Business Education and Teaching Strategies

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					              The Interrelationships of Business Functions and
                   Integration of Teaching and Learning

Critics of education in the 1980’s and 1990’s indicated the curricula in our schools are
too compartmentalized. Schools offer courses as ends in themselves, rather than
emphasizing various aspects of life that interrelate with one another. (National Standards
for Business Education, NBEA, 1995)

Because of the discipline orientation of the overall curricula, including the business
curriculum, compartmentalization can naturally occur. When teachers organize a
curriculum with no artificial boundaries between content areas, teachers and students
discover and uncover commonalities between the disciplines and students gain greater
understanding, retention and application.

Integrated or interdisciplinary curriculum is about finding connections among the
students, subject area content and the outside world. For transfer and understanding to
occur, students need to be consciously guided in their practice of recognizing, discussing
and applying concepts and skills across disciplines. In this way students will internalize
and then discover the nature of the connections in what they are studying.

It is important to recognize there is no single model for organizing curriculum for
integrated teaching and learning. Typically, integrated curriculum is developed by a team
of teachers who possess a depth of understanding of their content. These teams plan,
write integrated lessons, share ideas, develop materials and coach each other. This
approach to curriculum requires a personal belief in integrated curriculum and
commitment of school resources by administrators.

In 1995 the National Business Education Association saw the need to emphasize the
interrelationship of business subjects and published the Matrix of Interrelationships in the
National Business Education Standards. The format shows the interrelationship of facets
of business and provides classroom activities at the levels of analysis, application and
impact.

For example, in the Accounting matrix which follows, the teacher can emphasize the
interrelationship of accounting to marketing by selecting the example labeled
“marketing” in the accounting matrix. These activities will rely heavily on the accounting
function as it relates to marketing.
                                                                           ACCOUNTING
                                                      Matrix of Interrelationships of Accounting to Other Business Functions

                     Accounting careers require the ability to                                      Accounting is affected by the form of                                Accounting provides vital information for
CAREER DEVELOPMENT




                     think logically and to manually and                                            ownership pursued by an entrepreneur.                                management decisions.




                                                                           ENTREPRENEURSHIP
                     electronically manipulate data.                                                Analysis – Identify the differences in accounting                    Analysis – Investigate merchandise inventory




                                                                                                                                                            MANAGEMENT
                     Analysis – Research an accounting career available                             procedures for sole proprietorships, partnerships and                accounting principles that relate to budgetary
                     in the local community.                                                        corporations.                                                        decisions.
                     Application – Shadow a selected accounting career.                             Application – Compare/contrast format in financial                   Application – Calculate merchandise inventory
                                                                                                    statement account titles for sole proprietorships,                   turnover ratios.
                     Impact – Make a decision about advanced training
                                                                                                    partnerships, and corporations.                                      Impact – Using calculated merchandise inventory
                     or employment.
                                                                                                    Impact – Determine financial reasons for specific                    data, prepare a presentation on a new management
                                                                                                    firms being sole proprietorships, partnerships, or                   decision for the company.
                                                                                                    corporations.



                     Accounting statements communicate the                                          Accounting functions are enhanced by a                               Accounting data drives marketing

                                                                           INFORMATION SYSTEMS
                     financial health of a business.                                                variety of information systems.                                      decisions.
COMMUNICATIONS




                     Analysis – Explain what financial statements                                   Analysis – Using spreadsheet software, organize,                     Analysis – Analyze sales data.




                                                                                                                                                            MARKETING
                     communicate to readers.                                                        calculate, and complete an accounting financial                      Application – Determine the effect of changes in
                     Application – Write a narrative report explaining                              statement.                                                           sales volume, unit costs and unit sales prices on
                     data from a financial statement.                                               Application – Make projections using “What if”                       net income.
                     Impact – In a presentation, substantiate a decision                            statements.                                                          Impact – Using calculated sales data, prepare a
                     based on financial data.                                                       Impact – Evaluate a business decision on                             presentation on a new management decision for
                                                                                                    projections.                                                         the company.




                     Accounting helps in making decisions at the                                    Accounting is the “language” of business                             Accounting data is an integral link in
                                                                           INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS




                     margin.                                                                        everywhere.                                                          determining manufacturing costs.
                     Analysis – Analyze costs and benefits of hiring one                            Analysis – Compare foreign currencies and                            Analysis – Identify the flow of costs through the




                                                                                                                                                            PRODUCTION
                     additional employee.                                                           determine how business affects exchange rate.                        manufacturing process.
ECONOMICS




                     Application – Create a graph of existing and                                   Application – Use the newspaper or business                          Application – Calculate merchandise inventory
                     projected costs and benefits.                                                  magazines to research the value of currency of                       turnover ratios.
                     Impact – Support a decision for expenditure on the                             selected countries over a given period of time.                      Impact – Through debate, persuade a peer group
                     basis of data.                                                                 Impact – Predict how internal business affairs in a                  to modify a production process.
                                                                                                    given country will impact the economy and
                                                                                                    exchange rate of that country.



