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Marketing Presentation (tourism)

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Marketing Presentation (tourism) Powered By Docstoc
					SUBMITTED BY:
     Lagrama, Diane Rose Ann
     Evangelista, Kristine Joy
      Ursonal, Christine Joy
         Pana, Geraleen


SECTION:
                BST 1A1-7



SUBMITTED TO:
                Mrs. Apsay
INTRODUCING TRAVEL &
        TOURISM
TOURISM…

 Tourism is deemed to include any activity
 concerned with the temporary short-term
 movement of people to destinations outside the
 places where they normally live and work, and
 their activities during the stay at these
 destinations.
AN OVERVIEW OF TRAVEL AND TOURISM
                            DEMAND

This system is discussed in detail in most introductory texts and is based on
three overall categories of visitor demand with which any country is
concerned; each is a different sector of the total market:


   International visitors who are residents of countries other than that being
    visited and travel for tourism purposes . Also known as
    inbound tourism.
   International visitors, who are residents of a country visiting other
    countries and travel for tourism purposes. Also known a southbound
    tourism.
   Residents visiting destinations within their own country’s boundaries
    who travel for tourism purposes. Also known as domestic tourism.
    THE1993 REVISED DEFINITIONS OF TRAVEL &
    TOURISM ADOPTED BY THE UNITED NATIONS
         (UN) STATISTICAL COMMISSION:
   Visitors to describe all travelers who fall within agreed
    definitions of
    tourism.
   Tourists or staying visitors to describe visitors who stay
    overnight at a
    destination.
   Same-day visitors, or excursionists, to describe visitors who
    arrive and depart on the same day. Same-day visitors are
    mostly people who leave home and return there on the
    same day, but may be tourists who make day visits to other
    destinations away from the places where they are staying
    overnight.
INTERNATIONAL TOURISM
Around the world, measured as arrivals or trips, the numbers of
international tourists and their expenditure have grown strongly
since the 1950s, notwithstanding temporary fluctuations caused by
the three major international energy and economic crises of the
early 1970s, 1980s and 1990s. The recent growth and current size of
the international market, and the consistently confident projections
that international tourism will continue to grow well into the
twenty-first century. Although annual fluctuations in volume
reflecting economic and political events are certain, current
expectations are for annual growth of the order of some 4 per cent
per annum over the period 2000–10 as a whole. The growth in
shares of international arrivals projected for the Asia Pacific region
has major implications for the future of world travel and tourism.
INTERNATIONAL TOURIST ARRIVALS
DOMESTIC TOURISM
   People who travel and stay overnight within the boundaries of
    their own country are classified as domestic tourists. Estimates of
    the size of this sector of the market vary because in many
    countries domestic tourism is not adequately measured at
    present. As an indication, the WTO estimates that domestic
    tourism around the world outweighs international tourism by a
    factor of around 10:1 (WTO, 1997).
   Evidence from surveys of the vacation market in Europe and
    North America in the 1990s indicates that, in most countries,
    between a half and three-quarters of the adult population took
    one or more holidays away from home in any twelve-month period
    of at least one night’s duration.
   Market research data analysing the complete tourism experience
    of the same individuals over periods of more than one year are
    rarely available although they exist, for example, for France and
    the Netherlands.
THE COMPONENT SECTORS OF THE TRAVEL
                AND TOURISM INDUSTRY
   A major difficulty in understanding and dealing with travel and
    tourism as a total market or industry is the sheer number of
    private and public sector enterprises involved in supplying
    services and the extent to which so many of them see tourism as
    only a part of their total business operations.
   For example, airlines, trains, buses, restaurants and hotels all
    deal with a wide variety of market segments, many of which do
    not fall within the internationally agreed definition of travel and
    tourism. Hotels have local trade for bars and meals, and transport
    operators carry commuters. Many visitor attractions, such as
    museums, and most visitor information bureau1 also provide
    services to local residents.
   This mixture of products designed to serve both tourism and other
    markets has great significance for marketing decisions.
    THE SYSTEMATIC LINKS BETWEEN DEMAND
            AND SUPPLY AND THE ROLE OF
                        MARKETING

