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					                                                                              Pflugerville IS D-Kindergarten Curriculum
                                                 Lesson Plans & Activities for Developing Phonological Awareness S kills




                     Pflugerville ISD – Kindergarten Curriculum
                                Bundle #8 - Bundle #12

The following pages contain two pieces of information:
   1)     A sequential outline of phonological awareness and phonemic awareness skills that should be
          reviewed and/or re-taught within Bundles #8-#12
   2)     Additional activities and resources that may be used for Bundles #8-#12..

The National Reading Panel recommends approximately 20 hours of instruction on phonological and
phonemic awareness skills throughout the course of a one year reading program/core curriculum. Based on
a 176 day school year, this averages to approximately a minimum of 5-10 minutes per day to be spent on
direct instruction of phonological awareness activities for a typically developing reader. This means that
many of your students may need more than the recommended 5-10 minutes per day.

The following format is recomme nded for teaching/revie wing phonological aware ness skills for
bundles #8-#12:

              Day of the Week                                 Skill to be Reviewed
                 Monday                            Phoneme Blending
                 Tuesday                           Phoneme Segmentation
                Wednesday                          Phoneme Isolation
                Thursday                           Rhyming
                  Friday                           Syllables

Methods to utilize:
1. Daily whole class lesson: Direct teach reviewing phonological awareness skills to be implemented
within the Shared Reading time or another structured part of the school day in large group format.

2. Guided Reading/Small Group Instruction:
   Teacher Discretion based on Students’ Needs (Choose 1):
    Within each small group, review of selected skills on the differentiated level
    With students who are more at-risk in the area of reading/phonological awareness skills, repeat 1st
      and 2nd nine weeks.

3. Learning Center/Station Activities: A regular rotation of all phonological awareness skills should be
included as a Learning Center Activity at a differentiated level. This could include previously made
learning centers utilized in the 1st and 2nd Nine Weeks, or links to new/not introduced research-based
student center activities are included in the next section.

All of these activities are derived from the Florida Center for Reading Research
(http://www.fcrr.org/Curriculum/studentCenterActivities.htm) where the blackline masters can be
downloaded and printed. The teacher will need to prepare student materials by cutting and marking them
so that students may self-check.
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4. Differentiation Tables: Continue to use the differentiation tables that correlate with the activity which
you are reviewing. Use these to ensure that you are differentiating your questioning/prompts for students at
different skill levels within a large group/small group format.

5. Embedded Daily/Transition Activities: As with all developmental and reading skills, it is also best
practice to promote these skills for generalization during transition times and other classroom routine
activities such as clean- up time, calendar time, lining up, or morning menu. Additional resources and ideas
are provided in the back of the next section for teachers to access and utilize during these times.




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                       Pflugerville ISD – Kindergarten Curriculum
                            Additional Activities & Resources

                                      Literacy Center Activities
All of these activities are derived from the Florida Center for Reading Research where the blackline masters can be
downloaded and printed. The teacher will need to prepare student materials by cutting and marking them so that
students may self-check. (http://www.fcrr.org/Curriculum/studentCenterActivities.htm)

Sentence Segmentation:
PA.014     Nursery Rhymes (Embedded in lessons for Bundles #1-#7)
PA.015     Overhead Silly Sentences (Embedded in lessons for Bundles #1-#7)
PA.016     Sentence Game
PA.017     Newspaper Sentence Sort
PA.018     Crinkle Creepers
PA.019     Sentence Graph

Rhyming:
PA.001       Moving with Rhyme (Embedded in lessons for Bundles #1-#7)
PA.002       Matching Rhyme Time (Embedded in lessons for Bundles #1-#7)
PA.003       Rhyming A-LOT-OH!
PA.004       Rhyming Game
PA.005       Memory Match
PA.006       Pocket Rhymes
PA.007       Rhyme Pie
PA.008       Rhyme Closed Sort
PA.009       Rhyme Flip Book

Syllables:
PA.020       Clapping Names (Embedded in lessons for Bundles #1-#7)
PA.021       Moving with Rhyme (Embedded in lessons for Bundles #1-#7)
PA.022       Matching Rhyme Time (Embedded in lessons for Bundles #1-#7)
PA.023       Syllable Graph
PA.024       Picture Puzzle Blending
PA.025       Syllable Say

Alliteration:
PA.010      Alliteration Action (Embedded in lessons for Bundles #1-#7)
PA.011      Saying Silly Sounding Sentences
PA.012      Popular Pals
PA.013      Silly Sentence Big Book




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Onset and Rime:
PA.026    Family Words
PA.027    Onset and Rime Picture Puzzles (Embedded in lessons for Bundles #1-#7)
PA.028    Sound Detective (Embedded in lessons for Bundles #1-#7)
PA.029    Rime House
PA.030    Quick Draw
PA.031    Guessing Game

Phoneme Isolation:
Matching Initial Sounds
PA.032     One Card Out (Embedded in lessons for Bundles #1-#7)
PA.033     Sound Snacker-Sound Smacker (Embedded in lessons for Bundles #1-#7)
PA.034     Hoop It!
PA.035     Sound Train
PA.036     Sound Discovery
PA.037     Pack-A-Backpack
PA.038     Sound Pictures and Picture Puzzles
PA.039     Sound Bags
PA.040     Object-Initial Sound Matching
PA.041     Sound It-Bag It
PA.042     Phoneme Go Fish
PA.043     Phoneme Dominoes

Matching Final Sounds:
PA.044    Sound Pie (Embedded in lessons for Bundles #1-#7)

Isolating Initial Sound:
PA.045      What Sound (Embedded in lessons for Bundles #1-#7)
PA.046      Feel It-Sound It
PA.047      The Missing Link

Isolate Initial/Final/Medial:
PA.048       Sound Quest (Embedded in lessons for Bundles #1-#7)

Phoneme   Segmentation:
PA.049     Segment Those Words
PA.050     Phoneme Phones (Embedded in lessons for Bundles #1-#7)
PA.051     Name that Sound (Embedded in lessons for Bundles #1-#7)
PA.052     Phoneme Hopscotch
PA.053     Phoneme Feud
PA.054     Phoneme Closed Sort
PA.055     Say and Slide Phonemes
PA.056     The Sound Game
PA.057     Sound Spin

Segmentation and Blending:
PA.058    Treasure Box
PA.059    Picture Slide

Phoneme Manipulation:
PA.060   Making Words

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                                  Sentence Segmentation Activities

1. Sentence Segmentation with Manipulatives
(skill: sentence segmentation)
Give each student in the class some manipulatives (cubes/tokens/etc.). Demonstrate how each cube stands
for one word. Use the sentence, ―I run fast‖, as you demonstrate that each cube stands for one word in the
sentence. Ask students to repeat the sentence with you. Then tell the students to look and listen, while you
move one manipulative for each word in the sentence, moving three manipulatives in a left to right
direction. Then ask the students to count the cubes and tell you how many words are in the sentence.
Have the students continue the activity doing the same thing with their manipulatives. Use sentences of
various lengths and complexity.

