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					       ِ  ‫ ِ ﹾ‬     ‫ ﹶ ﹸ‬   ‫ ِﹶ‬   ِ   
      ‫ﻴﻦ‬‫ﻴﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳِّﻴـﺪ ﺍﳌﺮﺳﻠ‬‫ﺍﹾﻟﺤﻤﺪ ﷲ ﺭﺏ ﺍﹾﻟﻌﺎﳌـ‬
         ِ  ِ   ِ ِ  ِ  ِ ‫ ﹶ‬  ِ ِ ‫ ﹸ‬  ‫ ﹶﹶ‬  
      ‫ﻴﻢ‬‫ﻴﻢ ِﺑﺴﻢ ﺍﷲ ﺍﻟﺮﺣﻤﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺣ‬‫ﻴﻄﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺟ‬‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﻓﺄﻋﻮﺫ ِﺑﺎﷲ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸ‬ ‫ﹶﺃﻣﺎ‬

Satan will try his best to make you lazy, but you should
oppose Satan and try to read this lecture of Ameer-E-
Ahl-E-Sunnat (may his shadow remain upon us)
completely, Insha-Allah (ázzaẃajal) you will feel a
‘Madani’ transformation within yourself.


It is stated that once a King went hunting but was separated
from his companions. The King spotted a weak and grief-
stricken young man who was shuffling with some human

The King asked, “How did you become like this and what
are you doing in this deserted and frightening place all

The young man replied, “I’m in such a state because I have a
long journey ahead of me. Two guardian Angels that have
been appointed over me (in the form of day & night) are
after me, scaring me, and making me run forward. Meaning
that whatever days and nights pass, they are bringing me
closer to death. I see a dark and narrow grave full of pain
ahead of me. Alas! Soon I will be left in it to rot. It will be
full of discomfort and worries. There I will become food for
insects, my bones and their joints will be taken apart. This
isn’t the end though. After this there is also the Day of
Judgement, which will be tougher. Thereafter, I don’t even
know whether I will be sent to Heaven or to Hell, Alláh
(ázzaẃajal) forbid. You tell me, how can somebody who
knows all this rejoice?”

After hearing this, the King was engrossed by sadness and
grief. The King got off his horse and sat in front of the
young man and said, “Oh young man, your words have
snatched all my comfort and have taken control of my heart.
I want to know more.”

The young man said, “These bones that you see piled in front
of me are the bones of Kings who fell into the trap created by
the beauty of this world. They themselves ruled the people,
whilst heedlessness ruled their hearts.        These people
remained careless of the Hereafter. All their desires were
left unfulfilled till death overtook them and the blessings
bestowed upon them were confiscated. Their bodies have
rotted away in the graves and their bones are scattered
around in the state of restlessness. Soon, their bones will
gain life and will again be covered with flesh and they will
receive according to their deeds either a house of blessing
(Heaven) or a house of torment (Hell).”

After saying this, the young man disappeared and the King
couldn’t find him anywhere. When the servants found the
King they saw his facial expression of emptiness and tears
flowing down his cheeks. When the night came, the King
took off his lavish clothes and wrapped himself in two sheets
and went into the jungle to perform the worship of Alláh
(ázzaẃajal). After this point in time nobody heard from that
King ever again (rahmatulláhi tá’ala álaihi)
. (Raudur Riyyaheen, pg. 200, Darul Kutub al-Ilmiah)


My Dear Islamic Brothers! This incident contains much
detail of the journey into the after-life and the upcoming
states mentioned are very worrying.         The mysterious
‘Mubaligh’ (Preacher), whilst keeping the bones of the Kings
in front of him, draws a sketch of the grave and the
Hereafter, which is really a warning to us.

The affairs of the grave and the after-life are very frightening
and traumatic but before this we need to taste death and the
things linked to it, which include the pain at the time of
death, the seeing of the Angel of Death, ‘Malak-ul-Maut’
(álayhis salám) and other such painful events.


The Leader of the Believers, Hadrat Sayyiduna Umar
Farooq-e-Azam (radi alláhu ánhu) asked Sayyiduna Ka’ab-ul-
Ahbár (radi alláhu ánhu), “Oh Ka’ab tell us about death.”