                                                                                                                                                                                                      Page 1 of 10
                                                 CAREER DEVELOPMENT
                                           Matrix of Interrelationships of Career Development to Other Business Functions

                 Many careers involve accounting knowledge                                       The career choice with the most                                      Career opportunities are available at




                                                                        ENTREPRENEURSHIP
                 and practices.                                                                  opportunities continues to be                                        many levels of management.
                                                                                                 entrepreneurship.




                                                                                                                                                         MANAGEMENT
                 Analysis – Give examples of current and emerging                                                                                                     Analysis – Explore the levels of management in a
ACCOUNTING




                 accounting careers and educational requirements.                                Analysis – Explore local entrepreneurial                             small, medium and large business organization in
                 Application – Interview an accountant regarding                                 opportunities for minorities.                                        your community.
                 responsibilities and preparation required for                                   Application – Present research findings to local                     Application – Develop interview questions to
                 accounting-related careers.                                                     Chamber of Commerce.                                                 determine management responsibilities.
                 Impact – Make a decision about advanced training                                Impact – Recommend an opportunity for a minority                     Impact – Conduct interview and document
                 or employment opportunities.                                                    sole proprietorship in the local community.                          findings.



                 Career development is enhanced by effective                                     Career knowledge has increased through the                           Career opportunities continue to expand


                                                                        INFORMATION SYSTEMS
                 communication.                                                                  use of information systems.                                          in the field of marketing.
COMMUNICATIONS




                 Analysis – Research various career paths.                                       Analysis – Identify three ways to obtain career                      Analysis – Examine the marketing job




                                                                                                                                                         MARKETING
                 Application – Through shadowing, interview, or                                  information using electronic information systems.                    opportunities in the sports or entertainment
                 survey, collect data on a chosen career path.                                   Application – Obtain career information through a                    industry.

                 Impact – Select an appropriate high school course of                            selected electronic information system for one career                Application – Research education/training
                 study to meet career requirements.                                              path.                                                                requirements for emerging marketing careers.
                                                                                                 Impact – Electronically follow and update a selected                 Impact – Prepare a presentation on a selected
                                                                                                 career for one month.                                                marketing career.




                 Career decisions are affected by economic                                       Career opportunities have expanded to                                Career opportunities have expanded to
                                                                        INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS




                 factors.                                                                        encompass the globe.                                                 encompass the globe.
                 Analysis – Explore and explain why wages differ                                 Analysis – Analyze costs and benefits of hiring one                  Analysis – Examine career opportunities in




                                                                                                                                                         PRODUCTION
                 from occupation to occupation.                                                  additional employee.                                                 manufacturing.
ECONOMICS




                 Application – Estimate the probable income from                                 Application – Create a graph of existing and                         Application – Research education/training
                 careers of your choice and cost of preparing for                                projected costs and benefits.                                        requirements for emerging manufacturing careers.
                 those careers.                                                                  Impact – Support a decision for expenditure on the                   Impact – Make a decision about advanced
                 Impact – Appraise career choices by comparing the                               basis of data.                                                       training or employment opportunities.
                 cost of preparation to predicted income.




                                                                                                                                                                                                   Page 2 of 10
                                                           COMMUNICATIONS
                                              Matrix of Interrelationships of Communications to Other Business Functions

                 Communication skills can be used to                                         Effective communication tools are essential in                       Communication provides advantageous




                                                                    ENTREPRENEURSHIP
                 demonstrate accounting techniques and the                                   entrepreneurial endeavors.                                           business contacts for managers.
                 resulting effects.




                                                                                                                                                     MANAGEMENT
                                                                                             Analysis – Through interview or biographic study,                    Analysis – Determine the effectiveness of
ACCOUNTING




                 Analysis – Compare and contrast LIFO and FIFO                               collect information about the relationship of                        business networking.
                 procedures.                                                                 communication to success as an entrepreneur.                         Application – Obtain at least ten business cards
                 Application – Write a memo explaining the                                   Application – Prepare a listing of critical                          and related information from management
                 advantages and disadvantages of each inventory                              communication skills.                                                personnel.
                 procedure.                                                                  Impact – Brainstorm communication skills required to                 Impact – Prepare a “networking notebook”
                 Impact – Justify the decision and present the                               become an entrepreneur.                                              including collected business cards, company
                 findings.                                                                                                                                        brochures and other information that will be
                                                                                                                                                                  helpful for business networking.