2. Action Segmentation
(skill: sentence segmentation)
Tell the students that you are going to break the sente nces up into words by doing different actions.
Demonstrate clapping the words in a short sentence like ―I like candy‖. Tell the students that you clapped
three times, which means the sentence had three words in it. Have the students now clap simple sent ences
that you have made up. Or help each student make up their own sentence using a sentence starter like ―I
want _________‖ or ―I like to ____________‖. Once the student has made the sentence, have them repeat
the sentence while clapping the words. After each student claps their individual sentence, have the whole
class repeat the sentence while clapping the words. Remember, this activity should be auditory. Do not
write the sentence on the board and have the students count the words. Continue this activity using
different actions. Have the students tap, snap, jump, etc. the words in the sentences.

3. Word Take-Away
(skill: sentence segmentation)
Use manipulatives (cubes/tokens/etc.) to show them that each cube stands for one word. Say the se ntence,
―I like to come to school‖. Ask students to repeat the sentence with you. Then tell the students to look and
listen, while you move one manipulative for each word in the sentence, moving six manipulatives in all in
a left to right direction. Then repeat the sentence with the students, touching one manipulative for each
word. Tell them that you will now ―just say part‖. Say, ―I like to come to.‖ And remove one of the
manipulatives. Then ask the students to join you in saying the part that is left. Say, ―I like to.‖ This time,
you will remove two manipulatives and say the part that is left. Now you can do this activity with
manipulatives or with out (for the students that have mastered the task with the manipulatives). You say
the sentence, the students will echo. Say the sentence again together, then say, ―Now, student name, say
part of that.‖ Students will echo the part that remains then ask another student to omit part of the sentence
the previous student stated. You can use these sentences as examples or take sentences from your read-
aloud.

The dog ran down the street.              The woman went to the store.
A little girl ate the apple.              The child played in the park.
The book belongs to my sister.
Six apples fell from the tree.
A mouse ran across the floor.
A little boy played a game.
    Many children rode the bus.

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                                            Rhyming Activities

1. Rhyming in Stories
(skills: rhyme recognition and production)
A list of books containing rhyming can be found in the Appendix. Draw students’ attention to the words
that rhyme. This can be done by giving each student a noise maker or by having them clap when they hear
words that rhyme. After the student’s identify that they have heard rhyming words, have them then repeat
back what the rhyming words were. For the more advanced students, have them think of another word that
rhymes with the pair that they have just identified. Another extension of the activity would be to help the
student to identify the patterns made by a rhyme (i.e., which last two so unds are the same). For example,
―hat‖ and ―cat‖ rhyme because both words end with the sounds ―-at‖.

2. Stand Up/Sit Down Rhyming
(skills: rhyme recognition and production)
Use pictures from http://www.fcrr.org/Curriculum/studentCenterActivities.htm (Phonological Awareness
Part 1, Rhyme Section) that were used in the rhyming centers. Give three students each a picture, two that
rhyme and one that does not (i.e., hat, cat, log). Have each student identify their picture. Then tell the
students, ―Two of these words rhyme, one does not rhyme. If your word does not rhyme, sit down.‖ Then
have the student’s think of another word that rhymes with the rhyming pair.

3. Circle Rhyming
(skill: rhyme production)
Use the pictures in the Appendix labeled ―Circle Rhyming‖. Have the students stand in a circle around the
teacher. The teacher will hold up one of the pictures (i.e., mat) and tell the students to think of rhyming
words to fill in the phrase ―___________ on a mat‖. As the students think of words, they get to come into
the middle of the circle.
The phrases will be:
    ―____________ on a mat.‖
    ―____________ in a box.‖
    ―____________ in a can.‖
    ―____________ in a tree.‖
    ―____________ in a truck.‖
    ―____________ in a bag.‖

4. Rhyming Patterns
(skills: rhyme recognition and production)
Have the students discover the pattern made by rhyming words by using colored square manipulatives to
indicate sounds in rhyming CVC words. In this activity, only use the colored manipulatives to represent
the individual sounds. Do not write the letters that correspond to the sounds. (Make sure each square
represents one sound not each letter, e.g., /sh/ is one sound but two letters).
    Example: cat = red, blue, green
    bat = black, blue, green
    mat = yellow, blue, green
Say, ―We change the color when we hear the sound change. It stays the same when the sound stays the
same. Do you see a pattern in the colored squares?‖ Continue the activity using various word families like
–an, -ed, -un, etc. Have the students think of the words that can be made by just changing one color.
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5. Fun Rhyming Songs
(skills: rhyme recognition and production)
Have the children think of words that rhyme before the song is started. Insert your own words in the
spaces above. Some students may choose rhyming words that you provide (when given an array of three).
For students that have mastered rhyme recognition, have them provide a word that rhymes with the word
given by the teacher. For the higher level students, have them provide the pair of words that rhyme.

To the Tune of Three Blind Mice.
We can rhyme. We can rhyme.
Listen to the words. Listen to the words.
_____ rhymes with______ and ______
_____ rhymes with______ and ______
_____ rhymes with______ and ______
We can rhyme. We can rhyme.

To the Tune of Mary Had a Little Lamb
We can think of rhyming words, rhyming words, rhyming words.
______ and ______ are rhyming words.
And here are two more.
______ and ______ are rhyming words, rhyming words, rhyming words.
______ and ______ are rhyming words.
These words sound the same.

A-Hunting We Will Go
A-hunting we will go
A-hunting we will go
We’ll catch a fox
And put him in a box
A-hunting we will go.
Some examples might be frog- log, goat-boat, snake- lake, whale-pail, bear-chair. For each new suggestion,
create a new verse.
(Adapted from McCracken & McCracken (1986), Stories, Songs and Poetry to Teach Reading and
Writing, Teachers College Press)

6. Rhyming Pairs
(skills: rhyme recognition and production)
Divide the students into two groups. Use pictures from
http://www.fcrr.org/Curriculum/studentCenterActivities.htm (Phonological Awareness Part 1, Rhyme
Section) that were used in the rhyming centers. Give each student a picture. Tell the students that they
have to find their classmate who has a picture that rhymes with their picture. When they find each other,
they are to sit down. The pair should then be asked to provide another word that rhymes with their set of
pictures. The last pair to sit down is ―out‖. The pictures are then mixed up and redistributed. The game
continues the same way until only one pair of students is left.




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7. I Spy Rhyming
(skills: rhyme recognition and production)
Play the traditional game of ―I Spy‖ using words that rhyme with objects in the classroom. To play, find
something in the classroom that rhymes with words that the students would know. Say, ―I spy something
that rhymes with _________ (hair).‖ Tell the students to look around the room and find something that
rhymes with the word hair. Let the students guess until one of them finds the right object. Then that
student can become the one to give the clue. For the students that have not mastered rhyme recognition,
give them an array of three to choose from with the correct object as one of the words.

8. Erase the Rhyme/Draw the Rhyme
(skills: rhyme recognition and production)
Draw a picture of a boy on the board. Make sure to include eyes, nose, hand, hair, ears, neck, feet, shirt,
pants, head, shoes, and arms. Have the students fill in the missing words as they erase the different parts of
the pictures.

He can’t see the pie,                                     He won’t be able to dance,
if you erase his eye.                                     if you erase his pants.

He can’t touch the sand,                                  It is up to you,
if you erase his hand.                                    to erase his shoe.

He can’t smell the rose,                                  He can’t work on the farm,
if you erase his nose.                                    if you erase his arm.

He can’t hear your cheer,                                 He’s not wearing a skirt,
if you erase his ear.                                     so erase his shirt.

