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Preface xxxi Acknowledgments xxxiii

Chapter 1 1 The Concept of Human Rights
      From Morality to Law: The Abolition of Slavery

I. The Concept of Human Rights                                                             2
II. The Movement to Abolish Slavery and the Slave Trade                                    3
A. Introduction                                                                        3
               B.       The Moral and Philosophical Evolution 6 David Brion Davis, The Problem of Slavery in the
                        Age of 6 Revolution 1770-1823 Roger Anstey, The Atlantic Slave Trade and British
                        Abolition 6 1760-1810
               C.       Economic and Po litical Factors 8 Howard Temperley, The Ideology of Antislavery, In The
                        Abolition 8 o f the Atlantic Slave Trade: Origins and Effects in Europe, Africa and the
                        Americas James Walvin, The Public Campaign in England against Slavery, 9 1787-1834
               D.      The Rhetoric of Abolit ion 11 Simon Bolivar, Message to the Congress of Bolivia (May 25, 1826) 11
                       Audrey A. Fisch, American Slaves in Victorian England: 12 Abolit ionist Polit ics in Popular Literature
                       and Culture Frederick Douglass, The Meaning of July Fourth for the Negro, 13 Rochester, NY (July 5,
               E.      The Legal Evolution 14 The Case of James So mmersett 14 Su zanne Miers, Slavery and the
                       Slave Trade as International Issues 23 1890-1939 Co mments and Questions 28
III. The Philosophical Underpinnings of Human Rights                                      31
A. Natural Law                                                                       31
S. James Anaya, Indigenous Peoples in International Law 31
B. Legal Positivis m                                                                 35
C. Critical Legal Studies                                                            35
      D.      Femin ist Perspectives 36 Hilary Charlesworth, Feminist Methods in International Law 36

    E.      Cultural Relativis m 38 A martya Sen, Hu man Rights and Asian Values 39 Co mments and Questions 43
IV. A Brief History of Human Rights in International Law and Institutions 46
       John P. Hu mphrey, The International Law of Hu man Rights in the 46 M iddle Twentieth Ce ntury
V. Final Comments and Questions 53

Chapter 2 55 Guaranteeing Human Rights by Treaty
      Is There a Right to a Safe and Healthy Environment?

I.     The State of the Global Environment and Human Well -Being 57
         United Nat ions Environ ment Program, Geo Yearbook: An Overview of 57 Our Changing Environ ment 2004-2005
II.    The Prot ection of Human Rights through Treaties 62
               A.      Why Rights and Why Treaties? 62 Dinah L. Shelton, Hu man Rights, Environ mental
                       Rights, and the 62 Right to Environment Okechukwu Ibeanu, Adv erse effects of the
                       illicit movement and 64 du mp ing of to xic and dangerous products and wastes on the
                       enjoyment of hu man rights Richard B. Bilder, Rethin king International Hu man Rights:
                       64 So me Basic Questions Comments and Questions 66
B.     Hu man Rights Provisions in the UN Charter 67
           1.      The Content of the Charter 67 The Un ited Nations and Hu man Rights 67
                    2. Invocation of the Human Rights Clauses on the 68 International Level Legal
                         Consequences for States of the Continued Presence 69 of South Africa in Namibia (South
                         West Africa) Egon Schwelb, The International Court of Justice and 70 the Hu man Rights
                         Clauses of the Charter
                   3. The Do mestic Status of the Charter’s Hu man Rights 73 Clauses Oscar Schachter,
                        The Charter and the Constitution: 73 The Hu man Rights Provisions in American
                        Law Note: U.S. Recognition of the Legal Status of the 76 Hu man Rights Clauses
                        Co mments and Questions 78
      C.       UN Hu man Rights Law-Making 79 Dinah L. Shelton, Hu man Rights 83
            1.      Co mplet ing the International Bill of Rights 85 Louis Hen kin, Introduction 86
1          Issue-Specific Hu man Rights Treaties 87 Note: Specialized Agencies 89
2          Quality Control 91

