Charles Babbage Ada Lovelace by ocv22853

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									                                                                  Charles Babbage
                                                                  & Ada Lovelace

                                                                                Jessica Young



http://content.answers.com/main/content/wp/en/thumb/1/1d/180px-Ch-Babbage.jpg


                                                                                                http://content.answers.com/main/content/wp/en/thumb/6/66/200px-Ada_Lovelace.jpg
                                    Charles Babbage
                                                                            December 26, 1791 – October
                                                                             18, 1871
                                                                            Cambridge – Trinity College &
                                                                             Peterhouse
                                                                            Married Georgiana Whitmore
                                                                             on July 2, 1814
                                                                            Seven children (only three
                                                                             lived until adulthood)
                                                                            Founded Analytical Society,
                                                                             British Association for the
                                                                             Advancement of Science, and
                                                                             Statistical Society of London


http://www.mathe.tu-freiberg.de/~dempe/schuelerpr_neu/pics/babbage.jpg
                                        Ada Lovelace
                                                            December 15, 1815 –
                                                             November 27,1852
                                                            Educated in
                                                             Mathematics
                                                            Married William King
                                                             on July 8, 1835
                                                            Three children


http://www.cs.kuleuven.ac.be/~dirk/.image/ada_1838.jpg
                                       http://www.cs.gordon.edu/courses/cs104/lectures/history/cards.jpg




                      Timeline
   1798-9 – first paper-making machine
   1800 – cloth production through use of machines
   1803 – Jacquard – automatic loom with punched cards
   1816 – first working electric telegraph
   1820 – Thomas – arithmometer
   1834 – Babbage – Analytical Engine
   1837 – Morse – electromagnetic telegraph
   1843 – Scheutz – first working difference engine
   1866 – America and Europe were connected with
    Atlantic Cable
                     Difference Table
   Successive values of x
   Differences noted between each adjacent value
    of f(x)

                               f(x)=x2+2x+3
x            1        2          3        4         5             6
f(x)         6        11         18       27        38            51
1st              5         7          9        11        13
difference
2nd          2   2    2          2        2         2         2        2
difference
                                       Difference Engine
                                                                                                        Mathematical tables
                                                                                                        Government paid him more
                                                                                                         than 17,000 pounds ($1.3
                                                                                                         million today)
                                                                                                        ―It isn‘t a computer. It is a
                                                                                                         dedicated, ‗hardwired‘
                                                                                                         calculator. It crunches
                                                                                                         numbers the only way it knows
                                                                                                         how—by the method of
                                                                                                         difference.‖ (Cherfas)
                                                                                                        Difference Engine No. 2
                                                                                                         completed in 1991 on the
                                                                                                         200th anniversary of his
                                                                                                         birthday
http://library.thinkquest.org/C0115420/Cyber-club%20800x600/Gif/pics/Babbage/Difference-Engine.gif
            Scheutz Difference Engine
                                                                (Georg & Edvard)

                                                                                     Finished in 1843
                                                                                     Based on Babbage‘s
                                                                                      design
                                                                                     ―Scheutz probably
                                                                                      succeeded where
                                                                                      Babbage did not because
                                                                                      Scheutz was not a
                                                                                      perfectionist like
                                                                                      Babbage: Scheutz
                                                                                      allowed some
                                                                                      compromises in order to
                                                                                      bring the machine to
                                                                                      fruition.‖ (Norman)
http://www.dudleyobservatory.org/images/Artifact_images/difference%20engine.jpg
                                           Analytical Engine
                                                                    General-purpose
                                                                     computer
                                                                    Technological limitations
                                                                    Punch cards
                                                                    ―Babbage differed from
                                                                     Morse and Bell in one
                                                                     essential way—his ideas
                                                                     were so far ahead of his
                                                                     time that there was little
                                                                     practical use for his
                                                                     calculating engines when
                                                                     he invented them.‖
                                                                     (Norman)
http://www.virtualtravelog.net/entries/2004-03-AE_Mill_2.1.png
                 Ada‘s ―Notes‖

   Menabrea article
   Ada‘s ‗Notes‘
       Mastery of mathematical theory and
        numerical techniques used by Babbage
       Correction of errors by Menabrea and
        Babbage
   Is Babbage the ‗Father of Computers‘?

   Did Ada actually contribute?
                                       Sources
   Cherfas, Jeremy. ―Seeking the soul of an old machine: Charles Babbage‘s difference engine is
    ready to run – built for the first time 150 years after it was designed.‖ Science 252 (1991): 1370-
    1.
   Fuegi John and Fuegi, Jo Francis, "Lovelace & Babbage and the Creation of the 1843 'Notes',"
    IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 16-26, Oct-Dec, 2003. Jo Francis,
    "Lovelace & Babbage and the Creation of the 1843 'Notes'," IEEE Annals of the History of
    Computing, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 16-26, Oct-Dec, 2003.
   Hyman, Anthony. Charles Babbage – Pioneer of the Computer. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton
    University Press, 1982.
   James, C. L. and Morrill, D. E. 1983. The real Ada, countess of Lovelace. SIGSOFT Software
    Engineering Notes 8, 1 (Jan. 1983), 30-31.
   Kidwell, Peggy A. and Paul E. Ceruzzi. A Smithsonian Pictorial History. Washington: Smithsonian
    Institution Press, 1994.
   Lee, J. A. N. ―Charles Babbage.‖ 30 Sept. 1994. Virginia Tech. 3 Apr. 2006.
    <http://ei.cs.vt.edu/~history/Babbage.html>.
   Norman, Jeremy M. From Gutenburg to the Internet – A Sourcebook on the History of
    Information Technology. Novato, California: historyofscience.com, 2005.
   Toole, Betty A., Ed.D. Ada, the Enchantress of Numbers. Mill Valley, California: Strawberry Press,
    1992.
   Williams, Michael R. A History of Computing Technology. 2nd ed. Washington: IEEE Computer
    Society Press, 1997.
       Difference Table Example

                                 x3

x                1           2              3        4             5

f(x)             1           8             27        64        125

1st difference           7            19        37        61

2nd difference               12            18        24

3rd difference   6   6       6        6          6        6    6       6

								
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