Statistics on

Document Sample
Statistics on Powered By Docstoc
					                                 Points of Discussion

1. Learning Disabilities are a congenital neurological condition, which impacts the lives of
children, youth and adults and effects all aspects of human functioning.

Reference: Report on neurological basis, The Lancet, February 1990.

2. One in ten Canadians has a learning disability or 3 million Canadians.

Reference: The 1970 Commission on emotional and Learning Disorders in Children.
3. According to principals who participated in the first cycle of the National Longitudinal Survey
of Children and Youth, (NLSCY), an average of 12% of children in their schools had a learning

Reference: 1997 Education Quarterly Review, Statistics Canada, Catalogue no. 8-1-3-
XPB, Vol. 4, no. 2 - Initial Results from the School Component, NLSCY.
4. One in 10 children received some form of remedial education during 1994-95. Children
receiving remedial education often have multiple problems with the most common difficulties
being a learning disability (51%) or an emotional or behavioural problem. (23%)

Reference: 1997 Education Quarterly Review: Statistics Canada, Catalogue no. 81-
003-XP3, Vol. 4, no.2 - Initial Results from the School Component, NLSCY.

5. 35% of students identified with learning disabilities drop out of high school. This is twice the
rate of non-disabled peers and does not include students who are not identified and drop out.

Reference: Washington Summit on Learning Disabilities, 1994

6. The Conference Board of Canada determined that dropouts from the high school class of
1987 will cost society more than $1.7 billion in lost taxes.

Reference: 1997, Dr. Doherty, Zero to Six: The Basis for School Readiness, HRDC.

7. Almost 50% of adolescent suicides had previously been diagnosed as having learning

References: 1985, Dr. Peck, Crisis Intervention Treatment with Chronically and
Acutely Suicidal Adolescents. - Youth Suicide
( pp 112 - 122), New York. 1989. Young, Leenaars, Rourke,.
A Childhood Learning Disability that Predisposes Those Afflicted to Adolescents and
Adult Depression and Suicide Risk - Journal of Learning Disabilities, volume 22,
Number 3 (pp 169 - 175) and numerous other studies.
8. Volumes of research have shown that 30% to 70% of young offenders have experienced
learning problems. In the past two decades, the link between learning disabilities and
delinquent behaviour has been examined and confirmed in both Canada and in the U.S.

References: 1976, Murrary, D.A., - the Link Between Learning Disabilities and
Juvenile Delinquency: Current Theory and Knowledge, Washington, U.S. Government
Printing Office

1978, Dr. Carol Crealock, University of Western Ontario - Juvenile Delinquency: The
Canadian Perspective, Behavioural Disorder 3:309 - 13.

1983, Dr. Peggy Koopman, University of British Columbia - Cognitive Disorders and
Syntactical Deficiencies in the Inmate Populations of Federal Penitentiaries in
Canada, Report to the Solicitor General of Canada.

1987, The Relationship Between Learning Disabilities and Delinquent Behaviour,
Learning Disabilities 1:55- 8.
9. The cost of detaining a young offender is approximately $100,000 per year.

Reference: 1998, National Strategy on Community Safety and Crime Prevention, Andy
Scott, Solicitor General of Canada.

10. Adults with learning disabilities, who have not received appropriate education and/or
training, typically hold a job for only three months. Employers when questioned, report that
the reason for termination in most cases related to the person's social skills deficits rather than
to any job skill problems.

Reference: Ontario Ministry of Labour, Handicapped Employment Program.

11. 45.6% of adult inmates with learning disabilities have had previous youth court

Reference: 1995, Learning Disabilities among Canada's Federal Inmate Population ,
Larry Motiuk, Ph.D., Correctional Services of Canada.

12. 50% of females with learning disabilities will be mothers within 3 to 5 years of leaving high

Reference: 1994, Washington, Summit on Learning Disabilities.

13. 15% to 20% of Canadians with Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) also have a specific
learning disability.

Reference: Dr. Dan Offord, Ontario Child Health Study, Chedoke-McMaster Hospital,
Hamiltion, Ontario.
14. 80% of children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) also have a specific
learning disability with 30% of children with learning disabilities having ADHD. Almost all
children who have ADHD are identified in the school system as having a behavioural

Reference: Dr. Dan Offord, Ontario Child Health Study, Cheldoke-McMaster Hospital,
Hamiltion, Ontario.

15. 30% of adults with severe literacy problems were found to have undetected or untreated

Reference: National Adult Literacy and Learning Disabilities Center, 1994.

16. 75% of children with reading disabilities in grade 3 who did not receive early intervention,
continue to have difficulties learning to read throughout high school and their adult life.

Reference: Dr. Reid Lyon's testimony before the Committee on Education and the
Workforce, a committee of the U.S. House of Representatives, July 10, 1997.

17. In a self-reported study conducted in Atlantic Canada, 13,549 students in grades 7 to 12
surveyed found that 8.5 per cent of students reported taking Ritalin and similar prescription
drugs for recreational reasons compared to 5.3 percent who took the drugs for treatment of

20 per cent of teenagers who are prescribed methylphenidate(Ritalin) and dextoramphetamine
(Dexadrine) are passing the medications on to others.

14.7 per cent are sharing the pills with classmates, including a significant number who are
being bullied out of their drugs or having them stolen.

7.3 per cent are trafficking the drugs to their schoolmates.

According to the study, students who sell their medications are four times more likely to use
marijuana and six times more likely to use other recreational drugs than other students
(alcohol, cigarettes, and other drugs)

Reference: Canadian Medical Association Journal, Fall, 2001.

18. The most common long-term condition suffered by children 6 to 14 years of age is learning
disabilities - HALSA reported that 95,580 children aged 0 to 14 years have this condition.

Reference: Canada's Health and Activity Limitation Survey (HALS) 1991.
19. Close to 50% of all students identified as “exceptional” in the Province of Ontario come
from the “learning disabled” category.

Reference: Ken Weber & Sheila Bennett, Special Education in Ontario Schools, (2004)

20. Studies consistently demonstrate a link between a school’s assigned track or stream,
socio-economic status and juvenile delinquency, with poor or minority students
overrepresented negatively in much of this data.

Reference: Richardson, 2005; Siegel et al., 2003; Kelly & Grove, 1981)

21. Based on Richardson’s eight year study conducted in the Province of Ontario, officially
processed young offenders appear to be a rather homogenous lot. Overwhelmingly, the
adolescents who came through the “Phase 1” juvenile justice system from 1990 to 1998 were:

   •   male, between their fourteenth and fifteenth birthdays

   •   from single parent familial situations

   •   from underclass or working-class backgrounds

   •   had committed their crimes in the company of a friend or friend

   •   had few, if any formal leisure time commitments

   •   not succeeding within the confines of the 'normal' or 'regular' schooling experience.
       Specifically meaning that they were disproportionately failing and “dropping-out, were
       disproportionately being “streamed” into the lowest academic categories, and when it
       came to strictly “special educational” considerations, they were disproportionately
       segregated into “behavioural” programs.

*There were no profound differences with respect to gender except that males were
overwhelmingly charged with property offences, particularly “breaking and entering” and
“possession of stolen property”, while females were overwhelmingly charged with procuring
and soliciting offences, and were slightly less likely to be charged in the company of a friend.

Reference: Voices From the Margins, 2005, Warnie Richardson (Aydy Press)