                 Effective communication is required in all                                  Communication requires the use of                                    Communication facilitates marketing


                                                                    INFORMATION SYSTEMS
                 careers.                                                                    information systems for daily business                               strategies.
COMMUNICATIONS




                 Analysis – Determine the communication skills                               operations.                                                          Analysis – Define and design a community needs




                                                                                                                                                     MARKETING
                 required in a selected career.                                              Analysis – Examine and research electronic scheduling                survey.
                 Application – Through telephone interviews,                                 systems.                                                             Application – Compile a survey to deterimine
                 survey three local medium-sized businesses about                            Application – Schedule appointments and make notes                   community needs in the year 2000.
                 the five most important communication skills                                in an electronic system.                                             Impact – Plan and share a marketing strategy to
                 required on the job.                                                                                                                             meet one community need.
                                                                                             Impact – Using an electronic scheduling system,
                 Impact – Document survey results in a written                               search and change appointments.
                 report.



                 Due to rapid communication, economic                                        Rapid communication allows global business to                        Communication provides production
                                                                    INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS




                 decisions have an immediate impact.                                         become a reality.                                                    coordination.
                 Analysis – Explain how rapid communication has                              Analysis – Identify various global stock markets.                    Analysis – Investigate the relationship between




                                                                                                                                                     PRODUCTION
                 contributed to changing inventory policies.                                                                                                      communication and production.
ECONOMICS




                                                                                             Application – After researching a selected market,
                 Application – Interview business people to                                  make a prediction about market activities in other                   Application – Research the production plan of an
                 determine the inventory used.                                               countries.                                                           international firm.
                 Impact – Predict how costs associated with                                  Impact – Analyze interrelationships between global                   Impact – Illustrate how the communication
                 maintaining an adequate inventory have been                                 markets.                                                             process affects business production coordination.
                 affected by faster communications.




                                                                                                                                                                                              Page 3 of 10
                                                                                              ECONOMICS
                                                        Matrix of Interrelationships of Economics to Other Business Functions

                     The amount of profit is the                                                       Economic forces significantly affect                                   Economic trends affect management




                                                                              ENTREPRENEURSHIP
                     incentive/disincentive to the business person.                                    entrepreneurship.                                                      decisions.




                                                                                                                                                                 MANAGEMENT
                     Analysis – Analyze alternative business                                           Analysis – Identify three economic forces that could                   Analysis – Analyze and illustrate how economic
ACCOUNTING




                     opportunities and returns.                                                        affect profit or loss of a small business.                             activity affects management decisions about
                     Application – Plot results of analysis.                                           Application – From case study examples, calculate                      employment trends.

                     Impact – Select an appropriate investment                                         the profit or loss.                                                    Application – Determine the economic factors
                     opportunity for a small business.                                                 Impact – Document economic forces for small                            leading to management decisions to downsize.
                                                                                                       businesses that will cause profit or loss.                             Impact – Defend the management decision.




                     Economic factors affect career decisions.                                         Economic impacts are influenced by                                     Economic trends strongly influence


                                                                              INFORMATION SYSTEMS
CAREER DEVELOPMENT




                     Analysis – Select a career and determine the                                      information systems.                                                   marketing strategies.
                     average salary in five geographic locations.                                      Analysis – Select three international stock markets for                Analysis – Explain why the equilibrium price




                                                                                                                                                                 MARKETING
                     Application – Determine the average cost of living                                comparison.                                                            change for a given product.
                     in each location.                                                                 Application – Choose a commodity for comparison.                       Application – Plot the supply and demand curve
                     Impact – Compare the average salary with the cost                                 Impact – Compare three markets for                                     for a product/service
                     of living to predict potential lifestyles.                                        increase/decrease over a given period of time.                         Impact – Based on data, develop a marketing
                                                                                                                                                                              strategy to stimulate demand.




                     Economic decisions require effective                                              Economic principles are universal.                                     The four factors of production are a basic
                                                                              INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS




                     communication.                                                                    Analysis – Determine how comparative advantage                         concept of economics.
COMMUNICATIONS




                     Analysis – Determine the process of enacting a                                    relates to economic trade.                                             Analysis – Determine the factors of production




                                                                                                                                                                 PRODUCTION
                     government bill from “grass roots” beginnings to                                  Application – Demonstrate how comparative                              involved with the production of a good or service.
                     enactment.                                                                        advantage relates to production and foreign trade in                   Application – Choose one factor of production
                     Application – Draft a petition or bill on a current                               various countries.                                                     and develop a strategy for cost reduction.
                     important business issue.                                                         Impact – Select a new product or service for which                     Impact – For a given period of time, graphically
                     Impact – Chart the steps to take this petition/bill to                            our country has the comparative advantage.                             illustrate the cost reduction.
                     enactment.




                                                                                                                                                                                                           Page 4 of 10
                                                             ENTREPRENEURSHIP
                                                 Matrix of Interrelationships of Entrepreneurship to Other Business Functions

                     Entrepreneurs rely on accounting data for                                          Entrepreneurs are heavily dependent upon                           An entrepreneur must possess expert
                     decision making.                                                                   all economic principles.                                           management skills.




