified among these drivers, specific training is then provided


80
to them. The collision rate at BT declined by 30% over a four year period as a result of
the risk assessment and subsequent training, according to BT.


Scania, which manufacturers heavy trucks in Sweden, promotes road safety by raising
awareness of the importance of road safety among the public, regulators, customers and
drivers, trains drivers and customers, holds bi-annual conferences on safety and the
environment, offers supplementary driver training, and holds the Young European Truck
Driver safety competition.


Johnson and Johnson (J&J), a multinational manufacturer of health care products,
established its SAFE Fleet program ten years ago in order to ensure that the working
conditions of their employees are clean, orderly and safe. The J&J fleet program
includes detailed quantification of the benefits of having an employee road safety
program, the development of global standards, policies, procedures, and processes,
strong involvement by senior management, the establishment of clear safety targets,
communication of collision trends to employees, a system to detect and deal with high-
risk drivers early, recognizes safe driving through awards, shares good practices with
others, and benchmarks their company with other companies. J&J reports that the
number of collisions per million miles traveled worldwide has decreased by about 40%
over the past ten years, the percentage of the fleet involved in collisions has dropped by
36%, and vehicle related lost work cases have dropped by 84%.


Unfortunately, most of the fleet safety programs have not been evaluated or if they have
been, the evaluations have not been conducted by an independent third party.
However, Gregersen et al. (1996) evaluated the effects of various interventions to
improve the safety of drivers for Sweden’s telephone company Televerket. Employees
were randomly assigned to groups which received one of four interventions. One group
was presented a safety campaign on five separate occasions throughout the year which
focused on driving at night, stopping distances, detecting ice on the road, low tire friction
driving in the winter, loading equipment, and vulnerable road users. The second group
was given advance driver training in a skid simulator, the third received a group bonus
for safe driving and the fourth engaged drivers in group discussions about road safety
problems and what they could do to resolve them. A control group of employees did not
receive any intervention. The discussion and advanced driver training groups showed



                                                                                                81
     the greatest reduction in collisions per distance traveled (55% and 40%, respectively)
     over two years, followed by the bonus group (25%). When looking at the cost of
     collisions, again the group discussion intervention was superior (68% reduction),
     followed by the driver training (32%) and the bonus conditions (30%).


     In summary, many large companies with vehicle fleets have implemented a variety of
     fleet management policies and programs focusing on recruitment, training, safety, and
     health. Having reviewed the literature on fleet safety programs, Murray (2009) concludes
     that:
         >   there are many societal, business, legal and financial reasons to focus on
             occupational road safety;
         >   the leading countries in this area are the UK, Australia, New Zealand and the
             U.S.;
         >   there is an increasing consensus that good practice should follow a systems
             based approach (i.e., look at vehicles, road environment, and operators
             together), supported by pilot studies and rigorous evaluations;
         >   appropriate management leadership, policies, programs, procedures, and
             processes must be embedded in organizations;
         >   a holistic multidisciplinary approach is needed which is based on education,
             enforcement, engineering, engagement, enthusiasm, and evaluation;
         >   given that government agencies and NGO’s make up or create a large part of
             employee travel, they should be leading by example through effective auditing,
             risk assessment and management of their own systems, and management of
             vehicles, drivers, and journeys;
         >   relatively few good practices have been formally evaluated.


     Murray (2009) also notes that the recent OECD (2008) report Towards Zero: Ambitious
     Road Safety Targets and the Safe System Approach, which advocates that a safe
     system approach be taken to manage road safety, is an appropriate approach for
     managing fleet safety as well.




82
                                         4.0 Best Practices
                                         in Trucking Safety
Based on analyses of the fatal and injury collisions occurring in British Columbia from
2000-2006 and comparisons to casualty crashes involving heavy trucks in other regions
of Canada, the following key collision characteristics and contributing factors were more
prevalent in British Columbia for either single-vehicle collisions, multiple-vehicle
collisions or both:
    >   driver speeding;
    >   driver inattention;
    >   driver impaired by alcohol or drugs;
    >   driver fatigue;
    >   run-off-road collisions;
    >   head-on collisions;
    >   undivided roads;
    >   curved roads with gradient; and,
    >   poor road surface condition (i.e., wet, snow, ice).


Having reviewed a number of models of fleet safety management, Murray (2009)
proposed an extended version of the two-dimensional Haddon Matrix as an appropriate
framework for good practice in fleet safety management. This model which is
reproduced in Figure 4.1 includes the traditional pre-crash, crash/at scene and post-
crash dimension as well the locus of intervention dimension such as the vehicle,
road/environment and people (drivers and managers) but it also adds other work-related
components on the management culture, the journey, and the various external/societal
factors that can influence collisions (e.g. family related stress).


Within in each of the cells of this matrix, examples of interventions to improve fleet safety
are proposed. Murray argues that managers should start with the Management Culture
column by identifying, obtaining and analyzing data on the extent of the problem, using
this information to make a business case to senior management about the need for a
fleet safety program, and the funding to support it, and then addressing issues like



                                                                                            83
     bench marking with other similar companies, appointing a board level champion,
     exhibiting safety leadership by example, creating a fleet safety committee, among
     others. Companies which have adopted this model include British Telecom and
     Wolseley.


     Figure 4.1: Murray’s Extended Haddon Matrix Framework

      Haddon Matrix Framework                                                             www.virtualriskmanager.net
                Management         Journey         Road/ Site  People -               Vehicle             External/
                Culture                            Environment Drivers and                                Societal/
                                                               Managers                                   Community/
                                                                                                          Brand
      Pre-      Leadership         Travel policy   Risk assess      Recruit           Risk assess         Regulator/policy
      Crash     Business case*     Mode choice     Observation      Contract          Select              engagement
      or Pre-   Legal compliance   Journey         Guidelines       Induct            Specification       CSR
      Drive     Safety audit*      planning        Site layouts     Check qualified   Safety features     Benchmarking
                Benchmarking*      Routing         Work permits     Handbook          Service             Communications
                Pilot studies      Risk            C&D rules        Risk assess       Maintain            Family members
                Goals & policies   assessment      Road design      Train             Check               Community
                Safety culture*    Emergency       Black-spot       Equip             Use policy          Road safety
                Committee          preparation     mapping          Communicate       Mobile comms        weeks/ days
                Pledge             Shifts/         Engage local     Engage            ITS/telematics      Awards
                Communications     working time    road agencies    Monitor           Wear & tear
                Contractors                                         Correct           Grey fleet
      At    Emergency              Engage local Manage              Process to   Crashworthy        Escalation
      Scene support to driver      investigators scene              manage scene ‘ITS’ data capture process
      Post-     Report, record &   Debrief &       Investigate      Reporting and     Strong openable     Manage
      Crash     investigate        review          and improve      investigation     doors               reputation and
                Change process     journeys        Review           Driver debrief    Investigate ‘ITS’   community
                Data linkages,                     site/road        Counselling,      data                learning process
                evaluation &                       elements of      trauma support    Inspection &
                KPIs*                              collision data   Reassess/train    repair


                                       Copyright: Interactive Driving Systems, 2003 - 2009
                                                      All Rights Reserved.




     Based on the identified key characteristics and contributing factors for heavy truck
     collisions in B.C. and the current practices in B.C., the rest of Canada, and other leading
     countries as well as Murray’s model for good practices in fleet safety management, a
     number of best practices are suggested for government, the trucking industry, and police
     services.


     4.1 Government
     Governments are encouraged to adopt the following best practices to address the key
     factors contributing to collisions involving heavy trucks:


     4.1.1 Understanding and managing the situation:
         >      analyze collision data periodically to identify the magnitude and to understand the
                nature of fatal and injury collisions involving heavy vehicles as well as to identify



84
       trends or changes in the problem and the key contributing crash factors (e.g.,
       driver speeding, driver inattention) – a review of the findings from this report
       would provide a starting point for understanding the current situation in British
       Columbia;
   >   establish a provincial multi-stakeholder committee, including relevant government
       and police agencies and the trucking industry, to review the heavy truck collision
       situation in the province;
   >   based on this review, establish a provincial strategy for heavy truck safety,
       building on the TruckSafe strategy and adopting a safe system approach which
       addresses vehicles, road infrastructure, drivers and carrier management;
   >   develop specific action plans to implement the strategy and provide sufficient
       funding and staff to support the implementation of proven interventions; and,
   >   establish a measurable target for heavy truck safety in the province, as Australia
       has done (e.g., reduction in the percent of total fatalities that involve heavy trucks
       or in number of fatalities involving heavy trucks per million vehicle kilometers
       traveled) to be achieved during a reasonable timeframe (e.g., 5-10 years) based
       on the current situation and the proven interventions in the action plan that can
       be implemented given the resources.


4.1.2 Increasing the safety of truck drivers:
   >   encourage an independent review of the province’s commercial vehicle driver
       licensing standards and testing procedures to determine if they are adequately
       preparing novice truck drivers to drive safely;
   >   encourage more women to become truck drivers given that in general, they are
       less prone to risk taking;
   >   given the difficulty of getting new drivers into the trucking industry, establish a
       program that provides 100% tuition funding for truck driver training to qualified
       candidates, as Manitoba Public Insurance has done;
   >   establish a Certificate of Professional Competence for truck drivers requiring
       mandatory training and apprenticeship similar to what the European Union has
       required; and,
   >   develop and evaluate a standard curriculum for driver training programs that
       could be used throughout the province or even nationally.


4.1.3 Increasing the safety of heavy trucks:
   >   encourage government departments that have vehicle fleets to adopt a fleet
       safety program which adheres to international best practices;
   >   use the Safety Measurement System adopted by the U.S. Federal Motor Carrier
       Safety Administration’s Comprehensive Safety Analysis (2010) to more
       effectively target commercial vehicle enforcement resources;
   >   require electronic stability control on all heavy vehicles as the European Union
       has done;



                                                                                                85
        >   limit the maximum speed of heavy trucks to 105 kph as Ontario and Quebec
            have done;
        >   consider requirement of a tire under-inflation warning system and alcohol ignition
            interlocks; and,
        >   consider permitting the use of long combination vehicles in the province under
            certain operational restrictions similar to what Alberta permits.


     4.1.4 Increasing the safety of the road infrastructure:
        >   continue to twin highways so that opposing lanes are separated by medians or
            alternatively introduce 2+1 lanes as they have done in Sweden where a wire
            barrier is installed between opposing lanes on undivided highways;
        >   install concrete barriers on divided highways, such as the Tall Walls used in
            Ontario, to prevent vehicles crossing the median into opposing lanes;
        >   install rumble strips on the road edge and on the centre line to warn drivers that
            they are deviating from their lane;
        >   install high tension cable barrier systems on the shoulders of curved highways to
            provide greater protection from running off the road for large trucks as Alberta
            has been doing;
        >   install roadside variable messaging signs to warn drivers of poor driving
            conditions ahead; and,
        >   improve lane delineation and signage particularly for curves on the highway.


     4.1.5 Increasing awareness and education about heavy trucks:
        >   conduct awareness and education programs targeted at the drivers of passenger
            vehicles so that they are more knowledgeable about driving safely around heavy
            trucks (e.g., Share the Road programs); and,
        >   conduct awareness and education programs targeted at the heavy truck industry
            and heavy truck drivers to inform them about the key crash factors such as
            driving on slippery roads, speeding, fatigue, inattention, and to provide guidance
            as to effective solutions that they should adopt to address the problem.


     4.1.6 Recognizing safe motor carriers:
        >   establish a program such as Alberta has done with Partners in Compliance which
            recognizes safe carrier operations and provides them with some benefits to
            partially offset costs of meeting the program requirements.


     4.1.7 Measurement and accountability:
        >   measure changes in the magnitude and characteristics of heavy truck crashes to
            assess the extent to which the target is being achieved and to identify new
            effective solutions to address the problem;



86
   >   evaluate the safety impacts of new programs for fleet safety; and,
   >   produce annual reports on the safety of heavy trucks indicating actions taken and
       progress toward achieving the target.


4.2 Industry
The trucking industry whether for-hire carriers or private carriers could adopt the
following best practices for fleet safety management to address the key factors
contributing to collisions involving heavy trucks.


4.2.1 Understanding and managing the situation
   >   using collision and other data, demonstrate to senior management why it is
       important to manage fleet safety in terms of the organization’s responsibility, the
       benefits to the organization as well as to the community (i.e., corporate social
       responsibility) and build a business case for the fleet safety management
       program to be adequately supported financially;
   >   adopt a fleet safety management model which incorporates leadership and
       accountability by senior management;
   >   adopt a safe systems approach when developing a fleet safety management
       program which not only looks at the drivers, vehicles and road infrastructure but
       also looks at the safety culture within the organization and in the society at large;
   >   adopt a multidisciplinary approach which considers civil and mechanical
       engineering, education, enforcement, medicine, and social sciences, when
       developing fleet safety policies and interventions;
   >   establish a fleet safety committee that includes both management and
       employees which meets regularly to discuss improving safety;
   >   set a measureable target for improvement in fleet safety;
   >   formally adopt a fleet safety policy which is signed by senior management and
       provide documentation of the policy to employees; and,
   >   organize and implement a fleet safety program, including management structure
       (i.e., what resources are needed and who is responsible for fleet safety), staff
       involvement (i.e., staff should support a positive safety culture based on
       competence, control, cooperation and communication), and planning and
       implementation of the program (i.e., what are the major risks that should be
       addressed first).

4.2.2 Increasing the safety of drivers:
   >   develop and implement a valid driver recruitment and selection process using in-
       person applications, screening of employment and driving history, minimum
       driving experience, driving test, physical exams, personality tests (i.e., to assess
       risk taking potential) and personal interviews and conduct effective driver training
       programs, both initial and ongoing (i.e., every five years);



                                                                                               87
        >   develop a driver performance standard, a driver fitness standard, and specific
            policies on pre-trip inspections, drug and alcohol use, seat belt use, speeding,
            driver distraction including cell phone use, and driver fatigue and explain these
            standards and policies in a handbook provided to all drivers; and,
        >   implement a fatigue management program which addresses driver training, sleep
            disorders, and trip scheduling which maximizes drivers’ opportunity for sleep.


     4.2.3 Increasing the safety of vehicles:
        >   select safe fleet vehicles (e.g., anti-lock brakes, electronic stability control, lane
            positioning sensor; speed limiters) and conduct regular vehicle maintenance and
            servicing; and,
        >   use the latest technology to increase compliance with regulations and policies in
            order to promote safety (e.g., electronic on-board recording of hours of operation
            and speed, event data recording system to capture information about collisions,
            speed limiters, ITS).


     4.2.4 Recognizing safe drivers:
        >   develop safe driver incentive programs which provide bonuses tied to drivers’
            performance assessments.


     4.2.5 Measurement and accountability:
        >   regularly conduct risk assessment and risk management using collision data,
            insurance costs, and reported incidents;
        >   conduct regular internal monitoring and measurement of progress toward target
            based on key performance indicators, and periodic third party audits and
            management reviews of the fleet safety program;
        >   carry out full in-depth investigations of all collisions involving heavy vehicles in
            order to better understand their causes and make adjustments to the fleet safety
            program;
        >   perform periodic bench marking by comparing the fleet’s safety performance with
            that of other similar operations; and,
        >   provide annual reports to senior management regarding fleet safety.


     4.3 Police Services
     The police could adopt the following best practices to address the key factors
     contributing to collisions involving heavy trucks.


     4.3.1 Understanding and managing the situation




88
   >   using collision data and specialized software such as the RCMP’s Traffic
       Services Management Information Tool (TSMIT), identify high-risk corridors
       which have disproportionate numbers of serious collisions involving heavy trucks;
       and,
   >   establish multi-stakeholder committees, including the trucking industry, in
       communities where high-risk corridors are located in order to get local buy-in and
       support, as was done in the Fraser Canyon corridor.


4.3.2 Increasing safety on the roads
   >   conduct regular enforcement campaigns combined with awareness and
       education, in high-risk corridors to address problem areas (e.g., seat belt use,
       impaired driving by alcohol, drugs, distraction, inattention or fatigue, and
       speeding); and,
   >   establish hotlines in all communities where members of the public can phone in
       toll-free complaints about unsafe truck driver behaviour, such as the Fraser
       Canyon Watch program and the Forestry Safety Hotline.




                                                                                            89
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92
                Appendix 1

Characteristics of Fatal Collisions Involving
         Heavy Trucks by Region
                                     Characteristics of Drivers of Heavy Trucks
                                      in Fatal Collisions: Canada, 2000-2006

Table 1:   Gender of Driver by Region
                               British Columbia         Western              Central             Atlantic

           Gender              Number   Percent   Number    Percent   Number     Percent   Number     Percent

           Female                11       2.1       34        3.6       30         1.6       1          0.5
           Male                 489      94.4      898       96.1      1849        97.1     180        98.4
           Unknown               18       3.5       2         0.2       25         1.3       2          1.1

           Total                518      100.0     934       100.0     1904       100.0     183        100.0



Table 2:   Age Category of Driver by Region
                               British Columbia         Western              Central             Atlantic

           Age Category        Number   Percent   Number    Percent   Number     Percent   Number     Percent

           <18                   1        0.2       5         0.5       1          0.1       0          0.0
           18-20                 5        1.0       15        1.6       16         0.8       0          0.0
           21-25                 25       4.8       93       10.0      108         5.7       14         7.7
           26-30                 36       6.9      100       10.7      197         10.3      25        13.7
           31-40                127      24.5      232       24.8      535         28.1      42        23.0
           41-50                182      35.1      258       27.6      554         29.1      53        29.0
           51-60                 96      18.5      156       16.7      340         17.9      35        19.1
           65+                   28       5.4       71        7.6      103         5.4       11         6.0
           Unknown               18       3.5       4         0.4       50         2.6       3          1.6

           Total                518      100       934        100      1904        100      183         100



Table 3:   Safety Equipment Worn by Driver by Region
                               British Columbia         Western              Central             Atlantic

           Equipment           Number   Percent   Number    Percent   Number     Percent   Number     Percent

           Lap Belt              34       6.6       37        4.0       34         1.8       8          4.4
           Shoulder Belt         2        0.4       2         0.2       0          0.0       0          0.0
           Lap/Shoulder         290      56.0      372       39.8      1130        59.3      61        33.3
           Air Bag Deployed      2        0.4       14        1.5       3          0.2       0          0.0
           Other                 1        0.2       3         0.3       0          0.0       0          0.0
           Not Used              71      13.7      148       15.8      174         9.1       27        14.8
           Nothing Available     10       1.9       23        2.5      121         6.4       0          0.0
           Unknown              108      20.8      335       35.9      442         23.2      87        47.5

           Total                518      100.0     934       100.0     1904       100.0     183        100.0



Table 4:   Injury Severity for Driver by Region
                               British Columbia         Western              Central             Atlantic

           Injury Severity     Number   Percent   Number    Percent   Number     Percent   Number     Percent

           None                 295      56.9      518       55.5      1180        62.0     114        62.3
           Minimal               0        0.0      155       16.6      123         6.5       11         6.0
           Minor                 37       7.1       37        4.0      334         17.5      29        15.8
           Major                 9        1.7       55        5.9       50         2.6       5          2.7
           Fatal                102      19.7      169       18.1      217         11.4      24        13.1
           Unspecified           75      14.5       0         0.0       0          0.0       0          0.0

           Total                518      100.0     934       100.0     1904       100.0     183        100.0



                                                                                                                95
     Table 5:   Place of Licence for Driver by Region
                                      British Columbia         Western              Central             Atlantic

                Place of Licence      Number   Percent   Number    Percent   Number     Percent   Number     Percent

                In Province            396      76.4      684       73.2      1663        87.3     149        81.4
                Out of Province        104      20.1      244       26.1      240         12.6      33        18.0
                Unknown                 18       3.5       6         0.6       1          0.1       1          0.5

                Total                  518      100.0     934       100.0     1904       100.0     183        100.0



     Table 6:   Human Condition by Region
                                      British Columbia         Western             Central*             Atlantic

                Human Condition       Number   Percent   Number    Percent   Number     Percent   Number     Percent

                Inattention             43       8.3       33        3.5       46         4.5       20        10.9
                Inexperience            18       3.5       3         0.3       0          0.0       4          2.2
                Fatigue                 5        1.0       15        1.6       9          0.9       1          0.5
                Fell Asleep             6        1.2       0         0.0       0          0.0       5          2.7
                Lost Consciousness      2        0.4       0         0.0       0          0.0       4          2.2
                Sudden Illness          0        0.0       2         0.2       0          0.0       4          2.2
                Med/Phys Disability     0        0.0       0         0.0       3          0.3       0          0.0
                Drinking                6        1.2       31        3.3       5          0.5       0          0.0
                Impaired by Alcohol     2        0.4       0         0.0       7          0.7       0          0.0
                Illicit Drugs           3        0.6       0         0.0       6          0.6       0          0.0
                Prescription Drugs      0        0.0       0         0.0       0          0.0       1          0.5
                Impaired- Unspec.       0        0.0       4         0.4       0          0.0       0          0.0
                Suicide Attempt         1        0.2       0         0.0       0          0.0       0          0.0
                Nothing Mentioned      432      83.4      846       90.6      936         92.5     144        78.7

                Total                  518      100.0     934       100.0     1012       100.0     183        100.0

                * excluding QC



     Table 7:   Human Action by Region
                                      British Columbia         Western             Central*             Atlantic

                Human Action          Number   Percent   Number    Percent   Number     Percent   Number     Percent

                Following Close         3        0.6       12        1.3       10         1.0       0          0.0
                Turning Improperly      1        0.2       0         0.0       5          0.5       0          0.0
                Fast for Conditions     60      11.6       19        2.0       47         4.6       5          2.7
                Exceed Speed Limit      6        1.2       2         0.2       8          0.8       3          1.6
                Improper Lane Chg       4        0.8       22        2.4       18         1.8       1          0.5
                Failure to Yield        10       1.9       17        1.8       25         2.5       4          2.2
                Disobey Tr Control      8        1.5       33        3.5       31         3.1       0          0.0
                Drive- Wrong Direct     21       4.1       14        1.5       1          0.1       0          0.0
                Backing Unsafely        4        0.8       0         0.0       0          0.0       1          0.5
                Lost Control            0        0.0       9         1.0       32         3.2       1          0.5
                Pedestrian Error        3        0.6       0         0.0       0          0.0       11         6.0
                Nothing Mentioned      398      76.8      806       86.3      835         82.5     157        85.8

                Total                  518      100.0     934       100.0     1012       100.0     183        100.0

                * excluding QC




96
Table 12:   Number of Vehicles Involved in Crash by Region
                                 British Columbia         Western              Central             Atlantic

            Vehicles Involved    Number   Percent   Number    Percent   Number     Percent   Number     Percent

            One                   126      26.8      185       21.1      238         14.0      34        19.7
            Two                   287      61.1      599       68.3      1121        66.1     123        71.1
            Three or More          57      12.1       93       10.6      337         19.9      16         9.2

            Total                 470      100       877        100      1696        100      173         100



Table 13:   Configuration of Crash by Region
                                 British Columbia         Western              Central             Atlantic

            Configuration        Number   Percent   Number    Percent   Number     Percent   Number     Percent