He’s not wearing a tie,                                   He can’t lay in bed,
so erase his other eye.                                   if you erase his head.

He will be a wreck,                                       He won’t do any harm,
if you erase his neck.                                    if you erase his other arm .

You are taking a while,                                   His cow says moo,
erase his smile.                                          erase his other shoe.

He can’t hear you call him dear,
if you erase his other ear.

An extension of this activity would be to have the students then fill in the rhyming words as they re-draw
the picture of the boy. Just replace all of the negative words (i.e., can’t) with positive words (i.e., can).
Also replace the word ―erase‖ with ―draw‖.




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9. Action Rhyming
(skills: rhyme production)
The students will think of words that rhyme with the action or physical movement that they are doing. For
example, tell the students to clap. Then instruct them to think of words that rhyme with ―clap‖ while they
are clapping. These words can be real words (i.e., ―tap‖) or nonsense words (i.e., ―fap‖). Other actions
that can be used are hop, tap, kick, sit, snap, and run. Encourage the students to think of other actions that
they can do while thinking of rhyming words.

10. Box Full of Rhymes
(skills: rhyme recognition and production)
Fill a box with items from around the classroom like a block, dice, pencil, pen, chalk, ball, book, shoe,
ruler, bear, shirt, hat, etc. Each student gets to choose something out of the bag and think of a word that
rhymes with that object. The students can use real words or nonsense words as long as they rhyme with
the object. For the lower level students, give them an array of three with one word that rhymes with the
object. For the higher level students, have them think of two words that rhyme with the object.




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                                     Compound Word Activities

1. Compound Word Blenders
(skill: compound word blending and segmenting)
Use the pictures in the Appendix labeled ―Compound Word Puzzles‖. Choose one of the pictures. Show
the picture and say the first root word and show the second picture and say the second root word. Put them
together and as you run your finger across them from left to right while saying the complete compound
word (blending). Then pull the pictures apart and identify the two root words again (segmenting). Have
the students continue to blend and segment with the words below using pictures.

   Word List:
   fireman                doghouse               cowbell          bedtime
   mailman                rainbow                doghouse
   chalkboard             backpack               football

2. Find Your Buddy
(skill: compound word blending and segmenting)
Use the pictures in the Appendix labeled ―Compound Word Puzzles‖. Give each student a picture. Then
have each student find another student to blend their root words (or put their words/pictures together) and
make a compound word. After the students put the pictures together, ask them to say the compound word
that they have made. Then ask them if the compound word they made is a real word. For example, if a
pair of students put two pictures together and make the word ―baseman‖, ask them if that is a real word.
After the students have blended the words, have them segment the compound word by telling you the root
words.

3. Compound Word Manipulatives
(skill: compound word blending and segmenting)
Pass out two math manipulative cubes to each student. Each cube is going to stand for a root word. Hold
up one cube and say the first root word, and hold up the second cube and say the second root word. Then
click them together and say the compound word as you run your finger across the cubes from left to right.
Then pull them apart and say, ―The two small words that make up the big word are _______ and ______‖.
Give each student in the class two cubes. Give each student two root words. Have t hem tell you the
compound word while putting the cubes together. Then, have them pull the cubes apart and tell you the
root words.

4. Compound Word Hand Blenders
(skill: compound word blending and segmenting)
The students are going to blend and segment compound words using their fists to stand for each root word.
Hold up one fist and say the first root word, and hold up the second fist and say the second root word. Put
your fists together and say the compound word. Then pull them apart and say, ―The two small words that
make up the big word are _______ and ______‖. Give each student two root words. Have them tell you
the compound word while putting their fists together. Then, have them pull their fists apart and tell you the
root words again.


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5. Compound Word Take Away
(skill: compound word deletion)
This activity can be done with pictures or manipulatives. Pass out two math cube manipulatives to each
student. Use math cubes to represent the root words in a compound word. Demonstrate how t he word
―birdhouse‖ is made up of two words. Now the students will learn how to delete root words from
compound words. Hold up the cubes and say ―birdhouse‖ as you run your fingers across the cubes. Use
the following script for the rest of the activity:

   Teacher: Say birdhouse (or any compound word)
   Students: birdhouse
   Teacher: Now say it again, but don’t say bird (either of the root words)

As you delete one of the root words, take that cube away and put it behind your back. Continue this
activity using any compound word.




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                                           Syllable Activities

1. Syllable Name Game
(skill: syllable segmentation and counting)
Tell students you will say a name. When you signal to them, they will repeat or echo the name. Then they
will echo as well as clap the syllables or place their hand under their chin to feel how many times their
mouth opens. Continue counting the syllables in each student’s name. A variation to this activity would
be to use Elkonin boxes or ―Say It and Move It‖ Cards (Located in the Appendix).

2. Syllable Blending
(skill: syllable blending)
Distribute Elkonin Boxes or ―Say It and Move It‖ Cards (Located in Appendix) and five chips/tokens/math
cubes. Tell the students the parts of the word (i.e., cook//ie) as you move the chips for each syllable. Then
have the students repeat the word as they move their own chips. Have the students blend the syllable to
make the word. Continue this activity by having the students blend syllables to make words using the
manipulatives. Once the students have mastered blending words with manipulatives, have them blend the
words without (only when given the auditory stimulus).

Possible words to use:
   apple (ăp p’l)                 pencil (pěn sl)                   paper (pā per)
   marker (mark er)               crayon (krā ŏn)                   money (mŭn ē)
   table (tā b’l)                 recess (rē sěs)                   October (ok tō ber)

3. Syllable Segmentation Grab Bag
(skill: syllable segmentation)
Find objects from the room and put them into a bag (i.e., scissors, glue, paper, block, puzzle, etc.). Ask
each student to choose an object from the bag and segment the syllable in the name of the object that they
picked. This activity can be done using Elkonin Boxes or ―Say It and Move It‖ Cards (Located in
Appendix). It can also be done by clapping the syllables or having the students place their hand under their
chin to feel how many times their mouth opens.

4. Syllable Rhythm
(skill: syllable segmentation)
Distribute instruments to each of the students. Have the students use the instruments to count and segment
the syllables in given words.

5. Syllable Hunt
(skill: syllable segmentation)
Have students find things around the room with a certain number of syllables (for example, two-syllable
words like window, pencil, teacher, etc.). Check to see if the student has chosen a word with t he correct
number of syllables by clapping the syllables or putting a magnetic shape on the board to represent each
syllable.


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6. Syllable Category Graphing
(skills: syllable counting and blending)
Place a number of objects on the table. Identify how many syllables are in the name of each object.
Categorize the objects by the number of syllables. Then have the students graph how many words have
one syllable, two syllables, three syllables, and so on. An extension of the this activity would be to give
the students the syllables in a word and have them identify the object by blending the syllables.

7. Syllable Response Cards
(skill: syllable counting)
Print the number ―1‖ on one side of an index card, ―2‖ on the other side. Print ―3‖ and ―4‖ on a second
card. Say a one syllable or multi-syllabic word, and have the students hold up a number indicating how
many syllables they hear.

8. Syllable Deletion
(skill: syllable deletion)
Guide students through a syllable deletion activity. This is purely auditory at first but you can use four
different colors for visual support. Do NOT use letters! Give the students a word like ―marker‖. Then
tell them ―say marker without mark‖. Continue this activity with different words.