                                                                                                                                                              MANAGEMENT
                     Analysis – Determine financial data needed to apply                                Analysis – Identify an economic principle (e.g.,                   Analysis – Determine the functions of
ACCOUNTING




                                                                               ECONOMICS
                     for a loan.                                                                        scarcity, opportunity costs, specialization, supply                management for a small business.
                     Application – Prepare necessary financial statements                               and demand) and explain how it relates to the                      Application – Given a case study of small
                     for a loan application.                                                            entrepreneur.                                                      business ownership, determine what management
                     Impact – Write a business plan incorporating                                       Application – Given a specific small firm, indicate                qualities are needed to solve business problems.
                     financial data.                                                                    what economic principles are at work.                              Impact – Evaluate the effectiveness of the
                                                                                                        Impact – As a result of the economic principles                    management decision made for the case study.
                                                                                                        being employed, predict the outcome of various
                                                                                                        phenomena affecting the business.

                     Entrepreneurship traits must be considered in                                      A successful entrepreneur relies on a                              An entrepreneur gains success through



                                                                               INFORMATION SYSTEMS
CAREER DEVELOPMENT




                     making a sound career decision.                                                    well-designed information system.                                  using effective marketing strategies.
                     Analysis – Research literature and compile a list of                               Analysis – Contact vendors to examine the current                  Analysis – List marketing strategies used by




                                                                                                                                                              MARKETING
                     positive traits of successful entrepreneurs.                                       offerings of information systems for small                         small business in the local community.
                     Application – Using the list of positive traits, survey                            businesses.                                                        Application – Select an appropriate marketing
                     local small business owners to validate the traits.                                Application – Compare and contrast the                             strategy for a specific product/ service and design
                     Impact – Using the data from the survey, compare the                               specifications and capabilities of each information                a promotional piece to reach the targeted market.
                     researched traits with those of entrepreneurs in the                               system.                                                            Impact – Evaluate the effectiveness of the
                     local community.                                                                   Impact – Select an appropriate system that will                    marketing strategy.
                                                                                                        enhance the operation of a small business.



                     Entrepreneurship efforts are enhanced                                              The global community offers emerging                               Entrepreneurship often begins with
                                                                               INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS




                     through small business networking.                                                 markets for entrepreneurial ventures.                              creative product design.
COMMUNICATIONS




                     Analysis – Investigate the membership advantages of                                Analysis – Given research, compile a list of                       Analysis – Explore potential product ideas that




                                                                                                                                                              PRODUCTION
                     a small business owners’ association.                                              emerging global industries for small business                      will meet a need in the community.
                     Application – Invite a member of the small business                                owners.                                                            Application – Design and test market a product
                     owners’ association to validate the advantages of                                  Application – Compare starting a small business in                 appropriate for manufacture by a small business.
                     membership for networking.                                                         the United States vs. another country.                             Impact – From the test market, determine the
                     Impact – Develop a list of ways to network to                                      Impact – Justify a decision to open a small                        interest for this product as to its creativity and
                     enhance business success.                                                          business in another country.                                       need.




                                                                                                                                                                                                          Page 5 of 10
                                                     INFORMATION SYSTEMS
                                                Matrix of Interrelationships of Information Systems to Other Business Functions

                     Information systems have revolutionized the                                      Information systems can enhance the                                 Information systems provide a linkage for
                     field of accounting.                                                             efficiency of business purchasing decisions.                        management.
                     Analysis – Examine the appropriateness of various                                Analysis – Identify how the utilization of                          Analysis – Investigate how computers are linked




                                                                                                                                                             MANAGEMENT
ACCOUNTING




                     accounting software packages.                                                    information systems can encourage efficiency.                       together in a company.




                                                                             ECONOMICS
                     Application – Produce and examine sample financial                               Application – Interview business people regarding                   Application – Research the types of tasks
                     statements for comparison.                                                       the effects on cost of a new information system.                    managers complete using computers.
                     Impact – Design an automated accounting system                                   Impact – Predict how increased computerization                      Impact – Diagram a computer information
                     for a student-operated business.                                                 will affect the production process and the goods and                system demonstrating linkages among five
                                                                                                      services offered.                                                   departments in a hypothetical company.




                     The field of information systems provides a                                      Information systems enable entrepreneurs to                         Information systems have expanded the
CAREER DEVELOPMENT




                     variety of career choices.                                                       employ a smaller staff, yet accomplish                              various markets in which items can be
                     Analysis – Prepare an extensive list of career          ENTREPRENEURSHIP         needed work.                                                        sold.




                                                                                                                                                             MARKETING
                     opportunities in information systems.                                            Analysis – Appraise the required tasks to operate a                 Analysis – Compare two telemarketing systems
                     Application – Select two emerging information                                    small business effectively.                                         (e.g., shopper’s channel and infomercial).
                     systems careers and project the demand.                                          Application – Develop an action plan in which the                   Application – Collect the following marketing
                     Impact – For a selected career, identify the training                            information system can perform some of the                          data: marketing plan, target market and product
                     requirements and projected salary.                                               required tasks.                                                     type.
                                                                                                      Impact – Based on the action plan, predict the                      Impact – Evaluate the success of the marketing
                                                                                                      impact of employing the necessary staff to operate                  strategy of each approach.
                                                                                                      the business.