            Hit Person/Object      0        0.0       29        3.3      302         17.8      21        12.1
            Off Road Left          30       6.4       47        5.4       17         1.0       10         5.8
            Off Road Right         48      10.2       71        8.1       25         1.5       9          5.2
            Rear End               31       6.6      104       11.9      166         9.8       11         6.4
            Sideswipe              2        0.4       14        1.6      112         6.6       2          1.2
            Passing Left           0        0.0       14        1.6       36         2.1       2          1.2
            Passing Right          5        1.1       0         0.0       11         0.6       3          1.7
            Head On               205      43.6      280       31.9      563         33.2      75        43.4
            Left Turn              21       4.5       46        5.2      130         7.7       10         5.8
            Right Turn             41       8.7       7         0.8      132         7.8       13         7.5
            Other                  76      16.2      242       27.6      127         7.5       15         8.7
            Unknown                11       2.3       23        2.6       75         4.4       2          1.2

            Total                 470      100.0     877       100.0     1696       100.0     173        100.0



Table 14:   Hit and Run Crashes by Region
                                 British Columbia         Western              Central          Atlantic*

            Hit and Run          Number   Percent   Number    Percent   Number     Percent   Number     Percent

            No                    463      98.5      866       98.7      1666        98.2      38        100.0
            Yes                    7        1.5       11        1.3       24         1.4       0          0.0
            Unknown                0        0.0       0         0.0       6          0.4       0          0.0

            Total                 470      100.0     877       100.0     1696       100.0      38        100.0

            * excluding NB, NS




                                                                                                              97
                                      Temporal Characteristics of Fatal Collisions
                                      Involving Heavy Trucks: Canada, 2000-2006

     Table 15:   Month of Crash by Region
                                   British Columbia      Western                Central             Atlantic

                 Month             Number   Percent   Number   Percent   Number     Percent   Number     Percent

                 January             45       9.6       48       5.5      136         8.0       14         8.1
                 February            46       9.8       63       7.2      139         8.2       6          3.5
                 March               31       6.6       61       7.0      135         8.0       14         8.1
                 April               29       6.2       52       5.9       93         5.5       6          3.5
                 May                 27       5.7       53       6.0      139         8.2       12         6.9
                 June                28       6.0       74       8.4      141         8.3       13         7.5
                 July                36       7.7       84       9.6      130         7.7       18        10.4
                 August              39       8.3       89      10.1      166         9.8       18        10.4
                 September           39       8.3       84       9.6      159         9.4       19        11.0
                 October             41       8.7      100      11.4      151         8.9       14         8.1
                 November            52      11.1       81       9.2      154         9.1       19        11.0
                 December            57      12.1       88      10.0      153         9.0       20        11.6

                 Total              470      100.0     877     100.0      1696       100.0     173        100.0


     Table 16:   Time of Crash by Region
                                   British Columbia      Western                Central             Atlantic

                 Time              Number   Percent   Number   Percent   Number     Percent   Number     Percent

                 Midnight to 559     71      15.1      122      13.9      217         12.8      18        10.4
                 600 to 1159        135      28.7      272      31.0      531         31.3      48        27.7
                 1200 to 1759       170      36.2      287      32.7      628         37.0      73        42.2
                 1800 to 2359        86      18.3      181      20.6      317         18.7      33        19.1
                 Unknown             8        1.7       15       1.7       3          0.2       1          0.6

                 Total              470      100       877      100       1696        100      173         100


     Table 17:   Day of Week of Crash by Region
                                   British Columbia      Western                Central             Atlantic

                 Day of Week       Number   Percent   Number   Percent   Number     Percent   Number     Percent

                 Monday              56      11.9       97      11.1      194         11.4      12         6.9
                 Tuesday             63      13.4      107      12.2      245         14.4      24        13.9
                 Wednesday           74      15.7      123      14.0      287         16.9      29        16.8
                 Thursday            85      18.1      134      15.3      303         17.9      22        12.7
                 Friday              96      20.4      172      19.6      355         20.9      40        23.1
                 Saturday            76      16.2      218      24.9      264         15.6      41        23.7
                 Sunday              20       4.3       26       3.0       48         2.8       5          2.9

                 Total              470      100.0     877     100.0      1696       100.0     173        100.0




98
                                 Vehicle Characteristics of Drivers of Heavy Trucks
                                      in Fatal Collisions: Canada, 2000-2006

Table 18:   Vehicle Age by Region
                                 British Columbia         Western              Central             Atlantic

            Vehicle Age          Number   Percent   Number    Percent   Number     Percent   Number     Percent

            <1 Year                35       6.8       98       10.5      206         10.8      18         9.8
            1 Year                 35       6.8       84        9.0      228         12.0      15         8.2
            2 Years                40       7.7       80        8.6      200         10.5      14         7.7
            3 Years                34       6.6       75        8.0      210         11.0      14         7.7
            4 Years                28       5.4       73        7.8      182         9.6       15         8.2
            5 Years                27       5.2       63        6.7      169         8.9       15         8.2
            6-10 Years             98      18.9      207       22.2      438         23.0      30        16.4
            11-15 Years            37       7.1       82        8.8      157         8.2       16         8.7
            16-20 Years            14       2.7       33        3.5       73         3.8       12         6.6
            >20 Years              8        1.5       26        2.8       29         1.5       5          2.7
            Unknown               162      31.3      113       12.1       12         0.6       29        15.8

            Total                 518      100       934        100      1904        100      183         100



Table 19:   Vehicle Manoeuvre by Region
                                 British Columbia         Western              Central             Atlantic

            Manoeuvre            Number   Percent   Number    Percent   Number     Percent   Number     Percent

            Going Straight        367      70.8      297       85.3      1487        78.1     160        87.4
            Turning Left           16       3.1       9         2.6       54         2.8       6          3.3
            Turning Right          19       3.7       1         0.3       43         2.3       4          2.2
            Making U-Turn          0        0.0       1         0.3       2          0.1       0          0.0
            Changing Lanes         2        0.4       4         1.1       23         1.2       1          0.5
            Merging                0        0.0       1         0.3       12         0.6       1          0.5
            Reversing              6        1.2       3         0.9       44         2.3       4          2.2
            Overtaking             4        0.8       7         2.0       23         1.2       1          0.5
            Slowing/Stopping       9        1.7       16        4.6       67         3.5       1          0.5
            Stopped in Traffic     9        1.7       0         0.0       36         1.9       1          0.5
            Start in Traffic       4        0.8       2         0.6       14         0.7       0          0.0
            Start from Parked      1        0.2       0         0.0       2          0.1       0          0.0
            Enter Parked Pos       0        0.0       0         0.0       2          0.1       0          0.0
            Parked Legally         11       2.1       1         0.3       22         1.2       2          1.1
            Parked Illegally       2        0.4       0         0.0       2          0.1       2          1.1
            Swerve to Avoid        8        1.5       5         1.4       2          0.1       0          0.0
            Stopped/Parked         0        0.0       0         0.0       40         2.1       0          0.0
            Other Manoeuvre        55      10.6       1         0.3       27         1.4       0          0.0
            Unknown                5        1.0       0         0.0       2          0.1       0          0.0

            Total                 518      100.0     348       100.0     1904       100.0     183        100.0

            * excluding AB




                                                                                                                  99
      Table 20:     Vehicle Condition by Region
                                              British Columbia                    Western                     Central*                     Atlantic

                    Condition                Number          Percent        Number       Percent        Number        Percent        Number       Percent

                    Brakes                        8            1.5            6            0.6            12            1.2            4            2.2
                    Steering                      0            0.0            0            0.0            0             0.0            1            0.5
                    Vehicle Lights**              0            0.0            2            0.2            0             0.0            0            0.0
                    Engine, Train                 1            0.2            0            0.0            1             0.1            0            0.0
                    Wheels, Suspension            1            0.2            0            0.0            1             0.1            0            0.0
                    Tires                         4            0.8            3            0.3            2             0.2            0            0.0
                    Oversize, Overload           8             1.5            2            0.2            0             0.0            1            0.5
                    Modifications                 1            0.2            0            0.0            0             0.0            0            0.0
                    Jackknife                    0             0.0            0            0.0            0             0.0            4            2.2
                    Nothing Mentioned            495          95.6           921          98.6           996           98.4           173           94.5

                    Total                        518         100.0           934          100.0          1012         100.0           183          100.0
                    * excluding QC
                    ** headlights, tail lights, and lights non-specified



                                        Roadway Characteristics of Fatal Collision Sites
                                         Involving Heavy Trucks: Canada, 2000-2006
  Table 21:       Roadway Configuration of Collision Site by Region
                                                  British Columbia                      Western                      Central                     Atlantic

                  Traffic Control                 Number        Percent        Number       Percent        Number        Percent       Number         Percent

                  Non-intersection                     322           68.5          530           60.4          1071           63.1          23            13.3
                  Intersection of > One Road           87            18.5          279           31.8          348            20.5          38            22.0
                  Intersection w. Traf Control          0            0.0            0            0.0           112            6.6            0             0.0
                  Intersection with Private Rd         11            2.3            9            1.0            53            3.1           13             7.5
                  RR Level Crossing                     1            0.2           11            1.3            11            0.6            0             0.0
                  Bridge, Overpass                     14            3.0            8            0.9            17            1.0            2             1.2
                  Tunnel, Underpass                     2            0.4            0            0.0            6             0.4            0             0.0
                  Parking Lot                           6            1.3            0            0.0            0             0.0            0             0.0
                  Off Road                              0            0.0            1            0.1            0             0.0            0             0.0
                  Other Site                           23            4.9            3            0.3            57            3.4            7             4.0
                  Unknown                               4            0.9           36            4.1            21            1.2           90            52.0

                  Total                                470       100.0             877       100.0             1696       100.0             173        100.0



  Table 22:       Road Category of Collision Site by Region
                                                  British Columbia                      Western                     Central*                  Atlantic**

                  Road Category                   Number        Percent        Number       Percent        Number        Percent       Number         Percent

                  Undivided                            351           74.7          239           27.3          682            77.1          81            71.1
                  Divided                              36            7.7           180           20.5          176            19.9          10             8.8
                  Freeway                              51            10.9           0            0.0            17            1.9            0             0.0
                  Interchange Ramp                      0            0.0            0            0.0            9             1.0            0             0.0
                  Other                                 0            0.0           15            1.7            0             0.0            0             0.0
                  Not Applicable                       18            3.8            2            0.2            0             0.0            0             0.0
                  Unknown                              14            3.0           441           50.3           0             0.0           23            20.2

                  Total                                470       100.0             877       100.0             884        100.0             114        100.0

                  * excluding QC
                  ** excluding NS
100
Table 23:   Road Material of Collision Site by Region
                                    British Columbia       Western*                Central             Atlantic

            Road Material           Number   Percent    Number    Percent   Number     Percent   Number     Percent

            Asphalt                  437      93.0       266       91.4      1616        95.3     163        94.2
            Concrete                  3        0.6        7         2.4       21         1.2       2          1.2
            Gravel                    23       4.9        18        6.2       42         2.5       0          0.0
            Earth, Dirt               5        1.1        0         0.0       4          0.2       1          0.6
            Unknown                   2        0.4        0         0.0       13         0.8       7          4.0

            Total                    470      100.0      291       100.0     1696       100.0     173        100.0

            * excluding SK



Table 24:   Road Surface of Collision Site by Region
                                    British Columbia          Western              Central             Atlantic

            Road Surface            Number   Percent    Number    Percent   Number     Percent   Number     Percent

            Dry, Normal              253      53.8       630       71.8      1101        64.9     104        60.1
            Wet                       96      20.4        68        7.8      297         17.5      38        22.0
            Snow (Loose)              32       6.8        15        1.7      111         6.5       13         7.5
            Ice (Packed Snow)         52      11.1        33        3.8      140         8.3       8          4.6
            Sand/Gravel/Dirt          0        0.0        16        1.8       1          0.1       0          0.0
            Mud                       3        0.6        1         0.1       1          0.1       0          0.0
            Slush                     32       6.8        3         0.3       33         1.9       8          4.6
            Oil                       0        0.0        0         0.0       1          0.1       0          0.0
            Unknown                   2        0.4       111       12.7       11         0.6       2          1.2

            Total                    470      100.0      877       100.0     1696       100.0     173        100.0



Table 25:   Roadway Alignment of Collision Site by Region
                                    British Columbia          Western              Central             Atlantic

            Roadway Alignment       Number   Percent    Number    Percent   Number     Percent   Number     Percent

            Straight and Level       159      33.8       623       71.0      1081        63.7      81        46.8
            Straight and Gradient     82      17.4        49        5.6      241         14.2      37        21.4
            Curved and Level          65      13.8        87        9.9      216         12.7      22        12.7
            Curved and Gradient      152      32.3        38        4.3      145         8.5       25        14.5
            Top of Hill               2        0.4        12        1.4       0          0.0       4          2.3
            Bottom of Hill            1        0.2        14        1.6       0          0.0       3          1.7
            Unknown                   9        1.9        54        6.2       13         0.8       1          0.6

            Total                    470      100.0      877       100.0     1696       100.0     173        100.0




                                                                                                              101
  Table 26:       Traffic Control of Collision Site by Region
                                                    British Columbia                    Western                      Central                     Atlantic

                  Traffic Control                   Number     Percent        Number        Percent        Number        Percent        Number        Percent

                  No Control Present                 372           79.1           624            71.2          1269          74.8           139           80.3
                  Traffic Signals                     32            6.8           45             5.1            163           9.6            3             1.7
                  Stop Sign                           29            6.2           81             9.2            170          10.0            8             4.6
                  Yield Sign                          0             0.0           13             1.5             4            0.2            1             0.6
                  Pedestrian Crossover                0             0.0             0            0.0             2            0.1            0             0.0
                  Police Officer                      0             0.0             1            0.1             3            0.2            0             0.0
                  School Guard/Flagperson             5             1.1             0            0.0             3            0.2            1             0.6
                  Flashing Signal Light               1             0.2             2            0.2            13            0.8            2             1.2
                  Advisory Sign                       0             0.0             4            0.5             4            0.2            3             1.7
                  School Bus Flashing Lights          0             0.0             0            0.0             2            0.1            0             0.0
                  Railway Crossing                    1             0.2             5            0.6             3            0.2            0             0.0
                  Unknown                             30            6.4           102            11.6           60            3.5            16            9.2

                  Total                              470           100.0          877        100.0             1696          100.0          173           100.0



  Table 27:       Speed Limit of Collision Site by Region
                                                    British Columbia                Western*                         Central                     Atlantic

                  Speed Limit                       Number     Percent        Number        Percent        Number        Percent        Number        Percent

                  50 km/h or less                     76           16.2           40             12.3           188          11.1            23           13.3
                  60 to 90 km/h                      234           49.8           80             24.6          1132          66.7            82           47.4
                  100 km/h or more                   117           24.9           188            57.8           267          15.7            65           37.6
                  Unknown                             43            9.1           17             5.2            109           6.4            3             1.7

                  Total                              470           100.0          325        100.0             1696          100.0          173           100.0

                  * excluding AB




                                            Environmental Characteristics of Fatal Collisions
                                              Involving Heavy Trucks: Canada, 2000-2006

      Table 28:       Road Classification of Crash by Region
                                            British Columbia                  Western                          Central                     Atlantic

                      Classification        Number         Percent         Number       Percent         Number       Percent         Number       Percent

                      Urban                    119          25.3            116           13.2           423          24.9             39          22.5
                      Rural                    346          73.6            661           75.4           1259         74.2            134          77.5
                      Unknown                   5            1.1            100           11.4            14           0.8             0            0.0

                      Total                    470         100.0            877          100.0           1696         100.0           173         100.0




102
Table 29:   Weather Conditions of Crash by Region
                                British Columbia         Western              Central             Atlantic

            Weather             Number   Percent   Number    Percent   Number     Percent   Number     Percent

            Clear                343      73.0      697       79.5      1285        75.8     131        75.7
            Raining               55      11.7       34        3.9      144         8.5       15         8.7
            Snowing               61      13.0       62        7.1      165         9.7       13         7.5
            Sleet, Hail           1        0.2       7         0.8       23         1.4       5          2.9
            Fog, Smog, Mist       7        1.5       46        5.2       66         3.9       8          4.6
            Dust, Smoke           1        0.2       0         0.0       0          0.0       1          0.6
            Strong Winds          1        0.2       17        1.9       10         0.6       0          0.0
            Unknown               1        0.2       14        1.6       3          0.2       0          0.0

            Total                470      100       877        100      1696        100      173         100


Table 30:   Light Conditions of Crash by Region
                                British Columbia         Western              Central             Atlantic

            Light Conditions    Number   Percent   Number    Percent   Number     Percent   Number     Percent

            Day                  272      57.9      532       60.7      1120        66.0     118        68.2
            Dawn                  17       3.6       16        1.8       51         3.0       6          3.5
            Dusk                  13       2.8       14        1.6       17         1.0       5          2.9
            Dark                 150      31.9      293       33.4      449         26.5      41        23.7
            Artificial Light      16       3.4       0         0.0       57         3.4       3          1.7
            Unknown               2        0.4       22        2.5       2          0.1       0          0.0

            Total                470      100.0     877       100.0     1696       100.0     173        100.0


Table 31:   Environmental Conditions of Crash by Region
                                British Columbia         Western              Central             Atlantic

            Environmental       Number   Percent   Number    Percent   Number     Percent   Number     Percent

            Animal Action         8        1.7       2         0.2       0          0.0       1          0.6
            Slippery Road         25       5.3       1         0.1       0          0.0       13         7.5
            Drifting Snow         0        0.0       19        2.2       0          0.0       3          1.7
            Obstruction in Rd     4        0.9       1         0.1       0          0.0       0          0.0
            View Obstructed       8        1.7       17        1.9       0          0.0       7          4.0
            Reflections           3        0.6       0         0.0       0          0.0       2          1.2
            Road Construction     12       2.6       0         0.0       0          0.0       1          0.6
            Defective Surface     3        0.6       0         0.0       0          0.0       1          0.6
            Defect. Shoulder      0        0.0       0         0.0       0          0.0       2          1.2
            Wind                  0        0.0       0         0.0       0          0.0       1          0.6
            Nothing Mentioned    407      86.6      837       95.4      1696       100.0     142        82.1

            Total                470      100       877        100      1696        100      173         100




                                                                                                                103
                Appendix 2

Characteristics of Injury Collisions Involving
         Heavy Trucks by Region
                                      Characteristics of Drivers of Heavy Trucks
                                       in Injury Collisions: Canada, 2000-2006

Table 32:   Gender of Driver by Region
                                British Columbia         Western              Central             Atlantic

            Gender              Number   Percent   Number    Percent   Number     Percent   Number     Percent

            Female               203       2.7      1518       9.2      955         2.6       51         1.9
            Male                 6853     91.9     14308      86.8     34960        94.5     1913       69.8
            Unknown              399       5.4      662        4.0      1072        2.9      778        28.4

            Total                7455     100.0    16488      100.0    36987       100.0     2742       100.0



Table 33:   Age Category of Driver by Region
                                British Columbia         Western              Central             Atlantic

            Age Category        Number   Percent   Number    Percent   Number     Percent   Number     Percent

            <18                   24       0.3      207        1.3       79         0.2       13         0.5
            18-20                142       1.9      820        5.0      570         1.5       49         1.8
            21-25                547       7.3      1816      11.0      2477        6.7      182         6.6
            26-30                785      10.5      1890      11.5      4032        10.9     321        11.7
            31-40                2029     27.2      3870      23.5     10385        28.1     734        26.8
            41-50                1934     25.9      3753      22.8      9727        26.3     640        23.3
            51-60                1167     15.7      2136      13.0      5815        15.7     427        15.6
            65+                  421       5.6      902        5.5      1747        4.7      139         5.1
            Unknown              406       5.4      1094       6.6      2155        5.8      237         8.6

            Total                7455     100      16488       100     36987        100      2742        100



Table 34:   Safety Equipment Worn by Driver by Region
                                British Columbia         Western              Central             Atlantic

            Equipment           Number   Percent   Number    Percent   Number     Percent   Number     Percent

            Lap Belt             533       7.1      811        4.9      623         1.7      119         4.3
            Shoulder Belt         1        0.0      149        0.9       0          0.0       0          0.0
            Lap/Shoulder         4987     66.9      8392      50.9     22330        60.4     1179       43.0
            Air Bag Deployed      15       0.2      407        2.5       17         0.0       3          0.1
            Other                 4        0.1       47        0.3       1          0.0       2          0.1
            Child Seat            1        0.0       0         0.0       0          0.0       0          0.0
            Helmet Worn           1        0.0       0         0.0       5          0.0       5          0.2
            Not Used             461       6.2      1230       7.5      1121        3.0      182         6.6
            Nothing Available     21       0.3       0         0.0      168         0.5       15         0.5
            Unknown              1431     19.2      5452      33.1     12722        34.4     1237       45.1

            Total                7455     100.0    16488      100.0    36987       100.0     2742       100.0



Table 35:   Injury Severity for Driver by Region
                                British Columbia         Western              Central             Atlantic

            Injury Severity     Number   Percent   Number    Percent   Number     Percent   Number     Percent

            None                 4807     64.5     10065      61.0     28528        77.1     1855       67.7
            Minimal               0        0.0      4282      26.0      2115        5.7      232         8.5
            Minor                769      10.3      1017       6.2      5667        15.3     544        19.8
            Major                138       1.9      958        5.8      677         1.8      104         3.8
            Unspecified          1741     23.4      166        1.0       0          0.0       7          0.3

            Total                7455     100.0    16488      100.0    36987       100.0     2742       100.0



                                                                                                                 107
      Table 36:   Place of Licence for Driver by Region
                                        British Columbia         Western              Central             Atlantic

                  Place of Licence      Number   Percent   Number    Percent   Number     Percent   Number     Percent

                  In Province            5999     80.5      5362      32.5     32405        87.6     2235       81.5
                  Out of Province        1055     14.2     10834      65.7      3790        10.2     433        15.8
                  Unknown                401       5.4      292        1.8      792         2.1       74         2.7

                  Total                  7455     100.0    16488      100.0    36987       100.0     2742       100.0



      Table 37:   Human Condition by Region
                                        British Columbia         Western             Central*             Atlantic

                  Human Condition       Number   Percent   Number    Percent   Number     Percent   Number     Percent

                  Inattention            1329     17.8      783        4.7      2077        10.0     806        29.4
                  Inexperience           399       5.4      122        0.7       0          0.0       64         2.3
                  Fatigue                 75       1.0      291        1.8      149         0.7       16         0.6
                  Fell Asleep            160       2.1       0         0.0       0          0.0       33         1.2
                  Lost Conscious          22       0.3       4         0.0       0          0.0       12         0.4
                  Sudden Illness          23       0.3       78        0.5       0          0.0       13         0.5
                  Med/Phys Disability     8        0.1       1         0.0       73         0.4       3          0.1
                  Drinking               108       1.4      319        1.9       63         0.3       12         0.4
                  Impaired by Alcohol     24       0.3       7         0.0       58         0.3       7          0.3
                  Illicit Drugs           20       0.3       0         0.0       6          0.0       0          0.0
                  Prescription Drugs      11       0.1       18        0.1       0          0.0       1          0.0
                  Impaired- Unspec.       0        0.0       38        0.2       0          0.0       0          0.0
                  Suicide Attempt         0        0.0       0         0.0       0          0.0       0          0.0
                  Nothing Mentioned      5276     70.8     14827      89.9     18353        88.3     1775       64.7