Words you could use include:
turtle without the (tle)          baby without the (ba)            strawberry without the (straw)
trumpet without the (pet)         hungry without the (gry)         fantastic without the (tic)*
sparkle without the (spar)        empty without the (em)           hamburger without the (er)*
target without the (get)          corner without the (corn)        basketball without the (ket)*

9. Add a Syllable
(skills: syllable blending. addition, segmentation, and counting)
Give the students a word like ―run‖. Have them segment/count the syllables in the given word. Then add a
prefix or suffix to the word like ―ing‖. Give the students the new syllables in the word (―run//ing‖). Have
the students blend the syllables to make the new word. After they have identified the new word, ask them
to segment/count the syllables in the new word they made. Increasing the complexity of the words (e.g.,
photo, photograph, photographer, photography, photographic) can facilitate phonological maturity.

10. Stolen Syllables
(skill: syllable deletion)
Use a puppet in this activity. Tell the students that your puppet likes to take syllables or parts of words.
Give the students a word like ―cookie‖. After the word is given, have the puppet whisper in your ear. Tell
the students that the puppet took the syllable or word part ―cook‖. As the students to figure out what part
of the word or syllable is left.




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List of One to Four Syllable Words
1. telephone     11. question        21. pen                 31. teacher
2. music         12. computer        22. elephant            32. remember
3. pencil        13. Day One         23. disappointment      33. title
4. book          14. calculator      24. eraser              34. phone
5. Saturday      15. homework        25. word                35. sound
6. speech        16. girl            26. dictionary          36. clock
7. surprise      17. sentence        27. closet              37. paper
8. American      18. January         28. secretary           38. calendar
9. library       19. under           29. directions          39. custodian
10. recess       20. map             30. list                40. weekend




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                                         Alliteration Activities

1. Alliteration in Stories
(skills: alliteration identification and production)
A list of these books containing alliteration can be found in the Appendix. These stories can be used to help
students understand alliteration and focus on words that start with the same sound. Draw students’
attention to the alliteration. This can be done by giving each student a noise maker or by ha ving them clap
when they hear words that demonstrate alliteration. After the student’s identify that they have heard
alliteration, have them then repeat back the alliterative phrase. For the older or more advanced students,
have them think of another word that can be added to the alliterative phrase.

2. Same Letter Names
(skills: alliteration identification and production)
Have the each student say their name while putting an emphasis on the first letter (i.e., ―Carrie‖). After
each student has said their name, direct the students’ attention to names that begin with the same sound as
their name. Example: ―If the first of your name sounds like the first sound in Carrie, stand up. After they
have stood up, that group must think of another word that begins with the same sound. For example,
Carrie finds Carlos and they think of the word Cookies.

3. Silly Names
(skills: alliteration production)
Tell each student that they are going to come up with a silly new name for themselves. They are going to
produce an alliterative phrase using the first sound in their name. Have the each students say their name
while putting emphasis on the first sound. Then tell them to think of another word that begins with the
same sound (i.e., Jumping Jacob or Tall Tim). For the lower level students, give them a binary choice
consisting of a word that starts with the same sound and a word that doesn’t. For the middle level students,
have them think of a word on their own, and for the higher level students have the think o f two words.
After each student has thought of an alliterative phrase, let them tell the class their new name.

4. Silly New Things
(skill: alliteration production)
Instruct each student to find something from the classroom and bring it back to the carpet. Instruct the
students that they are going to make alliterative phrase about the item the chose from the classroom (i.e.,
pink pencil). For the lower level students, give them a binary choice consisting of a word that starts with
the same sound and a word that doesn’t. For the middle level students have them think of a word on their
own, and for the higher level students have the think of two words. Have each student tell the class the
alliterative phrase, and have the class repeat the phrase putting emphasis on the first sounds in the words.

5. Rhythm Alliteration Game
(skill: alliteration production)
Have the students sit in a circle on the carpet. Teach them a rhythm pattern that consists of them hitting
their knees and then clapping (i.e., knees, clap, knees, clap, and keep going). Continue this pattern until all
the students have joined in. Then instruct the students to think of something that they like which starts
with the same sound as their name. For example, ―My name is Lindsay, and I like lollipops.‖ The rhythm
should continue as each student completes the phrases ―My name is ________, and I like ________.

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6. Same Sound Mysteries
(skills: alliteration identification and production)
Make up several alliterative phrases. (i.e., Sally sells seashells). Tell the students that you are going to tell
them a special sentence and to listen carefully. Then ask them what sound was the same at the beginning
of each word in the sentence. If they are unable to figure it out, give them a binary choice. After the
students have figured out the sounds for several different sentences, have them try to make up the own
sentences using alliteration.

7. Alliteration Toss
(skill: alliteration production)
Have the students stand in a circle and hold a ball. Provide the students with an initial phoneme like /s/.
Start the alliterative sentence by saying a word like ―Sally‖. Then toss the ball to three to five students and
each student will provide a word that begins with the same phoneme to create a unique silly sentence.
Continue with various initial phonemes.




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                                           Onset-Rime Activities

1. Onset-Rime Puppet
(skill: onset-rime bending)
Show students the puppet. ―This is our puppet, Buster. He has a hard time putting the parts of word
together, and we are going to help him learn how to do that. He’s going to say the first part of each word,
and then he’ll say the rest of the word. Last, he’ll put the parts together the say the whole word.‖

Model: ―He’ll say the parts and then the whole word. ― C—ave, cave. Here’s another one: C—at, cat.‖

Student Opportunities: ―Try one on your own. Buster will say the parts, you say the word.‖
    T:    C—an.
    S:    Can.
    T:    Yes, can. Let’s try another. C—ap.
    S:    Cap
    T:    Yes, cap.

Continue with bee, bear, boat, and boy. Provide individual turns. Present different items.
   Example items:         toy/tub/table/tiger
                          dot/dog/doll/date

2. Onset-Rime Pictures
(skills: onset-rime blending and segmenting)
Use picture cards (found in Appendix labeled ―Onset & Rime Direct Teach‖) of one-syllable words, cut
into two parts. The second part of the picture should be wider than the first part. Remember to
demonstrate multi-sensory hand motions.


         Picture of           Picture of           Picture of                  Picture of
            car                  cat                  coat                        kite



Put picture cards in front of the students and review names of pictures. ―I’m going to say the parts of the
word, then the whole word. These pictures will help me say the parts and the whole word.‖

―This is ―cat‖. The first part is /c/. The rest of the word is /at/. I am going to say the parts then put them
together. /c/ /at/ /cat/.‖ Move the pictures together to complete the puzzle. Provide several
examples and then provide opportunities for group and individual responses. Now continue the activity by
having the students segment and blend the onset and rime of the word.




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You told me the whole word. I am going to tell you the whole word, and you will tell me the parts. Let’s
do one together.

     T: This is ―car‖. The FIRST sound is /c/. The rest of the word is /ar/. What is the first sound?
S:   /c/
T:   What is the rest of the word?
S:   /ar/
T:   Now, everyone will get a chance to show the group his/her card and say the name of
     the picture. Then you will tell the first sound and the rest of the word.

Provide opportunities for all children to answer either with a partner or in a large group format.