                     The quality, quantity and cost-effectiveness of                                  Information systems have encouraged more                            Information systems have increased the
                                                                             INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS




                     communications improves through the use of                                       competition in the world economy.                                   ability to make more informed production
COMMUNICATIONS




                     technology.                                                                      Analysis – Select a common product produced in a                    decisions.




                                                                                                                                                             PRODUCTION
                     Analysis – Examine five ways technology will                                     foreign country and offered to consumers at a retail                Analysis – Determine the kinds of data used to
                     enhance communications.                                                          setting in the United States.                                       make management decisions.
                     Application – Design and produce necessary                                       Application – Research the origin of production and                 Application – Invite a production manager to
                     components of a business presentation.                                           compare to a similar product produced in the United                 discuss how information systems impact decision
                                                                                                      States.                                                             making in his/her firm.
                     Impact – Develop and deliver a quality multi-media
                     presentation.                                                                    Impact – Summarize how diverse countries are                        Impact – Using a computer production data case
                                                                                                      competing for the same share of the market.                         study, generate a production decision.



                                                                                                                                                                                                      Page 6 of 10
                                               INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS
                                               Matrix of Interrelationships of International Business to Other Business Functions

                     International business is affected by                                           International business is dependent upon                            A manager’s role is vital to a firm’s
                     accounting practices.                                                           rapidly changing economic factors.                                  success in the global marketplace.
                     Analysis – Identify how accounting practices may                                Analysis – Interpret economic measuring standards.                  Analysis – List changes in management




                                                                                                                                                            MANAGEMENT
ACCOUNTING




                     differ from country to country.                                                                                                                     qualifications as businesses become more global.




                                                                               ECONOMICS
                                                                                                     Application – Find the gross national product and
                     Application – Prepare a classroom display of                                    per capita income of three foreign countries and the                Application – Given the typical characteristics of
                     pertinent information gathered.                                                 United States.                                                      workers in two different cultures, describe how
                     Impact – Describe the advantages and disadvantages                              Impact – Using standards of economic measure,                       management styles might differ when working
                     of adopting uniform accounting practices for                                    compare the economics of three foreign countries to                 with each group.
                     businesses worldwide.                                                           the United States.                                                  Impact – Evaluate key factors individuals should
                                                                                                                                                                         consider when assuming managerial
                                                                                                                                                                         responsibilities in a foreign country.



                     International business offers numerous                                          The global community is an emerging source                          Effective marketing strategies can enhance
CAREER DEVELOPMENT




                     career opportunities.                                                           for small business ownership.                                       the success of a business in the global
                     Analysis – Examine diversity in the global                ENTREPRENEURSHIP      Analysis – Research and compile a list of emerging                  marketplace.




                                                                                                                                                            MARKETING
                     workplace.                                                                      global industries for small business owners.                        Analysis – Analyze through current readings how
                     Application – Compare cultural differences and                                  Application – Compare the steps required to start a                 individual businesses have successfully marketed
                     job-related benefits, restrictions, training and                                small business in the United States with those of                   a product in other countries.
                     education requirements for a specific job in three                              another country.                                                    Application – Develop a marketing plan to
                     countries.                                                                      Impact – Depend a decision to start a small business                introduce a new product into a foreign market.
                     Impact – Determine how diversity has affected the                               in another country.                                                 Impact – Evaluate the effectiveness of another
                     movement of jobs from one country to another.                                                                                                       student’s or group’s marketing plan.



                     Knowledge of international business is                                          A successful business person relies on a                            Production procedures depend on a
                                                                               INFORMATION SYSTEMS




                     contingent upon current, accurate                                               well-designed information system.                                   country’s resource base.
COMMUNICATIONS




                     communication.                                                                  Analysis – Contact vendors to examine information                   Analysis – Describe production procedures for




                                                                                                                                                            PRODUCTION
                     Analysis – Electronically research “cultural                                    systems for small businesses.                                       three different products produced by low, medium
                     differences” by accessing libraries in three countries.                         Application – Compare and contrast the qualities of                 and highly developed countries.
                     Application – Prepare a written report based on                                 each information system.                                            Application – Given seven products, indicate the
                     research.                                                                       Impact – Justify the selection of an information                    country most technologically advanced to produce
                                                                                                     system for use in a selected small business.                        each item.
                     Impact – Evaluate how the differences affect the job
                     market and present findings.                                                                                                                        Impact – Predict how a country might change its
                                                                                                                                                                         production techniques given demographics,
                                                                                                                                                                         educational level and technological capability.