                 Stephen P. Marks, Emerging Hu man Rights: A Ne w 91 Generat ion for the 1980s?
                 A. H. Robertson, Hu man Rights in the World 92 Note: UN Action 94 UN General Assembly Res. 41/120 94
                 International League for Hu man Rights, Hu man Rights at 95
                                          the United Nations: New Standard Setting
                  4.      The Evolution of a Claimed Right to Environmental Quality 96 Dinah L. Shelton,
                          Hu man Rights, Environmental Rights, 96 and the Right to Environ ment Note: On the
                          Evolution of Global, Reg ional, and 99
                     National Standards Comments and Questions 103
III. Are Human Rights Treaties Different from Ot her International 105 Legal Norms?
     A.    Interpretation 106 Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties 106 Soering v. United Kingdom 107 Selmouni v.
           France 108 Juan Humberto Sanchez Case, Interpretation of the Judgment 110
                                      on Preliminary Objections, Merits and Reparations
     B.    Reservations 110 Vienna Convention on the Law of Treat ies 111 Note: U.S. Reservations, Understandings, and
           Declarations to 113
               the Covenant on Civ il and Political Rights
           International Covenant on Civ il and Political Rights: The 113 Ad ministration’s Proposed Reservations,
               Understandings and Declarat ions to the International Covenant on Civil and Po lit ical Rights
           Hu man Rights Co mmittee, Issues relating to reservations made 116 upon ratification or acces sion to the Covenant
               or the Optional Protocols thereto, or in relation to declarations under Article 41 of the Covenant
           Hu man Rights Co mmittee, Consideration of Reports 121 Sub mitted By States Parties under Article 40 of the
               Covenant, Co mments of the Co mmittee on the Report of the Un ited States of America
           International Law Co mmission, Annual Report                                123
     C.    Termination of Treat ies 129 Hu man Rights Committee, Continuity of Obligations 129
     D. Are Hu man Rights Treaties Superior to Other International 130
         Legal Regimes? Co mments and Questions 131
IV. Final Comments and Questions 132
Chapter 3 135 The Development of Human Rights Norms Through Non-Binding Instruments
     How and Why Do New International Human Rights Norms
     Emerge other than by Treaty?

I.   Introduction: The Role of ‘‘Soft Law’’ in Human Rights Law Making 136
        Dinah L. Shelton, Co mmentary and Conclusions, in Co mmit ment and 137 Co mpliance: The Ro le of Non -Binding
           Norms in the International Legal System
II. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights 143
              A.       The Making of the Universal Declaration 143 John P. Hu mphrey, The Un iversal Declarat ion of
                       Hu man Rights: 143 Its History, Impact and Jurid ical Character
B. The Legal Status of the Declarat ion 146
                   1.      The Historical Perspective 146 Egon Schwelb, The Influence of the Universal Declaration 147 of
                           Hu man Rights on International and National Law Note: Customary International Law 152
                    2.      Subsequent Developments in the Legal Status of the Declaration 153 Restatement
                            (Third ) of the Foreign Relat ions Law of the 156 United States §702 International
                            Law Association, Co mmittee on the 157 Enforcement of Hu man Rights Law, Final
                            Report on the Status of the Universal Declaration of Hu man Rights in Nat ional and
                            International Law Note: Other United Nat ions and Regional Hu man 161 Rights
                            Declarations Co mments and Questions 163
III. The Emergence of New Human Rights Norms: The Rights of Indigenous 164 Peoples and Maya Land Claims in
     Southern Belize
A. The Developing Rights of Indigenous Peoples 164
     B. The Adjudication of Maya Land Claims by the 167 Inter-A merican Co mmission on Human Rights
              S. James Anaya, The Maya Petition to the Inter-A merican             168 Co mmission on Human
                  Rights: Indigenous Land and Resource Rights, and the Conflict over Logging and Oil in
                  Southern Belize Note: The Awas Tingni and Dann Cases 172 Inter-A merican
                  Co mmission on Human Rights, Report 40/04, 176 Case 12.053 (Maya Indigenous
                  communit ies of the Toledo District of Belize) Co mments and Questions 182
IV. Norm Building in Related Areas 183
     A.     Minorities 183 Hurst Hannum, The Rights of Persons Belonging to Minorities 184
            Hu man Rights Co mmittee, General Co mment No. 23 191 (Art. 27)
             B.      Self-Determination 194 Co mmittee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination, 195 Right to
                     Self-determination, General Reco mmendation XXI Co mments and Questions 197
V. The Model or ‘‘Soft Law’’ Approach in the Criminal Justice Area 199
A. International Norms Govern ing the Treat ment of Prisoners 200
B. Status of the Standard Minimu m Ru les 200
    C. Applying the ‘‘Model Law’’ or ‘‘Soft Law’’ Approach to 201 Specific Subjects
1. Treat ment of Prisoners 202
2. Juvenile Offenders 202
                 3.       Standards for the Administration of Justice 202 Nigel Rodley, The Treat ment of
                          Prisoners Under 203 International Law Alfred Heijder, Codes of Professional Ethics
                          Against Torture 204 Co mments and Questions 206
VI. Final Comments and Questions 206