3. Onset-Rime Hand Jive
(skills: onset-rime bending and segmenting)
It is highly recommended that multi-sensory hand motions for individual sounds are introduced at this
time. Make sure that students use their RIGHT hand. One finger should be held up for the first sound and
the right arm should be on the left side of the body (crossing mid-line). The arm should move across the
body from left to right when the word is blended. Use the following script to practice the skills using
multi-sensory hand motions.

―The word is ―cat‖. The first part is /c/. The rest of the word is /at/. I am going to say the parts then put
them together. /c/ /at/ /cat/‖. Use the multi-sensory hand motions. Provide several examples and then
provide opportunities for group and individual responses. Now continue the activity by having the students
segment the onset and rime of the word.

You told me the whole word. I am going to tell you the whole word, and you will tell me the parts. Let’s
do one together.

     T: This is ―car‖. The FIRST sound is /c/. The rest of the word is /ar/. What is the first sound?
S:   /c/
T:   What is the rest of the word?
S:   /ar/
T:   Now, everyone will get a chance to show the group his/her card and say the name of
     the picture. Then you will tell the first sound and the rest of the word.

Provide opportunities for all children to answer either with a partner or in a large group format.




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4. Onset-Rime Songs
(skills: onset-rime segmentation and blending)
Use these songs to practice onset-rime segmentation and blending.

(Use the tune: ―If You’re Happy and You Know It‖)
If you’re happy and you know it, say the word: /h/ /at/.
If you’re happy and you know it, say the word: /h/ /at/.
If you’re happy and you know it, then your face will surely show it.
If you’re happy and you know it, say the word.
(the whole class says ―hat‖ in unison)

(Use the tune: ―A-Hunting We Will Go)
A-searching we will go, a-searching we will go,
We’ll take a /c/ and add a /at/,
And now we’ve made a cat!

Continue singing these songs using different words.

5. Red Light Onset-Rime
(skill: onset-rime segmentation)
Make two squares of construction paper: one red and one green. Give the students a word. Hold up the
green card and tell the students to start saying the word very slowly. Once the students have said the first
consonant (i.e., the onset), quickly hold up the red card signifying for the students to stop. Then have the
students say the rest of the word (i.e., the rime). After you have demonstrated a few times, let one of the
students hold up the cards.

6. Onset-Rime Pencil Rhythm
(skills: Onset-rime segmentation and blending)
Give each student two pencils. Then give the students a word like ―sun‖. Have the students segment the
word into the onset and rime using their pencils. As they say the onset /s/, have them tap their left pencil
on the table. As they say the rime /un/, have them tap their right pencil on the tab le. Then have the
students blend the word back together while tapping the pencils together.

7. Mystery Word
(skill: Onset-rime blending)
Use the following chant to practice onset-rime blending.

I have a secret word.
I have a secret word.
It ends with /oat/.
It starts with /b/.
My secret word is __________ (boat).

Use different words for the children to practice and fill in the blank. For the higher level students, let them
think of a word and say the chant, while the other students try to guess.


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                                     Phoneme Isolation Activities

1. Find the Picture
(skill: initial/final phone me isolation)
Present four words orally to students. Pictures may or may not accompany orally presented words. Ask,
―Which picture(s) begins with _________ , or which picture(s) e nds with _________ ?‖ To elicit phoneme
matching, ―I’m going to say three words. Which one has the same beginning sound as car? Cow, sister,
tree.‖ OR ―Which one has the same ending sound as foot? Ball, mat, head.‖ (If a student has difficulty
with auditory/sequential memory, using the pictures will provide the additional visual cue.)

2. Phoneme Isolation Song
(skill: initial/final phone me isolation)
*When filling in the phonemes in the song, make sure that you say the SOUND and not the name of the
letter.

(Tune: ―If You’re Happy and You Know It‖)
If your word starts/ends with ____, raise your hand.
If your word starts/ends with ____, raise your hand.
If your word starts/ends with ____, and you think it should be heard.
If your word starts/ends with ____, raise your hand.

Change the phoneme after each child has given a word from the previous verse.

3. Going Camping
(skill: initial phoneme isolation)
Tell the students that you are going to pretend that you are going on a camping trip. Tell them that you are
going to take marshmallows and in order to come they have to bring something that starts with the same
sound. Then ask some of the students what they are going to take. They have to think of something to take
that starts with /m/. Continue the activity by changing the phoneme and ask a different group of students.

4. Jack in the Box
(skill: initial phoneme isolation)
The teacher should call out a sound such as /t/. The teacher should say, ―Stand up if your name begins
with /t/.‖ Praise children. Reinforce each child’s name that begins with that sound and have students
repeat, ―Good job. /t/ Tyler /t/ Tiffany". This activity can be done using the students favorite animal, food,
color, etc.

5. Sound Chain
(skill: initial/final phone me isolation)
Have the students sit in a circle. Start the game by saying a word such as ―ball‖. Tell the student sitting to
your right that they have to think of another word that starts with the same initial sound (i.e., /b/). After
that student thinks of a new word that begins with /b/, the game continues around the circle. In order for
the phoneme to change, the teacher can vary the instructions throughout the game. For example if the
second student’s word is ―bat‖, you then could instruct the next child to think of a word that ends with the
same sound (i.e., /t/). For the more advanced students, you may instruct them to think of a word that
begins with the same sound that the prior student’s word ended with.
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6. Find That Sound
(skill: initial/ final phone me isolation)
Give each student two manipulatives and a 3 phoneme Elkonin Box (found in the Appendix labeled
―Elkonin Box – 3 Phonemes‖). Have them place one counter under the first box and one counter under the
third box. Then decide on a target sound like /p/. Tell the student’s that some of the words begin with /p/
and some of the words end with /p/. Then tell them that if the word begins with the sound, they move the
token into the first box; and if the word ends with the sound, they move the token into the last box.

Word List:
3 phoneme /p/ words: hop, pot, lip, pick, top, pull, cap, pat, map, pop, lap
3 phoneme /f/ words: hoof, foot, rough, feet, laugh, full, cough, fight, puff, fun, stuff
3 phoneme /t/ words: boat, top, cat, tall, bit, time, hat, tooth, fight, tug, meat

7. Sound Webs
(skill: initial/ final phone me isolation)
Use a ball of yarn and have the students stand in a circle. The teacher should start with the ball of yarn.
Say a word like ―pot‖ and toss the yarn to a student. Then ask the student to identify the first or last sound
in the word. After the child identifies the phoneme, have them toss the yarn to another student. Continue
asking the students to identify the first or last sound in the stimulus words. Once the whole class has had a
turn, a ―sound web‖ should be formed.

8. Listen, Listen
(skill: initial/final phone me isolation)
 Use the following chant to practice initial and final phoneme isolation.

Students: Listen, listen, loud and clear
         What’s the first/last sound that you hear?
Teacher: fun, five, foot, fork (use any group of words with the same initial or final phonemes)
Students: Tell me, tell me, the sound you hear.

Use different sets of words to elicit isolation.

9. Thumbs Up Isolation
(skill: initial/final phone me isolation)
Have the students put their hands in their lap. Say a target word. Then tell the students to put their thumbs
up each time they hear you call out a word with the same beginning or ending sound (specify which you
are looking for). For example, if the target word is ―sock‖ and you call out ―sun‖, the students will hold
their thumbs up.