Sayyiduna Ka’ab-ul-Ahbár (radi alláhu ánhu) replied, “Death
is like that branch, which is covered with thorns, and it is put
into the stomach of a person. When each thorn entangles
with a vein within the body, the branch is pulled with
extreme force. The thorns rip out of the body and tear some
pieces of flesh too, leaving some flesh in the body.”
(Mukáshifatul Qulúb, pg. 168, Darul Kutub al-Ilmiah,
 (Mukáshifatul Qulúb, pg. 168, Darul Kutub al-Ilmiah,


Hadrat Ali al-Murtadhá (radi alláhu ánhu) used to teach about
the significance of Jihad and would say, “If you were not
Martyred then you would die. I swear by the name of Alláh
(ázzaẃajal) in Whose Hand my soul is one thousand wounds
caused by a sword are dearer to me than death on a bed.”
(Mukáshifatul Qulúb, pg. 167, Darul Kutub al-Ilmiah,

My Dear Islamic Brothers! Hadrat Ali (radi alláhu ánhu) said
this because a Martyr at the time of Martyrdom is
overwhelmed by the visions of Heaven and if Alláh
(ázzaẃajal) wills then he is enraptured by the visions of the
Holy Prophet (salalláhu álayhi wasallam). He doesn’t even
feel the pain of death, whereas the one who dies in a normal
state will feel the brutal pain of death.


In one narration it is said that Hadrat Ibrahim ‘Khalil-ulláh’
(álayhis salám) said to ‘Malak-ul-Maut’ (álayhis salám), “Can
you show me the form you appear in at the time of capturing
a disbeliever’s soul?”

Hadrat Sayyiduna Izra’eel (álayhis salám) replied, “You will
not be able to bear it”.
Hadrat Ibrahim (álayhis salám) said, “Why not?
So ‘Malak-ul-Maut’ (álayhis salám) told Hadrat Ibrahim
(álayhis salám) left him for a short while. He did so. When
Hadrat Ibrahim (álayhis salám) looked at Hadrat Izra’eel
(álayhis salám) again, he saw a dark and frightening figure

dressed all in black with standing hair. An awful smell was
emanating from him and fire and smoke were coming out of
his mouth and nostrils. On seeing this, Hadrat Ibrahim
(álayhis salám) fainted.

When he regained consciousness, ‘Malak-ul-Maut’ (álayhis
salám) had returned to his original form. Hadrat Ibrahim
(álayhis salám) said, “Oh Malak-ul-Maut (álayhis salám), just
seeing your figure at the time of death is a big punishment
for the disbeliever.” (Mukáshifatul Qulúb, pg. 169, Darul
Kutub al-Ilmiah, Beirut)


My Dear Islamic Brothers! Even after knowing about the
torments of death and about its sufferings, it is sad that we
are living in this world with satisfaction. Ah! Our every
breath is a footstep closer to our death and everyday we are
moving closer to our grave. No matter how successful we
are in collecting worldly wealth, we will have to get used to
the idea of death. No matter how comfortable our life is,

death will put an end to it. No matter how highly people
might think of us in their hearts, death will remove this.

My Dear Islamic Brothers! Many proud and honoured
people have been dishonoured by death. Nobody knows
how many evil rulers have been thrown from their great
palaces into the small dark room of their grave. It is
uncountable the number of high ranked and highly respected
people who have been taken out of their comfortable
spacious homes and thrown into the unbearable discomforts
of the grave. How many leaders are lying in the darkness of
the grave who were once living in well-lit bungalows and
mansions? Ah! It is because of death that the newly-wed
groom, who was meant to be heading to his newly decorated
room full of fragrant roses, laughing and dancing, fell into
the darkness and discomforts of the grave, a room which is
full of creatures and insects. Nobody knows how many
youngsters, even before seeing the wonders of the world
were hunted down by death and fell prey to the terror of the


My Dear Islamic Brothers! If due to persistence in
committing sins, your worldly life and the religious life are
both destroyed, then what will you do?