                                                                                                                                                                                                      Page 7 of 10
                                                                            MANAGEMENT
                                                    Matrix of Interrelationships of Management to Other Business Functions

                     Management decisions impact the                                              Management decisions are affected by                                            Management policies affect the quality and




                                                                                                                                                         INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS
                     development and design of accounting                                         external economic factors.                                                      price of goods produced at home and
                     systems.                                                                     Analysis – Define how increases in interest rates or                            abroad.
ACCOUNTING




                     Analysis – Provide examples of how accounting                                the devaluation of another country’s currency affect                            Analysis – Track the production of one product in




                                                                            ECONOMICS
                     procedures change due to a manager’s needs for                               management decisions.                                                           three countries.
                     specific data.                                                               Application – Using newspapers and trade                                        Application – Compare the quality and price of a
                     Application – Read an annual report of a firm and                            magazines, track how currency and interest rate                                 particular item produced in the United States vs.
                     indicate additional information that might be needed                         changes affect managerial decisions.                                            the same item in another country.
                     by a CEO.                                                                    Impact – Write a management recommendation                                      Impact – Select one item to market in the United
                     Impact – Suggest a management decision based on                              regarding a change in policy due to changing                                    States and defend that choice.
                     an independent auditing report.                                              external economic factors.



                     Management decisions affect all levels of                                    Management decisions set the tone for a                                         Management relies on marketing to “sell
CAREER DEVELOPMENT




                     career decisions.                                                            firm’s ethical behavior.                                                        the product.”
                     Analysis – Identify work and human relations traits    ENTREPRENEURSHIP      Analysis – Debate ethical and unethical business                                Analysis – Appraise the value of advertising.




                                                                                                                                                         MARKETING
                     that accompany job advancement.                                              practices.                                                                      Application – Develop a project to illustrate
                     Application – Through video-taped role-playing,                              Application – Using newspapers, identify breaches                               advertising principles and effects.
                     demonstrate positive and negative human relations                            of ethical behavior as defined in class discussions.                            Impact – Present a team-prepared, video-taped
                     situations.                                                                  Impact – Differentiate between acceptable and                                   advertisement for a product.
                     Impact – As a team, evaluate the video and discuss                           unacceptable ethical behavior, its effect on
                     optional decisions.                                                          management decisions and the impact on employees.




                     Management has dramatically changed its                                      Management’s ability to process information                                     Management decisions are influenced by
                                                                            INFORMATION SYSTEMS




                     method of communications to keep pace with                                   is enhanced by technology.                                                      product success.
COMMUNICATIONS




                     new and emerging technology.                                                 Analysis – Experiment with teleconferencing and/or                              Analysis – Select a product to produce.




                                                                                                                                                         PRODUCTION
                     Analysis – Trace management communication                                    e-mail communications.                                                          Application – Within budgetary constraints,
                     methods for the past ten years.                                              Application – Organize and participate in a                                     produce five of the selected product.
                     Application – Observe and write a report on                                  simulated management-level teleconference.                                      Impact – Explain how quality control contributes
                     communication methods used by management                                     Impact – Compare the speed, accuracy and cost of                                to the efficient production of the selected product.
                     personnel of three businesses.                                               using teleconferencing vs. traditional
                     Impact – Present effective communication strategies                          communications methods.
                     observed in the three businesses.



                                                                                                                                                                                                                Page 8 of 10
                                                                                MARKETING
                                                       Matrix of Interrelationships of Marketing to Other Business Functions

                     Marketing success is dependent upon sound                                   Marketing strategies and outcomes                                              Marketing impacts business worldwide.




                                                                                                                                                       INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS
                     accounting principles.                                                      demonstrate the application of economic                                        Analysis – Identify the essential information
                     Analysis – Identify the costs of producing a                                principles.                                                                    necessary for advertising in a global market.
ACCOUNTING




                     particular product or service.                                              Analysis – Identify how marketing facilitates time




                                                                           ECONOMICS
                                                                                                                                                                                Application – Design an advertisement for a
                     Application – Obtain information from local                                 and place utility.                                                             product/company suitable for display in two
                     businesses regarding how products/services are                              Application – Categorize how specific marketing                                countries.
                     priced for sale.                                                            strategies focus on providing time and/or place                                Impact – Evaluate displays of prepared
                     Impact – Compare and contrast different pricing                             utility.                                                                       advertisements for correctness and
                     strategies and explain how pricing is part of the                           Impact – Prepare a presentation that addresses how                             appropriateness of purpose.
                     marketing plan.                                                             the world would be different without any marketing
                                                                                                 strategies.


                     Marketing continues to be a “career of                                      Marketing sets the stage for entrepreneurial                                   Marketing affects managerial decisions.
CAREER DEVELOPMENT




                     choice” for many people.                                                    endeavors.
                                                                           ENTREPRENEURSHIP
                                                                                                                                                                                Analysis – Explain how marketing results can
                     Analysis – Examine areas of employment in                                   Analysis – Examine a variety of methods to identify                            affect managerial decisions.