                  Total                  7455     100.0    16488      100.0    20779       100.0     2742       100.0

                  * excluding QC



      Table 38:   Human Action by Region
                                        British Columbia         Western             Central*             Atlantic

                  Human Action          Number   Percent   Number    Percent   Number     Percent   Number     Percent

                  Following Close        578       7.8      1307       7.9      2260        10.9     108         3.9
                  Turning Improperly     175       2.3       8         0.0      694         3.3       35         1.3
                  Fast for Conditions    941      12.6      377        2.3      1255        6.0      135         4.9
                  Exceed Speed Limit     101       1.4       11        0.1      146         0.7       17         0.6
                  Improper Lane Chg      178       2.4      690        4.2      1524        7.3       62         2.3
                  Failure to Yield       390       5.2      415        2.5      1210        5.8      103         3.8
                  Disobey Tr Control     180       2.4      713        4.3      603         2.9       28         1.0
                  Drive- Wrong Direct    140       1.9      123        0.7       14         0.1       7          0.3
                  Backing Unsafely        61       0.8      165        1.0       0          0.0       33         1.2
                  Lost Control            0        0.0      133        0.8      1124        5.4       7          0.3
                  Pedestrian Error        18       0.2       0         0.0       0          0.0       12         0.4
                  Failed to Signal        25       0.3       1         0.0       0          0.0       4          0.1
                  Nothing Mentioned      4668     62.6     12545      76.1     11949        57.5     2191       79.9

                  Total                  7455     100.0    16488      100.0    20779       100.0     2742       100.0

                  * excluding QC


108
                                     Crash Characteristics of Injury Collisions
                                   Involving Heavy Trucks: Canada, 2000-2006

Table 39:   Persons Injured in Crash by Region
                                British Columbia         Western              Central             Atlantic

            Injured             Number   Percent   Number    Percent   Number     Percent   Number     Percent

            One                  5241     74.4     11833      75.0     26031        74.9     2034       77.3
            Two                  1299     18.4      2810      17.8      6243        18.0     431        16.4
            Three or More        508       7.2      1124       7.1      2465        7.1      167         6.3

            Total                7048     100.0    15767      100.0    34739       100.0     2632       100.0



Table 40:   Drivers of Heavy Trucks Injured in Crash by Region
                                British Columbia         Western              Central             Atlantic

            HTD Injured         Number   Percent   Number    Percent   Number     Percent   Number     Percent

            None                 4453     63.2      9480      60.1     26481        76.2     1764       67.0
            One                  2534     36.0      6155      39.0      8039        23.1     853        32.4
            Two                   59       0.8      128        0.8      209         0.6       15         0.6
            Three or More         2        0.0       4         0.0       10         0.0       0          0.0

            Total                7048     100      15767       100     34739        100      2632        100



Table 41:   Number of Vehicles Involved in Crash by Region
                                British Columbia         Western              Central             Atlantic

            Vehicles Involved   Number   Percent   Number    Percent   Number     Percent   Number     Percent

            One                  1981     28.1      4118      26.1      5175        14.9     657        25.0
            Two                  4048     57.4      9985      63.3     23211        66.8     1712       65.0
            Three or More        1019     14.5      1664      10.6      6353        18.3     262        10.0
            Unknown               0        0.0       0         0.0       0          0.0       1          0.0

            Total                7048     100      15767       100     34739        100      2632        100



Table 42:   Configuration of Crash by Region
                                British Columbia         Western              Central             Atlantic

            Configuration       Number   Percent   Number    Percent   Number     Percent   Number     Percent

            Hit Person/Object     0        0.0      397        2.5      5767        16.6     197         7.5
            Off Road Left        669       9.5      1135       7.2      563         1.6      163         6.2
            Off Road Right       933      13.2      1798      11.4      739         2.1      273        10.4
            Rear End             1643     23.3      4740      30.1      9618        27.7     593        22.5
            Sideswipe             31       0.4      835        5.3      3991        11.5      73         2.8
            Passing Left          0        0.0      278        1.8      1035        3.0      115         4.4
            Passing Right        284       4.0      175        1.1      825         2.4       99         3.8
            Head On              914      13.0      844        5.4      2089        6.0      289        11.0
            Left Turn            534       7.6      926        5.9      3535        10.2      97         3.7
            Right Turn           738      10.5       97        0.6      2082        6.0      237         9.0
            Other                1048     14.9      3940      25.0      2817        8.1      448        17.0
            Unknown              254       3.6      602        3.8      1678        4.8       48         1.8

            Total                7048     100.0    15767      100.0    34739       100.0     2632       100.0


                                                                                                                 109
       Table 43:     Hit and Run Crashes by Region
                                           British Columbia              Western              Central                 Atlantic*

                     Hit and Run           Number       Percent   Number     Percent   Number     Percent       Number       Percent

                     No                        6902      97.9      15324      97.2     32790        94.4         525          99.6
                     Yes                       146        2.1       441        2.8      1879        5.4           2            0.4
                     Yes                         0        0.0        2         0.0       70         0.2           0            0.0

                     Total                     7048      100.0     15767      100.0    34739       100.0         527         100.0

                     * excluding NB, NS

                                           Temporal Characteristics of Injury Collisions
                                           Involving Heavy Trucks: Canada, 2000-2006

      Table 44:    Month of Crash by Region
                                     British Columbia                   Western                Central                      Atlantic

                   Month             Number           Percent     Number     Percent   Number       Percent       Number          Percent

                   January                682           9.7        1572       10.0       3459           10.0           293           11.1
                   February               532           7.5        1249        7.9       2951            8.5           261            9.9
                   March                  570           8.1        1304        8.3       2478            7.1           196            7.4
                   April                  440           6.2        873         5.5       2165            6.2           138            5.2
                   May                    488           6.9        1043        6.6       2558            7.4           145            5.5
                   June                   544           7.7        1279        8.1       2967            8.5           208            7.9
                   July                   551           7.8        1243        7.9       2886            8.3           223            8.5
                   August                 641           9.1        1383        8.8       3079            8.9           241            9.2
                   September              567           8.0        1281        8.1       2858            8.2           240            9.1
                   October                659           9.4        1471        9.3       3064            8.8           219            8.3
                   November               681           9.7        1484        9.4       3022            8.7           220            8.4
                   December               693           9.8        1585       10.1       3252            9.4           248            9.4

                   Total                  7048        100.0       15767       100.0     34739           100.0         2632           100.0


      Table 45:    Time of Crash by Region

                                     British Columbia                   Western                Central                      Atlantic

                   Time              Number           Percent     Number     Percent   Number       Percent       Number          Percent

                   Midnight to 559        694           9.8        1240        7.9       2688            7.7           177            6.7
                   600 to 1159            2369         33.6        4930       31.3      12432           35.8           884           33.6
                   1200 to 1759           2750         39.0        6631       42.1      14308           41.2          1115           42.4
                   1800 to 2359           1074         15.2        2649       16.8       5112           14.7           387           14.7
                   Unknown                161           2.3        317         2.0       199             0.6            69            2.6

                   Total                  7048         100        15767        100      34739           100           2632           100


      Table 46:    Day of Week of Crash by Region

                                     British Columbia                   Western                Central                      Atlantic

                   Day of Week       Number           Percent     Number     Percent   Number       Percent       Number          Percent

                   Monday                 790          11.2        1657       10.5       4078           11.7           315           12.0
                   Tuesday                1036         14.7        2341       14.8       5539           15.9           406           15.4
                   Wednesday              1201         17.0        2501       15.9       5993           17.3           461           17.5
                   Thursday               1209         17.2        2697       17.1       6342           18.3           475           18.0
                   Friday                 1411         20.0        3107       19.7       7159           20.6           519           19.7
                   Saturday               1167         16.6        2964       18.8       4892           14.1           399           15.2
                   Sunday                 234           3.3        493         3.1       736             2.1            57            2.2
                   Unknown                 0            0.0         7          0.0        0              0.0            0             0.0

                   Total                  7048        100.0       15767       100.0     34739           100.0         2632           100.0

110
                                 Vehicle Characteristics of Drivers of Heavy Trucks
                                      in Injury Collisions: Canada, 2000-2006

Table 47:   Vehicle Age by Region
                                 British Columbia         Western              Central             Atlantic

            Vehicle Age          Number   Percent   Number    Percent   Number     Percent   Number     Percent

            <1 Year               443       5.9      1211       7.3      3649        9.9      180         6.6
            1 Year                434       5.8      1150       7.0      3809        10.3     193         7.0
            2 Years               395       5.3      1132       6.9      3538        9.6      199         7.3
            3 Years               393       5.3      1056       6.4      3327        9.0      195         7.1
            4 Years               376       5.0      980        5.9      3220        8.7      183         6.7
            5 Years               400       5.4      954        5.8      3102        8.4      189         6.9
            6-10 Years            1492     20.0      3142      19.1      9093        24.6     612        22.3
            11-15 Years           856      11.5      1570       9.5      3929        10.6     312        11.4
            16-20 Years           347       4.7      639        3.9      1449        3.9      124         4.5
            >20 Years             257       3.4      636        3.9      461         1.2       79         2.9
            Unknown               2062     27.7      4018      24.4      1410        3.8      476        17.4

            Total                 7455     100      16488       100     36987        100      2742        100



Table 48:   Vehicle Manoeuvre by Region
                                 British Columbia      Western*                Central             Atlantic

            Manoeuvre            Number   Percent   Number    Percent   Number     Percent   Number     Percent

            Going Straight        4306     57.8      3728      59.2     22028        59.6     1793       65.4
            Turning Left          634       8.5      519        8.2      2746        7.4      194         7.1
            Turning Right         366       4.9      243        3.9      1524        4.1      135         4.9
            Making U-Turn          21       0.3       20        0.3       83         0.2       7          0.3
            Changing Lanes        178       2.4      111        1.8      1954        5.3       39         1.4
            Merging                45       0.6       39        0.6      444         1.2       20         0.7
            Reversing             108       1.4       71        1.1      799         2.2       89         3.2
            Overtaking             67       0.9       73        1.2      467         1.3       63         2.3
            Slowing/Stopping      369       4.9      686       10.9      2817        7.6      146         5.3
            Stopped in Traffic    232       3.1       14        0.2      1359        3.7       70         2.6
            Start in Traffic       41       0.5       57        0.9      310         0.8       33         1.2
            Start from Parked      37       0.5       14        0.2       35         0.1       26         0.9
            Enter Parked Pos       4        0.1       0         0.0       54         0.1       2          0.1
            Parked Legally        212       2.8       7         0.1      460         1.2       49         1.8
            Parked Illegally       26       0.3       1         0.0       93         0.3       19         0.7
            Swerve to Avoid        63       0.8       50        0.8       36         0.1       0          0.0
            Stopped/Parked         0        0.0       27        0.4      1143        3.1       4          0.1
            Other Manoeuvre       637       8.5       12        0.2      355         1.0       8          0.3
            Unknown               109       1.5      625        9.9      280         0.8       45         1.6

            Total                 7455     100.0     6297      100.0    36987       100.0     2742       100.0

            * excluding AB




                                                                                                                  111
      Table 49:    Vehicle Condition by Region
                                             British Columbia                      Western                       Central*                      Atlantic

                   Condition                Number       Percent            Number     Percent            Number      Percent            Number     Percent

                   Brakes                        97           1.3             111           0.7             22            0.1              58           2.1
                   Steering                      22           0.3              8            0.0              3            0.0              22           0.8
                   Vehicle Lights**              20           0.3             26            0.2             12            0.1              2            0.1
                   Engine, Train                 21           0.3              0            0.0              3            0.0              3            0.1
                   Wheels, Suspension            22           0.3              1            0.0              4            0.0              15           0.5
                   Tires                         63           0.8             28            0.2             31            0.1              14           0.5
                   Tow Hitch                     18           0.2              1            0.0              2            0.0              7            0.3
                   Hood, Door Opened             0            0.0              0            0.0              0            0.0              1            0.0
                   Oversize, Overload          143            1.9             65            0.4              0            0.0              52           1.9
                   Modifications                 3            0.0              0            0.0              0            0.0              0            0.0
                   Jackknife                     0            0.0              0            0.0              0            0.0              63           2.3
                   Windshield                    0            0.0              0            0.0              0            0.0              25           0.9
                   Nothing Mentioned          7046           94.5            16248         98.5            20702          99.6            2480          90.4

                   Total                      7455           100.0           16488         100.0           20779         100.0            2742         100.0
                   * excluding QC
                   * headlights, tail lights, and lights non-specified




                                        Roadway Characteristics of Injury Collision Sites
                                          Involving Heavy Trucks: Canada, 2000-2006
      Table 50:   Roadway Configuration of Collision Site by Region
                                                      British Columbia                    Western                        Central                       Atlantic

                  Traffic Control                     Number        Percent         Number        Percent         Number         Percent        Number         Percent

                  Non-intersection                     3810          54.1            6423          40.7            17797          51.2            379           14.4
                  Intersection of > One Road           2175          30.9            5421          34.4            9161           26.4            797           30.3
                  Intersection w. Traf Control          50            0.7             0             0.0            3983           11.5             3             0.1
                  Intersection with Private Rd         283            4.0            296            1.9            1562            4.5            181            6.9
                  RR Level Crossing                     24            0.3            111            0.7             98             0.3             2             0.1
                  Bridge, Overpass                     214            3.0            104            0.7             530            1.5             35            1.3
                  Tunnel, Underpass                     20            0.3             14            0.1             48             0.1             1             0.0
                  Parking Lot                           70            1.0             5             0.0              0             0.0             25            0.9
                  Off Road                              0             0.0             6             0.0              0             0.0             0             0.0
                  Other Site                           313            4.4            139            0.9            1103            3.2             84            3.2
                  Unknown                               89            1.3            3248          20.6             457            1.3           1125           42.7

                  Total                                7048          100.0          15767          100.0           34739         100.0           2632          100.0




112
Table 51:   Road Category of Collision Site by Region
                                   British Columbia           Western             Central*          Atlantic**

            Road Category          Number   Percent     Number    Percent   Number     Percent   Number     Percent

            Undivided               4363     61.9        3190      20.2     12186        62.6     1078       67.8
            Divided                  694      9.8        4301      27.3      5416        27.8     156         9.8
            Freeway                 1324     18.8         0         0.0      1230        6.3       0          0.0
            Interchange Ramp         46       0.7         0         0.0      602         3.1       0          0.0
            Other                    14       0.2        446        2.8       0          0.0       9          0.6
            Not Applicable           245      3.5         18        0.1       0          0.0       5          0.3
            Unknown                  362      5.1        7812      49.5       21         0.1      342        21.5

            Total                   7048     100.0      15767      100.0    19455       100.0     1590       100.0

            * excluding QC
            ** excluding NS



Table 52:   Road Material of Collision Site by Region
                                   British Columbia        Western*                Central             Atlantic

            Road Material          Number   Percent     Number    Percent   Number     Percent   Number     Percent

            Asphalt                 6629     94.1        3527      25.6     32994        95.0     2485       94.4
            Concrete                 55       0.8        895        6.5      413         1.2       4          0.2
            Gravel                   298      4.2        363        2.6      756         2.2       66         2.5
            Earth, Dirt              42       0.6         43        0.3      128         0.4       30         1.1
            Brick                     0       0.0         0         0.0       1          0.0       0          0.0
            Unknown                  24       0.3        8935      64.9      447         1.3       47         1.8

            Total                   7048     100.0      13763      100.0    34739       100.0     2632       100.0

            * excluding SK



Table 53:   Road Surface of Collision Site by Region
                                   British Columbia           Western              Central             Atlantic

            Road Surface           Number   Percent     Number    Percent   Number     Percent   Number     Percent

            Dry, Normal             4163     59.1        9233      58.6     22127        63.7     1581       60.1
            Wet                     1636     23.2        1467       9.3      6664        19.2     486        18.5
            Snow (Loose)             451      6.4        413        2.6      2596        7.5      275        10.4
            Ice (Packed Snow)        543      7.7        1222       7.8      2481        7.1      162         6.2
            Sand/Gravel/Dirt          0       0.0        166        1.1       55         0.2       13         0.5
            Mud                      22       0.3         87        0.6       59         0.2       6          0.2
            Slush                    182      2.6        110        0.7      564         1.6       93         3.5
            Oil                       0       0.0         0         0.0       25         0.1       0          0.0
            Unknown                  51       0.7        3069      19.5      168         0.5       16         0.6

            Total                   7048     100.0      15767      100.0    34739       100.0     2632       100.0




                                                                                                                     113
      Table 54:   Roadway Alignment of Collision Site by Region
                                               British Columbia         Western              Central             Atlantic

                  Roadway Alignment            Number   Percent   Number    Percent   Number     Percent   Number     Percent

                  Straight and Level            3156     44.8      9723      61.7     25614        73.7     1360       51.7
                  Straight and Gradient         1376     19.5      663        4.2      3771        10.9     457        17.4
                  Curved and Level              717      10.2      967        6.1      3057        8.8      291        11.1
                  Curved and Gradient           1495     21.2      402        2.5      1875        5.4      361        13.7
                  Top of Hill                    69       1.0      259        1.6       0          0.0       67         2.5
                  Bottom of Hill                 20       0.3      229        1.5       0          0.0       74         2.8
                  Unknown                       215       3.1      3524      22.4      422         1.2       22         0.8

                  Total                         7048     100.0    15767      100.0    34739       100.0     2632       100.0



      Table 55:   Traffic Control of Collision Site by Region
                                               British Columbia         Western              Central             Atlantic

                  Traffic Control              Number   Percent   Number    Percent   Number     Percent   Number     Percent

                  No Control Present            4750     67.4      7900      50.1     23099        66.5     1631       73.1
                  Traffic Signals               1038     14.7      3026      19.2      6989        20.1     237        10.6
                  Stop Sign                     566       8.0      1080       6.8      2869        8.3      136         6.1
                  Yield Sign                     89       1.3      328        2.1      256         0.7       37         1.7
                  Pedestrian Crossover           0        0.0      130        0.8       52         0.1       13         0.6
                  Police Officer                 0        0.0       6         0.0       49         0.1       3          0.1
                  School Guard/Flagperson        57       0.8       7         0.0      115         0.3       20         0.9
                  School Crossing                0        0.0       1         0.0       6          0.0       0          0.0
                  Flashing Signal Light          42       0.6       7         0.0       94         0.3       21         0.9
                  Advisory Sign                  0        0.0       15        0.1       80         0.2      103         4.6
                  School Bus Flashing Lights     0        0.0       0         0.0       44         0.1       3          0.1
                  Railway Crossing               21       0.3       40        0.3       27         0.1       6          0.3
                  Unknown                       485       6.9      3227      20.5      1059        3.0       22         1.0

                  Total                         7048     100.0    15767      100.0    34739       100.0     2232       100.0



      Table 56:   Speed Limit of Collision Site by Region
                                               British Columbia      Western*                Central             Atlantic

                  Speed Limit                  Number   Percent   Number    Percent   Number     Percent   Number     Percent

                  50 km/h or less               2515     35.7      2538      41.8     10923        31.4     784        29.8
                  60 to 90 km/h                 2930     41.6      1673      27.5     14775        42.5     1029       39.1
                  100 km/h or more              1003     14.2      1526      25.1      7365        21.2     497        18.9
                  Unknown                       600       8.5      337        5.5      1676        4.8      322        12.2

                  Total                         7048     100.0     6074      100.0    34739       100.0     2632       100.0

                  * excluding AB




114
                               Environmental Characteristics of Injury Collisions
                                 Involving Heavy Trucks: Canada, 2000-2006

Table 57:   Road Classification of Crash by Region
                               British Columbia         Western              Central          Atlantic

            Classification     Number   Percent   Number    Percent   Number     Percent   Number   Percent

            Urban               3494     49.6      6190      39.3     17764        51.1     1177     44.7
            Rural               3445     48.9      6016      38.2     16551        47.6     1415     53.8
            Unknown             109       1.5      3551      22.5      424         1.2       40       1.5

            Total               7048     100.0    15757      100.0    34739       100.0     2632    100.0


Table 58:   Weather Conditions of Crash by Region
                               British Columbia         Western              Central          Atlantic

            Weather            Number   Percent   Number    Percent   Number     Percent   Number   Percent

            Clear               5432     77.1     12252      77.8     26666        76.8     2012     76.4
            Raining             876      12.4      684        4.3      3464        10.0     221       8.4
            Snowing             559       7.9      1371       8.7      3387        9.7      235       8.9
            Sleet, Hail          7        0.1      140        0.9      317         0.9       37       1.4
            Fog, Smog, Mist     106       1.5      473        3.0      667         1.9       53       2.0
            Dust, Smoke          2        0.0       4         0.0       0          0.0       31       1.2
            Strong Winds         17       0.2      189        1.2      162         0.5       21       0.8
            Unknown              49       0.7      644        4.1       76         0.2       22       0.8

            Total               7048     100      15757       100     34739        100      2632     100


            Light Conditions of Crash by Region
                               British Columbia         Western              Central          Atlantic

Table 59:   Light Conditions   Number   Percent   Number    Percent   Number     Percent   Number   Percent

            Day                 4884     69.3     11239      71.3     26273        75.6     2025     76.9
            Dawn                194       2.8      152        1.0      897         2.6       36       1.4
            Dusk                189       2.7      214        1.4      285         0.8       59       2.2
            Dark                1445     20.5      3458      21.9      5798        16.7     453      17.2
            Artificial Light    287       4.1       10        0.1      1442        4.2       39       1.5
            Unknown              49       0.7      684        4.3       44         0.1       20       0.8

            Total               7048     100.0    15757      100.0    34739       100.0     2632    100.0




                                                                                                              115
      Table 60:   Environmental Conditions of Crash by Region
                                        British Columbia         Western             Central             Atlantic

                  Environmental         Number   Percent   Number    Percent   Number    Percent   Number     Percent

                  Animal Action          123       1.7      141        0.9       0         0.0       52         2.0
                  Slippery Road          386       5.5       37        0.2       0         0.0      252         9.6
                  Drifting Snow           0        0.0      355        2.3       0         0.0       47         1.8
                  Obstruction in Rd       90       1.3       24        0.2       0         0.0       24         0.9
                  View Obstructed        104       1.5      164        1.0       0         0.0       76         2.9
                  Reflections             80       1.1       3         0.0       0         0.0       24         0.9
                  Road Construction      112       1.6       2         0.0       0         0.0       12         0.5
                  Defective Surface       33       0.5       4         0.0       0         0.0       11         0.4
                  Defect. Shoulder        0        0.0       3         0.0       0         0.0       28         1.1
                  Inad Lane Markings      0        0.0       1         0.0       0         0.0       1          0.0
                  Defect Traf Control     10       0.1       0         0.0       0         0.0       0          0.0
                  Wind                    0        0.0       13        0.1       0         0.0       27         1.0
                  Nothing Mentioned      6110     86.7     15010      95.3     34739      100.0     2078       79.0

                  Total                  7048     100      15757       100     34739       100      2632        100




116
                Appendix 3

Characteristics of Fatal Multiple Vehicle
Collisions Involving Heavy Trucks by
                 Region
                       Characteristics of Drivers of Heavy Trucks in Fatal
                    in Multiple Vehicle Fatal Collisions: Canada, 2000-2006