   The relationship between market demand, generated in the
    places in which visitors normally live (areas of origin), and
    product supply, mainly at visited destinations.
   A detailed knowledge of their customers’ character-istics
    and buying behavior is central to the activities of
    marketing managers in all sectors of the industry.
   Knowledge of the customer, and all that it implies for
    management decisions, is generally known as consumer or
    marketing orientation.
THE SYSTEMATIC LINKS BETWEEN DEMAND AND SUPPLY AND THE ROLE OF
                          MARKETING
    MARKETING: THE SYSTEMATIC THOUGHT
                            PROCESS
                     Marketing means exchanges

   Customers who choose to buy or use products.
   Producer organizations, which design, supply and sell the products.
   Understanding the needs and desires of existing and prospective buyers.
   Which products they choose, when, how much, at what price and how
    often.
   How they get information about product offers.
   Where they buy products from (direct or through a retail intermediary).
   How they feel after their purchase and consumption of products.
   Which products to produce and why, especially new products.
   How many products to produce (volume of supply).
   At what price.
   How to communicate their offers, by which media.
   When and where to make them available to buyers.
       MANAGEMENT ATTITUDES AND THE
      EXTERNAL BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT
   A positive, outward looking, innovative and highly competitive
    attitude towards the conduct of exchange transactions (in
    commercial and non-commercial organizations).
   Recognition that the conduct of business operations must
    revolve around the long-run interests and satisfaction of
    customers rather than on one-off exchanges, and where
    possible, the selective development of relationships with loyal
    buyers
   Understanding that the achievement of profits and other
    organizational goals results from customer satisfaction and
    customer retention.
   An outward looking, responsive attitude to events and
    conditions in the external business environment within which
    an organization operates, especially the actions of competitors.
   An understanding of the strategic balance to be achieved
    between the need to earn profits from existing assets and the
    equally important need to adapt an organization to achieve
    future profits, recognizing social and environmental resource
    constraints.
PRODUCT AND PRODUCTION ORIENTATION
   This term is often used to summarize the attitudes and responses
    of businesses whose products are typically in strong and rising
    demand, and profitable. Because demand does not present
    problems, there is a natural tendency for managers to focus their
    main attention on more pressing decisions, such as those
    concerning production capacity, quality and cost controls, finance
    for increasing production and maintaining the efficiency and
    profitability of operations generally. In the short run, where
    demand is buoyant and growing, an emphasis on production
    processes and financial controls appears both logical and sensible.
    Consider the example of a small town with two hotels and one car
    rental operator. If the town’s business community is prosperous
    and growing, it is likely that the hotels and the car rental
    operation will be profitable businesses and they are very likely to
    be product and production orientated. Such demand conditions
    are quite commonly found in travel and tourism, even at the
    beginning of the twenty-first century.
                  SALES ORIENTATION
   This term is often used to summarize the attitudes and
    responses of businesses whose products are no longer
    enjoying growth in demand, or for which demand may be
    declining to levels that reduce profitability. Production is
    not now the main problem; surplus capacity is. The obvious
    management reaction in these conditions is to shift the
    focus of attention to securing sales. Increased expenditure
    on advertising, distribution channels and on sales
    promotion or price discounts is a logical response in an
    attempt to secure a higher level of demand for available
    production capacity.
CONTRAST WITH MARKETING ORIENTATION
   As noted above, the focus of marketing orientation is
    essentially outward looking. In the notional small-town
    example, suppose there were now five hotels of a similar
    standard for a current demand that will fill only three of
    them at profitable levels of room occupancy. In these
    conditions inward-looking concerns with production and
    operational efficiency will not make much impact on
    demand, especially if competitors’ products are of a similar
    standard and price. Similarly, a strong sales drive with its
    emphasis on increased promotional expenditure will not
    increase demand significantly if competitors quickly follow
    suit with matching expenditure, and the increased
    expenditure will further undermine profitability. Reducing
    prices to increase demand will only cause further losses as
    competitors will have to follow suit.
DEFINING MARKETING FOR THE TWENTY-
                     FIRST CENTURY
   It would be highly convenient if there were just one
    standard definition of marketing. But, although the
    subject has now been studied and taught in academic
    courses for nearly a century (Bartels, 1976), it is still
    evolving and most consider it as much an art as a
    science. There are literally dozens of definitions,
    although most of them are individual variations
    within a broad consensus that the marketing concept
    is both consumer led and profit orientated.
   It is important to stress that consumer orientation
    does not always mean giving customers what they
    want, but it has to mean understanding their needs
    and wants in order to respond more efficiently in
    ways that make business sense for organizations–
    both in the short term of six months to a year, and
    especially in the long term of several years.
 The British Chartered Institute of Marketing
  defines marketing as: ‘The management process
  responsible for identifying, anticipating and
  satisfying customer requirements profitably, to
  meet organizational objectives.’ Both these
  definitions hold good for all forms of consumer
  and industrial product marketing, whether of
  goods such as soap powders or pianos, or services
  such as banking, insurance, hotel rooms and
  airline travel.
 Tourism marketing is not a separate discipline
  but an adaptation of basic principles that have
  been developed and practiced for many decades
  across a wide spectrum of consumer products.
        FIVE MARKETING PROPOSITIONS
1.   Marketing is a management orientation or
     philosophy.
2.   Marketing comprises three main elements
     linked within a system of exchange
     transactions.
3.   Marketing is concerned with the long term
     (strategy) and the short term (tactics).
4.    Marketing is especially relevant to analyzing
     twenty-first century market conditions and can
     make a major contribution to sustain- able
     development.
5.   Marketing facilitates the efficient and effective
     conduct of business.
SUMMARY OF MARKETING SYSTEM
       THE SPECIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF
       TRAVEL AND TOURISM MARKETING