                                                                                                                                                       MARKETING
                     marketing.                                                                  a successful entrepreneurial endeavor.                                         Application – Given a case problem providing
                     Application – Shadow employees from five different                          Application – Develop a marketing plan for a small                             marketing results for a specific product/service,
                     marketing occupational areas.                                               business venture.                                                              determine three options that management might
                                                                                                                                                                                select.
                     Impact – Present a panel discussion of aspects of                           Impact – Evaluate the effectiveness of the
                     marketing careers shadowed.                                                 marketing plan developed for the specific business.                            Impact – Suggest management actions required
                                                                                                                                                                                to implement one of the three options.




                     Marketing personnel must listen to consumer                                 Marketing creates a vision of business                                         Marketing successes are ultimately
                                                                           INFORMATION SYSTEMS




                     comments and suggestions.                                                   through information systems.                                                   responsible for production growth.
COMMUNICATIONS




                     Analysis – Distinguish between valid and invalid                            Analysis – Examine magazine advertising for layout                             Analysis – Determine the life cycle of products in




                                                                                                                                                       PRODUCTION
                     complaints                                                                  design ideas and effectiveness.                                                common use.
                     Application – Role-play responses to case study                             Application – Using desktop publishing, design and                             Application – Obtain published advertisements
                     complaint situations.                                                       print a flyer to market a product.                                             for products that were not available ten years ago.
                     Impact – Critique the responses for appropriateness                         Impact – Discuss the influence of the flyer in                                 Impact – Develop a marketing plan for a
                     and tact.                                                                   determining whether or not to make a purchase.                                 “product of the future.”




                                                                                                                                                                                                             Page 9 of 10
                                                                               PRODUCTION
                                                       Matrix of Interrelationships of Production to Other Business Functions

                     Production costs can be efficiently appraised                                   Production decisions rely on economic                                            Production is shifting to new countries.




                                                                                                                                                             INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS
                     through accounting.                                                             trends.                                                                          Analysis – Select three companies that have
                     Analysis – Identify the elements of production costs.                           Analysis – Research the economic trends that                                     relocated to another country and examine data
ACCOUNTING




                                                                                                     influence production decisions.                                                  relative to the decision.




                                                                               ECONOMICS
                     Application – Prepare selected ledger and cost
                     sheets for a manufacturing business.                                            Application – In a production case study, select                                 Application – Compare the data to determine
                                                                                                     three economic trends and decide what production                                 financial, regulatory and production reasons for
                     Impact – Judge how these production records could
                                                                                                     decision is required.                                                            reaching this decision.
                     be used in making production decisions.
                                                                                                     Impact – Graph these production decisions to                                     Impact – Appraise the trend toward overseas
                                                                                                     demonstrate profit or loss.                                                      relocation for the production industry during the
                                                                                                                                                                                      next five years.




                     The production industry is going through                                        Producing new goods and services is                                              Changes in production methods, sites and
CAREER DEVELOPMENT




                     restructuring in the area of careers.                                           common among small businesses.                                                   expectations are important to management
                     Analysis – Review current demand occupations in           ENTREPRENEURSHIP      Analysis – Identify three small business operations,                             decisions.




                                                                                                                                                             MARKETING
                     the production industry.                                                        locally or elsewhere in the state, that are producing                            Analysis – Appraise the labor market in selected
                     Application – Select three new production careers                               and innovative product/service.                                                  localities.
                     and electronically research qualifications and training                         Application – Compare and contrast these                                         Application – In teams, examine the sites for
                     requirements.                                                                   production operations relating the human, natural                                current production and future expansion.
                     Impact – Shadow one of these production careers at                              and economic resources of each.
                                                                                                                                                                                      Impact – Evaluate the cost effectiveness of the
                     a local manufacturing business.                                                 Impact – Determine why innovative products and                                   decision to expand.
                                                                                                     services are many times produced by small business.



                     Production can only be effective through                                        The production process is immediately                                            Production is dependent upon aggressive
                                                                               INFORMATION SYSTEMS




                     communication.                                                                  impacted through information systems.                                            marketing, including an attractive,
COMMUNICATIONS




                     Analysis – Identify a production schematic chart for                            Analysis – Using a production process, identify                                  functional product package.




                                                                                                                                                             PRODUCTION
                     one product.                                                                    when information systems are used.                                               Analysis – Distinguish between effective and
                     Application – Classify those components requiring                               Application – Formulate what impact the                                          ineffective packaging concepts.
                     communication as a function of the process.                                     technology has on each production process                                        Application – Assemble a collection of examples
                     Impact – In a report, describe the impact of                                    component.                                                                       of good and bad commercial product packaging
                     communication in the production process.                                        Impact – Compare and contrast what the effects                                   efforts.
                                                                                                     would be without technology.                                                     Impact – Test and document the packaging for
                                                                                                                                                                                      eye appeal, durability and cost effectiveness.