Table 61:           Gender of Driver by Region
                     British Columbia        Western            Central               Atlantic
Gender               Number   Percent   Number    Percent   Number   Percent   Number      Percent
Female                 9         2.3       21      2.8        28      1.7        1            0.7
Male                  368       93.9      726      96.9      1615     96.9      145          98.0
Unknown               15        3.8        2       0.3        23      1.4        2           1.4
Total                 392      100.0      749     100.0      1666     100.0     148         100.0


Table 62:           Age Category of Driver by Region
                     British Columbia        Western            Central               Atlantic
Age Category         Number   Percent   Number    Percent   Number   Percent   Number      Percent
<18                    0         0.0        3       0.4        1       0.1        0           0.0
18-20                  5        1.3         9      1.2        12       0.7        0           0.0
21-25                 18         4.6       72      9.6        92       5.5       11           7.4
26-30                 29         7.4       79      10.5      170      10.2       23          15.5
31-40                 95        24.2      182      24.3      478      28.7       34          23.0
41-50                 139       35.5      219      29.2      488      29.3       41          27.7
51-60                 74        18.9      127      17.0      295      17.7       28          18.9
65+                   17         4.3       55       7.3       82       4.9        9           6.1
Unknown               15        3.8        3       0.4        48       2.9       2            1.4
Total                 392       100       749      100       1666     100       148          100


Table 63:           Safety Equipment Worn by Driver by Region
                     British Columbia        Western            Central               Atlantic
Equipment            Number   Percent   Number    Percent   Number   Percent   Number      Percent
Lap Belt              31         7.9       30      4.0        31       1.9       7            4.7
Shoulder Belt          1         0.3        2       0.3        0       0.0        0           0.0
Lap/Shoulder          243       62.0      335      44.7      1033     62.0       57          38.5
Air Bag Deployed       1        0.3         9      1.2         2       0.1        0           0.0
Other                  1         0.3        3      0.4         0       0.0        0           0.0
Not Used              31         7.9       81      10.8       121      7.3       12           8.1
Nothing Available      9         2.3       20      2.7        109      6.5        0           0.0
Unknown               75        19.1      269      35.9      370      22.2       72          48.6
Total                 392      100.0      749     100.0      1666     100.0     148         100.0


Table 64:           Injury Severity for Driver by Region
                     British Columbia        Western            Central               Atlantic
Injury Severity      Number   Percent   Number    Percent   Number   Percent   Number      Percent
None                  246       62.8      458      61.1      1050     63.0       97          65.5
Minimal                0         0.0      152      20.3      122      7.3        11           7.4
Minor                 34         8.7       36      4.8       330      19.8       29          19.6
Major                  9         2.3      46       6.1        48      2.9        4            2.7
Fatal                 32         8.2       57      7.6       116      7.0        7            4.7
Unspecified           71        18.1       0       0.0         0      0.0        0            0.0
Total                 392      100.0      749     100.0      1666     100.0     148         100.0




                                                                                                     119
      Table 65:          Place of Licence for Driver by Region
                            British Columbia      Western             Central            Atlantic
      Place of Licence      Number   Percent   Number   Percent   Number   Percent   Number   Percent
      In Province            299       76.3     596      79.6      1447      86.9     123       83.1
      Out of Province        78        19.9     149      19.9       218      13.1      25       16.9
      Unknown                15        3.8       4       0.5         1       0.1       0        0.0
      Total                  392      100.0     749     100.0      1666     100.0     148      100.0


      Table 66:          Human Condition by Region
                            British Columbia      Western             Central*           Atlantic
      Human Condition Number         Percent   Number   Percent   Number   Percent   Number   Percent
      Inattention             23        5.9      16       2.1       41        4.5      13        8.8
      Inexperience            10        2.6       1       0.1        0        0.0      2         1.4
      Fatigue                 2         0.5      5        0.7        4        0.4      0         0.0
      Fell Asleep              0        0.0       0       0.0        0        0.0      4         2.7
      Lost Consciousnes        1        0.3       0       0.0        0        0.0      2         1.4
      Sudden Illness           0        0.0       1       0.1        0        0.0      2         1.4
      Med/Phys Disability      0        0.0       0       0.0        1        0.1      0         0.0
      Drinking                3         0.8      11       1.5        5        0.6      0         0.0
      Impaired by Alcoho       2        0.5       0       0.0        4        0.4      0         0.0
      Illicit Drugs            1        0.3       0       0.0        1        0.1      0         0.0
      Prescription Drugs       0        0.0       0       0.0        0        0.0      0         0.0
      Impaired- Unspec.        0        0.0       3       0.4        0        0.0      0         0.0
      Suicide Attempt          0        0.0       0       0.0        0        0.0      0         0.0
      Nothing Mentioned      350       89.3     712      95.1      846       93.8     125       84.5
      Total                  392      100.0     749     100.0      902      100.0     148      100.0
      * excluding QC


      Table 67:          Human Action by Region
                            British Columbia      Western             Central*           Atlantic
      Human Action          Number   Percent   Number   Percent   Number   Percent   Number   Percent
      Following Close         3        0.8      12       1.6       10        1.1       0         0.0
      Turning Improperly      0         0.0       0       0.0        5        0.6      0         0.0
      Fast for Conditions     33        8.4      10       1.3       38        4.2      3         2.0
      Exceed Speed Lim        2         0.5       0       0.0        5        0.6      0         0.0
      Improper Lane Chg       4         1.0      22       2.9       18        2.0      1         0.7
      Failure to Yield        6         1.5      13       1.7       20        2.2      4         2.7
      Disobey Tr Control      8         2.0      30       4.0       29        3.2      0         0.0
      Drive- Wrong Direc      21        5.4      14       1.9        1        0.1      0         0.0
      Backing Unsafely        0        0.0       0       0.0         0        0.0      0         0.0
      Lost Control            0         0.0      0        0.0       19        2.1      1         0.7
      Pedestrian Error        0         0.0      0        0.0        0        0.0      1         0.7
      Nothing Mentioned      315       80.4     648      86.5      757       83.9     138       93.2
      Total                  392      100.0     749     100.0      902      100.0     148      100.0
      * excluding QC




120
                    Crash Characteristics of Multiple Vehicle Fatal Collisions
                          Involving Heavy Trucks: Canada, 2000-2006

Table 68:           Persons Killed in Crash by Region
                      British Columbia      Western             Central                Atlantic
Killed               Number    Percent   Number   Percent   Number   Percent    Number      Percent
One                    278       80.8     573      82.8      1262     86.6       119          85.6
Two                    51        14.8     91       13.2      151      10.4       15           10.8
Three or More          15        4.4      28        4.0       45       3.1        5           3.6
Total                  344      100.0     692     100.0      1458     100.0      139         100.0


Table 69:           Drivers of Heavy Trucks Killed in Crash by Region
                      British Columbia      Western             Central                Atlantic
HTD Killed           Number    Percent   Number   Percent   Number   Percent    Number      Percent
None                   315       91.6     637      92.1      1349     92.5       133          95.7
One                    27         7.8     51        7.4      100      6.9         6           4.3
Two                     2         0.6      4        0.6       9        0.6        0           0.0
Three or More           0        0.0       0       0.0        0       0.0         0           0.0
Total                  344       8.4      692       7.9      1458         7.5    139              4.3


Table 70:           Persons Injured in Crash by Region
                      British Columbia      Western             Central                Atlantic
Injured              Number    Percent   Number   Percent   Number   Percent    Number      Percent
None                   156       45.3     307      44.4      662      45.4        64          46.0
One                    114       33.1     244      35.3      480      32.9        53          38.1
Two                    34         9.9      86      12.4      173      11.9        11          7.9
Three or More          40        11.6     55        7.9      143       9.8        11          7.9
Total                  344      100.0     692     100.0      1458     100.0      139         100.0


Table 71:           Drivers of Heavy Trucks Injured in Crash by Region
                      British Columbia      Western             Central                Atlantic
HTD Injured          Number    Percent   Number   Percent   Number   Percent    Number      Percent
None                   236       68.6     465      67.2      987      67.7        97          69.8
One                    103       29.9     222      32.1      448      30.7        42          30.2
Two                     4         1.2      3        0.4       20       1.4         0          0.0
Three or More           1        0.3       2        0.3       3        0.2        0           0.0
Total                  344       100      692      100       1458       100      139          100

Table 72:           Number of Vehicles Involved in Crash by Region
                      British Columbia      Western             Central                Atlantic
Vehicles Involved    Number    Percent   Number   Percent   Number   Percent    Number      Percent
One                     0         0.0      0        0.0       0        0.0        0            0.0
Two                    287       83.4     599      86.6      1121     76.9       123          88.5
Three or More          57        16.6     93       13.4      337      23.1       16           11.5
Total                  344      100.0     692     100.0      1458     100.0      139         100.0




                                                                                                        121
      Table 73:             Configuration of Crash by Region
                             British Columbia             Western                  Central               Atlantic
      Configuration          Number     Percent    Number      Percent      Number      Percent   Number       Percent
      Hit Person/Object         0          0.0        6             0.9      115          7.9        4            2.9
      Off Road Left             10         2.9        9             1.3        0          0.0        3            2.2
      Off Road Right             4         1.2        3             0.4        0          0.0        0            0.0
      Rear End                 30          8.7       104           15.0      166         11.4       11           7.9
      Sideswipe                 0          0.0       14             2.0      112          7.7        2            1.4
      Passing Left              0          0.0       14             2.0       36          2.5        2            1.4
      Passing Right             5          1.5        0             0.0       11          0.8        3           2.2
      Head On                  201        58.4       280           40.5      563         38.6       75           54.0
      Left Turn                20          5.8       46             6.6      130          8.9       10           7.2
      Right Turn               36         10.5        7             1.0      132          9.1       13            9.4
      Other                     35        10.2       186           26.9      118          8.1       14           10.1
      Unknown                   3          0.9       23             3.3       75          5.1        2            1.4
      Total                    344       100.0       692           100.0     1458        100.0      139         100.0


      Table 74:             Hit and Run Crashes by Region
                             British Columbia             Western                  Central               Atlantic*
      Hit and Run            Number     Percent    Number      Percent      Number      Percent   Number       Percent
      No                       339        98.5       684           98.8      1432        98.2       37          100.0
      Yes                       5          1.5        8             1.2       20          1.4        0           0.0
      Unknown                   0          0.0        0            0.0        6           0.4       0            0.0
      Total                    344       100.0       692           100.0     1458        100.0      37          100.0
      * excluding NB, NS




                    Temporal Characteristics of Multiple Vehicle Fatal Collisions
                          Involving Heavy Trucks: Canada, 2000-2006

      Table 75:       Month of Crash by Region
                           British Columbia              Western               Central                   Atlantic
      Month               Number      Percent     Number     Percent       Number      Percent    Number      Percent
      January               36         10.5         40          5.8         124          8.5        12           8.6
      February              35         10.2         56          8.1         122          8.4         6           4.3
      March                 27          7.8         54          7.8         121          8.3        12           8.6
      April                 19          5.5         39          5.6          78          5.3         4           2.9
      May                   18          5.2         42          6.1         118         8.1          8           5.8
      June                  21          6.1         60          8.7         118         8.1         10           7.2
      July                  22          6.4         65          9.4         109         7.5         15          10.8
      August                26          7.6         69         10.0         152         10.4        13           9.4
      September             31         9.0          68         9.8          135         9.3         15          10.8
      October               32          9.3         69         10.0         124          8.5        13           9.4
      November              37         10.8         60          8.7         124         8.5         14          10.1
      December              40         11.6         70         10.1         133         9.1         17          12.2
      Total                 344       100.0        692        100.0         1458        100.0      139          100.0




122
Table 76:         Time of Crash by Region
                   British Columbia                Western                    Central                   Atlantic
Time              Number      Percent           Number       Percent      Number     Percent     Number      Percent
Midnight to 559     49           14.2             83          12.0         173         11.9        11           7.9
600 to 1159         99           28.8            219          31.6         467         32.0        39          28.1
1200 to 1759        126          36.6            243          35.1         553         37.9        64          46.0
1800 to 2359        64           18.6            138          19.9         264         18.1        24          17.3
Unknown              6           1.7              9           1.3           1           0.1        1            0.7
Total               344          100             692          100          1458        100        139          100

Table 77:         Day of Week of Crash by Region
                   British Columbia                Western                    Central                   Atlantic
Day of Week       Number      Percent           Number       Percent      Number     Percent     Number      Percent
Monday              40           11.6             77          11.1         169         11.6        10           7.2
Tuesday             42           12.2             82          11.8         211         14.5        20          14.4
Wednesday           57           16.6             98          14.2         243         16.7        24          17.3
Thursday            61           17.7            113          16.3         256         17.6        14          10.1
Friday              69           20.1            139          20.1         310         21.3        35          25.2
Saturday            61           17.7            163          23.6         229         15.7        31          22.3
Sunday              14            4.1             20           2.9          40          2.7        5            3.6
Total               344          100.0           692         100.0         1458       100.0       139         100.0




                      Vehicle Characteristics of Drivers of Heavy Trucks
                   in Multiple Vehicle Fatal Collisions: Canada, 2000-2006

Table 78:                Vehicle Age by Region
                          British Columbia               Western                   Central              Atlantic
Vehicle Age               Number    Percent        Number       Percent     Number     Percent   Number       Percent
<1 Year                     20            5.1          76        10.1        159         9.5       15          10.1
1 Year                      27            6.9          72        9.6         201         12.1      11           7.4
2 Years                     34            8.7           68        9.1        169         10.1       8           5.4
3 Years                     29            7.4          59        7.9         184         11.0      11           7.4
4 Years                     20            5.1          55        7.3         165         9.9       14           9.5
5 Years                     25            6.4          54        7.2         151         9.1       11           7.4
6-10 Years                  73           18.6          162       21.6        379         22.7      25          16.9
11-15 Years                 16            4.1           67        8.9        137          8.2      11           7.4
16-20 Years                 10            2.6           30        4.0         58          3.5       9          6.1
>20 Years                   5            1.3           21        2.8         25          1.5       4           2.7
Unknown                    133           33.9          85        11.3         38         2.3       29          19.6
Total                      392           100           749        100        1666        100       148             100




                                                                                                                         123
      Table 79:                Vehicle Manoeuvre by Region
                                British Columbia               Western           Central           Atlantic
      Manoeuvre                Number      Percent      Number     Percent   Number   Percent   Number   Percent
      Going Straight              288        73.5            235    85.1      1318     79.1      132      89.2
      Turning Left                 13         3.3             8      2.9       42       2.5       6        4.1
      Turning Right                 6         1.5             0      0.0       27       1.6       3        2.0
      Making U-Turn                 0         0.0              1     0.4        2       0.1       0        0.0
      Changing Lanes                2         0.5              3     1.1       20       1.2       0        0.0
      Merging                       0         0.0             1      0.4        9       0.5       0        0.0
      Reversing                     0         0.0              1     0.4       27       1.6       2        1.4
      Overtaking                    4         1.0             7      2.5       21       1.3       0        0.0
      Slowing/Stopping              9         2.3             15     5.4       65       3.9       1        0.7
      Stopped in Traffic            9         2.3             0      0.0       36       2.2       1        0.7
      Start in Traffic              1         0.3             1      0.4        7       0.4       0        0.0
      Start from Parked             0         0.0              0     0.0        0       0.0       0        0.0
      Enter Parked Pos              0         0.0              0     0.0        2       0.1       0        0.0
      Parked Legally               11         2.8             1      0.4       22       1.3       1        0.7
      Parked Illegally             2          0.5             0      0.0        2       0.1       2        1.4
      Swerve to Avoid               5         1.3              2     0.7        2       0.1       0        0.0
      Stopped/Parked                0         0.0              0     0.0       39       2.3       0        0.0
      Other Manoeuvre              37         9.4              1     0.4       24       1.4       0        0.0
      Unknown                       5         1.3             0      0.0        1       0.1       0        0.0
      Total                       392       100.0            276    100.0     1666    100.0      148     100.0
      * excluding AB


      Table 80:                Vehicle Condition by Region
                                British Columbia               Western          Central*           Atlantic
      Condition                Number      Percent      Number     Percent   Number   Percent   Number   Percent
      Brakes                       4          1.0             5      0.7       11       1.2       3        2.0
      Steering                     0          0.0             0      0.0       0       0.0        1       0.7
      Vehicle Lights**             0          0.0             2     0.3        0       0.0        0       0.0
      Engine, Train                0          0.0             0      0.0       0       0.0        0       0.0
      Wheels, Suspension           1          0.3             0      0.0       1        0.1       0        0.0
      Tires                        1          0.3             1      0.1       2        0.2       0       0.0
      Oversize, Overload           5          1.3             2      0.3       0        0.0       0        0.0
      Modifications                0         0.0              0     0.0        0       0.0        0       0.0
      Jackknife                    0         0.0              0     0.0        0       0.0        1       0.7
      Nothing Mentioned           381        97.2            739    98.7      888      98.4      143      96.6
      Total                       392       100.0            749    100.0     902     100.0      148     100.0
      * excluding QC
      ** headlights, tail lights, and lights non-specified




124
         Roadway Characteristics of Multiple Vehicle Fatal Collision Sites
                 Involving Heavy Trucks: Canada, 2000-2006
Table 81:                      Roadway Configuration of Collision Site by Region
                               British Columbia      Western             Central           Atlantic
Traffic Control                Number   Percent   Number   Percent   Number   Percent   Number   Percent
Non-intersection                 253     73.5      391      56.5      922      63.2       19       13.7
Intersection of > One Road       65      18.9      261      37.7      310      21.3       32       23.0
Intersection w. Traf Control      0       0.0        0       0.0      100       6.9        0        0.0
Intersection with Private Rd      5       1.5       8       1.2       49       3.4        11       7.9
RR Level Crossing                 0       0.0        1       0.1       11       0.8        0        0.0
Bridge, Overpass                  10      2.9        5       0.7       14       1.0        1        0.7
Tunnel, Underpass                 2       0.6        0       0.0       1       0.1         0       0.0
Parking Lot                        0      0.0        0       0.0        0       0.0        0        0.0
Off Road                           0      0.0        1       0.1        0       0.0        0        0.0
Other Site                         8      2.3        1       0.1       36       2.5        6        4.3
Unknown                           1      0.3        24       3.5      15       1.0        70       50.4
Total                            344     100.0     692     100.0      1458    100.0      139      100.0


Table 82:                      Road Category of Collision Site by Region
                               British Columbia      Western            Central*           Atlantic**
Road Category                  Number   Percent   Number   Percent   Number   Percent   Number   Percent
Undivided                        276     80.2      190      27.5      600      77.5       64       68.8
Divided                          24      7.0       144      20.8      149      19.3       6        6.5
Freeway                           34      9.9       0        0.0       17       2.2        0        0.0
Interchange Ramp                   0      0.0       0        0.0        8       1.0        0        0.0
Other                              0      0.0       9        1.3        0       0.0        0        0.0
Not Applicable                    2      0.6        1        0.1       0        0.0        0        0.0
Unknown                           8      2.3       348      50.3        0       0.0       23       24.7
Total                            344     100.0     692     100.0      774     100.0       93      100.0
* excluding QC
** excluding NS


Table 83:                      Road Material of Collision Site by Region
                               British Columbia      Western*            Central           Atlantic
Road Material                  Number   Percent   Number   Percent   Number   Percent   Number   Percent
Asphalt                          330     95.9      217      40.4      1406     96.4      131       94.2
Concrete                          2      0.6        7       1.3        17      1.2        2        1.4
Gravel                            9       2.6       11       2.0       29       2.0       0         0.0
Earth, Dirt                       1       0.3       0        0.0        2      0.1        1         0.7
Unknown                           2      0.6       302      56.2        4      0.3        5        3.6
Total                            344     100.0     537     100.0      1458    100.0      139      100.0
* excluding SK




                                                                                                           125
      Table 84:                    Road Surface of Collision Site by Region
                                   British Columbia      Western             Central           Atlantic
      Road Surface                 Number   Percent   Number   Percent   Number   Percent   Number   Percent
      Dry, Normal                    178     51.7      485      70.1      932      63.9       77      55.4
      Wet                            70      20.3      58        8.4      260      17.8       33      23.7
      Snow (Loose)                   26       7.6       12       1.7       96       6.6       13       9.4
      Ice (Packed Snow)              42      12.2       30       4.3      128       8.8        6       4.3
      Sand/Gravel/Dirt                 0      0.0       10       1.4       0        0.0        0       0.0
      Mud                             0      0.0        0        0.0       0        0.0        0       0.0
      Slush                           28      8.1        3       0.4       32       2.2        8       5.8
      Oil                             0       0.0       0        0.0       1        0.1        0       0.0
      Unknown                         0      0.0       94       13.6       9        0.6        2       1.4
      Total                          344     100.0     692     100.0      1458    100.0      139     100.0


      Table 85:                    Roadway Alignment of Collision Site by Region
                                   British Columbia      Western             Central           Atlantic
      Roadway Alignment            Number   Percent   Number   Percent   Number   Percent   Number   Percent
      Straight and Level             118     34.3      502      72.5      938      64.3       65      46.8
      Straight and Gradient           61     17.7       39       5.6      209      14.3       31      22.3
      Curved and Level               52      15.1       63       9.1      186      12.8       17      12.2
      Curved and Gradient            106     30.8       27       3.9      118       8.1       19      13.7
      Top of Hill                      2      0.6        9       1.3       0        0.0        4       2.9
      Bottom of Hill                   1      0.3       10       1.4       0        0.0        2       1.4
      Unknown                         4      1.2       42        6.1       7        0.5       1        0.7
      Total                          344     100.0     692     100.0      1458    100.0      139     100.0


      Table 86:                    Traffic Control of Collision Site by Region
                                   British Columbia      Western             Central           Atlantic
      Traffic Control              Number   Percent   Number   Percent   Number   Percent   Number   Percent
      No Control Present             282     82.0      487      70.4      1091     74.8      114      82.0
      Traffic Signals                19       5.5       41       5.9       131      9.0       2       1.4
      Stop Sign                      27      7.8       77       11.1      160      11.0       7       5.0
      Yield Sign                      0       0.0       12       1.7        4       0.3       1       0.7
      Pedestrian Crossover            0       0.0       0        0.0        0       0.0       0       0.0
      Police Officer                  0      0.0        0        0.0        2       0.1       0        0.0
      School Guard/Flagperson         5       1.5       0        0.0        3       0.2       0        0.0
      Flashing Signal Light           0       0.0        2       0.3        13      0.9       1        0.7
      Advisory Sign                   0       0.0        3       0.4        3       0.2       1        0.7
      School Bus Flashing Lights      0       0.0        0       0.0        2       0.1       0        0.0
      Railway Crossing                0       0.0        1       0.1        3       0.2       0        0.0
      Unknown                        11      3.2       69       10.0       46      3.2       13       9.4
      Total                          344     100.0     692     100.0      1458    100.0      139     100.0