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10. Isolation in Stories
After the shared reading story, have children do this activity trying to remember words/vocabular y from
the story. As you review the story you just read, when a student gives an answer to a question, ask the
student to tell you the FIRST sound in that word.

For example:
   T: Who was this story about?
   S: A dog named Winnie
   T: What is the FIRST sound in the word Winnie?
   S: /wh/




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                                     Phoneme Blending Activities

1. What Am I thinking?
(skill: phoneme blending)
Tell the class that you are thinking of an animal, an insect, a dessert, or any category from the instructional
theme. For example, ―I’m thinking of an insect. The insect is an /a/ /n/ /t/.‖ The students would then blend
the sounds together and say the word ―ant.‖
A variation is to place several vocabulary (animal, insect, etc) pictures in a row in front of the students,
articulate the word in a segmented fashion, and allow the students to pick the picture that matches the word
and say it.

2. Guess What?
(skills: phone me blending and isolation)
Practice blending AND identifying initial sounds using classroom objects such as pencil, glue, chalk,
marker, block, etc. Give several children an object. Ask the children, ―Please stand up if you have the /g/
/l/ /oo/.‖ The child stands up and says, ―I have the glue.‖ Then ask the child, ―What is the FIRST sound in
―glue‖?‖ The child answers, ―/g/‖. Then, he passes that object to someone else. The game continues.

3. Old McDonald
(skill: phoneme blending)
You will need objects from around the classroom. Hide the objects inside a bag. Then explain that you will
sing a verse of ―Old MacDonald Had a Farm,‖ but you will say an object name in a special way. Ask
students to guess what object you are saying by blending the separate sounds together.

Mrs. Thomas (teacher’s name) had a bag
E-I-E-I-O
And in that bag she/he had a /b/ /l/ /o/ /k/…

Pause for students to blend the sounds, repeating them again, if necessary. When someone says block, have
him or her come up and find the block in the bag and show it to the group. Students may wish to continue
singing the song about a block, then repeat the blending activity with other objects.

4. Draw that Picture
(skill: phoneme blending)
Give each student a piece of paper and help them fold into fourths. Tell the class that you are going to a
say the sounds in the word and they have to bend them to gether to make the word. After they have figured
out the word, tell them to draw it on their paper. This can be done eight times using both sides of the
paper.

5. Name Game
(skill: phoneme blending)
Say a student’s name in parts (phoneme by phoneme). Have the student whose name was used stand up.
A variation of this game could be used while lining up. Instead of having the child stand up, have them get
in line.


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6. Team Blending
(skill: phoneme blending)
Break the class into four or five teams, and give each team some sort of noise maker that will act as the
team buzzer. Say the word in parts and ask one of the teams to blend the phonemes to make a word. If
that team cannot get it, the other teams can ―buzz in‖ and guess the word. Continue with different words
and keep score.

7. Action Blending
(skill: phoneme blending)
Separate an action word into isolated sounds. Tell the students to blend the sounds to make a word and
then do that action. For example, use the word /s/ /i/ /t/.
Action Words: hop, wink, stand, clap, skip, tap, wave, blink, jump

8. Blending Questions
(skill: phoneme blending)
This activity is more difficult because the student has to answer a question as well as blend phonemes to
make a word. You can use sentences from a book or sentences that you create. Decide one word from the
sentence that you are going to say in sound segments instead of the whole word. The students must blend
the word to answer the question.
For Example:
The boys is /f/ /i/ /v/ /e/?
How old is the boy? (five)

9. Word Chain
(skill: phoneme blending)
Choose a group of students to stand in the front of the class. If you are going to use a three phoneme word,
use three students; and if you are going to use a four phoneme word, use four students. Think of a word
like ―hat‖, and give each student a sound from the word. The first student would be /h/, the second student
would be /a/, and the third student would be /t/. Each child stands up and says their phoneme, and sits back
down in order. The rest of the class then blends the phonemes to make the word.

10. Sounds in the Word
(skill: phoneme blending)
Use the following song to practice phoneme blending.

(Tune: ―The Wheels on the Bus‖)
Teacher sings:
The sounds in the word are /b/ /u/ /s/, /b/ /u/ /s/, /b/ /u/ /s/.
The sounds in the word are /b/ /u/ /s/.
What is the word?

Continue with the song using different words.




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                                 Phoneme Segmentation Activities

1. Segmentation Rhythm
(skill: phoneme segmentation)
Place objects from the classroom in a bag. Give each student rhythm sticks or two pencils. Pull one item
out of the bag at a time. Have the students tap the sticks together as they say each sound in the name of the
object. This activity can also be done in pairs with each pair having a bag of small objects.

2. Phoneme Segmentation Pictures
(skill: phoneme segmentation)
Use picture cards (found in Appendix labeled ―Phoneme Segmentation Direct Teach – 3 Phonemes and 4-
Phonemes) of words with 3 or 4 phonemes; cut cards into three or four equal parts.


         Picture of           Picture of           Picture of                  Picture of
            bat                  cat                  ball                        map



Put picture cards in front of the students and review names of pictures. Say, ―I’m going to say each sound
of the word, then the whole word. These pictures will help me say the parts and the whole word. This is
―bat‖. The sounds in ―bat‖ are /b/ /a/ /t/. I am going to say the sounds then put them together. /b/ /a/ /t/
―bat‖.‖ Move the pictures together to complete the puzzle. Provide several examples, and then provide
opportunities for group and individual responses using the same picture cards with frequent repetition.

3. Phoneme Segmentation-Elkonin Boxes
(skill: phoneme segmentation)
Use Elkonin box blackline masters (found in Appendix labeled Elkonin Boxes) of words with 2-4
phonemes.
Put Elkonin boxes in front of the students. (If you have picture cards of 2-3 phoneme words, you can use
those when you present the word. If not, just vocalize the word.
Teacher: I’m going to say a word then we will say the sounds in the word. When I say each sound in the
word, I will put a marker in one of my boxes. The first word is ―bat‖. The first sound is /b/. (While
saying this move the first token into the first box.) The next sound is /a/. (Again, move token.) The last
sound is /t/. (Move final token). The sounds in ―bat‖ are /b/ /a/ /t/. Now it is your turn. You will put a
marker in a box each time you say a sound. Then you will say the whole word. Provide several examples,
and then provide opportunities for group and individual responses using the same picture cards with
frequent repetition.
Guided Word Set: foot, hat, pig, lock, phone, dog, pen, face, map