Alláh (ázzaẃajal) says in the Holy Qur’án, Para 17, Surah
Al-Hajj, Verse 45: “And how many towns we destroyed
that they were unjust, so now they are fallen down on
their roofs, and how many wells are lying neglected and
how many palaces are deserted” (Translation from
Kanzul Iman)


Hadrat Sayyiduna Abu Bakr Siddique (radi alláhu ánhu)
would say during his Khutbah (sermon), “Where are those
handsome faces? Where are those who used to be proud of
their youth? Where have those Kings gone to who built
glorious palaces and strengthened them with the strong forts?
Where have they gone who overcame the grounds of war?
Indeed, time dishonoured them and now they are lying in the
darkness of their graves. Hurry up!! Take the lead in good
deeds and ask for forgiveness.” (Zammul Hawa, Chapter 50,
pg. 498, Darul Kutub al-Ilmia)

Sleeping in the garment of carelessness

My Dear Islamic Brothers! The Leader of the Believers,
Hadrat Sayyiduna Siddique-e-Akbar (radi alláhu ánhu) is
giving us the mentality to worry about the darkness of the
grave and is trying to wake us up from the dream of
heedlessness - the darkness of the grave, the dangers, being
food for the creatures, our bones being torn apart, remaining
in the grave until the Day of Judgement, reckoning of our
deeds. Even after knowing about all of these events, to carry
on sleeping under the sheet of carelessness is most alarming.


Hadrat Sayyiduna Usmán-e-Ghani (radi alláhu ánhu) would
weep so much when standing next to a grave that his beard
used to become moist. Someone asked Hadrat Usmán (radi
alláhu ánhu) as to why he cried so much when he stood next
to someone’s grave but would not cry when someone
mentioned Paradise or Hell?

He replied, “The Mercy for the Worlds (salalláhu álayhi
wasallam) said, ‘Indeed, the first stage of the after-life is the
grave. Whoever succeeds in the grave will find the rest easy
and those who do not will find the rest difficult and
unbearable’”. (Sunan ibn Majah, Hadith # 4267, Vol. 4, pg.
500, Darul Ma’refah, Beirut)

My Dear Islamic Brothers! Did you see? Our master,
Hadrat Usmán-e-Ghani (radi alláhu ánhu), even after being
given the glad tidings of Paradise during his lifetime by the
Prophet (salalláhu álayhi wasallam) still feared Alláh
(ázzaẃajal) so much. On the other hand we don’t even
know anything about our final destination yet, we still
involve ourselves in sin. Despite having mountains of sin in
our Book of Deeds we are swaying with happiness and are
heedless of the awful call of the grave.


Hadrat Sayyiduna Faqih Abu’laith Samarqandi (radi alláhu
ánhu) relates that the grave calls out five times a day saying,
“Oh human, you walk on my back, and my stomach is your
destination. Oh human, you even eat delicious foods upon
me and very soon the creatures in my stomach will eat you.
Oh human, you laugh on my back and very quickly you will
cry when you come inside me. Oh human, you rejoice on my
back and soon you will grieve inside me. Oh human, you
commit sins on my back and very soon you will be put to
punishment in my stomach.” (Tambi hul Gháfileen, pg. 51,
Daro ibne Kathir, Beirut)


It is related that when the soul is separated from the body
and days pass. The soul asks in the Court of Alláh
(ázzaẃajal) saying, “Oh Alláh (ázzaẃajal), give me
permission so that I may ask my body as to what state it is

The soul is given permission and it goes towards the grave.
It examines the body from a distance. On seeing the
changed body and water coming out from the nostrils,
mouth, eyes and ears, the soul says, “After being very
beautiful and vibrant, you have declined to such a state.”
After saying this it goes away.

Seven days later, after seeking permission, it comes back and
again looks from a distance and sees that the body, which
had water flowing from the mouth, now has blood and with
pus flowing from it. Water from the eyes has turned to pus
and the water flowing from the nostrils has turned to blood.
On seeing this, the soul says, “You have come to this state’.
After saying this, it again goes away.