      Table 87:                    Speed Limit of Collision Site by Region
                                   British Columbia      Western*            Central           Atlantic
      Speed Limit                  Number   Percent   Number   Percent   Number   Percent   Number   Percent
      50 km/h or less                 42     12.2       26      10.3       124      8.5       13       9.4
      60 to 90 km/h                  190     55.2      56       22.1      1031     70.7       65      46.8
      100 km/h or more               90      26.2      155      61.3       227     15.6       58      41.7
      Unknown                        22       6.4      16        6.3        76      5.2        3       2.2
      Total                          344     100.0     253     100.0      1458    100.0      139     100.0
      * excluding AB



126
                   Environmental Characteristics of Multiple Vehicle Fatal
                   Collisions Involving Heavy Trucks: Canada, 2000-2006

Table 88:            Road Classification of Crash by Region
                      British Columbia      Western             Central           Atlantic
Classification        Number   Percent   Number   Percent   Number   Percent   Number   Percent
Urban                   72      20.9       94      13.6       316     21.7       27      19.4
Rural                  268      77.9      527      76.2      1132     77.6      112      80.6
Unknown                 4       1.2        71      10.3       10       0.7       0        0.0
Total                  344      100.0     692     100.0      1458    100.0      139     100.0

Table 89:            Weather Conditions of Crash by Region
                      British Columbia      Western             Central           Atlantic
Weather               Number   Percent   Number   Percent   Number   Percent   Number   Percent
Clear                  245      71.2      541      78.2      1095     75.1      101      72.7
Raining                34       9.9       28       4.0       122       8.4       13       9.4
Snowing                55       16.0       56       8.1       153     10.5       13       9.4
Sleet, Hail             1       0.3         7       1.0       21       1.4       5        3.6
Fog, Smog, Mist         6       1.7        37       5.3       58       4.0       6        4.3
Dust, Smoke             1       0.3         0       0.0        0       0.0        1       0.7
Strong Winds            1       0.3        13       1.9        7       0.5       0        0.0
Unknown                 1       0.3        10       1.4        2       0.1       0        0.0
Total                  344      100       692      100       1458     100       139      100

Table 90:            Light Conditions of Crash by Region
                      British Columbia      Western             Central           Atlantic
Light Conditions      Number   Percent   Number   Percent   Number   Percent   Number   Percent
Day                    202      58.7      443      64.0      981      67.3      100      71.9
Dawn                   12       3.5        8        1.2       45       3.1        6       4.3
Dusk                    8       2.3        12       1.7       16       1.1        4       2.9
Dark                   109      31.7      212      30.6      366      25.1       29      20.9
Artificial Light       12       3.5        0       0.0        48       3.3        0       0.0
Unknown                 1       0.3       17       2.5         2       0.1        0       0.0
Total                  344      100.0     692     100.0      1458    100.0      139     100.0

Table 91:            Environmental Conditions of Crash by Region
                      British Columbia      Western             Central           Atlantic
Environmental         Number   Percent   Number   Percent   Number   Percent   Number   Percent
Animal Action            5       1.5        0       0.0        0      0.0        0        0.0
Slippery Road           23       6.7        1       0.1        0      0.0        12       8.6
Drifting Snow            0       0.0       14       2.0        0      0.0        3        2.2
Obstruction in Rd        1       0.3       1        0.1        0      0.0        0        0.0
View Obstructed          7       2.0       15       2.2        0      0.0        5        3.6
Reflections              1       0.3        0       0.0        0      0.0         2       1.4
Road Construction       10       2.9       0        0.0        0      0.0        0       0.0
Defective Surface       2        0.6       0        0.0        0      0.0        0        0.0
Defect. Shoulder         0       0.0        0       0.0        0      0.0        0        0.0
Wind                     0       0.0        0       0.0        0      0.0         1       0.7
Nothing Mentioned      295      85.8      661      95.5      1458    100.0      116      83.5
Total                  344      100       692      100       1458     100       139      100


                                                                                                  127
                Appendix 4

Characteristics of Injury Multiple Vehicle
Collisions Involving Heavy Trucks by
                 Region
                       Characteristics of Drivers of Heavy Trucks in Injury
                    Collisions Involving Multiple Vehicles: Canada, 2000-2006

Table 92:            Gender of Driver by Region
                      British Columbia        Western            Central            Atlantic
Gender                Number   Percent   Number    Percent   Number   Percent   Number   Percent
Female                 148       2.7       1101     8.9       749       2.4        38       1.8
Male                   4959      90.6     10635     86.0     30085     94.6      1286      62.0
Unknown                367       6.7       634      5.1       978       3.1       751      36.2
Total                  5474     100.0     12370    100.0     31812     100.0     2075     100.0


Table 93:            Age Category of Driver by Region
                      British Columbia        Western            Central            Atlantic
Age Category          Number   Percent   Number    Percent   Number   Percent   Number   Percent
<18                      15      0.3        127      1.0       56       0.2        7        0.3
18-20                  102       1.9       511      4.1        474      1.5       32        1.5
21-25                   382      7.0       1251     10.1      2048      6.4      125        6.0
26-30                  545       10.0      1360     11.0      3410     10.7      238       11.5
31-40                  1484      27.1      2903     23.5      8902     28.0      542       26.1
41-50                  1400      25.6      2907     23.5      8373     26.3      508       24.5
51-60                  844       15.4      1643     13.3      5039     15.8      313       15.1
65+                     329      6.0       684       5.5      1488      4.7      109        5.3
Unknown                373       6.8       984      8.0       2022      6.4      201        9.7
Total                  5474      100      12370     100      31812     100       2075      100


Table 94:            Safety Equipment Worn by Driver by Region
                      British Columbia        Western            Central            Atlantic
Equipment             Number   Percent   Number    Percent   Number   Percent   Number   Percent
Lap Belt                380      6.9       592      4.8       512       1.6       68        3.3
Shoulder Belt            1       0.0       108      0.9        0        0.0        0        0.0
Lap/Shoulder           3790      69.2      6176     49.9     18966     59.6       800      38.6
Air Bag Deployed         12      0.2       338      2.7       15        0.0        2        0.1
Other                     4       0.1       18       0.1       1        0.0         1       0.0
Child Seat                1       0.0        0       0.0       0        0.0         0       0.0
Helmet Worn               0       0.0        0       0.0       4        0.0         2       0.1
Not Used               166       3.0       478      3.9       514       1.6        72       3.5
Nothing Available        13      0.2         0      0.0       119       0.4        7        0.3
Unknown                1107      20.2      4660     37.7     11681     36.7      1123      54.1
Total                  5474     100.0     12370    100.0     31812     100.0     2075     100.0


Table 95:            Injury Severity for Driver by Region
                      British Columbia        Western            Central            Atlantic
Injury Severity       Number   Percent   Number    Percent   Number   Percent   Number   Percent
None                   4512      82.4      9568     77.3     27223     85.6      1774      85.5
Minimal                  0       0.0       2016     16.3      1356      4.3       89        4.3
Minor                   254      4.6       408      3.3       2929      9.2       179       8.6
Major                    41      0.7       269      2.2       304       1.0       30       1.4
Unspecified            667       12.2      109      0.9         0       0.0        3       0.1
Total                  5474     100.0     12370    100.0     31812     100.0     2075     100.0




                                                                                                   131
      Table 96:             Place of Licence for Driver by Region
                             British Columbia       Western             Central            Atlantic
      Place of Licence       Number   Percent   Number   Percent    Number   Percent   Number   Percent
      In Province             4511      82.4    10784     87.2      27753      87.2     1703      82.1
      Out of Province         595       10.9    1343      10.9      3313       10.4      305      14.7
      Unknown                 368       6.7      243       2.0       746        2.3       67       3.2
      Total                   5474     100.0    12370    100.0      31812     100.0     2075     100.0


      Table 97:             Human Condition by Region
                             British Columbia       Western             Central*           Atlantic
      Human Condition        Number   Percent   Number   Percent    Number   Percent   Number   Percent
      Inattention              796      14.5     486       3.9       1789       9.7      619      29.8
      Inexperience             196      3.6       37      0.3          0        0.0      28        1.3
      Fatigue                   15       0.3      49       0.4        47        0.3       4        0.2
      Fell Asleep               14      0.3        0      0.0          0        0.0       3        0.1
      Lost Consciousness        4       0.1        3      0.0          0        0.0       2        0.1
      Sudden Illness            5       0.1       27      0.2          0        0.0       3        0.1
      Med/Phys Disability       5       0.1        0      0.0         17        0.1       0        0.0
      Drinking                  50      0.9      110       0.9        36        0.2       5        0.2
      Impaired by Alcohol       12      0.2        2      0.0         38        0.2       3        0.1
      Illicit Drugs             12      0.2        0      0.0          6        0.0       0        0.0
      Prescription Drugs        4       0.1        6      0.0          0        0.0       0        0.0
      Impaired- Unspec.         0       0.0       25      0.2          0        0.0       0        0.0
      Suicide Attempt            0       0.0       0       0.0         0        0.0       0        0.0
      Nothing Mentioned       4361      79.7    11625     94.0      16521      89.5     1408      67.9
      Total                   5474     100.0    12370    100.0      18454     100.0     2075     100.0
      * excluding QC


      Table 98:             Human Action by Region
                             British Columbia       Western             Central*           Atlantic
      Human Action           Number   Percent   Number   Percent    Number   Percent   Number   Percent
      Following Close          573      10.5     1300     10.5       2253      12.2      106       5.1
      Turning Improperly       140       2.6       6       0.0        633       3.4      28        1.3
      Fast for Conditions      300      5.5      184      1.5         780       4.2      48        2.3
      Exceed Speed Limit        41      0.7        5      0.0         83        0.4       6        0.3
      Improper Lane Chg        172      3.1      636      5.1        1508       8.2      59        2.8
      Failure to Yield         355      6.5      343      2.8        1127       6.1      101       4.9
      Disobey Tr Control       151      2.8      665      5.4         583       3.2      26        1.3
      Drive- Wrong Direct       92      1.7      105      0.8         11        0.1       6        0.3
      Backing Unsafely          50      0.9      135      1.1          0        0.0      31        1.5
      Lost Control              0       0.0       16      0.1         472       2.6       3        0.1
      Pedestrian Error          4        0.1       0       0.0         0        0.0       1        0.0
      Failure to Signal         24       0.4       1      0.0          0        0.0       3        0.1
      Nothing Mentioned       3572      65.3     8974     72.5      11004      59.6     1657      79.9
      Total                   5474     100.0    12370    100.0      18454     100.0     2075     100.0
      * excluding QC




132
                    Crash Characteristics of Multiple Vehicle Injury Collisions
                          Involving Heavy Trucks: Canada, 2000-2006

Table 99:            Persons Injured in Crash by Region
                      British Columbia       Western            Central             Atlantic
Injured               Number   Percent   Number   Percent   Number    Percent   Number   Percent
One                    3469      68.5     8244     70.8     21330      72.1      1427      72.3
Two                    1111      21.9     2374     20.4      5812      19.7       390      19.8
Three or More           487      9.6      1031     8.9       2422       8.2      157       8.0
Total                  5067     100.0    11649    100.0     29564     100.0      1974     100.0


Table 100:           Drivers of Heavy Trucks Injured in Crash by Region
                      British Columbia       Western            Central             Atlantic
HTD Injured           Number   Percent   Number   Percent   Number    Percent   Number   Percent
None                   4169      82.3     9009     77.3     25213      85.3      1690      85.6
One                     837      16.5     2508     21.5      4133      14.0       269      13.6
Two                     59        1.2      128      1.1      208        0.7        15       0.8
Three or More            2       0.0        4      0.0        10        0.0        0        0.0
Total                  5067      100     11649     100      29564      100       1974      100


Table 101:           Number of Vehicles Involved in Crash by Region
                      British Columbia       Western            Central             Atlantic
Vehicles Involved     Number   Percent   Number   Percent   Number    Percent   Number   Percent
One                      0        0.0       0       0.0        0        0.0       0         0.0
Two                    4048      79.9     9985     85.7     23211      78.5      1712      86.7
Three or More          1019      20.1     1664     14.3      6353      21.5      262       13.3
Total                  5067     100.0    11649    100.0     29564     100.0      1974     100.0


Table 102:           Configuration of Crash by Region
                      British Columbia       Western            Central             Atlantic
Configuration         Number   Percent   Number   Percent   Number    Percent   Number   Percent
Hit Person/Object        0        0.0      185      1.6      2388       8.1       98        5.0
Off Road Left           96        1.9       66      0.6        0        0.0       19        1.0
Off Road Right          95       1.9       45      0.4         0        0.0       11        0.6
Rear End               1632      32.2     4718     40.5      9618      32.5      588       29.8
Sideswipe               21       0.4      832      7.1       3991      13.5       71        3.6
Passing Left             0        0.0     277      2.4       1035       3.5      115       5.8
Passing Right           281       5.5      173      1.5       825       2.8       99        5.0
Head On                874       17.2     837      7.2       2089       7.1      288       14.6
Left Turn               515      10.2     919      7.9       3535      12.0       96        4.9
Right Turn              703      13.9      92       0.8      2082       7.0      235       11.9
Other                   654      12.9     2906     24.9      2323       7.9      329       16.7
Unknown                196       3.9      599      5.1       1678       5.7       25        1.3
Total                  5067     100.0    11649    100.0     29564     100.0      1974     100.0




                                                                                                   133
      Table 103:            Hit and Run Crashes by Region
                             British Columbia              Western                 Central                Atlantic*
      Hit and Run            Number     Percent     Number      Percent    Number       Percent    Number       Percent
      No                      4933       97.4        11286       96.9       27779        94.0       408           99.5
      Yes                      134        2.6         361         3.1        1724         5.8        2             0.5
      Unknown                   0         0.0          2         0.0          61          0.2        0             0.0
      Total                   5067       100.0       11649      100.0       29564        100.0      410          100.0
      * excluding NB, NS

                   Temporal Characteristics of Multiple Vehicle Injury Collisions
                          Involving Heavy Trucks: Canada, 2000-2006

      Table 104:        Month of Crash by Region
                         British Columbia             Western                 Central                 Atlantic
      Month             Number       Percent      Number     Percent      Number      Percent     Number       Percent
      January              498         9.8         1200       10.3         3029        10.2        238          12.1
      February             371         7.3          955        8.2         2588         8.8        219          11.1
      March                415         8.2          977        8.4         2119         7.2        149           7.5
      April                313         6.2          615        5.3         1820         6.2        107           5.4
      May                  351         6.9          758        6.5         2178         7.4        109           5.5
      June                 397         7.8          968        8.3         2531         8.6        152          7.7
      July                 397         7.8          902        7.7         2420        8.2         162          8.2
      August               464         9.2         1013       8.7          2579        8.7         168          8.5
      September            387         7.6          946        8.1         2432         8.2        174           8.8
      October              472         9.3         1029        8.8         2538         8.6        138          7.0
      November             497        9.8          1085        9.3         2536        8.6         165          8.4
      December             505        10.0         1201       10.3         2794        9.5         193          9.8
      Total                5067       100.0       11649       100.0       29564        100.0       1974         100.0

      Table 105:        Time of Crash by Region
                         British Columbia             Western                 Central                 Atlantic
      Time              Number       Percent      Number     Percent      Number      Percent     Number       Percent
      Midnight to 559       327       6.5          590        5.1         1856         6.3         71           3.6
      600 to 1159          1741       34.4         3683       31.6        10690        36.2        677          34.3
      1200 to 1759         2151       42.5         5357       46.0        12612        42.7        891          45.1
      1800 to 2359          746       14.7         1814       15.6         4249        14.4        285          14.4
      Unknown              102        2.0          205        1.8          157         0.5          50          2.5
      Total                5067       100         11649        100        29564         100        1974          100

      Table 106:        Day of Week of Crash by Region
                         British Columbia             Western                 Central                 Atlantic
      Day of Week       Number       Percent      Number     Percent      Number      Percent     Number       Percent
      Monday                552       10.9         1243       10.7         3432        11.6        229          11.6
      Tuesday               743       14.7         1756       15.1         4722        16.0        290          14.7
      Wednesday             854       16.9         1866       16.0         5098        17.2        344          17.4
      Thursday              869       17.2         2021       17.3         5443        18.4        357          18.1
      Friday               1042       20.6         2381       20.4         6234        21.1        400          20.3
      Saturday             838        16.5         2047       17.6         4048        13.7        310          15.7
      Sunday               169        3.3          329        2.8           587        2.0          44          2.2
      Unknown                0        0.0           6          0.1           0          0.0         0            0.0
                           5067       100.0       11649       100.0       29564        100.0       1974         100.0



134
                     Vehicle Characteristics of Drivers of Heavy Trucks in
                     Multiple Vehicle Injury Collisions: Canada, 2000-2006

Table 107:            Vehicle Age by Region
                       British Columbia      Western             Central           Atlantic
Vehicle Age            Number   Percent   Number   Percent   Number   Percent   Number   Percent
<1 Year                  259      4.7       685      5.5      2591      8.1      104       5.0
1 Year                   313      5.7       837      6.8      3213     10.1      141       6.8
2 Years                  297      5.4       822      6.6      3000      9.4      142       6.8
3 Years                  284      5.2       764      6.2      2871      9.0      154       7.4
4 Years                  271      5.0       739      6.0      2763      8.7      143       6.9
5 Years                  298      5.4       692      5.6      2721      8.6      147       7.1
6-10 Years              1135     20.7      2380     19.2      7871     24.7      459      22.1
11-15 Years              667     12.2      1211      9.8      3413     10.7      244      11.8
16-20 Years              285      5.2       489      4.0      1224      3.8       98       4.7
>20 Years                196      3.6       423      3.4       365      1.1       65       3.1
Unknown                 1469     26.8      3328     26.9      1780     5.6       378      18.2
Total                   5474     100      12370     100      31812     100       2075     100


Table 108:            Vehicle Manoeuvre by Region
                       British Columbia      Western             Central           Atlantic
Manoeuvre              Number   Percent   Number   Percent   Number   Percent   Number   Percent
Going Straight          3032     55.4      2479     53.1     18356     57.7      1259     60.7
Turning Left             528      9.6       437      9.4      2396      7.5       151      7.3
Turning Right            242      4.4       166      3.6      1209      3.8       103      5.0
Making U-Turn             20      0.4        17      0.4        78      0.2         7      0.3
Changing Lanes           173      3.2        93      2.0      1911      6.0        39      1.9
Merging                   36      0.7        28      0.6       295      0.9        13      0.6
Reversing                 79      1.4        50      1.1       591      1.9        75      3.6
Overtaking                61      1.1        59      1.3       436      1.4        58      2.8
Slowing/Stopping         334      6.1       632     13.5      2655      8.3       133      6.4
Stopped in Traffic       230      4.2        14      0.3      1341      4.2        69      3.3
Start in Traffic          37      0.7        49      1.0       277      0.9        33      1.6
Start from Parked         27      0.5         8      0.2        30      0.1        22      1.1
Enter Parked Pos           3      0.1         0      0.0        28      0.1         1      0.0
Parked Legally           204      3.7         7      0.1       460      1.4        49      2.4
Parked Illegally         26       0.5        1       0.0       91       0.3       17       0.8
Swerve to Avoid           32      0.6        20      0.4        22      0.1         0      0.0
Stopped/Parked             0      0.0        21      0.4      1131      3.6         2      0.1
Other Manoeuvre          308      5.6         4      0.1       261      0.8         8      0.4
Unknown                  102      1.9       583     12.5       244      0.8        36      1.7
Total                   5474     100.0     4668    100.0     31812    100.0      2075    100.0
* excluding AB




                                                                                                   135
      Table 109:               Vehicle Condition by Region
                                British Columbia              Western                 Central*               Atlantic
      Condition                 Number     Percent         Number     Percent      Number     Percent     Number     Percent
      Brakes                      53          1.0            70         0.6          18         0.1         29         1.4
      Steering                     4          0.1             1         0.0           3         0.0          5         0.2
      Vehicle Lights**            19          0.3            20         0.2          11         0.1          1         0.0
      Engine, Train               14          0.3             0         0.0           3         0.0          1         0.0
      Wheels, Suspension           3          0.1            0          0.0           2         0.0          6         0.3
      Tires                       14          0.3             3         0.0          20         0.1          5         0.2
      Tow Hitch                    9          0.2             1         0.0           2         0.0          4         0.2
      Hood, Door Opened            0          0.0             0         0.0           0         0.0          1         0.0
      Oversize, Overload          65          1.2            18         0.1           0         0.0         12         0.6
      Modifications                2          0.0            0          0.0           0         0.0          0         0.0
      Jackknife                    0          0.0            0          0.0           0         0.0         29         1.4
      Windshield                   0          0.0             0         0.0           0         0.0         23         1.1
      Nothing Mentioned          5291        96.7          12257       99.1        18395       99.7        1959       94.4
      Total                      5474        100.0         12370      100.0        18454       100.0       2075       100.0
      * excluding QC
      ** headlights, tail lights, and lights non-specified




              Roadway Characteristics of Multiple Vehicle Injury Collision Sites
                       Involving Heavy Trucks: Canada, 2000-2006
      Table 110:                     Roadway Configuration of Collision Site by Region
                                     British Columbia               Western                 Central               Atlantic
      Traffic Control                Number     Percent       Number     Percent     Number     Percent    Number      Percent
      Non-intersection                2391          47.2       3587       30.8        14498       49.0       259        13.1
      Intersection of > One Road      1988          39.2       4850       41.6         8389       28.4       665        33.7
      Intersection w. Traf Control     43           0.8          0        0.0         3661        12.4        1         0.1
      Intersection with Private Rd    248            4.9        232       2.0         1452        4.9        169        8.6
      RR Level Crossing                10            0.2        45         0.4          86         0.3         1         0.1
      Bridge, Overpass                159           3.1         66         0.6          447        1.5       25         1.3
      Tunnel, Underpass                13           0.3          8        0.1           35        0.1         1         0.1
      Parking Lot                      40            0.8         4         0.0           0         0.0       14          0.7
      Off Road                          0            0.0         1         0.0           0         0.0        0         0.0
      Other Site                      112            2.2         53        0.5          671        2.3        72        3.6
      Unknown                          63            1.2       2803       24.1          325       1.1        767        38.9
      Total                           5067       100.0        11649       100.0       29564      100.0      1974        100.0




136
Table 111:          Road Category of Collision Site by Region
                    British Columbia      Western            Central*           Atlantic**
Road Category       Number   Percent   Number   Percent   Number   Percent   Number   Percent
Undivided            3001     59.2      2138     18.4     10565     61.7      815      68.6
Divided               521     10.3      3478     29.9      4968     29.0      116       9.8
Freeway              1173     23.1         0      0.0     1202      7.0        0        0.0
Interchange Ramp      18       0.4        0      0.0       377      2.2        0        0.0
Other                 10       0.2       306      2.6        0      0.0        7        0.6
Not Applicable        79       1.6        15      0.1        0      0.0        5        0.4
Unknown              265       5.2      5712     49.0       18      0.1       245      20.6
Total                5067     100.0    11649    100.0     17130    100.0      1188     100.0
* excluding QC
** excluding NS


Table 112:          Road Material of Collision Site by Region
                    British Columbia      Western*           Central            Atlantic
Road Material       Number   Percent   Number   Percent   Number   Percent   Number   Percent
Asphalt              4845     95.6      2582     25.0     28372     96.0      1901     96.3
Concrete              46       0.9      807      7.8       347       1.2        4       0.2
Gravel               146       2.9       120     1.2       471       1.6       34       1.7
Earth, Dirt           16       0.3        13      0.1       56       0.2       15       0.8
Brick                  0      0.0         0      0.0        1       0.0         0       0.0
Unknown               14       0.3      6816     65.9      317       1.1       20       1.0
Total                5067     100.0    10338    100.0     29564    100.0      1974     100.0
* excluding SK


