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PSCI 3xx Government and Politics

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					                          PSCI 350 (W)
                Government and Politics in Zimbabwe
                           Spring 2009

Prof. Ngoni Munemo                                            First meeting Friday Feb. 6th
216 South Academic Building                                             1:10 pm – 2:25 pm
nm1@williams.edu                                                    T F 1:10 pm – 2:25 pm
Office Hours:                                                                  Weston 021
M 9:00 am–10:00 am W 2:00 pm–3:00 pm

Zimbabwe‟s political and economic institutions have all but collapsed. Today the country has a
80 percent unemployment rate, inflation is estimated at to be over 231 million percent, the
government has slashed 28 zeros from the national currency, and in recent months the outbreak
of cholera has killed over 3, 000 people. Almost universally, Zimbabwe‟s unraveling is
attributed to the government‟s compulsory acquisition of white-owned farms between 1999 and
2000. This course examines both the colonial project that produced white-black land disparities
in Zimbabwe and the post- independence politics that sustained these inequalities for close to two
decades. It considers why the status quo was broken in 1999-2000. What did Robert Mugabe
hope to gain by acquiring and redistributing white-owned farms? Did the policy unwittingly lead
to the subsequent collapse of political and economic institutions?


OBJECTIVES
This course has 4 key objectives:
      Examine the relationships between land and politics and politics and land in Zimbabwe
       from 1890-2000
      Consider the consequences (intended and unintended) of the radical land reform program
      Along the way, use these topics to develop:
           o your oral presentation skills, and
           o your ability to ask, research and write research papers.


ORGANIZATION
This course adopts a number of class formats (seminar discussions, tutorial sessions, student
presentations and student research papers) to examine the politics of land in Zimbabwe. Over
the course of the semester each student is expected to fulfill the following requirements:
   1. Discussion (15 pe rcent):
       Attend and participate in all class discussion. I cannot stress enough how important it is
       that everyone comes prepared for discussion. Minimally, this means completing the
       readings before each class meeting. Substantively, this requires you to take notes as you


                                                                                                    1
   read and consider how each of the readings addresses the key questions posed for the
   week. Bring those notes to class
   In addition, there will be a series of discussion assignments over the course of the
   semester.


2. Tutorial Sessions (30 percent):
   We will have four tutorial-style sessions over the course of the semester (2 before spring
   break and 2 after spring break). For these tutorial sessions you are to write two lead
   essays of 5-7 pages (10 percent each) and two commentaries of 2 pages on your partner‟s
   lead essay (5 percent each).
   I will provide further instructions on this later in the semester


3. Student Presentations (15 percent):
   Each student will have two opportunities to orally present their work to the entire class.
   i.   Week 5 (Mar. 9-13) we will hold a night session in which each student will present
        their research paper topic to the class (5 percent). See week 5 below for the list of
        questions to be addressed during your presentations.
   ii. Week 11 (May 4-8) class time will be devoted to student presentations of first-drafts
       of research papers (10 percent). Each student will get 20 minutes to present to the
       class.
        You are to submit a copy of draft paper at least a day before you present it in class. I
        will read this copy and return it to you with comments after your presentation in class.
        You are then expected to use the feedback from me and from the rest of the class to
        revise your research paper before submitting the final thing on May 15 th .


4. Research Paper (40 percent):
   One of the key objectives of this course is to develop your research and writing skills. To
   that end, each student is required to write a 15-18 page original research paper. A
   number of class sessions have been set-aside for the purposes of discussing how you ask,
   research and write a paper of this type in just a semester.


THE HONOR CODE APPLIES TO ALL REQUIREMENTS FOR THIS COURSE




                                                                                                2
READINGS
All readings for the class are in a course packet. You may pick up the course packet in Grey
Lock dining hall in the Makepeace room.
You are expected to compete all readings for each class meeting before class time. It is very
important that we all come to class having read the material. As you read take down notes and
questions and bring them to class.
To guide you through the readings, I will provide a list of questions for each new topic.