Chapter 4 209 Human Rights in Extremis
     How Can Human Rights Be Protected in Civil Strife and
     Armed Conflict?

I.   A Mote in the Eye of Freedom: Interrogation at Abu Ghraib Prison, Iraq 211
        Dana Priest and Barton Gellman, U.S. Decries Abuse but Defends 212 Interrogations ; ‘‘Stress and Duress’’ Tactics
          Used on Terroris m Suspects Held in Secret Overseas Facilit ies
II. Human Rights in Civil Strife and States of Emergency 216
        Joan Fit zpatrick, Hu man Rights in Crisis, The International System for 217 Protecting Rights During States of
            Emergency Note: Hu manitarian Law as a Limitation on the Right of Derogation: 223 Civil Strife and Internal
            Armed Conflict Contrasted Note: Monitoring States of Emergency 224 Hu man Rights Committee, States of
            Emergency (Article 4) 225 Habeas Corpus in Emergency Situations 228 Note: Limitation Clauses 229
            Co mments and Questions 230
III. The Traditional Law of War: International Armed Conflict 230
        Note: Historical Roots of the Concern for Hu man Rights in the Law 230 of War
G.I.A.D. Draper, Hu man Rights and the Law of War                             231
               A.      Protecting Co mbatants: The First Three 1949 Geneva Conventions 233 Third Geneva
                       Convention Relative to the Treat ment of 233 Prisoners of War
U.S. Army , Law of Land Warfare                                           235
U.S. Army , Intelligence Interrogation                                    237
               B.      Protecting Civilians: The Fourth Geneva Convention 239 Fourth Geneva Convention
                       on the Protection of Civilian Persons 239 in Time of War
               C.      Subsequent Developments: Protocol I 241 Richard R. Baxter, Modernizing the Law of War 242
                       Note: The Impact of Protocol I 243 Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12
                       August 1949, 244 and Relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts
                       (Protocol I) Co mments and Questions 247
IV. Expanding Traditional Prot ections: Internal Armed Conflicts 247
               A.       Co mmon Article 3: Its Status and Content 247 Daniel Smith, New Protections for Victims
                        of International Armed 247 Conflicts: The Proposed Ratification of Protocol II by the
                        United States Case Concerning Military and Paramilitary Activities in and 249 Against
                        Nicaragua (Nicaragua v. United States)
     B.      Protocol II: Its Scope and Content 250 Richard R. Baxter, Modernizing the Law of War 250 Note: The U.S.
             Position on Protocol II 252 Note: UN Peacekeeping 253 Co mments and Questions 253
        V. Where Does Responsibility Lie for Violations of the Law of War? 254 In re Yamashita 255 Note:
                  The Treat ment of Co mmand Responsibility in U.S. 258 Do mestic Law Interview with Guy
                  Womack by Chris Matthews 259 Co mments and Questions 261
VI. Modern Warfare: Distinguishing Combatants from Civilians 261 Lieutenant Duffy’s Statement 262 Mark Bowden,
             Black Hawk Do wn, A Story o f Modern War 265 Note: The First Gu lf War 266 Note: Afghanistan and the Second
             Gu lf War 267
           VII. The ‘‘War on Terror’’: Emergency, Armed Conflict, or Business 267 as Usual?
                  George W. Bush, Address to a Joint Session of Congress and to 268 the A merican
     A. Prosecuting Those Persons Responsible for Ill-Treat ment at Abu 269 Ghraib
1. The Dramat is Personae 269
         2.        The Legal Argu ments 271 Memorandu m fro m Assistant Attorney General Jay S. Bybee 271 Note: Subsequent
                   U.S. Interrogation Policies 279 Note: Should Torture A lways Be Prohibited? 281
               B.      Guanta´namo and ‘‘Illegal Co mbatants’’ 281 Th ird Geneva Convention Relat ive to the
                       Treat ment of 282 Prisoners of War
              Fourth Geneva Convention Relative to the Protection of Civilian 284 Persons in Time of War
                  Memorandu m fro m Assistant Attorney General Jay S. Bybee 284 Silvia Borelli, Casting Light on
                  the Legal Black Ho le: International 292 Law and Detentions Abroad in the ‘‘War on Terror’’
                  Memorandu m fro m the President 294
               C.       Military Co mmissions 296 Detention, Treat ment, and Trial of Certain Non -Citizens in
                        the 296 War Against Terrorism Hamdan v. Ru msfeld 301
               D.       Renditions 307 Joan Fit zpatrick, Rendition and Transfer in the War 308 Against Terroris m:
                        Guanta´namo and Beyond
E. A Congressional Response 310
               H.R. 3038 310 Tho mas M. Franck, Ed itorial Co mment, ‘‘Criminals, 315 Co mbatants, or What? An
               Examination of the Ro le of Law in Responding to the Threat of Terror’’ Co mments and Questions 316
VIII. Final Comments and Questions                                                      319