Table 113:          Road Surface of Collision Site by Region
                    British Columbia      Western            Central            Atlantic
Road Surface        Number   Percent   Number   Percent   Number   Percent   Number   Percent
Dry, Normal          2977     58.8      6902     59.2     18938     64.1      1177     59.6
Wet                  1283     25.3      1151     9.9       5845     19.8       366     18.5
Snow (Loose)          304      6.0       321     2.8      2156      7.3        228     11.6
Ice (Packed Snow)     344      6.8       818     7.0      1947       6.6       113      5.7
Sand/Gravel/Dirt       0       0.0       63      0.5        34      0.1         5       0.3
Mud                    7       0.1       12      0.1        34       0.1        2       0.1
Slush                 113      2.2        83      0.7       467      1.6        74      3.7
Oil                    0       0.0        0      0.0        18      0.1         0       0.0
Unknown               39       0.8      2299     19.7      125       0.4        9       0.5
Total                5067     100.0    11649    100.0     29564    100.0      1974     100.0




                                                                                                137
      Table 114:                     Roadway Alignment of Collision Site by Region
                                     British Columbia             Western                   Central                    Atlantic
      Roadway Alignment              Number    Percent      Number     Percent        Number     Percent        Number         Percent
      Straight and Level              2684       53.0        7249           62.2       22986          77.7           1145          58.0
      Straight and Gradient           1101       21.7         419            3.6       3265           11.0            383          19.4
      Curved and Level                 393        7.8         487            4.2       1955            6.6            166           8.4
      Curved and Gradient              678       13.4         159            1.4       1045            3.5            175           8.9
      Top of Hill                       56        1.1         153            1.3         0             0.0             50           2.5
      Bottom of Hill                   10        0.2          115            1.0         0             0.0             45           2.3
      Unknown                          145        2.9        3067           26.3        313            1.1             10           0.5
      Total                           5067      100.0        11649      100.0          29564      100.0              1974          100.0


      Table 115:                     Traffic Control of Collision Site by Region
                                     British Columbia             Western                   Central                    Atlantic
      Traffic Control                Number    Percent      Number     Percent        Number     Percent        Number         Percent
      No Control Present              3157       62.3        5074           43.6       18971          64.2           1200          60.8
      Traffic Signals                  975       19.2        2871           24.6        6562          22.2            223          11.3
      Stop Sign                        533       10.5         999            8.6        2682           9.1           123           6.2
      Yield Sign                        60        1.2         306            2.6         192           0.6            32           1.6
      Pedestrian Crossover              0         0.0         107            0.9          43           0.1            11           0.6
      Police Officer                     0        0.0           6            0.1          40           0.1             3            0.2
      School Guard/Flagperson           49        1.0           6            0.1         100           0.3             17           0.9
      School Crossing                    0        0.0           1            0.0           5           0.0             0            0.0
      Flashing Signal Light             27        0.5          6             0.1         83            0.3            17           0.9
      Advisory Sign                      0        0.0           8            0.1          59           0.2             53           2.7
      School Bus Flashing Lights        0         0.0          0             0.0         43           0.1              2           0.1
      Railway Crossing                 13         0.3          14            0.1         21            0.1             4            0.2
      Unknown                          253        5.0        2251           19.3         763           2.6           289           14.6
      Total                           5067      100.0        11649      100.0          29564      100.0              1974          100.0


      Table 116:                     Speed Limit of Collision Site by Region
                                     British Columbia             Western*                  Central                    Atlantic
      Speed Limit                    Number    Percent      Number     Percent        Number     Percent        Number         Percent
      50 km/h or less                 2100       41.4        2195           49.4       9650           32.6           659           33.4
      60 to 90 km/h                   2063       40.7        1103           24.8       12303          41.6           726           36.8
      100 km/h or more                566        11.2        894            20.1       6468           21.9           348           17.6
      Unknown                         338        6.7         253            5.7        1143           3.9            241           12.2
      Total                           5067      100.0        4445       100.0          29564      100.0              1974          100.0



                               Environmental Characteristics of Multiple Vehicle Injury
                                Collisions Involving Heavy Trucks: Canada, 2000-2006

              Table 117:          Road Classification of Crash by Region
                                  British Columbia          Western                   Central                   Atlantic
              Classification      Number   Percent       Number    Percent         Number   Percent          Number     Percent
              Urban                3091      61.0         5623       48.3          15897       53.8           998           50.6
              Rural                1896      37.4         3288       28.2          13364       45.2           948           48.0
              Unknown               80        1.6         2738       23.5           303         1.0            28            1.4
              Total                5067      100.0       11649      100.0          29564     100.0            1974         100.0


138
Table 118:           Weather Conditions of Crash by Region
                     British Columbia      Western            Central            Atlantic
Weather              Number   Percent   Number   Percent   Number   Percent   Number   Percent
Clear                 3889     76.8      9125     78.3     22814     77.2      1525     77.3
Raining               694      13.7      488       4.2     2986      10.1       161      8.2
Snowing                361      7.1      1031      8.9      2792      9.4       182      9.2
Sleet, Hail             6       0.1       74       0.6      239       0.8        19      1.0
Fog, Smog, Mist        74       1.5      336       2.9      550       1.9        44      2.2
Dust, Smoke             1       0.0        3       0.0        0       0.0        30      1.5
Strong Winds            6       0.1       61       0.5      118       0.4        5       0.3
Unknown                36       0.7      531       4.6       65       0.2        8       0.4
Total                 5067     100      11649     100      29564     100       1974     100

Table 119:           Light Conditions of Crash by Region
                     British Columbia      Western            Central            Atlantic
Light Conditions     Number   Percent   Number   Percent   Number   Percent   Number   Percent
Day                   3737     73.8      8747     75.1     22832     77.2      1585     80.3
Dawn                  107       2.1       97       0.8      717       2.4       25       1.3
Dusk                  140       2.8       148      1.3      245       0.8       41       2.1
Dark                  804      15.9      2078     17.8     4423      15.0      278      14.1
Artificial Light      246       4.9        9       0.1      1315      4.4       32       1.6
Unknown                33       0.7       570      4.9       32       0.1       13       0.7
Total                 5067     100.0    11649    100.0     29564    100.0      1974    100.0

Table 120:           Environmental Conditions of Crash by Region
                     British Columbia      Western            Central            Atlantic
Environmental        Number   Percent   Number   Percent   Number   Percent   Number   Percent
Animal Action          18       0.4       14       0.1       0       0.0         12      0.6
Slippery Road         221       4.4      19        0.2       0       0.0        162      8.2
Drifting Snow           0       0.0      182       1.6       0       0.0         26      1.3
Obstruction in Rd      65       1.3       12       0.1       0       0.0         20      1.0
View Obstructed        88       1.7      134       1.2       0       0.0         64      3.2
Reflections            62       1.2        2       0.0       0       0.0         22      1.1
Road Construction      66       1.3        2       0.0       0       0.0          7      0.4
Defective Surface      11       0.2        0       0.0       0       0.0          2      0.1
Defect. Shoulder        0       0.0       0        0.0       0       0.0         3       0.2
Inadeq. Lane Mark       0       0.0        0       0.0       0       0.0          1      0.1
Defect. Traf Cntrl      9       0.2        0       0.0       0       0.0          0      0.0
Wind                    0       0.0        5       0.0       0       0.0          9      0.5
Nothing Mentioned     4527     89.3     11279     96.8     29564    100.0      1646     83.4
Total                 5067     100      11649     100      29564     100       1974     100




                                                                                                 139
                     Appendix 5

Characteristics of Fatal Single Vehicle Collisions
  Involving Heavy Trucks by Region
                           Characteristics of Drivers of Heavy Trucks
                     in Single Vehicle Fatal Collisions: Canada, 2000-2006

Table 121:          Gender of Driver by Region
                     British Columbia        Western               Central               Atlantic
Gender               Number   Percent   Number    Percent   Number      Percent   Number      Percent
Female                 2        1.6        13      7.0        2          0.8        0           0.0
Male                  121       96.0      172      93.0      234         98.3       35         100.0
Unknown                3        2.4        0       0.0        2          0.8        0           0.0
Total                 126      100.0      185     100.0      238         100.0      35         100.0


Table 122:          Age Category of Driver by Region
                     British Columbia        Western               Central               Atlantic
Age Category         Number   Percent   Number    Percent   Number      Percent   Number      Percent
<18                     1       0.8        2       1.1        0          0.0        0            0.0
18-20                   0        0.0        6       3.2        4          1.7       0            0.0
21-25                   7        5.6       21      11.4       16          6.7        3           8.6
26-30                   7        5.6       21      11.4       27         11.3        2           5.7
31-40                  32       25.4       50      27.0       57         23.9       8           22.9
41-50                  43       34.1       39      21.1       66         27.7       12          34.3
51-60                  22       17.5       29      15.7       45         18.9       7           20.0
61+                    11        8.7       16       8.6       21         8.8        2            5.7
Unknown                 3        2.4        1       0.5        2          0.8       1            2.9
Total                 126       100       185      100       238         100        35          100


Table 123:          Safety Equipment Worn by Driver by Region
                     British Columbia        Western               Central               Atlantic
Equipment            Number   Percent   Number    Percent   Number      Percent   Number      Percent
Lap Belt                3        2.4        7       3.8        3          1.3        1           2.9
Shoulder Belt           1        0.8        0       0.0        0          0.0        0           0.0
Lap/Shoulder           47       37.3       37      20.0       97         40.8       4           11.4
Air Bag Deployed        1        0.8        5       2.7        1          0.4        0           0.0
Other                   0        0.0        0       0.0        0          0.0        0           0.0
Not Used               40       31.7       67      36.2       53         22.3       15          42.9
Nothing Available       1        0.8        3       1.6       12          5.0        0           0.0
Unknown                33       26.2       66      35.7       72         30.3       15          42.9
Total                 126      100.0      185     100.0      238         100.0      35         100.0


Table 124:          Injury Severity for Driver by Region
                     British Columbia        Western               Central               Atlantic
Injury Severity      Number   Percent   Number    Percent   Number      Percent   Number      Percent
None                   49       38.9       60      32.4      130         54.6       17          48.6
Minimal                 0        0.0        3       1.6       1           0.4        0           0.0
Minor                   3        2.4        1       0.5       4           1.7        0           0.0
Major                   0        0.0        9       4.9       2           0.8       1            2.9
Fatal                  70       55.6      112      60.5      101         42.4       17          48.6
Unspecified             4        3.2        0       0.0       0           0.0       0            0.0
Total                 126      100.0      185     100.0      238         100.0      35         100.0




                                                                                                        143
      Table 125:            Place of Licence for Driver by Region
                             British Columbia       Western                Central               Atlantic
      Place of Licence      Number    Percent   Number   Percent    Number      Percent   Number      Percent
      In Province              97       77.0     155      83.8       216          90.8      26          74.3
      Out of Province          26       20.6     28       15.1       22           9.2       8           22.9
      Unknown                  3        2.4       2       1.1         0           0.0        1           2.9
      Total                   126      100.0     185     100.0       238         100.0      35         100.0


      Table 126:            Human Condition by Region
                             British Columbia       Western                Central*              Atlantic
      Human Condition       Number    Percent   Number   Percent    Number      Percent   Number      Percent
      Inattention              20       15.9      17       9.2         5           4.5       7          20.0
      Inexperience              8        6.3       2       1.1         0           0.0       2           5.7
      Fatigue                   3        2.4      10       5.4         5           4.5       1           2.9
      Fell Asleep               6        4.8      0        0.0         0           0.0       1           2.9
      Lost Consciousness        1        0.8      0        0.0        0           0.0       2           5.7
      Sudden Illness            0        0.0       1       0.5         0           0.0       2           5.7
      Med/Phys Disability       0        0.0       0       0.0         2           1.8       0           0.0
      Drinking                 3        2.4      20       10.8        0           0.0       0           0.0
      Impaired by Alcohol       0        0.0       0       0.0         3           2.7       0           0.0
      Illicit Drugs             2        1.6      0        0.0         5           4.5       0           0.0
      Prescription Drugs        0        0.0       0       0.0         0           0.0       1           2.9
      Impaired- Unspec.         0        0.0       1       0.5         0           0.0       0           0.0
      Suicide Attempt           1        0.8       0       0.0         0           0.0       0           0.0
      Nothing Mentioned        82       65.1     134      72.4        90          81.8      19          54.3
      Total                   126      100.0     185     100.0       110         100.0      35         100.0
      * excluding QC


      Table 127:            Human Action by Region
                             British Columbia       Western                Central*              Atlantic
      Human Action          Number    Percent   Number   Percent    Number      Percent   Number      Percent
      Following Close           0        0.0      0        0.0         0           0.0       0           0.0
      Turning Improperly        1        0.8      0        0.0         0           0.0       0           0.0
      Fast for Conditions      27       21.4      9        4.9         9           8.2       2           5.7
      Exceed Speed Limit        4        3.2      2        1.1         3           2.7       3           8.6
      Improper Lane Chg         0        0.0      0       0.0          0           0.0      0           0.0
      Failure to Yield          4        3.2      4        2.2         5           4.5       0           0.0
      Disobey Tr Control       0        0.0       3       1.6          2           1.8       0           0.0
      Drive- Wrong Direct      0        0.0       0       0.0          0           0.0       0           0.0
      Backing Unsafely          4        3.2      0        0.0         0           0.0       1           2.9
      Lost Control             0        0.0       9       4.9         13          11.8      0           0.0
      Pedestrian Error          3        2.4      0        0.0         0           0.0      10          28.6
      Nothing Mentioned        83       65.9     158      85.4        78          70.9      19          54.3
      Total                   126      100.0     185     100.0       110         100.0      35         100.0
      * excluding QC




144
                    Crash Characteristics of Single Vehicle Fatal Collisions
                         Involving Heavy Trucks: Canada, 2000-2006

Table 128:          Persons Killed in Crash by Region
                     British Columbia      Western             Central                Atlantic
Killed              Number    Percent   Number   Percent   Number    Percent   Number      Percent
One                   126      100.0     176      95.1      237       99.6       34         100.0
Two                    0        0.0       9       4.9        1        0.4         0          0.0
Three or More          0        0.0       0       0.0        0        0.0         0          0.0
Total                 126      100.0     185     100.0      238      100.0       34         100.0


Table 129:          Drivers of Heavy Trucks Killed in Crash by Region
                     British Columbia      Western             Central                Atlantic
HTD Killed          Number    Percent   Number   Percent   Number    Percent   Number      Percent
None                   55       43.7     73       39.5      137       57.6       18          52.9
One                    71       56.3     112      60.5      101       42.4       16          47.1
Two                    0         0.0      0       0.0        0        0.0         0           0.0
Three or More           0        0.0      0       0.0        0        0.0         0           0.0
Total                 126       56.3     185      60.5      238       42.4       34          47.1


Table 130:          Persons Injured in Crash by Region
                     British Columbia      Western             Central                Atlantic
Injured             Number    Percent   Number   Percent   Number    Percent   Number      Percent
None                  117       92.9     158      85.4      224       94.1       32          94.1
One                    6         4.8      18      9.7        12       5.0         2           5.9
Two                    0         0.0      4       2.2         2       0.8         0           0.0
Three or More          3         2.4       5      2.7         0       0.0         0           0.0
Total                 126      100.0     185     100.0      238      100.0       34         100.0


Table 131:          Drivers of Heavy Trucks Injured in Crash by Region
                     British Columbia      Western             Central                Atlantic
HTD Injured         Number    Percent   Number   Percent   Number    Percent   Number      Percent
None                  119       94.4     170      91.9      231       97.1       33          97.1
One                    7         5.6      15      8.1        7        2.9         1           2.9
Two                    0         0.0      0       0.0        0        0.0         0           0.0
Three or More          0         0.0       0      0.0        0        0.0         0           0.0
Total                 126       100      185      100       238         100      34          100

Table 132:          Number of Vehicles Involved in Crash by Region
                     British Columbia      Western             Central                Atlantic
Vehicles Involved   Number    Percent   Number   Percent   Number    Percent   Number      Percent
One                   126      100.0     185     100.0      238      100.0       34         100.0
Two                    0        0.0       0       0.0        0        0.0         0          0.0
Three or More          0        0.0       0       0.0        0        0.0         0          0.0
Total                 126      100.0     185     100.0      238      100.0       34         100.0




                                                                                                     145
      Table 133:           Configuration of Crash by Region
                             British Columbia            Western                  Central                    Atlantic
      Configuration         Number     Percent    Number      Percent      Number      Percent      Number         Percent
      Hit Person/Object        0        0.0         23            12.4      187            78.6       17             50.0
      Off Road Left           20        15.9        38            20.5       17             7.1        7             20.6
      Off Road Right          44        34.9        68            36.8       25            10.5        9             26.5
      Rear End                 1        0.8         0              0.0       0              0.0        0              0.0
      Sideswipe                2        1.6         0              0.0       0              0.0        0              0.0
      Passing Left             0         0.0        0              0.0       0              0.0        0              0.0
      Passing Right           0         0.0         0              0.0       0              0.0        0              0.0
      Head On                  4        3.2         0              0.0       0              0.0        0              0.0
      Left Turn                1         0.8         0             0.0       0              0.0        0              0.0
      Right Turn               5         4.0        0              0.0       0              0.0        0              0.0
      Other                   41        32.5        56            30.3       9              3.8        1              2.9
      Unknown                  8        6.3         0              0.0       0              0.0        0              0.0
      Total                   126      100.0        185           100.0     238            100.0      34             100.0


      Table 134:           Hit and Run Crashes by Region
                             British Columbia            Western                  Central                    Atlantic*
      Hit and Run           Number     Percent    Number      Percent      Number      Percent      Number         Percent
      No                      124       98.4        182           98.4      234            98.3          1           100.0
      Yes                      2        1.6          3             1.6       4              1.7          0            0.0
      Unknown                  0        0.0          0             0.0       0              0.0          0            0.0
      Total                   126      100.0        185           100.0     238            100.0         1           100.0
      * excluding NB, NS




                      Temporal Characteristics of Single Vehicle Fatal Collisions
                            Involving Heavy Trucks: Canada, 2000-2006

       Table 135:         Month of Crash by Region
                           British Columbia             Western                  Central                  Atlantic
       Month               Number    Percent     Number     Percent       Number      Percent      Number        Percent
       January                9        7.1          8          4.3          12          5.0          2              5.9
       February              11        8.7          7          3.8          17          7.1          0              0.0
       March                  4        3.2          7          3.8          14          5.9          2              5.9
       April                 10        7.9         13          7.0          15          6.3          2              5.9
       May                    9        7.1         11          5.9          21          8.8          4             11.8
       June                   7        5.6         14          7.6          23          9.7          3              8.8
       July                  14       11.1         19         10.3          21          8.8          3              8.8
       August                13       10.3         20         10.8          14          5.9          5             14.7
       September              8        6.3         16         8.6           24         10.1          4             11.8
       October                9        7.1         31         16.8          27         11.3          1              2.9
       November              15       11.9         21         11.4          30         12.6          5             14.7
       December              17       13.5         18         9.7           20         8.4           3             8.8
       Total                126      100.0        185        100.0         238         100.0         34           100.0




146
   Table 136:        Time of Crash by Region
                      British Columbia           Western                Central                        Atlantic
   Time              Number     Percent   Number     Percent    Number          Percent         Number      Percent
   Midnight to 559     22        17.5       39         21.1       44             18.5             7            20.6
   600 to 1159         36        28.6       53         28.6       64             26.9             9            26.5
   1200 to 1759        44        34.9       44         23.8       75             31.5             9            26.5
   1800 to 2359        22        17.5       43         23.2       53             22.3             9            26.5
   Unknown             2         1.6        6          3.2        2              0.8              0             0.0
   Total               126       100       185         100        238            100              34             100

   Table 137:        Day of Week of Crash by Region
                      British Columbia           Western                Central                        Atlantic
   Day of Week       Number     Percent   Number     Percent    Number          Percent         Number      Percent
   Monday              16        12.7       20         10.8       25             10.5             2             5.9
   Tuesday             21        16.7       25         13.5       34             14.3             4            11.8
   Wednesday           17        13.5       25         13.5       44             18.5             5            14.7
   Thursday            24        19.0       21         11.4       47             19.7             8            23.5
   Friday              27        21.4       33         17.8       45             18.9             5            14.7
   Saturday            15        11.9       55         29.7       35             14.7             10           29.4
   Sunday               6         4.8        6          3.2       8               3.4             0             0.0
   Total               126       100.0     185        100.0       238           100.0             34           100.0




                       Vehicle Characteristics of Drivers of Heavy Trucks
                     in Fatal Single Vehicle Collisions: Canada, 2000-2006

Table 138:            Vehicle Age by Region
                       British Columbia      Western                  Central                   Atlantic
Vehicle Age            Number   Percent   Number    Percent    Number     Percent         Number       Percent
<1 Year                   8        6.3       9         4.9       15          6.3            1            2.9
1 Year                    8        6.3      12         6.5       27         11.3            4           11.4
2 Years                   6        4.8      12         6.5       31         13.0            6           17.1
3 Years                   5        4.0      16         8.6       26         10.9            3            8.6
4 Years                   8        6.3      18         9.7       17          7.1            1            2.9
5 Years                   2        1.6       9         4.9       18          7.6            4           11.4
6-10 Years               28       22.2      45        24.3       59         24.8            5           14.3
11-15 Years              21       16.7      15         8.1       20          8.4            5           14.3
16-20 Years               4        3.2      10         5.4       10          4.2            3            8.6
>20 Years                 3        2.4       5         2.7        4          1.7            1            2.9
Unknown                  33       26.2      34        18.4       11          4.6            2            5.7
Total                   126       100      185        100       238         100             35           100




                                                                                                                       147
      Table 139:               Vehicle Manoeuvre by Region
                                British Columbia                  Western                    Central                   Atlantic
      Manoeuvre                Number      Percent         Number       Percent       Number       Percent       Number       Percent
      Going Straight              79           62.7             62        86.1             169       71.0             28          80.0
      Turning Left                3            2.4              1         1.4              12        5.0              0           0.0
      Turning Right               13           10.3             1         1.4               16        6.7              1           2.9
      Making U-Turn               0             0.0             0         0.0               0        0.0              0           0.0
      Changing Lanes              0            0.0              1         1.4               3        1.3              1           2.9
      Merging                     0            0.0              0         0.0               3         1.3              1           2.9
      Reversing                   6            4.8              2         2.8              17        7.1              2           5.7
      Overtaking                  0             0.0             0         0.0               2        0.8              1           2.9
      Slowing/Stopping            0             0.0             1         1.4               2        0.8              0           0.0
      Stopped in Traffic          0             0.0             0         0.0               0         0.0              0           0.0
      Start in Traffic            3             2.4             1         1.4               7        2.9              0           0.0
      Start from Parked            1            0.8              0        0.0                2        0.8              0           0.0
      Enter Parked Pos             0            0.0              0        0.0                0        0.0              0           0.0
      Parked Legally              0             0.0             0         0.0               0         0.0             1           2.9
      Parked Illegally            0             0.0             0         0.0               0        0.0              0           0.0
      Swerve to Avoid             3             2.4              3        4.2                0        0.0              0           0.0
      Stopped/Parked              0             0.0             0         0.0               1        0.4              0           0.0
      Other Manoeuvre             18           14.3             0         0.0               3        1.3              0           0.0
      Unknown                     0            0.0              0         0.0               1        0.4              0           0.0
      Total                       126       100.0               72       100.0             238      100.0             35      100.0
      * excluding AB