Finally, it comes back after another seven days. After
seeking permission, it sees from a distance that the eyes
hanging from the face, pus has turned into creatures which
enter into his mouth and come out of his nostrils. On seeing
this, it says to the body, “After living a luxurious life style of
favours and delicacies you have come to this state. I swear
by the name of Alláh (ázzaẃajal) except piety and good
deeds, nothing has ever benefited anyone in the grave”. (Ar
Raudul Fá-iq Majlis, pg. 49, Darul Kutub al-Ilmia, Beirut)


Hadrat Sayyiduna Dah’hák (radi alláhu ánhu) says that a
person asked the Holy Prophet (salalláhu álayhi wasallam),
“Who is the most pious person?” The Prophet (salalláhu
álayhi wasallam) replied, “The one that does not forget the
grave and does not forget that he will rot within it, he who
leaves the beauty of the world, who gives preference to the
lasting life over the perishable life, who does not count the
coming day as they are part of his life and includes himself
amongst the people of the graves”. (Musannaf ibne Abi

Shaybah, Hadith # 3430, Vol. 7, pg. 99, Darul Kutub al-
Ilmia, Beirut)


Hadrat Sayyiduna Abdullah bin Mas’úd (radi alláhu ánhu)
used to say, “No doubt you are in fast moving times and
death will take you suddenly. Whoever planted the seed of
goodness, very shortly he will harvest the crop of hope.
Whoever spreads the seeds of evil, very quickly he will get
the crop of humiliation and regret. Every farmer has a field
of his own.” (Zammul Hawa, Chapter 50, pg. 498, Darul
Kutub al-Ilmia)


My Dear Islamic Brothers! Indeed the wise individual is he
who before death is able to collect righteous deeds, and takes
with him a ‘Madani’ light of Sunnan and in this way
arranges a means of illuminating his grave or else the grave
will not care who has come inside of it, whether he is rich or
poor, president or councillor, ruler or the ruled, officer or
office attendant, boss or worker, doctor or patient or whether
he be a businessman or unemployed. If anyone does not
have what is needed for the after-life, did not pray ‘Namáz’
(Salah) on time, did not Fast (without a valid - Shar’i
reason), did not give his Zakát being obligatory, did not
perform his Hajj being obligatory upon him, was disobedient
to his parents, had a habit of lying, backbiting, gossiping,
remained busy in watching films and dramas, listened to
songs and music, kept shaving the beard or trimming it less
then a fistful, in brief remained busy in committing sins, then
nothing will be obtained other than regret and hardship in the
form of the anger of Alláh (ázzaẃajal) and His Rasúl
(salalláhu álayhi wasallam). Whoever, whilst offering their
Fard Namáz (compulsory Prayers) also read Nafil Namáz
(optional prayers), would fast in the month of Ramadán and
then kept Nafil Fasts, called people towards goodness from
street to street, learnt the Qur’án and taught it to others, did
not feel embarrassed to give Dars (teaching) on the road,
gave Dars at home, travelled with the Madani Qafilas of
Dawat-e-Islami on a regular basis to learn and preach the
Sunnah and also encouraged others, filled in the Madani
In’amát card everyday and handed it in every month to his

‘Zimmadár’ (person in charge) then, In’sha-Alláh
(ázzaẃajal), he will see that the ocean of mercy will be
flowing, and will witness the fountains of the light of
Mustafa (salalláhu álayhi wasallam) in his grave till the Day of


My Dear Islamic Brothers! Now that we have been created
we will also have a taste of death. What will become of us
sinners? We can’t just rest after feeling the pain of death but
instead we will be left in our graves to rot. We will again rise
from our graves and see the events of Judgment; The Day of
Reckoning will be very frightening. There are many valleys
of pain and adversity in it. Try to imagine the terrifying
conditions of the Day of Judgment. Ah! Ah! Ah! Mankind
will be made to stand on the blazing hot ground made of
copper; stars will have fallen, due to the sun and moon not
having light darkness will be everywhere. But despite no
light, the heat will still be there. Everybody will be in this
state. All of a sudden the skies will rip apart. The noise will
be ever so terrifying. Try to imagine this! Mountains will fly
like carded wool and people will be like scattered moths. No
one will ask another of his state. Brothers will not have eye
contact with each other. Friends will hide faces from one
another. Son will run away from father. Husband will move
away from his wife and son will not lift his mother’s burden,
no one will be of any use to another. Listen, listen with the
ears of your heart, listen, in the 30th Para, Suratul Qáriah, the
description of the Day of Judgment is given in such a way…

Allah’s Name, Who is the Most Affectionate and Most
“The dreadful calamity. What is that dreadful calamity?
And what do you know what this dreadful calamity is? The
day when mankind shall be like scattered moths. The
mountains become like cotton wool. And then as for him
whose scales are heavy. He shall be given a pleasant life.
And for him whose scale is light. His abode shall be the
bottomless pit. And what do you understand what that
(bottomless pit) is? It is a Blazing Fire.” (translation from
Kanzul Iman)