Chapter 5 323 Who is Obligated to Promote and Protect Human rights?
      Oil Exploration and Exploitation in the Niger River Delta

I.   The Problem: Oil Exploration and Exploitation in Nigeria 325
II.  The Obligations of States 326
        Note: The African Hu man Rights System 326 Christof Heyns, The African Regional Hu man Rights
        System: 327 The African Charter
             A.        The Language of Obligation 334 Hu man Rights Co mmittee, General Co mment No. 31, The
                       334 Nature of the General Legal Obligation Imposed on States Parties to the Covenant on Civil
                       and Polit ical Rights Vela´squez Rodrı´guez Case, Inter-A m. Ct. H.R 338 O neryild iz v.
                       Turkey 345 Co mmittee on Economic, Social and Cu ltural Rights, General 353 Co mment No. 3,
                       The nature of States parties obligations (Art. 2, para. 1) The Social and Economic Rights
                       Action Center and the Center 355 fo r Economic and Social Rights v. Nigeria
           B. Balancing State Obligations to Protect with Indiv idual Freedom 364 and Autonomy Bru ¨
                ggemann and Scheuten v. Germany 364 Open Door and Dublin Well Wo man v. Ireland
            Pretty v. the United Kingdom 367 Co mments and Questions 369
III. Corporate Responsibility 373
        Dinah L. Shelton, Protecting Hu man Rights in a Globalized World 373 Rhoda E. Ho ward -Hassman, The
        Second Great Transformation: 375 Hu man Rights Leapfrogging in the Era of Globalizat ion
     A. Codes of Conduct 377
            Sub-Co mmission on the Promotion and Protection of Hu man 379 Rights, Norms on the Responsibilit ies of
               Transnational Corporations and Other Business Enterprises with Regard to Hu man Rights
            Report of the Un ited Nations High Co mmissioner on            382 Hu man Rights on the Responsibilit ies of
               Transnational Corporations and Related Business Enterprises with Regard to Hu man Rights
     B. Potential Do mestic Liability of Corporations for Hu man 385 Rights Abuses
            Ralph Steinhardt, Laying One Ban krupt Crit ique to Rest: Sosa v. 386 Alvarez Machain and the Future of
               International Hu man Rights Lit igation in U.S. Courts
            Wiwa v. Royal Dutch Petro leum Co. and Shell Transport &                387 Trading Co. P.L.C.
     C. A Response from Business 392
            SustainAbility, The Changing Landscape of Liability: A Director’s 392 Gu ide to Trends in Corporate
               Environmental, Social and Econo mic Liab ility
            Co mments and Questions                                                      394
IV. Do International Organizations Have Human Rights Obligations? 396
             A.        International Financial Institutions 396 IBRD/World Bank, Develop ment and Human
                       Rights: The Role 399 of the World Bank
            Kelly Currah et al., Doing The Rights Thing? The World Ban k            401 and The Hu man Rights of People Living In
     B. The World Trade Organization 406
            Robert Ho wse and Makau Mutua, Protecting Human Rights 406 in a Global Econo my: Challenges for the World
               Trade Organizat ion
            World Trade Organization, Trade and Labour Standards 409
            Agreement reached on WTO Waiver for ‘‘Conflict Diamonds’’ 410 Under the Kimberley Process Certification
               Scheme for Rough Diamonds
            Report on the High Co mmissioner for Hu man Rights ,           411 Liberalizat ion of Trade in Services and Hu man
             C.        Intellectual Property Issues 413 Co mmittee on Econo mic , Social and Cultural Rights, Protection
                       413 of Intellectual Property Under The TRIPS Agreement
            World Trade Organization, Declaration On The TRIPS             416 Agreement And Public Health
              Co mmission Human Rights, The right of everyone to the 417 enjoy ment of the highest attainable
                 standard of physical and mental health Co mmission Human Rights Res. 2005/23, Access to
                 med ication in 420 the context of pandemics such as HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria
             D.      Peacekeeping 422 Report of the International Law Co mmission on its 56th Session 423 Colu mn
                     Lynch, U.N. Sexual Abuse Alleged in Congo, 426 Peacekeepers Accused in Draft Report Report
                     of the Secretary-General, UN Special Measures for 428 Protection fro m Sexual Exp loitation and
                     Sexual Abuse Comments and Questions 429
V. The Responsibility of Individuals for Human Rights Violations 430
        Erica-Irene A. Daes, Freedom of the Indiv idual under Law: an Analysis of Article 29 of the
           Universal Declaration of Hu man Rights 431 Co mmission on Human Rights, Co mpilation of the
           essential aspects of 435 rep lies received on the pre-draft declarat ion on human social
           responsibilit ies Co mments and Questions 437
VI. Final Comments and Questions 438