                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Page 10 of 10
                                  Teaching Strategies/Activities
                                Accounting and Related Services
                                      CIP No. 52.0300



ACCOUNTING PRINCIPLES
Class Records
       www.horizonshelpr.org/math/records/overview.html
       Students keep records of their class earnings (attendance, performance, etc) and deductions
       (tardies, disruptions, etc) on business forms, chart and graph the results, and receive rewards
       based on the outcomes

Big Five Accounting WebQuest
       www.projects.edtech.sandi.net/miramesa/five/
       Project teams each research online one of the top 5 national accounting firms and prepare and
       share a powerpoint about it

Accounting Monopoly
      www.geocities.com/CollegePark/Quad/5687/monopoly.html
      Students must record every money exchange transaction in monopoly as they play. Lesson
      includes sample transactions to try before play begins, chart of accounts and detailed play
      information. Game is for 4 players and goes over several days.

Contests and Prizes
      www.startheregoplaces.com
      Creaded by AICPA

Explaining Debits and Credits
      www.teachers.net/lessons/posts/615.html
      Using a “t-account” to demonstrate visually the meaning of debits and credits.

Falcon’s Fruit Stand
      http://lessonplans.btskinner.com
      Group activity using fruit shaped Runts to illustrate inventory, cost of merchandise sold and
      profit. Forms included.

Largest accounting website on the internet
      www.AccountingRutgers.edu

Lemonade Businesses
     www.teachers.net/lessons/posts/1542.html
     A 3 week project using all features of Microsoft Excel and PowerPoint to create spreadsheets,
     charts, graphs, and a visual presentation re: their own lemonade stand


Teaching Strategies/Activities May 2004                                                                  1
CAREER PLANNING, EXPLORATION AND READINESS
Accounting Career Information
      www.NetGenAccountant.com

Career Guide
      www.abastaff.com
      ABA Staffing, Inc
      Provides resume instruction, samples and template. Also cover letter guide and interview
      techniques

I Know How to Develop a Career Plan
      www.michigan.gov/mdcd/
      Michigan Department of Education
      Students take a self-assessment survey and use results to create a personal career goal

The Real Game
      www.realgame.org
      A series of interactive lessons designed for varied grade levels that help students set career goals
      and plan ways to acquire the skills, training, education and work experience they need to achieve
      those goals.

Career Portfolio
      www.sccis.org
      SouthCentral Career Information Systems
      Sixteen lesson plans based on 45 minute class periods take students from self and career
      awareness through job shadowing, resume writing, and interviewing

Career Compass
      www.workinfonet.bc.ca
      Students complete and analyze a personal skills inventory, research career paths, and create a
      career plan

When I Grow Up
      www.education-world.com
      Students use self and career research to create a five-step individualized career plan
Occupational Profiles
      www.career-in-business.com
      Provides an overview of the accounting professional including skills and talents required, job
      options, salaries, occupational facts and tends, top firms, and other links and resources.




2                                                                  Teaching Strategies/Activities May 2004
ENTREPRENEURSHIP
Entrepreneur
      www.ericir.syr.edu
      AskERIC lesson Plans
      Student groups research the needs in their community and develop a business, complete with
      business plan, to benefit their hometown

Not Your Grandma’s Lemonade Stand
      www.econedlink.org
      National Council on Economic Education
      Students set up a lemonade stand where location, weather, supply and demand affect their profits

What Makes An Entrepreneur?
     www.econedlink.org
     National Council on Economic Education
     Discussions and online activities lead students to understand definitions and lifestyles of various
     types of entrepreneurs

My Own Business
     www.clasroominc.org
     Lessons that lead student through the writing of a business plan for a business or service of their
     choice

Creating a Business Plan
       www.sba.gov
       Small Business Administration
       Provides a template and worksheet for creation of a business plan including description, product
       services, location, marketing, competition, pricing and sales, advertising, management planning
       and financial management.




Teaching Strategies/Activities May 2004                                                                    3
LEADERSHIP
Teamwork Towers
     www.col-ed.org
     Students work in groups to build free-standing towers of straws and pins. This lesson also
     addresses communications, group dynamics as well as leadership.

The Manager
     www.roe13.k12.il.us
     Illinois Office of Education
     Students interview business leaders to study management styles and managerial responsibilities.



SPREADSHEET APPLICATIONS
Table It or Spread It
       www.successlink.org/great/g791.html
       After discussion of pros and cons of presenting data in Word table or Excel spreasheet formats,
       students choose best format to present given data, present the data, justify choice of format.

Comparing Prices of Dream Cars
     Excel Spreadsheet Project (5 days)
     www.successlink.org/great/g766.html
     Students research costs, estimate future costs using given formulas, create 3 kinds of comparison
     charts, hyperlink, and paper with imbedded pictures.




4                                                                Teaching Strategies/Activities May 2004

				
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