4. Together and Apart
(skill: phoneme segmentation)
Give each student 3 or 4 cubes. The cubes should start linked together. The teacher says a 2-4 phoneme
word such as ―map‖. The students pull the cubes apart as they say each sound to demonstrate the phoneme
segments and then put the cubes back together as they say the word to demonstrate blending.
Word Bank: cough, neck, tail, fish, cheek, mouth, foot, nose, lip, match, cook, run, boot
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5. Hand Jive
(skill: phoneme segmentation)
Give the students a word like ―bat‖. /b/ (pause) /a/ (pause) /t/ ―bat‖ (Teacher should say and demonstrate
each sound using left hand and holding up a finger for each sound added. Students will use their right
hand. Then the teacher should blend the word with the blending hand motion. Hand begins opened and
closes as the teacher verbally blends the word and the hand moves across the body.) Then have the
students copy the multi- sensory hand motions (Students utilize right hand starting on the left side of the
body (crossing mid-line) and move the hand across the body. When segmenting, the student should say and
demonstrate each sound using their right hand and holding up a finger for each sound added. Then, the
child should blend the word with the blending hand motion. (Hand begins opened and closes as the student
verbally blends the word and the hand moves across the body.) Continue giving the students different
words that they can segment using the multi-sensory hand motions.
Word bank (2-3 phonemes): man, cap, mop, hot, cat, rat, mat, cup, rat, bat, hat, sat, pig, dog, fat, mat, eat,
net, make, cake, old, pup, sick, pick, fight, tight, tough, fish, red, blue, shoe, phone
Word Bank(4 phonemes): stop, stick, frog, trip, truck, black, brown, green, baby, drive, bottle, shirt,
crowd, mask, desk, chalk

6. Segment Graphs
(skill: phoneme segmentation)
Place a number of objects/pictures of story vocabulary on the table (Do NOT use letters). First, identify
how many sounds (segments) are in the word that names each object. Then, categorize the objects by the
number of sounds. For example, if you were reading Brown Bear, Brown Bear you might have an object
or picture to represent a bear (2 segments /b/ /ear/), bird (3), dog (3), teacher (4), cat (3). The students
could graph or categorize the objects into objects that have 2 segments, 3 segments, or 4 segments.

7. Segmenting in Stories
(skill: phoneme segmentation)
After the shared reading story, have children do this activity trying to remember words/vocabulary from
the story. As you review the story you just read, when a student gives an answer to a question, ask the
student to segment the word or tell you the sounds in the word.
For example:
    T: Who was this story about?
    S: A dog named Winnie.
    T: Tell me all the sounds in ―Winnie‖.
    S: /wh/ /i/ /n/ /ee/ (encourage them to use their multi-sensory hand motions)

8. Head, Shoulders, Knees, and Toes
(skill: phoneme segmentation)
Have the students stand as they listen to 2-4 phoneme words. Tell the students as they say each sound they
will touch a different body part signifying the sounds place in the word. In the word ―fork‖ they would
touch their head for /f/, shoulders for /o/, knees for /r/, and toes for /k/. Continue this activity using 2-4
phoneme words for the students to segment.




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9. Cheer for Segmentation
(skill: phoneme segmentation)
Use the cheer to practice phoneme segmentation.

Everyone come near.
Then shout the sounds you hear.
Cat! Cat! Cat!
Let’s say the sounds in cat!

Give me the first sound.
(students respond with /c/)

Give me the middle sound.
(students respond with /a/)

Give me the last sound.
(students respond with /t/)

That’s right!
/c/ /a/ /t/ - Cat! Cat! Cat!

For words with more than three phonemes, switch the middle section of the cheer with ―Give me the next
sound.‖

10. Hopping Frogs
(skill: phoneme segmentation)
This activity can be done in a small group or as a whole class activity with a lot of space. Tell the students
that they are going to hop like frogs during this activity. Orally, give each student a word. Each student
will say each sound in their word as they hop one time for each sound. For the word ―head ‖, the student
would hop three times. With every hop, the student says each sound in the word.




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                                 Phoneme Manipulation Activities

These activities should be used for students that have mastered all of the previous phonological awareness
skills. These activities will challenge the higher level students.

1. Manipulation with Colored Squares
(skills: phone me deletion and substitution)
Simple Deletion with Colored Squares
Laminate 5-6 different colored sheets of construction paper and cut the m into squares. (Make 1-2‖ squares
for individual work at a table and 3-4‖ squares with magnetic strips on the back for use on the chalkboard
with the whole class.) Begin by saying a string of unrelated sounds (for example /t/, /k/, /m/). Place a
different color square on the board as you say each sound. Then, repeat the string of sounds but leave off
one sound. Have a student come to the board and remove the square that represents the sound deleted. This
begins skill development in deletion. After students are familiar with this concept, progress to simple CVC
words which may be used in conjunction with a rhyming or word family unit. (for example Three different
colored squares represent /f/ /i/ /sh/. Remember that consonant digraphs (th, sh, ch, wh) make o nly one
sound and are, therefore, represented by only one colored card. Take away the ―f‖ card and ask the students
to say what remains (- ish). Eventually, the activity is completed without colored cards. More difficult
versions of this activity involve asking the student to first delete the final sound in the word and then to
delete one sound in an initial blend. Finally, the student is asked to delete one sound in a final blend.

Simple Substitution with Colored Squares
Similar to the activity described under phoneme deletion, colored squares are used to represent a sequence
of sounds. Repeat the sound sequence but change one of the sounds. The progression from easy to difficult
follows the sequence of initial sound, final sound, and medial sound. Because the square represents the
sound rather than the actual spelling, this type of activity is appropriate in lessons addressing short vowels
in simple CVC words (bat-bet-bit-but), and in lessons contrasting long vowel words.


2. Add a Sound
(skill: phoneme addition)
Tell the students that they are going to add sounds onto words to make new words. For example, if they
add a /s/ to the beginning of the word ―lip‖, they make the word ―slip‖. Continue with the sound addition
problems below.

What do   you get when you add /p/ to the beginning of ―rice‖?
What do   you get when you add /s/ to the beginning of ―lime‖?
What do   you get when you add /p/ to the beginning of ―ants‖?
What do   you get when you add /f/ to the beginning of ―lake‖?
What do   you get when you add /k/ to the beginning of ―luck‖?
What do   you get when you add /k/ to the beginning of ―lap‖?
What do   you get when you add /t/ to the beginning of ―rash‖?
What do   you get when you add /k/ to the beginning of ―rash‖?




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3. Sound Take Away
(skill: phoneme deletion)
Tell the students that they are going to take away sounds in words to make new words. For example, if
they take away the /s/ from the beginning of the word ―stone‖, they make the word ―tone‖. Continue with
the take away problems below.

What do     you get when you take away the /g/ from the beginning of ―grow‖?
What do     you get when you take away the /p/ from the beginning of ―price‖?
What do     you get when you take away the /s/ from the beginning of ―slime‖?
What do     you get when you take away the /p/ from the beginning of ―pants‖?
What do     you get when you take away the /s/ from the beginning of ―small‖?
What do     you get when you take away the /k/ from the beginning of ―clap‖?
What do     you get when you take away the /f/ from the beginning of ―flake‖?
What do     you get when you take away /p/ from the end of ―grasp‖?
What do     you get when you take away /s/ from the end of ―trace‖?
What do     you get when you take away /p/ from the end of ―sheep‖?

4. Switch a Sound
(skill: phoneme manipulation)
Tell the students to listen carefully while you say two different words. Tell them you are going to switch
one of the sounds in the words. It is their job to figure out which sound was switched in the second word-
the beginning, middle, or ending sound. Then the students have to tell you which sound was switched. For
example, if you say the words ―hat‖ and ―bat‖, the students should respond that /b/ was switched with /h/.
Continue with the following word pairs.

hot/hop              gate/game             pick/pack               cup/cap
fish/dish            hat/hot               zip/lip                 pig/pin
run/sun              van/ran               leaf/loaf               fan/fat
tap/tape             ball/bell             man/pan                 feet/meat

5. Name Game
(skill: initial sound substitution)
Tell the students that they are going to change their names during this activity. The teacher will pick a
sound and each student will substitute the first sound in their name with the sound that you have given
them. For example, if the teacher picks /b/, some of the students’ names might change to ―Bavid‖ and
―Bindsay‖. Continue letting the students change their names using different phonemes.