      Are States’ Courts Bound to Apply International Human
      Rights Norms?

I.    Introduction: The Relationship Bet ween International and Domestic Legal 440 Systems
II.   U.S. Courts and the Right of Juvenile Offenders Not to be Executed 442
              A. Finding the Parameters of Do mes tic Legal Protections in Light 442 of International
                   Norms Roper v. Simmons 443 Harold Hongju Koh, Rev iew Essay: Why Do Nat ions
                   Obey 449 International Law Co mments and Questions 452
B. The Application of Treaty Provisions by Domestic Courts 453
                    1.       Judicial Treat ment of Reservations to Multilateral Treat ies 454 Do mingues v. State of
                             Nevada 456 Curt is A. Bradley, The Juvenile Death Penalty and 460 International Law
           2.      The Doctrine of (Non) Self-Executing Treat ies 462 Note: The Fuji Case 462 Sei Fu jii v. State 463 The U.S.
                   Declarations of Non-Self-Execution 466 Hamdan v. Ru msfeld 469 Co mments and Questions 471
                C.      The Judicial Applicat ion of Customary International Law 473 Brief for the Hu man Rights
                        Co mmittee of the Bar of England 473 and Wales, Hu man Rights Advocates, Human Rights
                        Watch, and the World Organization for Hu man Rights as Amici Curiae in Support of
                        Respondents Joan Fitzpatrick, The Role of Do mestic Courts in Enforcing 477 International
                        Hu man Rights Law Customary International Law Under the Alien Tort Statute — 478
                        Filart iga and Beyond Filart iga v. Pen˜ a-Irala 479 Sosa v. Alvarez-Machain 485 Co mments
                        and Questions 494 Note: The State Action and Act of State Doctrines 498 Note: Foreign
                        Sovereign Immun ity 500
III. The Justiciability of Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights                           501
           Co mmittee on Econo mic, Social, and Cultural Rights, The Right to 502 the Highest Attainable
              Standard of Health M inister of Health et al. v. Treat ment Action Campaign et al. 511 Co mments
              and Questions 526 Note: The Use of International Hu man Rights Law in Foreign 527 Jurisdictions
              Supreme Court of the Russian Federation, Decision on the 529 applicability by ordinary courts of
              the universally recognized princip les and norms of international law and the international treaties of
              the Russian Federation
IV. Final Comments and Questions                                                           532

Chapter 7 533 UN Mechanisms for Addressing Violations of Human Rights
      What Petition and Other Procedures Are Available for
      Implementing Human Rights Standards?