      Table 140:               Vehicle Condition by Region
                                British Columbia                  Western                    Central*                  Atlantic
      Condition                Number      Percent         Number       Percent       Number       Percent       Number       Percent
      Brakes                       4            3.2              1         0.5              1         0.9              1           2.9
      Steering                     0            0.0              0         0.0              0         0.0              0           0.0
      Vehicle Lights**             0            0.0              0        0.0               0         0.0              0           0.0
      Engine, Train                1            0.8              0         0.0              1         0.9              0           0.0
      Wheels, Suspension           0            0.0              0        0.0               0         0.0              0           0.0
      Tires                        3            2.4              2         1.1              0         0.0              0           0.0
      Oversize, Overload           3            2.4              0        0.0               0         0.0              1           2.9
      Modifications                1            0.8              0        0.0               0         0.0              0           0.0
      Jackknife                    0            0.0              0        0.0               0         0.0              2           5.7
      Nothing Mentioned           114          90.5             182       98.4             108       98.2             31          88.6
      Total                       126       100.0               185      100.0             110      100.0             35      100.0
      * excluding QC
      ** headlights, tail lights, and lights non-specified


                Roadway Characteristics of Single Vehicle Fatal Collision Sites
                       Involving Heavy Trucks: Canada, 2000-2006
      Table 141:                       Roadway Configuration of Collision Site by Region
                                        British Columbia                 Western                    Central                   Atlantic
      Traffic Control                   Number        Percent         Number     Percent         Number     Percent        Number        Percent
      Non-intersection                    69           54.8            139        75.1            149        62.6            4            11.8
      Intersection of > One Road          22           17.5            18         9.7             38         16.0            6            17.6
      Intersection w. Traf Control         0            0.0             0         0.0             12         5.0             0             0.0
      Intersection with Private Rd         6            4.8              1         0.5              4         1.7            2             5.9
      RR Level Crossing                    1            0.8             10         5.4             0          0.0            0             0.0
      Bridge, Overpass                     4            3.2             3          1.6              3         1.3            1             2.9
      Tunnel, Underpass                    0            0.0              0         0.0              5         2.1            0             0.0
      Parking Lot                          6            4.8              0         0.0              0         0.0             0            0.0
      Off Road                             0            0.0             0         0.0              0          0.0            0             0.0
      Other Site                          15           11.9              2         1.1             21         8.8            1             2.9
      Unknown                              3            2.4             12         6.5              6         2.5            20           58.8
      Total                              126          100.0            185       100.0            238       100.0            34          100.0


148
Table 142:              Road Category of Collision Site by Region
                        British Columbia      Western            Central*             Atlantic**
Road Category           Number   Percent   Number   Percent   Number     Percent   Number   Percent
Undivided                 75      59.5       49      26.5       82         74.5      17       81.0
Divided                   12      9.5        36      19.5       27         24.5      4        19.0
Freeway                   17      13.5        0       0.0        0          0.0       0        0.0
Interchange Ramp           0      0.0         0       0.0        1          0.9      0        0.0
Other                      0       0.0        6       3.2        0          0.0       0        0.0
Not Applicable            16      12.7        1       0.5       0           0.0      0        0.0
Unknown                    6       4.8       93      50.3        0          0.0      0        0.0
Total                     126     100.0     185      100.0     110        100.0      21      100.0
* excluding QC
** excluding NS


Table 143:              Road Material of Collision Site by Region
                        British Columbia      Western*               Central          Atlantic
Road Material           Number   Percent   Number   Percent   Number     Percent   Number   Percent
Asphalt                   107     84.9       49      33.6      210         88.2      27       79.4
Concrete                    1      0.8        0       0.0       4           1.7       5       14.7
Gravel                     14     11.1        7       4.8      13           5.5       0       0.0
Earth, Dirt                 4      3.2        0       0.0       2           0.8       2       5.9
Unknown                     0      0.0       90      61.6       9           3.8       0        0.0
Total                     126     100.0     146      100.0     238        100.0      34      100.0
* excluding SK


Table 144:              Road Surface of Collision Site by Region
                        British Columbia      Western                Central          Atlantic
Road Surface            Number   Percent   Number   Percent   Number     Percent   Number   Percent
Dry, Normal               75      59.5      145      78.4      169         71.0      27       79.4
Wet                       26      20.6       10       5.4      37          15.5       5       14.7
Snow (Loose)              6       4.8        3       1.6       15          6.3       0        0.0
Ice (Packed Snow)         10       7.9        3       1.6       12          5.0       2        5.9
Sand/Gravel/Dirt           0       0.0        6       3.2       1           0.4       0       0.0
Mud                        3       2.4        1       0.5       1           0.4       0        0.0
Slush                      4       3.2        0       0.0       1           0.4       0        0.0
Oil                        0       0.0        0       0.0       0           0.0       0        0.0
Unknown                    2       1.6       17       9.2       2           0.8       0        0.0
Total                     126     100.0     185     100.0      238        100.0      34      100.0


Table 145:              Roadway Alignment of Collision Site by Region
                        British Columbia      Western                Central          Atlantic
Roadway Alignment       Number   Percent   Number   Percent   Number     Percent   Number   Percent
Straight and Level        41      32.5      121      65.4      143         60.1      16       47.1
Straight and Gradient     21      16.7      10        5.4      32          13.4      6        17.6
Curved and Level          16      12.7      24       13.0      30          12.6      5        14.7
Curved and Gradient       46      36.5      11        5.9       27         11.3       6       17.6
Top of Hill                0       0.0       3        1.6       0           0.0       0        0.0
Bottom of Hill             0       0.0       4        2.2       0           0.0       1        2.9
Unknown                    2       1.6      12        6.5       6           2.5       0        0.0
Total                     126     100.0     185     100.0      238        100.0      34      100.0



                                                                                                      149
      Table 146:                    Traffic Control of Collision Site by Region
                                        British Columbia               Western                     Central                   Atlantic
      Traffic Control                Number        Percent       Number       Percent        Number       Percent     Number       Percent
      No Control Present                  90           71.4          137           74.1          178        74.8           25       73.5
      Traffic Signals                     13           10.3           4            2.2           32         13.4           1        2.9
      Stop Sign                            2            1.6           4            2.2           10          4.2           1        2.9
      Yield Sign                           0            0.0           1             0.5           0          0.0           0        0.0
      Pedestrian Crossover                 0            0.0           0            0.0            2         0.8            0        0.0
      Police Officer                       0            0.0           1            0.5            1          0.4           0        0.0
      School Guard/Flagperson             0            0.0            0            0.0            0         0.0            1        2.9
      Flashing Signal Light               1            0.8            0            0.0            0         0.0            1        2.9
      Advisory Sign                        0            0.0           1            0.5            1          0.4           2        5.9
      School Bus Flashing Lights          0            0.0            0            0.0            0         0.0            0        0.0
      Railway Crossing                     1            0.8           4            2.2            0          0.0           0        0.0
      Unknown                             19           15.1          33            17.8          14          5.9           3        8.8
      Total                              126          100.0          185       100.0             238       100.0           34       100.0


      Table 147:                    Speed Limit of Collision Site by Region
                                        British Columbia               Western*                    Central                   Atlantic
      Speed Limit                    Number        Percent       Number       Percent        Number       Percent     Number       Percent
      50 km/h or less                     34           27.0          14            19.4          64         26.9           10       29.4
      60 to 90 km/h                       44           34.9          24            33.3          101        42.4           17       50.0
      100 km/h or more                    27           21.4          33            45.8          40         16.8            7       20.6
      Unknown                             21           16.7           1             1.4          33         13.9            0       0.0
      Total                              126          100.0          72        100.0             238       100.0           34       100.0
      * excluding AB


                           Environmental Characteristics of Single Vehicle Fatal
                           Collisions Involving Heavy Trucks: Canada, 2000-2006

         Table 148:          Road Classification of Crash by Region
                              British Columbia                   Western                     Central                   Atlantic
         Classification       Number           Percent        Number       Percent        Number       Percent      Number      Percent
         Urban                     47           37.3           22           11.9           107          45.0          12         35.3
         Rural                     78           61.9           134          72.4           127          53.4          22         64.7
         Unknown                   1            0.8            29           15.7            4           1.7           0          0.0
         Total                     126         100.0           185         100.0           238         100.0          34        100.0

         Table 149:          Weather Conditions of Crash by Region
                              British Columbia                   Western                     Central                   Atlantic
         Weather              Number           Percent        Number       Percent        Number       Percent      Number      Percent
         Clear                     98           77.8           156          84.3           190          79.8          30         88.2
         Raining                   21           16.7            6            3.2            22          9.2           2          5.9
         Snowing                   6            4.8             6            3.2            12           5.0           0          0.0
         Sleet, Hail               0            0.0             0            0.0            2           0.8            1          2.9
         Fog, Smog, Mist           1            0.8             9           4.9             8           3.4            1          2.9
         Dust, Smoke               0            0.0             0           0.0             0           0.0           0          0.0
         Strong Winds              0            0.0             4           2.2             3           1.3           0          0.0
         Unknown                   0            0.0             4           2.2             1           0.4           0          0.0
         Total                     126          100            185          100            238          100           34         100




150
Table 150:          Light Conditions of Crash by Region
                    British Columbia      Western            Central            Atlantic
Light Conditions    Number   Percent   Number   Percent   Number   Percent   Number   Percent
Day                   70      55.6       89      48.1      139      58.4       18      52.9
Dawn                   5       4.0        8       4.3        6       2.5        0       0.0
Dusk                   5       4.0        2       1.1        1       0.4        1       2.9
Dark                  41      32.5       81      43.8       83      34.9       12      35.3
Artificial Light       4       3.2        0       0.0        9       3.8        3       8.8
Unknown                1       0.8        5       2.7        0       0.0        0       0.0
Total                 126     100.0     185     100.0      238     100.0       34     100.0

Table 151:          Environmental Conditions of Crash by Region
                    British Columbia      Western            Central            Atlantic
Environmental       Number   Percent   Number   Percent   Number   Percent   Number   Percent
Animal Action          3       2.4       2        1.1       0       0.0         1       2.9
Slippery Road          2       1.6       0        0.0       0       0.0         1       2.9
Drifting Snow          0       0.0       5        2.7       0       0.0         0       0.0
Obstruction in Rd      3       2.4       0        0.0       0       0.0         0       0.0
View Obstructed        1       0.8       2        1.1       0       0.0         2       5.9
Reflections            2       1.6       0        0.0       0       0.0         0       0.0
Road Construction      2       1.6       0        0.0       0       0.0         1       2.9
Defective Surface      1      0.8        0       0.0        0       0.0         0       0.0
Defect. Shoulder       0       0.0       0        0.0       0       0.0        2       5.9
Wind                   0       0.0       0        0.0       0       0.0         1       2.9
Nothing Mentioned     112     88.9      176      95.1      238     100.0       26      76.5
Total                 126     100       185      100       238      100        34      100




                                                                                                151
                       Appendix 6
Characteristics of Injury Single Vehicle Collisions by
Region




                                                         153
                     Characteristics of Drivers of Heavy Trucks
               in Single Vehicle Injury Collisions: Canada, 2000-2006

Table 152:     Gender of Driver by Region
                British Columbia       Western            Central            Atlantic
Gender         Number    Percent   Number   Percent   Number   Percent   Number   Percent
Female            55       2.8      417      10.1       206     4.0        13        2.0
Male             1894      95.6     3673     89.2      4875     94.2      626       94.0
Unknown           32        1.6      28       0.7        94     1.8        27        4.1
Total            1981     100.0     4118    100.0      5175     100.0     666      100.0


Table 153:     Age Category of Driver by Region
                British Columbia       Western            Central            Atlantic
Age Category   Number    Percent   Number   Percent   Number   Percent   Number   Percent
<18               9         0.5      80       1.9        23      0.4        6        0.9
18-20            40         2.0     309       7.5        96      1.9       17        2.6
21-25            165        8.3     565      13.7       429      8.3       57        8.6
26-30            240       12.1     530      12.9       622     12.0       83       12.5
31-40            545       27.5     967      23.5      1483     28.7      192       28.8
41-50            534       27.0     846      20.5      1354     26.2      132       19.8
51-60            323       16.3     493      12.0       776     15.0      113       17.0
61+              92         4.6     218       5.3       259     5.0        30        4.5
Unknown          33         1.7     110       2.7       133      2.6       36        5.4
Total            1981      100      4118     100       5175     100       666       100




                                                                                            155
      Table 158:            Human Action by Region
                             British Columbia         Western               Central*               Atlantic
      Human Action           Number    Percent    Number     Percent    Number      Percent    Number      Percent
      Following Close           5        0.3          7         0.2        7          0.3         2           0.3
      Turning Improperly       35        1.8         2         0.0       61           2.6        7           1.1
      Fast for Conditions      641      32.4        193         4.7      475         20.4        87          13.1
      Exceed Speed Limit       60       3.0          6         0.1       63           2.7        11          1.7
      Improper Lane Chg         6        0.3        54         1.3        16          0.7         3           0.5
      Failure to Yield          35       1.8         72         1.7       83          3.6         2           0.3
      Disobey Tr Control        29       1.5        48          1.2       20          0.9         2           0.3
      Drive- Wrong Direct       48       2.4        18         0.4         3          0.1         1           0.2
      Backing Unsafely          11       0.6        30         0.7        0           0.0         2          0.3
      Lost Control              0        0.0       117         2.8       652         28.0         4           0.6
      Pedestrian Error          14       0.7          0         0.0        0          0.0        11           1.7
      Failure to Signal         1       0.1          0         0.0        0           0.0         1          0.2
      Nothing Mentioned       1096      55.3       3571        86.7      945         40.6       533          80.0
      Total                   1981     100.0       4118       100.0      2325        100.0      666         100.0
      * excluding QC


                             Crash Characteristics of Single Vehicle Injury Collisions
                                  Involving Heavy Trucks: Canada, 2000-2006

         Table 159:          Persons Injured in Crash by Region
                               British Columbia           Western               Central               Atlantic
         Injured              Number    Percent    Number     Percent   Number       Percent   Number      Percent
         One                   1772       89.4      3589        87.2     4701          90.8      606         92.2
         Two                    188        9.5       436        10.6      431           8.3      41           6.2
         Three or More          21        1.1        93         2.3       43            0.8      10          1.5
         Total                 1981      100.0      4118       100.0     5175         100.0      657        100.0


         Table 160:          Drivers of Heavy Trucks Injured in Crash by Region
                               British Columbia           Western               Central               Atlantic
         HTD Injured          Number    Percent    Number     Percent   Number       Percent   Number      Percent
         None                  284        14.3       471        11.4     1268          24.5      73          11.1
         One                   1697       85.7      3647        88.6     3906          75.5      584         88.9
         Two                    0          0.0        0          0.0       1            0.0       0           0.0
         Three or More          0          0.0        0         0.0       0             0.0       0          0.0
         Total                 1981       100       4118        100      5175          100       657          100


         Table 161:          Number of Vehicles Involved in Crash by Region
                               British Columbia           Western               Central               Atlantic
         Vehicles Involved    Number    Percent    Number     Percent   Number       Percent   Number      Percent
         One                   1981      100.0      4118       100.0     5175         100.0      657        100.0
         Two                    0         0.0        0          0.0        0           0.0        0          0.0
         Three or More          0         0.0        0          0.0       0            0.0        0          0.0
         Total                 1981      100.0      4118       100.0     5175         100.0      657        100.0




156
Table 162:           Configuration of Crash by Region
                       British Columbia            Western                 Central                 Atlantic
Configuration         Number     Percent    Number      Percent    Number       Percent    Number           Percent
Hit Person/Object        0        0.0        212         5.1         3379        65.3        99              15.1
Off Road Left           573       28.9       1069        26.0         563        10.9        144             21.9
Off Road Right          838       42.3       1753        42.6         739        14.3        262             39.9
Rear End                 11       0.6         22         0.5           0          0.0         5               0.8
Sideswipe                10       0.5         3          0.1           0          0.0         2               0.3
Passing Left              0        0.0         1          0.0          0          0.0         0               0.0
Passing Right            3         0.2         2          0.0          0          0.0         0               0.0
Head On                  40        2.0         7          0.2          0          0.0         1               0.2
Left Turn                19       1.0          7          0.2          0          0.0         1               0.2
Right Turn               35        1.8         5          0.1          0          0.0         2               0.3
Other                   394       19.9       1034        25.1         494         9.5        119             18.1
Unknown                  58        2.9         3          0.1          0          0.0        22               3.3
Total                  1981       100.0      4118        100.0       5175        100.0       657            100.0


Table 163:           Hit and Run Crashes by Region
                       British Columbia            Western                 Central                 Atlantic*
Hit and Run           Number     Percent    Number      Percent    Number       Percent    Number           Percent
No                     1969       99.4       4038        98.1        5011        96.8        116            100.0
Yes                     12         0.6        80          1.9         155         3.0         0              0.0
Unknown                 0         0.0         0          0.0           9          0.2         0              0.0
Total                  1981       100.0      4118        100.0       5175        100.0       116            100.0
* excluding NB, NS

                Temporal Characteristics of Single Vehicle Injury Collisions
                      Involving Heavy Trucks: Canada, 2000-2006

 Table 164:         Month of Crash by Region
                     British Columbia          Western                Central                    Atlantic
 Month               Number    Percent     Number     Percent     Number     Percent      Number      Percent
 January              184        9.3        372        9.0         430          8.3         55           8.4
 February             161        8.1        294        7.1         363          7.0         42           6.4
 March                155        7.8        327        7.9         359         6.9          47           7.2
 April                127        6.4        258        6.3         345         6.7          31           4.7
 May                  137        6.9        285        6.9         380         7.3          36           5.5
 June                 147        7.4        311        7.6         436          8.4         56           8.5
 July                 154        7.8        341        8.3         466          9.0         61           9.3
 August               177        8.9        370        9.0         500         9.7          73          11.1
 September            180        9.1        335        8.1         426         8.2          65           9.9
 October              187        9.4        442        10.7        526         10.2         81          12.3
 November             184        9.3        399        9.7         486         9.4          55           8.4
 December             188        9.5        384        9.3         458          8.9         55           8.4
 Total                1981     100.0        4118      100.0        5175       100.0        657         100.0

 Table 165:         Time of Crash by Region
                     British Columbia          Western                Central                    Atlantic
 Time                Number    Percent     Number     Percent     Number     Percent      Number      Percent
 Midnight to 559      367       18.5        650        15.8        832         16.1        106          16.1
 600 to 1159          628       31.7        1247       30.3        1742        33.7        206          31.4
 1200 to 1759         599       30.2        1274       30.9        1696        32.8        224          34.1
 1800 to 2359         328       16.6        835        20.3         863        16.7        102          15.5
 Unknown              59         3.0        112        2.7          42          0.8         19           2.9
 Total                1981      100         4118       100         5175        100         657          100


                                                                                                                      157
      Table 166:      Day of Week of Crash by Region
                         British Columbia                 Western                     Central                  Atlantic
      Day of Week        Number      Percent          Number         Percent      Number     Percent    Number      Percent
      Monday              238         12.0             414            10.1         646         12.5      86           13.1
      Tuesday             293         14.8             585            14.2         817         15.8      116          17.7
      Wednesday           347         17.5             635            15.4         895         17.3      117          17.8
      Thursday            340         17.2             676            16.4         899         17.4      118          18.0
      Friday              369         18.6             726            17.6         925         17.9      118          18.0
      Saturday            329         16.6             917            22.3         844         16.3       89          13.5
      Sunday               65         3.3              164             4.0         149          2.9      13           2.0
      Unknown               0         0.0               1              0.0          0           0.0       0           0.0
      Total               1981        100.0            4118          100.0         5175       100.0      657          100.0



                               Vehicle Characteristics of Drivers of Heavy Trucks
                             in Injury Single Vehicle Collisions: Canada, 2000-2006

        Table 167:               Vehicle Age by Region
                                  British Columbia              Western                   Central          Atlantic
        Vehicle Age              Number      Percent     Number         Percent    Number     Percent   Number     Percent
        <1 Year                     99         5.0            284         6.9        465         9.0      48         7.2
        1 Year                     121         6.1            313         7.6        596        11.5     52          7.8
        2 Years                     98         4.9            310         7.5        538        10.4     57          8.6
        3 Years                    109         5.5            292         7.1        456         8.8      41         6.2
        4 Years                    105         5.3            241         5.9        457         8.8      40         6.0
        5 Years                    102         5.1            262         6.4        381         7.4      42         6.3
        6-10 Years                 357         18.0           762        18.5       1222        23.6     153        23.0
        11-15 Years                189         9.5            359         8.7        516        10.0     68         10.2
        16-20 Years                 62         3.1            150         3.6        225         4.3      26         3.9
        >20 Years                  61          3.1            213         5.2        96         1.9      14          2.1
        Unknown                    678         34.2           932        22.6        223        4.3      125        18.8
        Total                      1981        100            4118        100       5175        100      666        100


        Table 168:               Vehicle Manoeuvre by Region
                                  British Columbia              Western                   Central          Atlantic
        Manoeuvre                Number      Percent     Number         Percent    Number     Percent   Number     Percent
        Going Straight             1274        64.3           1249       76.7       3672        71.0     533        80.0
        Turning Left                106        5.4             82        5.0        350         6.8      43         6.5
        Turning Right               124        6.3             77         4.7       315         6.1      32          4.8
        Making U-Turn                1         0.1              3        0.2          5         0.1       0         0.0
        Changing Lanes               5         0.3             18        1.1         43         0.8       0          0.0
        Merging                      9         0.5             11         0.7        149        2.9       7          1.1
        Reversing                   29         1.5             21        1.3         208        4.0      14          2.1
        Overtaking                   6         0.3             14        0.9          31        0.6       5          0.8
        Slowing/Stopping             35        1.8             54         3.3       162         3.1      13          2.0
        Stopped in Traffic           2         0.1              0         0.0         18        0.3       1          0.2
        Start in Traffic              4         0.2             8         0.5         33        0.6       0          0.0
        Start from Parked            10        0.5              6         0.4         5         0.1       4          0.6
        Enter Parked Pos             1         0.1              0         0.0         26        0.5       1          0.2
        Parked Legally               8         0.4             0         0.0          0         0.0       0         0.0
        Parked Illegally             0         0.0             0         0.0          2         0.0       2         0.3
        Swerve to Avoid              31        1.6             30         1.8         14        0.3       0          0.0
        Stopped/Parked               0         0.0              6         0.4         12        0.2       2          0.3
        Other Manoeuvre             329        16.6             8        0.5         94         1.8       0          0.0
        Unknown                      7         0.4             42         2.6        36         0.7       9          1.4
        Total                      1981       100.0           1629       100.0      5175        100.0    666        100.0
        * excluding AB