NEWS AND INFORMATION SOURCES

Newspapers
Pro-ZANU
The Herald at http://www.herald.co.zw/index.aspx
Chronicle at http://www.chronicle.co.zw/index.aspx
The Financial Gazette at http://www.fingaz.co.zw/


Pro-MDC
The Zimbabwean (UK) at http://www.thezimbabwean.co.uk/
The Zimbabwe Guardian at http://www.talkzimbabwe.com/
The Zimbabwe Independent at http://www.thezimbabweindependent.com/


For other newspapers see: http://www.onlinenewspapers.com/zimbabwe.htm


Other URL links:
BBC Online at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/in_depth/africa/2008/zimbabwe/default.stm
Government of Zimbabwe at http://www.zim.gov.zw/
Mail & Guardian Online at http://www.mg.co.za/
Movement for Democratic Change at http://www.mdczimbabwe.org/


You are expected to stay informed about developments in Zimbabwe through these sources.
Each class will begin with one of you giving us a brief update of the news from Zimbabwe.




                                                                                                3
                         SUMMARY OF TOPICS BY WEEK


                                  FRIDAY FEBRUARY 6TH
                                 COURSE INTRODUCTION


                                TUESDAY FEBRUARY 10TH
        WHAT IS THE ZIMBABWE PROBLEM? WHAT ARE SOME OF THE SOLUTIONS ?


Government of Zimbabwe, Background to Land Reform in Zimbabwe. [11]
Morgan Tsvangirai, Testimony to US House of Representatives International Relations
Committee, Sub-Committee on Africa (June 13, 2000) [5]
Stephen Chan. 2003, “Review Article, Mugabe: Right and Wrong”, African Affairs, Vol. 102:
343-347. [5]
“Why Mugabe is Right … and these are the facts” in Race and History (June 2000) [6]
Bob Herbert, Zimbabwe is Dying, Times OP-ED (January 17, 2009) [3]
Michelle D. Gavin, “The Crisis in Zimbabwe and Prospects for Resolution” Testimony Before
the United States Senate Foreign Relations Committee’s Subcommittee on African Affairs.
(July 15, 2008 [6]
Chris Lowe, “Land Struggles and democracy in Zimbabwe”, The Black Commentator,
(November 2002). [6]
Sam Moyo “The Zimbabwe Crisis and Normalisation”, Policy: Issues and Actors, Vol. 18(7),
Centre for Policy Studies, Johannesburg (July 2005) [25]
                                                                                       67/67
                                 FRIDAY FEBRUARY 13TH
                OCCUPATION, CONQUEST, AND COLONIZATION, 1888-1895


Rudd Concession, 1888 [2]
John S. Galbraith, “The Great Amalgamation”, “The Charter”, “Years of Disillusionment”,
“The Matabele War”, in Crown and Charter: The Early Years of the British South Africa
Company. [64]
James A. Mutambirwa, “The Reasons for British Occupation”, “The Settlers”, “The Triumph
of the Company”, in The Rise of Settler Power in Southern Rhodesia (Zimbabwe), 1898-1923.
[38]
Larry W. Bowman, “The Foundation of White Political Control”, Politics in Rhodesia: White
Power in an African State. [16]
                                                                                      61/120


                                                                                               4
                                 TUESDAY FEBRUARY 17TH
                     LAND POLICY UNDER COMPANY R ULE, 1896-1923


James A. Mutambirwa, “Political, Social, and Economic Development: 1898-1906”,
“Reserves: Protection or Control”, “The Rise of European Agriculture”, “The Quest for Settler
Power, 1907-1918”, in The Rise of Settler Power in Southern Rhodesia (Zimbabwe), 1898-
1923. [90]
Dane Kennedy, “On the Frontier”, “Settling Down”, “A Parting of Paths”, in Islands of White:
Settler Society and Culture in Kenya and Southern Rhodesia, 1890-1939. [40]
                                                                                       65/130


                                  FRIDAY FEBRUARY 20TH
                               NO CLASS : WINTER CARNIVAL


                                 TUESDAY FEBRUARY 24TH
    HOW TO ASK, RES EARCH, AND WRITE A GOOD RES EARCH OVER THE COURSE OF ONE
                                         SEMESTER


      RESPONSIBLE S ELF GOVERNMENT (RSG) AND INTRA-WHITE POLITICS , 1923-62
M. Elaine Lee. 1975, “The Origins of The Rhodesian Responsible Government Movement”,
Rhodesian History, Vol. 6 [22]
Colin Leys, “The Foundations of European Politics”, “Interests and Pressure Groups”,
“Political Parties”, in European Politics in Southern Rhodesia. [84]
Larry W. Bowman, “White Rhodesia Politics, 1954-1962”, Politics in Rhodesia: White Power
in an African State. [28]
                                                                                       67/134
                                  FRIDAY FEBRUARY 27TH
                           LAND POLICY UNDER RSG, 1923-1963