   It notes the growth and importance of large-scale service
    organizations and the contrast with the millions of small
    businesses that dominate world travel and tourism
    numerically.
   It identifies the characteristics common to most forms of
    service marketing before proceeding to identify the
    particular characteristics distinguishing travel and tourism
    services.
   the basic differences between marketing as a set of
    principles relevant to all forms of exchange transactions,
    marketing for services generally and marketing for travel
    and tourism in particular.
     MARKETING GOODS AND SERVICES


   The early contributions to the study recognized the growing
    importance of sales and distribution functions for
    manufacturers of consumer goods. They reflected
    opportunities provided by rapid improvements in rail and
    road transport and telephone communication systems, and
    the consequent growth in the size of markets that
    businesses could reach with their products.
   Developments in franchising and management contracts
    for services, together with international mergers,
    acquisitions and alliances, have also facilitated the speed of
    growth in large commercial organizations in service
    industries, both nationally and internationally.
LARGE-SCALE SERVICE OPERATIONS DOMINATE
        TRAVEL AND TOURISM MARKETING

     Production and sale of purpose-designed, repeatable,
      quality controlled products.
     Typically heavily branded with advertising support and
      bearing standard prices (with variations by place and
      time).
     Products available at many places (multiple outlets).
     Continuous production and availability throughout the
      year.
     Most marketing undertaken by corporate head offices,
      which control and direct the activities at individual outlets.
PARADOXICALLY, THE VAST NUMBER OF SMALL
       BUSINESSES IS ALSO A DOMINATING
    CHARACTERISTIC OF THE TOURISM INDUSTRY

   Within the SME sector (defined as businesses comprising
    less than 250 employees) there is growing evidence in
    tourism that the group representing the smallest
    employers (less than ten employees) have unique
    characteristics that merit special attention.
   Identified as micro businesses to distinguish them within
    the SME sector, the smallest employers are by far the
    largest numerically, estimated at more than nine out of ten
    SMEs.
   In fact the majority of them employ less than five people
    and many comprise only the proprietor and immediate
    family.
   There were estimated to be over 2.5 million such
    enterprises actively trading within European tourism at
    the end of the 1990s, although this may be a significant
    underestimate.
              TYPES OF MICRO-BUSINESS
   Operating in a very local context, many of them are motivated as
    much, or more, by a mix of personal, quality of life and
    community goals, as by the economic/commercial rationale that
    dominates big business.
   Numbered in their hundreds of thousands, micro-businesses are
    unique as individual enterprises and they cannot be
    standardized– to attempt to do so would destroy their
    contribution.
   Unfortunately this makes them amorphous and difficult to
    measure and ‘badge’ as a coherent sector.
   It is often very difficult to influence the sector through any of the
    existing processes of tourism policy consultation.
      THE IMPORTANCE OF MICRO-BUSINESSES