Hadrat Sayyiduna Fuzayl bin Iyáz (radi alláhu ánhu) says that
on the Day of Judgment a mother will meet her son and say,
“O son! Did you not remain in my womb; did you not drink
my milk?”
The son will reply, “O my mother, why not”.
On hearing this the mother will say, “My burden of sins is
very heavy, just take one sin from me”.
The son will say, “My mother, get away from me, my own
worries are upon me, I cannot carry yours or anyone else’s
burden”. (Ar Raudul Fá-iq, pg. 184, Darul Kutub al-Ilmia,


My Dear Islamic Brothers! Besides these difficulties, we
will have to face the sufferings of hunger, thirst and face the
sufferings at the time of reckoning of our deeds. There will
be no shade except for the ‘Arsh’ (throne), which will be for
the people who are close to Alláh (ázzaẃajal). Except these
people the rest will be sobbing and crying out in the intense
heat of the sun. Due to a large gathering of people, each and
every person will be pushing and budging one another, and
will regret committing sins. The warmth of the breath, the
intense heat of the sun and the fear and dread will cause
perspiration to pour on to the ground and go seventy metres
down into the ground. People will sweat according to their
sins, some will sweat up to their ankles, some up to their
knees, some to their chest and some to the tips of their ears
and some unfortunate ones will be drowning in their own

Hadrat Sayyiduna Abdullah ibn Umar (radi Allahu ta'ala
anhuma) narrates that the Messenger of Allah (az’zawajala
wa sallallahu alaihi wa’sallam) said, “That day when people
of all the world will be standing in the Court of the Creator,
many people will have so much perspiration that it will reach
to the half of their ears”. (Sahih Bukhari, Hadith # 6532, Vol.
7, pg. 251, Darul Fikr, Beirut)

Hadrat Sayyiduna Abdullah ibn Umar (radi alláhu ánhumá)
said, “The master of Madinah (salalláhu álayhi wasallam)
recited the sixth verse of Surah Al-Mutaffifeen, Para 30,

translation from Kanzul-Iman, “The day when mankind shall
stand before the Lord of the Universe”, then said, “What will
be your state when Alláh (ázzaẃajal) will round all of you
up just as arrows are collected and put in a quiver. For
50,000 years He will not look towards you.” (Majma úzzwá-
id, Hadith #11476, Vol. 7, pg. 285, Darul Fikr, Beirut)


In another narration it is related that the Best of Prophets,
Mercy for the Worlds (salalláhu álayhi wasallam) said. “On
the Day of Reckoning the sun will come close to the ground
and the people will perspire. For some, perspiration
will be up to their heels, some to the tip of their shins, certain
people will have perspiration going to their knees, some up
to their thighs, many up to their backs, some up to their
shoulders, some up to their necks, and for some it will reach
their faces”.
Our Holy Prophet (salalláhu álayhi wasallam) signalled with
his blessed hands that it will create a rein over them and
many peoples perspiration will cover them and then the
Prophet (salalláhu álayhi wasallam) raised his blessed hand

and put it on his blessed head. (Musnad Imam Ahmad,
Hadith #17333, Vol. 6, pg. 146, Darul Fikr, Beirut)


Hadrat Sayyiduna Hassan Basri (radi alláhu ánhu) said,
“What is your thought about that day when people will be
standing on their feet equivalent to 50,000 years. During
this, neither will you get a bite to eat nor a sip of water to
drink. Till throats become dry of thirst and their stomachs
burnt of hunger they will be taken towards the Hell-Fire and
made to drink boiling water. After losing to weariness, they
will plan together, “Let’s find someone who can intercede
before Alláh (ázzaẃajal) for us.”
They will then face towards the Prophets (álayhimus salám)
but no matter which Prophet they will go towards they will
be pushed away. The Prophets will say, “Leave me alone,
my own matter has made me free from care for others”.
Furthermore, they will present an excuse that today Alláh
(ázzaẃajal) has shown great anger, such anger that Alláh
(ázzaẃajal) has never shown before and will never show this
much anger again, until the King of Prophethood, the
Prophet of Mercy, the Intercessor of the sinners (salalláhu
álayhi wasallam) will intercede for those who he will get
permission for from Alláh (ázzaẃajal).” (Ihya ul-Uloom,
Vol. 4, pg. 548, Darul Kutub al-Ilmia, Beirut).