Land Apportionment Act (1930)
A.C. Jennings and G.M. Huggins. 1935, “Land Apportionment in Southern Rhodesia”, Journal
of the Royal African Society, Vol. 34(136): 296-312 [19]
Terrence O. Ranger, “The Morris Commission and Land Apportionment”, in The African
Voice in Southern Rhodesia, 1898-1930. [28]
Allison K. Shutt. 1997, “Purchase Area Framers and the Middle Class in Rhodesia, c. 1931-
1952”, The International Journal of African Historical Studies, Vol. 30(3): 555-581 [28]




                                                                                                5
Native Land Husbandry Act (1951)
William R. Duggan. 1980, “The Native Land Husbandry Act of 1951 and the Rural African
Middle Class of Southern Rhodesia”, African Affairs, Vol. 79(315): 227-239 [14]
Victor E.M. Machingaidze. 1991, “Agrarian Change from Above: The Southern Rhodesia
Native Land Husbandry Act and African Response”, The International Journal of African
Historical Studies, Vol. 24(3): 557-588 [33]
Ian Phimister. 1993, “Rethinking the Reserves: Southern Rhodesia‟s Land Husbandry Act
Reviewed”, Journal of Southern African Studies, Vol. 19(2): 225-239 [16]
                                                                                      124/137
                                                        RD
                                    TUESDAY M ARCH 3
                UNILATERAL D ECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE (UDI), 1965


Larry W. Bowman, “Rhodesia‟s Drive for Independence”, “The Rhodesian Front: Political
Power in Contemporary Rhodesia”, “Internal Politics and Control Since UDI”, in Politics in
Rhodesia: White Power in an African State. [70]
Martin Meredith, “The Rise of Ian Smith,” in The Past is Another Country: Rhodesia 1890-
1979. [28]
Ian D. Smith. 1964, “Southern Rhodesia and Its Future”, African Affairs, Vol. 63(250): 13-22
[11]
                                                                                       60/109


                                    FRIDAY M ARCH 6TH
                           LAND POLICY UNDER UDI, 1965-1979


The Land Tenure Act (1969)
D.G. Clarke. 1975, “Land Inequality and Income Distribution in Rhodesia”, African Studies
Review, Vol. 18(1): 1-7 [7]
Oliver B. Pollak. 1975, “Black Farmers and White Politics in Rhodesia”, African Affairs, Vol.
74(296): 263-277 [16]
Michael Bratton. 1979, “Settler State, Guerrilla War and Rural Development in Rhodesia”, A
Journal of Opinion, Vol. 9(1/2): 56-62 [8]
Pius S. Nyambara. 2001, “Immigrants, „Traditional‟ Leaders and the Rhodesian State: The
Power of „Communal‟ Tenure and the Politics of Land Acquisition in Gokwe, Zimbabwe,
1963-1979”, Journal of Southern African Studies, Vol. 27(4): 771-791 [22]
Chengetai J. Zvobgo. 2005, “Church and State in Rhodesia: From the Unilateral Declaration of
Independence to the Pearce Commission, 1965-1972”, Journal of Southern African Studies,
Vol. 31(2): 381-402 [23]
                                                                                        76/76



                                                                                                6
                                 WEEK 5 M ARCH 9TH – 13TH
                TUTORIAL SESSIONS ON AFRICAN NATIONALISM, 1890-1979


Larry W. Bowman, “The African Nationalist Challenge”, Politics in Rhodesia: White Power in
an African State. [20]
Misheck J. Sibanda, “Early Foundations of African Nationalism”, in Turmoil and Tenacity.
[14]
Ngwabi Bhebe, “The Nationalist Struggle, 1957-1962”, in Turmoil and Tenacity. [68]
Ariston Chambati, “National Unity-ANC”, in Turmoil and Tenacity. [18]
Martin Meredith, “The Zambezi Raids”, “Chimurenga: The Beginning of War”, “Détente”, in
The Past is Another Country: Rhodesia 1890-1979. [80]
David Martin & Phyllis Johnson, “Mugabe Takes Over”, in The Struggle for Zimbabwe: The
Chimurenga War. [30]
                                                                                       122/216