   They make up some 95 per cent of all the enterprises providing
    tourism services. Although the big players dominate tourism
    expenditure, the smallest players collectively generate perhaps a
    third of total tourism revenue, and much more locally.
   The money earned by micro-businesses tends to stay in the local
    community. They typically purchase locally and are part of the
    fabric of the local money circulation cycle.
   They are a vital part of new job creation– especially in areas of
    rural and urban regeneration. Even without new job creation they
    perform an important economic stability role in fragile areas.
   Micro-businesses are part of the lifeblood of local communities– as
    local residents, neighbors, taxpayers and employers– even where
    they may be part of the unofficial or ‘black’ economy. Many micro-
    business proprietors are also found in local politics.
   To visitors they are often seen as the ‘friendly locals’. They may
    represent all that most visitors will ever experience of real local
    character, knowledge and individuality at destinations– reflecting
    the special values of ‘place’ and ‘host encounters’.
   Leading-edge small businesses are entrepreneurial
    role models of success and may inspire young people
    in their communities by example.
   Micro-businesses typically express the local character
    of a destination through their operations, and in
    many ways also help to sustain that character and
    communicate it to visitors.
   They influence the perceived visual quality of the
    built and natural landscape by their actions and the
    buildings they use.
   Their operations impact daily upon local
    sustainability issues and they are required to
    implement government requirements for health and
    safety and environmental good practice, bearing
    proportionally higher costs than larger businesses.
        SOME MARKETING IMPLICATIONS
   The sheer number of enterprises involved in all countries
    makes micro- businesses a core, not peripheral part of the
    experience of almost all tourists. The evidence suggests
    that such businesses are not scaled down versions of bigger
    businesses, however, and they cannot be treated in the
    same terms.
   At the leading edge, they embody the entrepreneurial spirit
    and vitality of places, and offer some of the best tourist
    experiences available anywhere.
   At the trailing edge, which may be a third or more of the
    total, many exist on the fringes of the industry damaging
    the environment of the destinations in which they are
    located, reducing visitor satisfaction and the perceived
    quality of the overall visitor experience.
   Indeed, some of the worst visitor experiences will be found
    in this sector and they can undermine the other attractions
    and facilities, reducing the marketing potential of a
    destination.
    SERVICES AND THEIR CHARACTERISTICS
   Goods are products purchased through an exchange
    transaction conferring ownership of a physical item that
    may be used or consumed at the owner’s choice of time and
    place.
   Services are products purchased through an exchange
    transaction that does not confer ownership but permits
    access to and use of a service, usually at a specified time in
    a specified place.
   The manufacturer or retailer of suits can put his products
    into warehouses and shops, and it may not be a vital
    concern if six months or more elapse between the
    completion of production and sale to the customer.
   If customers are not available on that day, products are lost
    and cannot be held over for sale on the following day
PARTICULAR CHARACTERISTICS OF TRAVEL
           AND TOURISM SERVICES

 Seasonality and other variations in the pattern of
  demand.
 The high fixed costs of operations, allied to fixed
  capacity at any point in time.
 The interdependence of tourism products.
      THE MARKETING RESPONSE TO THE
         CHARACTERISTICS OF SERVICE
                INDUSTRIES

 Inseparability and intangibility.
 Perishability based on a fixed capacity in the
  short run and inability to create stocks of
  product.
 Seasonality.

 High fixed costs.

 Interdependence.

 Simply put, the primary marketing response to
  these five characteristics is to manage or
  manipulate demand in the short run.
      COMPARING MARKETING IN TRAVEL AND
            TOURISM TO OTHER FORMS OF
                   MARKETING