158
  Table 169:               Vehicle Condition by Region
                            British Columbia               Western                Central*                Atlantic
  Condition                Number        Percent      Number      Percent      Number    Percent       Number    Percent
  Brakes                        44         2.2            41        1.0           4         0.2          29         4.4
  Steering                      18         0.9             7        0.2           0         0.0          17         2.6
  Vehicle Lights**               1         0.1             6        0.1           1         0.0           1         0.2
  Engine, Train                  7         0.4             0        0.0           0         0.0           2         0.3
  Wheels, Suspension            19         1.0             1        0.0           2         0.1           9         1.4
  Tires                         49         2.5            25        0.6          11         0.5           9         1.4
  Tow Hitch                      9         0.5             0        0.0           0         0.0           3         0.5
  Hood, Door Opened              0         0.0             0        0.0           0         0.0           0         0.0
  Oversize, Overload            78         3.9            47        1.1           0         0.0          40         6.0
  Modifications                  2         0.1             0        0.0           0         0.0           0         0.0
  Jackknife                      0         0.0             0        0.0           0         0.0          34         5.1
  Windshield                     0         0.0             0        0.0           0         0.0           2         0.3
  Nothing Mentioned            1754       88.5           3991      96.9         2307       99.2         520        78.1
  Total                        1981      100.0           4118      100.0        2325      100.0         666       100.0
  * excluding QC
  ** headlights, tail lights, and lights non-specified


          Roadway Characteristics of Single Vehicle Injury Collision Sites
                  Involving Heavy Trucks: Canada, 2000-2006
Table 170:                      Roadway Configuration of Collision Site by Region
                                British Columbia                Western                 Central               Atlantic
Traffic Control                 Number      Percent       Number     Percent     Number      Percent     Number      Percent
Non-intersection                  1419       71.6          2836       68.9        3299        63.7        120         18.3
Intersection of > One Road        187        9.4           571        13.9         772        14.9        132         20.1
Intersection w. Traf Control        7        0.4             0         0.0         322        6.2           2          0.3
Intersection with Private Rd       35        1.8             64        1.6         110        2.1          12          1.8
RR Level Crossing                  14        0.7             66        1.6         12         0.2           1          0.2
Bridge, Overpass                   55        2.8             38        0.9         83         1.6          10          1.5
Tunnel, Underpass                   7        0.4             6         0.1         13         0.3          0          0.0
Parking Lot                        30        1.5             1         0.0          0         0.0         11          1.7
Off Road                            0        0.0             5         0.1          0         0.0          0           0.0
Other Site                         201       10.1            86        2.1         432         8.3         12          1.8
Unknown                            26        1.3            445       10.8         132        2.6         357         54.3
Total                             1981       100.0         4118       100.0       5175       100.0        657        100.0


Table 171:                      Road Category of Collision Site by Region
                                British Columbia                Western                Central*               Atlantic**
Road Category                   Number      Percent       Number     Percent     Number      Percent     Number      Percent
Undivided                         1362       68.8          1052       25.5        1621        69.7        263         65.6
Divided                            173       8.7            823       20.0         448        19.3         40         10.0
Freeway                           151        7.6             0         0.0         28         1.2           0          0.0
Interchange Ramp                   28        1.4             0         0.0         225        9.7           0          0.0
Other                               4         0.2           140        3.4          0         0.0           2          0.5
Not Applicable                     166       8.4             3        0.1           0         0.0          0          0.0
Unknown                            97        4.9           2100       51.0          3         0.1          96         23.9
Total                             1981       100.0         4118       100.0       2325       100.0        401        100.0
* excluding QC
** excluding NS




                                                                                                                               159
      Table 172:                   Road Material of Collision Site by Region
                                   British Columbia      Western*            Central           Atlantic
      Road Material                Number   Percent   Number   Percent   Number   Percent   Number   Percent
      Asphalt                       1784     90.1      945      27.6      4622     89.3      583      88.7
      Concrete                        9      0.5        88      2.6        66       1.3       0       0.0
      Gravel                        152      7.7       243      7.1       285       5.5      32       4.9
      Earth, Dirt                    26      1.3        30      0.9        72      1.4       15       2.3
      Brick                           0      0.0         0      0.0         0       0.0       0       0.0
      Unknown                        10       0.5      2119     61.9       130      2.5      27       4.1
      Total                         1981     100.0     3425    100.0      5175    100.0      657     100.0
      * excluding SK


      Table 173:                   Road Surface of Collision Site by Region
                                   British Columbia      Western             Central           Atlantic
      Road Surface                 Number   Percent   Number   Percent   Number   Percent   Number   Percent
      Dry, Normal                   1186     59.9      2331     56.6      3189     61.6      404      61.5
      Wet                            353     17.8       316      7.7       819     15.8      120      18.3
      Snow (Loose)                   147      7.4        92      2.2       440      8.5      47        7.2
      Ice (Packed Snow)              199     10.0       404      9.8       534     10.3      49        7.5
      Sand/Gravel/Dirt                0       0.0       103      2.5       21       0.4       8        1.2
      Mud                            15       0.8        75      1.8        25      0.5       4        0.6
      Slush                          69       3.5        27      0.7        97      1.9      19        2.9
      Oil                             0       0.0         0      0.0         7      0.1       0        0.0
      Unknown                         12      0.6       770     18.7        43      0.8       6        0.9
      Total                         1981     100.0     4118    100.0      5175    100.0      657     100.0


      Table 174:                   Roadway Alignment of Collision Site by Region
                                   British Columbia      Western             Central           Atlantic
      Roadway Alignment            Number   Percent   Number   Percent   Number   Percent   Number   Percent
      Straight and Level             472     23.8      2474     60.1      2628     50.8      215      32.7
      Straight and Gradient          275     13.9      244       5.9      506       9.8      73       11.1
      Curved and Level               324     16.4      480      11.7      1102     21.3      125      19.0
      Curved and Gradient            817     41.2       243      5.9       830     16.0      186      28.3
      Top of Hill                    13       0.7       106      2.6        0       0.0      17        2.6
      Bottom of Hill                 10       0.5       114      2.8        0       0.0      29       4.4
      Unknown                         70      3.5       457     11.1       109      2.1       12       1.8
      Total                         1981     100.0     4118    100.0      5175    100.0      657     100.0


      Table 175:                   Traffic Control of Collision Site by Region
                                   British Columbia      Western             Central           Atlantic
      Traffic Control              Number   Percent   Number   Percent   Number   Percent   Number   Percent
      No Control Present            1593     80.4      2826     68.6      4128     79.8      431      65.6
      Traffic Signals                63       3.2       155      3.8       427      8.3       14       2.1
      Stop Sign                      33       1.7       81       2.0      187       3.6      13        2.0
      Yield Sign                     29       1.5       22       0.5       64       1.2       5        0.8
      Pedestrian Crossover            0       0.0        23      0.6        9       0.2       2        0.3
      Police Officer                  0       0.0        0       0.0        9       0.2       0        0.0
      School Guard/Flagperson         8       0.4        1       0.0       15       0.3       3        0.5
      School Crossing                 0       0.0         0      0.0        1       0.0       0        0.0
      Flashing Signal Light           15      0.8         1      0.0        11      0.2       4        0.6
      Advisory Sign                   0       0.0        7       0.2       21       0.4      50        7.6
      School Bus Flashing Lights      0       0.0         0      0.0        1       0.0        1       0.2
      Railway Crossing                8       0.4        26      0.6         6      0.1        2       0.3
      Unknown                        232     11.7       976     23.7       296      5.7      132      20.1
      Total                         1981     100.0     4118    100.0      5175    100.0      657     100.0




160
Table 176:                  Speed Limit of Collision Site by Region
                             British Columbia                 Western*                    Central                    Atlantic
Speed Limit                  Number       Percent       Number        Percent       Number      Percent        Number       Percent
50 km/h or less                  415          20.9           343          21.1        1273           24.6          124           18.9
60 to 90 km/h                    867          43.8           570          35.0        2472           47.8          303           46.1
100 km/h or more                 437          22.1           632          38.8         897           17.3          149           22.7
Unknown                          262          13.2            84          5.2          533           10.3           81           12.3
Total                         1981           100.0       1629            100.0        5175          100.0          657          100.0
* excluding AB


                       Environmental Characteristics of Single Vehicle Injury
                       Collisions Involving Heavy Trucks: Canada, 2000-2006

    Table 177:           Road Classification of Crash by Region
                         British Columbia               Western                      Central                   Atlantic
    Classification       Number    Percent           Number    Percent           Number   Percent           Number   Percent
    Urban                  403         20.3            567         13.8           1867       36.1            178         27.1
    Rural                 1549         78.2           2728         66.2           3187       61.6            467         71.1
    Unknown                 29          1.5           823          20.0            121        2.3             12          1.8
    Total                 1981         100.0          4118         100.0          5175       100.0           657         100.0

    Table 178:           Weather Conditions of Crash by Region
                         British Columbia               Western                      Central                   Atlantic
    Weather              Number    Percent           Number    Percent           Number   Percent           Number   Percent
    Clear                 1543         77.9           3127         75.9           3852       74.4            486         74.0
    Raining                182          9.2            196          4.8            478        9.2             60          9.1
    Snowing                198         10.0            340          8.3           595        11.5             53          8.1
    Sleet, Hail              1          0.1             66          1.6             78        1.5             18          2.7
    Fog, Smog, Mist        32          1.6            137           3.3           117         2.3             9           1.4
    Dust, Smoke             1           0.1             1           0.0             0         0.0              1          0.2
    Strong Winds            11          0.6            128          3.1             44        0.9              6          0.9
    Unknown                 13          0.7           123           3.0             11        0.2             24          3.7
    Total                 1981         100            4118         100            5175       100             657         100

    Table 179:           Light Conditions of Crash by Region
                         British Columbia               Western                      Central                   Atlantic
    Light Conditions     Number    Percent           Number    Percent           Number   Percent           Number   Percent
    Day                   1147         57.9           2492         60.5           3441       66.5            439         66.8
    Dawn                   87           4.4             55          1.3           180         3.5             11          1.7
    Dusk                   49           2.5             66          1.6            40         0.8             18          2.7
    Dark                  641          32.4           1380         33.5           1375       26.6            175         26.6
    Artificial Light       41           2.1             1           0.0           127        2.5              7          1.1
    Unknown                16           0.8            124          3.0            12         0.2             7           1.1
    Total                 1981         100.0          4118         100.0          5175       100.0           657         100.0




                                                                                                                                        161
      Table 180:           Environmental Conditions of Crash by Region
                           British Columbia      Western             Central           Atlantic
      Environmental        Number   Percent   Number   Percent   Number   Percent   Number   Percent
      Animal Action          105      5.3       127      3.1        0      0.0        41       6.2
      Slippery Road          165      8.3       18       0.4        0      0.0        90      13.7
      Drifting Snow            0      0.0       173      4.2        0      0.0        21       3.2
      Obstruction in Rd      25       1.3       12       0.3        0      0.0         4       0.6
      View Obstructed         16      0.8       30       0.7        0      0.0        12       1.8
      Reflections             18      0.9        1       0.0        0      0.0         2       0.3
      Road Construction       46      2.3        0       0.0        0      0.0         5       0.8
      Defective Surface       22      1.1        4       0.1        0      0.0         9       1.4
      Defect. Shoulder         0      0.0        3       0.1        0      0.0        25       3.8
      Inadeq. Lane Mark        0      0.0        1       0.0        0      0.0         0       0.0
      Defect. Traf Cntrl       1      0.1        0       0.0        0      0.0         0       0.0
      Wind                     0      0.0        8       0.2        0      0.0        18       2.7
      Nothing Mentioned     1583     79.9      3741     90.8      5175    100.0      430      65.4
      Total                 1981     100       4118     100       5175     100       657      100




162
                                   Appendix 7

Compulsory Training for Drivers of Heavy Goods Vehicles in Europe

10.9.2003 EN Official Journal of the European Union L 226/13


MINIMUM QUALIFICATION AND TRAINING REQUIREMENTS

Section 1: List of subjects

The knowledge to be taken into account by Member States when establishing the
driver's initial qualification and periodic training must include at least the subjects in this
list. Trainee drivers must reach the level of knowledge and practical competence
necessary to drive in all safety vehicles of the relevant licence category. The minimum
level of knowledge may not be less than level 2 of the training-level structure provided
for in Annex I to Decision 85/368/EEC (1), i.e. the level reached during compulsory
education, supplemented by professional training.


1. Advanced training in rational driving based on safety regulations


All licences

1.1. Objective: to know the characteristics of the transmission system in order to make
the best possible use of it: curves relating to torque, power, and specific consumption of
an engine, area of optimum use of revolution counter, gearbox-ratio cover diagrams.


1.2. Objective: to know the technical characteristics and operation of the safety controls
in order to control the vehicle, minimize wear and tear and prevent disfunctioning:
specific features of hydraulic vacuum servobrake circuit, limits to the use of brakes and
retarder, combined use of brakes and retarder, making better use of speed and gear
ratio, making use of vehicle inertia, using ways of
slowing down and braking on downhill stretches, action in the event of failure.

1.3. Objective: ability to optimize fuel consumption: optimization of fuel consumption by
applying know-how as regards points 1.1 and 1.2.



                                                                                                  163
      Licences C, C+E, C1, C1+E.
      1.4. Objective: ability to load the vehicle with due regard for safety rules and proper
      vehicle use: forces affecting vehicles in motion, use of gearbox ratios according to
      vehicle load and road profile, calculation of payload of vehicle or assembly, calculation of
      total volume, load distribution, consequences of overloading the axle, vehicle stability
      and centre of gravity, types of packaging and pallets; main categories of goods needing
      securing, clamping and securing techniques, use of securing straps, checking of
      securing devices, use of handling equipment, placing and removal of tarpaulins.


      Licences D, D+E, D1, D1+E
      1.5. Objective: ability to ensure passenger comfort and safety: adjusting longitudinal
      and sideways movements, road sharing, position on the road, smooth breaking,
      overhang operation, using specific infrastructures (public areas, dedicated lanes),
      managing conflicts between safe driving and other roles as a driver, interacting with
      passengers, peculiarities of certain groups of passengers (disabled persons, children).


      1.6. Objective: ability to load the vehicle with due regard for safety rules and proper
      vehicle use: forces affecting vehicles in motion, use of gearbox-ratios according to
      vehicle load and road profile, calculation of payload of vehicle or assembly, load
      distribution, consequences of overloading the axle, vehicle stability and centre of gravity.



      2. Application of regulations

      All licences
      2.1. Objective: to know the social environment of road transport and the rules
      governing it: maximum working periods specific to the transport industry; principles,
      application and consequences of Regulations (EEC) No 3820/85 and (EEC) No 3821/85;
      penalties for failure to use, improper use of and tampering with the tachograph;
      knowledge of the social environment of road transport: rights and duties of drivers as
      regards initial qualification and periodic training.


      Licences C, C+E, C1, C1+E


164
2.2. Objective: to know the regulations governing the carriage of goods:
transport operating licences, obligations under standard contracts for the carriage of
goods, drafting of documents which form the transport contract, international transport
permits, obligations under the Convention on the Contract for the International Carriage
of Goods by Road, drafting of the international consignment note, crossing borders,
freight forwarders, special documents accompanying goods.


Licences D, D+E, D1, D1+E
2.3. Objective: to know the regulations governing the carriage of passengers:
carriage of specific groups of passengers, safety equipment on board buses, safety
belts, vehicle load.


3. Health, road and environmental safety, service, logistics
All licences

3.1. Objective: to make drivers aware of the risks of the road and of accidents at work:
types of accidents at work in the transport sector, road accident statistics, involvement of
lorries/coaches, human, material and financial consequences.


3.2. Objective: ability to prevent criminality and trafficking in illegal immigrants:
general information, implications for drivers, preventive measures, check list, legislation
on transport operator liability.


3.3. Objective: ability to prevent physical risks: ergonomic principles; movements and
postures which pose a risk, physical fitness, handling exercises, personal protection.

3.4. Objective: awareness of the importance of physical and mental ability:
principles of healthy, balanced eating, effects of alcohol, drugs or any other substance
likely to affect behaviour, symptoms, causes, effects of fatigue and stress, fundamental
role of the basic work/rest cycle.
3.5. Objective: ability to assess emergency situations: behaviour in an emergency
situation: assessment of the situation, avoiding complications of an accident, summoning
assistance, assisting casualties and giving first aid, reaction in the event of fire,
evacuation of occupants of a lorry/bus passengers, ensuring the safety of all



                                                                                               165
      passengers, reaction in the event of aggression; basic principles for the drafting of an
      accident report.


      3.6. Objective: ability to adopt behaviour to help enhance the image of the company:
      behaviour of the driver and company image: importance for the company of the standard
      of service provided by the driver, the roles of the driver, people with whom the driver will
      be dealing, vehicle maintenance, work organization, commercial and financial effects of
      a dispute.


      Licences C, C+E, C1, C1+E
      3.7. Objective: to know the economic environment of road haulage and the
      organization of the market: road transport in relation to other modes of transport
      (competition, shippers), different road transport activities (transport for hire or reward,
      own account, auxiliary transport activities), organization of the main types of transport
      company and auxiliary transport activities, different transport specializations (road
      tanker, controlled temperature, etc.), changes in the industry (diversification of services
      provided, rail-road, subcontracting, etc.).


      Licences D, D+E, D1, D1+E
      3.8. Objective: to know the economic environment of the carriage of passengers by
      road and the organization of the market: carriage of passengers by road in relation to
      other modes of passenger transport (rail, private car), different activities involving the
      carriage of passengers by road, crossing borders (international transport), organization
      of the main types of companies for the carriage of passengers by road.


      Section 2: Compulsory initial qualification provided for in Article
      3(1)(a)
      2.1. Option combining both course attendance and a test
      Initial qualification must include the teaching of all subjects in the list under section 1.
      The duration of this initial qualification must be 280 hours.
      Each trainee driver must drive for at least 20 hours individually in a vehicle of the
      category concerned which meets at least the requirements for test vehicles as defined in
      Directive 91/439/EEC.



166
When driving individually, the trainee driver must be accompanied by an instructor,
employed by an approved training centre. Each driver may drive for a maximum of eight
hours of the 20 hours of individual driving on special terrain or on a top-of-the-range
simulator so as to assess training in rational driving based on safety regulations, in
particular with regard to vehicle handling in different road conditions and the way they
change with different atmospheric conditions and the time of day or night.


For the drivers referred to in Article 5(5) the length of the initial qualification must be 70
hours, including five hours of individual driving. At the end of that training, Member
States' competent authorities or the entity designated by them shall give the driver a
written or oral test. The test must include at least one question on each of the objectives
in the list of subjects under section 1.


2.2. Option involving a test
Member States' competent authorities or the entity designated by them shall organise
the aforementioned theoretical and practical tests to check whether the trainee driver
has the level of knowledge required in section 1 for the subjects and objectives listed
there.
(a) The theoretical test shall consist of at least two parts:
(i) questions including multiple-choice questions, questions requiring a direct answer, or
a combination of both;
(ii) case studies.
The minimum duration of the theoretical test must be four hours.


(b) The practical test shall consist of two parts:

(i) a driving test aimed at assessing training in rational driving based on safety
regulations. The test must take place, whenever possible, on roads outside built-up
areas, on fast roads and on motorways (or similar), and on all kinds of urban highways
presenting the different types of difficulties that a driver is liable to
encounter. It would be desirable for this test to take place in different traffic density
conditions. The driving time on the road must be used optimally in order to assess the
candidate in all traffic areas likely to be encountered. The minimum duration of this test
must be 90 minutes;


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      (ii) a practical test covering at least points 1.4, 1.5, 1.6, 3.2, 3.3 and 3.5. The minimum
      duration of this test must be 30 minutes. The vehicle used for the practical test must
      meet at least the requirements for test vehicles as defined in Directive 91/439/EEC. The
      practical test may be supplemented by a third test taking place on special terrain or on a
      top-of-the-range simulator so as to assess training in rational driving based on safety
      regulations, in particular with regard to vehicle handling in different road conditions and
      the way they change with different atmospheric conditions and the time of day or night.
      The duration of this optional test is not fixed. Should the driver undergo such a test, its
      duration may be deducted from the 90 minutes of the driving test referred to under (i),
      but the time deducted may not exceed 30 minutes. For the drivers referred to in Article
      5(5), the theoretical test must be limited to the subjects, referred to in
      section 1, which are relevant to the vehicles to which the new initial qualification applies.
      However, such drivers must undergo the whole practical test.


      Section 3: Accelerated initial qualification provided for in Article
      3(2)
      Accelerated initial qualification must include the teaching of all subjects in the list in
      section 1. Its duration must be 140 hours. Each trainee must drive for at least 10 hours
      individually in a vehicle of the category concerned which meets at least the requirements
      for test vehicles as defined in Directive 91/439/EEC. When driving individually, the
      trainee driver must be accompanied by an instructor, employed by an approved training
      centre. Each driver may drive for a maximum of four hours of the 10 hours of individual
      driving on special terrain or on a top-of-the-range simulator so as to assess training in
      rational driving based on safety regulations, in particular with regard to vehicle handling
      in different road conditions and the way they change with different atmospheric
      conditions and the time of day or night. For the drivers referred to in Article 5(5) the
      length of the accelerated initial qualification must be 35 hours, including
      two-and-a-half hours of individual driving.


      At the end of that training, Member States' competent authorities or the entity designated
      by them shall give the driver a written or oral test. The test must include at least one
      question on each of the objectives in the list of subjects under section 1.




168
Section 4: Compulsory periodic training provided for in Article
3(1)(b)
Compulsory periodic training courses must be organised by an approved training centre.
Their duration must be of 35 hours every five years, given in periods of at least seven
hours. Such periodic training may be provided, in part, on top of-
the-range simulators.

Section 5: Approval of the initial qualification and periodic
training
5.1. The training centres taking part in the initial qualification and periodic training must
be approved by the Member States' competent authorities. Approval may be given only
in response to a written application. The application must be accompanied by
documents including:


5.1.1. a suitable qualification and training programme specifying the subjects taught and
setting out the proposed implementing plan and teaching methods;


5.1.2. the instructors' qualifications and fields of activity;


5.1.3. information about the premises where the courses are given, the teaching
materials, the resources made available for the practical work, and the vehicle fleet
used;


5.1.4. the conditions regarding participation in the courses (number of participants).


5.2. The competent authority must give approval in writing subject to the following
conditions:


5.2.1. the training must be given in accordance with the documents accompanying the
application;


5.2.2. the competent authority must be entitled to send authorised persons to assist in
the training courses of the approved centres, and must be entitled to monitor such




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      centres, with regard to the resources used and the proper running of the training courses
      and tests;


      5.2.3. the approval may be withdrawn or suspended if the conditions of approval are no
      longer complied with. The approved centre must guarantee that the instructors have a
      sound knowledge of the most recent regulations and training requirements. As part of a
      specific selection procedure, the instructors must provide certification showing a
      knowledge of both the subject material and teaching methods. As regards the practical
      part of the training, instructors must provide certification of experience as professional
      drivers or similar driving experience, such as that of driving instructors for heavy
      vehicles.


      The programme of instruction must be in accordance with the approval and must cover
      the subjects in the list in section 1.




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