I. Introduction                                                                     534
II. The Situation in Greece: An Early Test Case                                     536
A. Resolution 1503: High Expectations                                           536
       B.     Historical Note 536 Greece: Justice in Blinkers 538 Hu man Rights Report on Greece 539
C. Co mmunication Alleging Vio lation of Hu man Rights in Greece 539
       D.     The Sub-Co mmissions Response to the Commun ication 541 Disappointing Start to New U.N. Procedure on
              Hu man Rights 541
                E.      The Reaction of the Greek Regime 543 Letter Dated 12 August 1973 fro m the Permanent
                      Representative 543 of Greece to the Un ited Nations A ddressed to the Secretary-General
            F.   The Overthrow of the Greek Regime and the Sub-Co mmission’s 545 Role Therein
                 Statement by Amnesty International and the International Student 545 Movement for
                 the UN
III. Analyzing the Procedures and Problems of Resolution 1503 546
         Frank C. Newman, The New U.N. Procedures for Hu man 546 Rights Comp laints: Reform, Status
            Quo, or Chamber of Ho rrors? Philip Alston, The Co mmission on Human Rights 548 Nigel S.
            Rodley and David Weissbrodt, United Nations Nontreaty 552 Procedu res for Dealing with Hu man
            Rights Violations Report of the independent expert of the Co mmission on Human 554 Rights
            [Charlotte Abaka] on the situation of human rights in Liberia submitted under the 1503 procedure
IV. Other UN Mechanisms for Investigating Alleged Human Rights 562 Abuses
A. Petition Procedures 562
             B.      Non-Petit ion Procedures 564 Philip A lston, The Co mmission on Human Rights 564
                     Co mmission on Human Rights, Torture and Other Cruel, 572 Inhu man or Degrading
                     Treat ment or Punishment Co mmission on Human Rights, Question of Arbitrary Detention
                     572 Co mmission on Human Rights, Hu man Rights and Indigenous 572 Issues Office of the
                     High Co mmissioner for Hu man Rights, The Working 573 Group on Arbitrary Detention
                     Report of the twelfth meeting of special rapporteurs/ 577 representatives, independent
                     experts and chairpersons of working groups of the special procedures of the Commission on
                     Hu man Rights and of the advisory services programme Co mments and Questions 579
V. Monitoring the Implementation of UN Human Rights Treaties 583
A. Monitoring Bodies 583
             B.       State Reporting 584 Office Of The United Nat ions High Co mmissioner for 586 Hu man
                      Rights, Effective Functioning of Hu man Rights Mechanisms Treaty Bodies Dinah Shelton,
                      Co mpliance Mechanisms [Period ic Reports] 588 Congressional Record, S 8400-8401 590
             C.      Individual Co mmun ications 592 Toonen v. Australia 592 Note: Should There Be an Optional
                     Protocol to the Covenant on 599 Econo mic, Social and Cu ltural Rights?
D. Interstate Complaints 600
E. General Co mments 600
             F.      Strengthening the Treaty System 601 Final Report on Enhancing the Long -Term Effectiveness of
                     the 602 United Nat ions Human Rights Treaty System
              General Assembly Res. 57/ 202, Effective implementation of 609 international instruments on
                 human rights, including reporting obligations under international instruments on human rights
                 Office o f The United Nat ions High Co mmissioner for Hu man 612 Rights, Effective
                 Functioning of Hu man Rights Mechanisms Treaty Bodies Co mments and Questions 615
VI. Final Comments and Questions 615

Chapter 8 617 The European System for the Protection of Human Rights
Can Regional Systems to Protect Human Rights Be More Effective
  than UN Mechanisms?