Night-time session this week at which all students have about 10 minutes to present their
research topics to the class and get feedback from the group. All presentations must address
the following questions:
      What is your research question? (Question)
      Why is it important that we know the answer to that question? (Significance)
      What is your hypothesis? (Your hunch about the answer expressed as an if-then
       statement)
      How will you know you are right/wrong? (The kind of evidence that proves/disproves
       your hypothesis)


                                WEEK 6 (M ARCH 16TH – 20TH)
       TUTORIAL S ESSIONS ON INTERNAL S ETTLEMENTS AND THE LANCASTER HOUS E
                               AGREEMENT, 1974-1979


Martin Meredith, “ “Enter Henry Kissinger”, “The Geneva Conference”, “The Anglo-
American Initiative”, “The Internal Gamble”, in The Past is Another Country: Rhodesia 1890-
1979. [142]
Stephen Nzombe, “Negotiations with the British”, in Turmoil and Tenacity. [38]
Lord Soames. 1980, “From Rhodesia to Zimbabwe”, International Affairs, Vol. 56(3): 405-
419. [16]
Gregory F. Treverton & Marc Levy, Rhodesia Becomes Zimbabwe. PEW program in Case
Teaching and Writing in International Affairs, Case # 442 (A&B), John F. Kennedy School of



                                                                                                 7
Government, Harvard University (1989) [27]
Stephen J. Stedman, The Lancaster House Constitutional Conference on Rhodesia, PEW
program in Case Teaching and Writing in International Affairs, Case #341, Center for
International Studies, School of International Relations, University of Southern California
(1989) [42]
                                                                                        175/265
                                 MARCH 21ST – APRIL 4 TH
                                      SPRING BREAK


                                     TUESDAY APRIL 7TH
                        THE EARLY POST-S ETTLER STATE, 1980-1989


André Astrow. 1983, “Capitalism Stabilized Under the Mugabe Government”, in Zimbabwe:
The Revolution that Lost its Way? [34]
Ibbo Mandaza. 1987, “The State in Post-White Settler Colonial Situation”, in Mandaza ed.,
Zimbabwe: The Political Economy of Transition 1980-1986. [48]
Masipula Sithole. 1987, “The General Elections 1979-1985”, in Mandaza ed., Zimbabwe: The
Political Economy of Transition 1980-1986. [26]
Christine Sylvester. 1986, “Zimbabwe‟s 1985 Elections: A Search for National Mythology”,
The Journal of Modern African Studies, Vol. 24(2): 229-255 [28]
Hevina Dashwood. 1996, “The Relevance of Class to the Evolution of Zimbabwe‟s
Development Strategy, 1980-1991”, Journal of Southern African Studies, Vol. 22(1): 27-48
[23]
                                                                                        118/156
                                      FRIDAY APRIL 10TH
        LAND POLICY IN THE S HADOW OF THE LANCASTER AGREEMENT, 1980-1989


Sam Moyo. 1987, “The Land Question”, in Mandaza ed., Zimbabwe: The Political Economy of
Transition 1980-1986. [34]
Jeffrey Herbst. 1990, “Conflict Over Land: White Farmers and the Black Government” and
“Conflict Over Land: Communal Farmers versus Squatters”, in State and Politics in
Zimbabwe. [48]
Sam Moyo. 1995, “The Nature and Extent of Land Reform: 1980-1989”, in The Land
Question in Zimbabwe. [26]
Jocelyn Alexander. 1991, “The Unsettled Land: The Politics of Land Redistribution in
Matabeleland, 1980-1990”, Journal of Southern African Studies, Vol. 17(4): 581-610 [30]
Bill Kinsey. 1999, “Land Reform, Growth and Equity: Emerging Evidence from Zimbabwe‟s
Resettlement Programme”, Journal of Southern African Studies, Vol. 25(2): 173-196. [25]



                                                                                                  8
                                                                                    113/163
                                    TUESDAY APRIL 14TH
                       LAND R EFORM AFTER LANCASTER, 1990-1999