My Dear Islamic Brothers! This is just one of the reflections
of the Day of Resurrection and the sufferings. These worries
are before those of the reckoning of the deeds and the
punishments of Hell-Fire. Just think, today, if the heat of the
sun increases we become restless. If we lose electricity at
night we are overcome by fright. If we are presented with
food slightly later then its fixed time we react negatively. If
we don’t receive water when overtaken by thirst, we start
dehydrating. If we perspire heavily due to the heat of the sun
we cry out impatiently. If we get stuck in traffic we become
displeased. If a bit of dust goes into the eyes we become
uneasy. If our parents shout at us we become disobedient. If
the teacher shouts at us we become afraid.

Ah! Ah! Ah! If for praying Namáz (salah) later than the due
time we have to face the punishments of Hell. For missing a
fast in the month of Ramadán we are left to starve and
dehydrate. If for not giving Zakát, coins are melted and
poured on us. If for looking at unlawful things our eyes are
filled with fire. Listening to music and songs, backbiting,
listening to wrong things becomes the reason of melted
copper being poured into our ears. If for breaking relations
and disobeying parents we are put to punishment then what
are we going to do? There is still time, believe me! For the
pleasure on the day of Resurrection, and for the hope of the
intercession of the Holy Prophet (salalláhu álayhi wasallam)
repent and ask for forgiveness with sincerity, from the
bottom of your heart.


My Dear Islamic Brothers! The Day of Judgment will be
50,000 years long. The disbelievers will have to suffer
unbearable pain, whereas, blessings will be showering upon
the believers. The Holy Prophet (salalláhu álayhi wasallam)
said, “I swear in His Name, Who has my soul in His
possession, the Day of Reckoning will be easy for the
believers, to an extent, its time will feel less than the time of
offering a compulsory (Fard) prayer”. (Musnad Imam
Ahmad, Hadith #11717, Vol. 4, pg. 151, Darul Fikr, Beirut)

My Dear Islamic Brothers! If we have spent our lives
carelessly and leave this world, if because of sins Alláh
(ázzaẃajal) and his Messenger (salalláhu álayhi wasallam) are
displeased with us and if our Imán is destroyed, I swear in
the Name of Alláh (ázzaẃajal)! We will regret greatly.

In the 30th Para, Surat-Náz-e-át, verses 34-41, it is stated:
 “Then when the greatest disaster will come. On that day
man will remember all that he struggled for. And the
Hell will be in full view to those who see. Then as for
those who rebelled. And preferred the life of this world.
Surely, Hell will be their destination. But as for those
who fear Allah, to stand before their Lord and restrain
themselves from lust. Verily Paradise is their
destination.” (Translation of Kanzul Iman)

Oh! Lord of our Holy Prophet (salalláhu álayhi wasallam) give
us divine guidance to prepare ourselves for the grave and
hereafter. Keep our faith safe; give us easiness in the agony of
death. Bless us with the splendour of the Beloved (salalláhu
álayhi wasallam) in the last breath. Show the vision of the
Beloved (salalláhu álayhi wasallam) at the time of our last breath.
I will die in peace, Oh my Lord, it makes no difference to you but
I will die in peace.
Ameere Ahle Sunnat’s lecture ended here:



The Prophet (salalláhu álayhi wasallam) saw a certain
punishment taking place in Álam-e-Barzakh (grave) in which
one person was sitting and another standing. The person
who was standing was holding a steel hook with a wooden
handle inserting the hook into the of the corner of sitting
person’s mouth (flesh of lips) and tearing them apart by
pulling them and bringing them near to the shoulders. Then

he would tear them to the other side. He would do the same
again. During this time, the first part of the lips would come
back to their original state. Then he would start to tear them
apart again like the first time. It was said in the Court of the
Holy Prophet (salalláhu álayhi wasallam) that this person is a
liar. He will be involved in this punishment until the Day of
Judgment. (Summarised from Bukhari, Vol. 1, pg. 185)