I.  Universal and Regional Norms 619
Dinah L. Shelton, The Pro mise of Regional Hu man Rights Systems 619
II. The Council of Europe and the European Convention on Human Rights 621 Dinah L. Shelton, The Boundaries of
    Hu man Rights Jurisdiction in 621 Eu rope
    A.      Jurisdiction 624 Note: Civilian Deaths in Iraq 624 Bankovic and Others v. Belg iu m and Others 626 Issa and Others
            v. Turkey 635 Al-Adsani v. Un ited Kingdom 639 Co mments and Questions 647
            B. The Interpretation and Application of Substantive Rights in the 648 European Convention: Freedo m of
                 Exp ression Handyside v. United Kingdom 649 Jersild v. Den mark 660 Otto -Preminger-Institut v. Austria
                 674 Note: Other Substantive Rights 681 Co mments and Questions 682
C. Seeking Co mp liance with European Hu man Rights Norms 683
                    1.     Monitoring Judgments of the European Court of Hu man Rights 683 Council of Eu rope
                           Co mmittee of M inisters to supervise the 684 execution of the Hu man Rights Court’s
                           judgments Council o f Europe Parliamentary Assembly Resolution 1226 686 (2000),
                           Execution of judgments of the European Court of Hu man Rights Council of Eu ropean
                           Parliamentary Assembly, Resolution 688 1411 (2004), Imp lementation of decisions of the
                           European Court of Hu man Rights
          2. Monitoring Other Hu man Rights Obligations of Members of the 690 Council of Europe
                  Co mmittee of M inisters, Declaration on Co mp liance with 691 Co mmit ments Accepted by Member States of
                     the Council of Europe
                  Procedure for Implementing the Declaration of 10 November 692 1994, on Co mpliance with Co mmit ments
                     Accepted by Member States of the Council of Europe
                Note: The Case of Georg ia 693 Parliamentary Assembly, Georg ia’s application for 693 membership of the
                Council of Europe Parliamentary Assembly, Resolution 1257 (2001) of Sept. 25, 696 2001: Honouring of
                obligations and commit ments by Geo rgia Co mpliance with Co mmit ments and Obligations: The 699 Situation
                in Georg ia
            Co mments and Questions                                                   701
     D. The Present Crisis and the Future of the System 701
            Exp lanatory report to the [draft] Protocol No. 14 to the 702 Convention for the Protection of Hu man Rights and
               Fundamental Freedoms, amend ing the Convention’s control system
             Resolution (2004) 3, on Judg ments Revealing an Underlyin g         704 Systemic
                 Problem Co mments and Questions 705
III. Other Human Rights Activities of the Council of Europe, 706 European Union, and Organization for Security and
     Cooperation in Europe
        Dinah L. Shelton, The Boundaries of Hu man Rights Jurisdiction 706 in Europ e
           Co mments and Questions 715
IV. Final Comments and Questions 715

Chapter 9 717 Human Rights in the Americas
     Responding to Disappearances in Argentina

I.   Human Rights in Argentina 718
       Inter-A merican Co mmission on Hu man Rights, Report on the 718 Situation of Hu man Rights in Argentina
II. E volution of the Human Rights System in the Americas 720
       Cecelia Medina, The Inter-A merican Co mmission on Hu man Rights 721 and the Inter-A merican Court of Hu man
           Rights: Reflections on a Joint Venture
          Inter-A merican Court of Hu man Rights, Interpretation of the 724 A merican Declaration of the
             Rights and Duties of Man within the Framework of Article 64 of the A merican Convention on
             Hu man Rights Note: Advisory Opinions of the Court 730 Co mments and Questions 731
III. The Response of the System to Disappearances in Argentina 731
               A.      Country Reports 731 Inter-A merican Co mmission on Human Rights, Report on the 731
                       Situation of Hu man Rights in Argentina Thomas Buergenthal, Robert Norris, and Dinah
                       Shelton, 745 Protecting Hu man Rights in the Americas, Selected Problems Report on the
                       Situation of Hu man Rights in Argentina 747 Co mments and Questions 749
     B. Individual Petitions 749 Dinah Shelton, The Inter -A merican Hu man Rights System 749
                    1.        Provisional Measures 753 Reggiardo Tolosa Case, Order o f the President of the 753
                              Inter-A merican Court of Hu man Rights of November 19, 1993
                   2.        Admissibility and Merits 756 Res. No 31/78, Case 2553, (Argentina), decision of 756
                             Nov. 18, 1978 Association of the Bar of the City of New Yo rk, Co mmittee on 759
                             International Hu man Rights, The Inter-American Co mmission: A Pro mise Unfu lfilled
                             Note: The Concept of Continuing Violat ions 763 Blake v. Guatemala (Preliminary
                             Objections) 763
                   3.        Friendly Settlement 765 Report No. 21/ 00, Case 12.059, Carmen Aguiar De
                             Lapaco´ 765 (Argentina) Co mments and Questions 766
                C.       Co mpliance with the Reco mmendations of the IACHR 768 Inter-A merican
                         Co mmission on Human Rights, Annual Report 769 2004
              D.       Resolutions of OAS Po lit ical Bod ies 770 Tho mas Buergenthal, The Inter-A merican System
                       for the 771 Protection of Hu man Rights Resolution of the XVII Meeting of Consultation
               E.      Proceedings before the Inter-American Court 772 Reparations 773 Inter-A merican Court of
                       Hu man Rights, Garrido And Baigorria 773 Case (Reparations) (Art. 63(1) of the A merican
                       Convention on Human Rights) Co mments and Questions 779
IV. The United States and the Inter-American System 780
Note: Vot ing Rights and Self-Determination in the A mericas 781
       Inter-A merican Co mmission on Hu man Rights, Report 98/03, Case 781 11.204, Statehood Solidarity Co mmittee
           (United States)
       Co mments and Questions                                                         785
V. Final Comments and Questions                                                        785