Land Acquisition Act (1992)
Christine Sylvester. 1995, “Whither Opposition in Zimbabwe?”, The Journal of Modern
African Studies, Vol. 33(3): 403-423. [21]
Sam Moyo. 1995, “Zimbabwe‟s Emerging Land Question”, in The Land Question in
Zimbabwe. [34]
Carolyn Jenkins. 1997, “The Politics of Economic Policy-Making in Zimbabwe”, The Journal
of Modern African Studies, Vol. 35(4): 575-602. [28]
Sam Moyo. 1999, “The Political Economy of Land Acquisition and Redistribution in
Zimbabwe, 1990-1999”, Journal of Southern African Studies, Vol. 26(1): 5-28. [24]
Jens Andersson. 1999, “The Politics of Land Scarcity: Land Disputes in Save Communal Area,
Zimbabwe”, Journal of Southern African Studies, Vol. 25(4): 553-578. [25]
                                                                                         132
                                                     TH
                                     FRIDAY APRIL 17
 THE COLLAPSE OF ZANU H EGEMONY & THE RADICAL LAND R EFORM PROGRAM, 1999-
                                  2003


Fast Track Land Reform Programme 2000-2002 Under the Land Acquisition Act (2000)
Southern African Political & Economic Monthly, Vol. 12(4) April 1999 [4]
Southern African Political & Economic Monthly, Vol. 13(5) February 2000. [6]
Southern African Political & Economic Monthly, Vol. 13(6) March 2000 [9]
Southern African Political & Economic Monthly, Vol. 13(8) May 2000 [14]
Southern Africa Report, Vol. 15(2): [6]
Southern Africa Report, Vol. 15(3) [16]
Southern Africa Report, Vol. 15(4) [6]
Peter Alexander. 2000, “Zimbabwean Workers, the MDC & the 2000 Election”, Review of
African Political Economy, Vol. 27(85): 385-406. [16]
Norma Kriger. 2000, “Zimbabwe Today: Hope Against grim Realities”, Review of African
Political Economy, Vol. 27(85): [6]
Masipula Sithole. 2001, “Fighting Authoritarianism in Zimbabwe”, Journal of Democracy,
Vol. 12(1): 160-169. [10]
Dr. Charles Utete. Report of the Presidential Land Review Committee, Volume 1: Main Report
To His Excellency The President of the Republic of Zimbabwe (August 2003) [66]
                                                                                    160/160


                                                                                               9
                                  WEEK 9 (APRIL 20TH – 24TH)
       TUTORIAL S ESSIONS ON WHY THE RADICAL LAND REFORM HAPPENED IN 2000
                                                                                                 :
We meet in tutorial format to consider the consequences of fast track land reform program
Patrick Bond. 2002, Zimbabwe’s Plunge: Exhausted Nationalism, Neoliberalism, and the
Search for Social Justice. (Trenton NJ: Africa World Press) [236]



                               WEEK 10 (APRIL 27TH – M AY 1ST)
    TUTORIAL D EBATING THE CONSEQUENCES OF ZIMB ABWE’S RADICAL LAND REFORM
                                            PROGRAM


Craig Richardson. 2004, The Collapse of Zimbabwe in the Wake of the 2000-2003 Land
Reforms. (Lewiston: The Edwin Mellen Press) [148]


                                       TUESDAY M AY 5TH
                               STUDENT PAPER PRES ENTATIONS


Each student gets up to 20 minutes to present the results of their research in class and field
questions from the whole group.
You are then expected to use the comments and questions raised during your presentation in
revising your paper for final submission on May 15 th . 2009


                                        FRIDAY M AY 8TH
                               STUDENT PAPER PRES ENTATIONS


Each student gets up to 20 minutes to present the results of their research in class and field
questions from the whole group.
You are then expected to use the comments and questions raised during your presentation in
revising your paper for final submission on May 15 th . 2009


                                      TUESDAY M AY 12TH
            THE POWER S HARING AGREEMENT AND THE FUTURE OF ZIMBABWE


Readings TBA


                                                                                                 10
Mahmood Mamdani, Lessons of Zimbabwe London Review of Books (Dec. 4, 2008) [18]
Michelle D. Gavin, Planning for Post-Mugabe Zimbabwe, Council on Foreign Relations
(October 2007) [48]




                                   FRIDAY M AY 15TH
                              SUMMARY AND CONCLUS ION
                              ALL PAPERS D UE B Y 4:00 PM




                                                                                     11

				
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