   Students of travel and tourism often find it difficult to
    be clear about the way marketing in travel and
    tourism differs from other forms of consumer
    marketing practice.
   Generally speaking, however, it is common ground
    that the principles of the body of knowledge about
    marketing and its main theoretical elements hold
    good for all types of product.
   Marketing managers at senior levels of responsibility
    can, and frequently do, switch between industries
    with little difficulty.
   In travel and tourism in particular, many marketing
    managers have been brought in from manufacturing
    and other service industries to bring their expertise to
    bear as firms grow faster than the level of expertise
    available from within their own sector of business.
       THE MORE DEMANDING CONSUMER FOR
         TRAVEL AND TOURISM – A GLOBAL
                       DEVELOPMENT
   More affluent, measured in disposable income per capita,
    ownership of property and household facilities.
   Better educated and more interested in continuing education.
   More healthy and interested in more active pursuits.
   Older, with a particular shift in the number and attitudes of
    the more active over-fifties.
   More leisured in terms of hours of work and holiday
    entitlement, having regard also to earlier retirement –
    although many at work are also experiencing greater pressure
    on available leisure time.
   More travelled, for work and business as well as for holidays
    and leisure, increasing numbers with frequent international
    travel experience.
   More exposed to the media and information generally.
   More computer literate with ownership of personal computers
    (PCs) and access to the Internet growing exponentially.
 More heterogeneous and individualistic in their
  demands and expectations.
 More culturally diverse in terms of ethnic origin
  as well as in their range of lifestyle choices.
 It explains the concerns of tourism businesses
  with staff training and providing ever higher
  quality standards of furnishings and fittings, in
  hotels and other forms of accommodation for
  example, just to keep pace with customers’ rising
  expectations.
 Better soundproofing, individually adjustable
  heating and ventilation, bathroom facilities and
  size of rooms and lighting are other aspects of
  product provision influenced by relative
  affluence, to which marketing managers in the
  travel and tourism industry have to respond with
  new and modified products.
    THE MAIN DETERMINANTS OF DEMAND
 Fortunately for students and others wishing to
  understand the nature and potential of demand
  for travel and tourism, the underlying factors are
  common to all countries.
 Economic factors and comparative prices.
 Demographic, including education.
 Geographic.
 Socio-cultural attitudes to tourism.
 Mobility.
 Government/regulatory.
 Media communications.
 Information and communications technology.
    ECONOMIC FACTORS AND COMPARATIVE
                         PRICES
   Wherever travel and tourism markets are studied, the
    economic variables in the countries or regions in
    which prospective tourists live are the most important
    set of factors influencing the volume of demand
    generated.
   The influence of economic variables in supporting
    tourism growth is especially obvious for leisure and
    holiday travel but developed and growing economies
    also sustain large numbers of trips away from home
    for business purposes of all kinds.
   Using the published statistics of tourist trips and of
    national economic trends, it is possible to trace the
    relationship over time between changes in real
    disposable income (measured in constant prices) and
    the volume of trips and expenditure away from home.
COMPARATIVE PRICES
   Price, which represents cost to customers in terms of
    money, time and effort, is relative to their spending power
    and reflects the economic determinants discussed above.
   There is convincing evidence in leisure tourism that, in the
    short run, the price of a firm’s products, or the perceived
    price of a destination compared with those of competitors,
    is still the most important single determinant of the
    volume of demand.
   The global price of oil, which is especially important in all
    forms of air transport, adds a third variable to these price
    complications and it reflects the current US dollar
    exchange rate.
   Add to these the influence of economic growth and
    recession cycles in generating countries, and it is easy to
    see why the effects of comparative prices is highly complex
    in practice and impossible to predict with precision.
DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS
   The term ‘demographic factors’ is used here to identify the
    main population characteristics that influence demand for
    travel and tourism. Working much more slowly than
    rapidly changing economic variations, the main
    characteristics determining tourism markets are ageing
    populations, social class and household income, household
    size and composition, divorce and remarriage, and the
    experience of further and higher education.
   In countries with developed economies, one- and two-
    person house- holds have emerged as the norm over the
    last two decades, with fewer young children in them and a
    much greater proportion of women in full- or part-time
    work.
    SOCIO-CULTURAL ATTITUDES AFFECTING
                          TOURISM
   The potential markets for domestic and international
    tourism clearly include a growing number of people with
    enough income, leisure time and mobility to generate and
    sustain significant market growth in the next decade.
   Attitudes generally are formed of the ideas, fears,
    aspirations and beliefs that people hold about their lives.
    Attitudes towards tourism are subsets of a wider view and
    broad consensus on the desired quality of life and how to
    achieve it.