6. Find the Object
(skill: initial/final sound deletion)
Use a book from the current unit or a book that was read during shared reading time. Choose an object
from any page of the book. Explain that you will say the name of an object, animal, or person in the
picture. However, you will say the name without its first or last sound. The students then have to guess
the name of the object, animal, or person you are thinking of. For example, if you see a picture o f a
―book‖, you would say ―ook‖ or ―boo‖.



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7. Rolling Sounds
(skill: initial/final sound deletion)
Have the students sit in a circle on the floor. Tell the students that they are going to take away the first and
last sound in words. Roll the ball to a student and say take away the first sound in ―bed‖, or take away the
last sound in ―bed‖. The student that receives the ball then follows the instructions and rolls the ball back
to the teacher. Continue rolling the ball to different students using different words.

8. Word Magic
(skill: initial/ final sound substitution)
Tell the students that they are going to become word magicians by magically changing a word and
changing one of the sounds. They will change the initial sound in some words and the final sounds in
others. Say a word like ―rug‖. Then tell the students, ―Instead of /r/, change the first sound to /b/.‖ The
students should then respond with ―bug‖. For the final sounds, use a word like ―pad‖. Then tell the
students, ―Instead of /d/, change the last sound to /k/. Use the following words.

Initial Sound
sit         /s/ to /l/      lit
pen         /p/ to /t/     ten
leg         /l/ to /b/     beg
bee         /b/ to /s/     see
sun         /s/ to /r/     run
sack        /s/ to /b/     back
cup         /k/ to /p/     pup
mop         /m/ to /t/     top
wig         /w/ to /p/     pig
ball        /b/ to /t/     tall

Final Sound
cat       /t/ to /n/       can
rake      /k/ to /t/       rate
pin       /n/ to /k/       pick
run       /n/ to /t/       rut
teen      /n/ to /th/      teeth
tape      /p/ to /l/       tale
hot       /t/ to /p/       hop
run       /n/ to /g/       rug
mitt      /t/ to /s/       miss
cub       /b/ to /t/       cut
pan       /n/ to /t/       pat




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9. Pass and Change
(skill: initial phoneme substitution)
Have the students stand in a circle. Use an object such as a ball or a bean bag that can be easily passed
around the circle. Then start the game with a word family like ―-et‖. Begin the game by passing the ball to
the first student and saying a word that ends in ―-et‖ like ―pet‖. The student then says another word that
ends in ―-et‖ like ―get‖. The game continues until the students cannot think of any other words. At that
point change the ending and continue.




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                                       Putting It All Together

The following lesson plan can be used to incorporate all of the phonological awareness skills at one time.
This lesson plan is designed to be used with books from the unit of study for the week.

                           Phonological Awareness Lesson Design
                                         SAMPLE

   Title of Book or Story: __________________________________________

   Rhyme
   ―Tell me if these words rhyme:‖ (discrimination)



   ―We’re going to think of rhyming words. Tell me a word that rhymes with…‖ (production)



   Alliteration
   ―Tell me a word that begins with the same sound as…‖



   Sentence Segmentation
   ―I’m going to say a sentence‖ (Say a sentence.) ―Now say it with me and clap each word in the
   sentence.‖ (Children repeat)

                          _________________________________________

                          _______________________________________

   Syllables
   ―Listen to the word.‖ (Say the word.) ―Now you say the word and clap the word parts.‖
          (Students and teacher say word and clap the parts.



   ―We are going to count the syllables (or word parts) in words. How many syllables (parts) do you hear
   in…?‖



   Onset and Rime
   ―Listen to the parts and tell me the word.‖ (blending)


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Phoneme Isolation
―Listen to the word and tell me the first sound. What is the first sound in….?‖ (initial sound)



―Listen to the word and tell me the last sound. What is the last sound in….?‖ (final sound)




Phoneme Blending
―Listen to the sounds and tell me the word.‖ (Say individual phonemes of the word). ―What’s the
word?‖




Phoneme Segmentation
―Listen to the word and tell me all the sounds in the word.‖ What are the sounds in …?‖ (Students
respond) Option for higher level: ―How many sounds does _____ have?‖



Phoneme Manipulation

Deletion:
―Say _________(word). Say _______(same word) without the __(first phoneme__).‖
Example: ―Say feet.‖ (Students respond.) ―Say feet without the /f/.‖ (Students say /eet/)



Insertion:
―Say _______ (word). Instead of _____ (initial phoneme) say ____ (new phoneme).‖
Example: ―Say head‖ (Students respond.) ―Instead of /h/ say /b/. What’s the new word?‖




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                        Phonological Awareness Lesson Design
                                      SAMPLE

Title of Book or Story: Clap Your Hands

Rhyme
―Tell me if these words rhyme:‖ (discrimination)

               head - red                     knee-kiss

―We’re going to think of rhyming words. Tell me a word that rhymes with…‖ (production)

                       head                           knee

Alliteration
―Tell me a word that begins with the same sound as…‖

                       toe                    bear

Sentence Segmentation
―I’m going to say a sentence‖ (Say a sentence.) ―Now say it with me and clap each word in the
sentence.‖ (Children repeat)

                       Clap your hands.

                       Shake your arms, then take a seat.

Syllables
―Listen to the word.‖ (Say the word.) ―Now you say the word and clap the word parts.‖
       (Students and teacher say word and clap the parts.

                       spin                   airplane                            circle

―We are going to count the syllables (or word parts) in words. How many syllables (parts) do you hear
in…?‖

                       jump                           wiggle                               eyebrows

Onset and Rime
―Listen to the parts and tell me the word.‖ (blending)

               t-oes n-ose                            k-iss    m- iss

Phoneme Isolation
―Listen to the word and tell me the first sound. What is the first sound in….?‖ (initial sound)

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                mouse (m)                      four (f)                            secret (s)

―Listen to the word and tell me the last sound. What is the last sound in….?‖ (final sound)

                dog (g)                        foot (t)                            kitten (n)


Phoneme Blending
―Listen to the sounds and tell me the word.‖ (Say individual phonemes of the word). ―What’s the
word?‖

       f-ee-t                        f-r-o-g                             b-a-b-y


Phoneme Segmentation
―Listen to the word and tell me all the sounds in the word.‖ What are the sounds in …?‖ (Students
respond) Option for higher level: ―How many sounds does _____ have?‖

       seat (3)                      look      (3)                       hands      (5)

Phoneme Manipulation

Deletion:
―Say _________(word). Say _______(same word) without the __(first phoneme__).‖
Example: ―Say feet.‖ (Students respond.) ―Say feet without the /f/.‖ (Students say /eet/)

       hand (and)                    name (ame)                          tickle (ickle)

Insertion:
―Say _______ (word). Instead of _____ (initial phoneme) say ____ (new phoneme).‖
Example: ―Say head‖ (Students respond.) ―Instead of /h/ say /b/. What’s the new word?‖

       bear: /b/ to /ch/ = chair                       me: /m/ to /s/ = see




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