   Another common belief is that holidays are ‘rights’ and
    necessities for relieving stress rather than luxuries, and
    that trips abroad for business or pleasure are symbols of
    economic and social status that serve to indicate an
    inspirational position in society.
PERSONAL MOBILITY FACTORS
   The personal mobility provided by cars has become a prime
    determinant of the volume and types of tourism for many
    tourism businesses over the last two decades, especially for
    domestic tourism.
   At the start of the twenty-first century most hotels, nearly
    all self- catering establishments, most tourist restaurants
    and the great majority of visitor attractions and
    entertainments in North America and Europe, are highly
    dependent on travelers by car for their business.
   The use of surface public transport has declined as car
    ownership increased.
   Coach and bus operators have found many niches to
    exploit, for international tourists as well as for the more
    traditional holidays based on coach tours. Such schemes
    are likely to develop further as traffic congestion grows and
    government regulations favour public transport.
MASS-MEDIA COMMUNICATIONS
   A major influence over demand for travel and tourism is
    the massive exposure to colour television and, more
    recently, the World Wide Web now common to populations
    in all countries with developed economies.
   Over the last decade cable-TV, space satellite transmitters
    and the Web have provided instantaneous international
    images of places and events, as well as a continuous stream
    of films identifying places and standards of living.
   The cumulative impact of thousands of hours of television-
    watching, even before the full impact of new access to
    specialist channels and the Internet, has already had a
    major influence on travel demand.
   Not least of the influences exerted by the mass
    communication media is the effect achieved by regular
    television travel programmes, which review and expose a
    wide range of tourism products on offer and provide critical
    evaluations of their quality and value for money.
      INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS
                             TECHNOLOGY
   Increasing promotion and distribution of products on the World Wide
   Web by both private sector businesses and destination marketing
    organizations, including online sales and the use of the Internet for vital
    last minute sales.
   Multimedia information provision in customers’ homes enhancing
    promotional possibilities.
   Linked development of interactive digitized television with broadband
   Internet access, replacing the traditional PC box for many users.
   Switch to greater use of direct marketing, reducing the traditional role of
    travel intermediaries such as retail travel agents.
   Customer database development and its role in marketing information
    systems.
   Power to develop bespoke products for targeted customers.
   Relationship marketing with repeat buyers and other targeted
    customers/stakeholders.
   Creation of virtual enterprises in which ICT provides the linkages–
    especially networks for micro-businesses.
   Major opportunities both for large corporations to grow larger and small
    ones to gain access to international markets at low cost.
   Diagonal marketing to generate new streams of business from existing
    customers and linkages with other businesses (as defined by Poon, 1993).
CHARACTERISTICS ASSOCIATED WITH HIGH
                 AND LOW DEMAND FOR TOURISM
   Net propensity is the proportion of a population that takes
    at least one holiday in a twelve-month period.
   Gross propensity is the total number of holidays taken,
    expressed as a proportion of a population (proportion
    taking any holidays multiplied by the average number of
    holidays taken).
   Measured annually over a decade or so, it is possible to
    assess the extent to which a market for travel and tourism
    is increasing its size due to increased penetration (more of
    a population taking trips away from home) or because of
    increased intensity (the same people taking more trips in a
    year).
   Both of these are important measures for marketing
    managers, especially when related to specific market
    segments, e.g. to measure the holiday propensity of people
    aged fifty-five or more, or of a particular social class.
THE RESPONSE OF MARKETING MANAGERS
   The role of marketing managers in response to the
    determinants of travel and tourism can be put simply.
    First, it is their business to monitor and where
    necessary to research the opportunities arising from
    external factors in the business environment that
    influence movements in the particular markets with
    which they are concerned.
   Second, based on this knowledge, it is their business
    to forecast the direction and speed of change in the
    determinants and the implications of such forecasts
    for the travel patterns in their markets, taking action
    through strategic decisions and through the
    marketing mix decisions.
STRATEGIC MARKETING PLAN
   Assign NMTD program managers to each sector of tourism
    (i.e. hotel, restaurant, ski, spa, golf) and have them become
    active members of industry sector organizations.
   Develop bimonthly report for print and e-mail distribution
    to the industry and the market.
   Disseminate tourism information and research at NMTD
    program meetings, workshops and through program
    networks.
   Provide regular releases to the industry on advertising
    opportunities, ad campaigns and research.
   Increase awareness of the NMTD regional program to
    industry partners and local communities in order to
    encourage greater participation.
   Determine feasibility of an on-line application process for
    the cooperative advertising program.
STRATEGIC PLANNING
THE END…
 Thank you !

				
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