Chapter 10 787 Coercing Compliance with Human Rights Norms: Sanctions and Armed Intervention
     Can the International Community Prevent Human Rights
     Violations by Threatening or Using Force?
            I. Disaster in Darfur 788 Mission to the Sudan — The Darfur Crisis, Report of the 790 Representative of the
                     Secretary-General on internally d isplaced persons, Francis M. Deng
II. Economic Sanctions                                                                    793
      A. The League of Nations                                                            793
      B.        The UN Charter and Southern Rhodesia 794 Myers S. McDougal and W. M ichael Re isman, Rhodesia and the 796
                   United Nat ions: The Lawfu lness of International Concern Dean Acheson, The Arrogance of International
                Lawyers 799
      C.        Modern UN Sanctions 801 Security Council Resolution 661 802 Co mmittee on Econo mic, Social, and Cu ltural
                Rights, The 804
                   Relationship Between Economic Sanctions and Respect for
                   Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
                UN Sub-Co mmission on the Promotion and Protection of Hu man 805 Rights, The Adverse Consequences of
                   Economic Sanctions on the Enjoyment of Hu man Rights
                Thomas G. Weiss, Sanctions as a Foreign Policy Tool: Weighing 813 Hu man itarian Impulses
                August Reinisch, Developing Hu man Rights and Humanitarian 814 Law Accountability of the Security Council for
                   the Imposition of Econo mic Sanctions
                Note: Regional o r Unilateral Sanctions 815 Co mments and Questions 817
          III. U.S. Implementation of International Sanctions 818 Note: The Legal Framework 818 Leg islative
                    Reference Serv ice, Library o f Congress, The United Nations 818 Participation Act Sections
                    Relating to Econo mic and Military Action Diggs v. Shult z 820 Kenneth Roth, Executive Director of
                    Hu man Rights Watch, The Role 821 of U.S. Sanctions Policies in Pro moting Hu man Rights Note:
                    Think Globally, Act Locally : Local and State-sponsored 824 Sanctions Crosby v. National Foreign
                    Trade Council 824
Co mments and Questions                                                           828
IV. Armed Intervention                                                                    828
A. Intervention by the United Nations                                               828
                       1.     Somalia 829 Sean D. Murphy, Hu man itarian Intervention: The Un ited 829 Nat ions in an
                              Evolv ing World Order
                      2.      Hait i 832 Security Council Resolution 940 833 Security Council Resolution 1542 835
                              Todd Howland, Op-ed, In Haiti, Rhetoric Tru mps Hu man 837 Rights
                        3.     The Consequences of Non-Intervention: Rwanda 838 Report of the Independent Inquiry into
                               the Actions of 838 the United Nations during the 1994 Genocide in Rwanda
B. Un ilateral or Regional Intervention                                             846
                      1.      The Consequences of Intervention: Kosovo 847 Independent International
                              Co mmission on Kosovo, 847 Kosovo Report Note: The Second Gulf War 852
      C.        Proposed Criteria for Armed Intervention 853 The Responsibility to Protect 854 Co mments and Questions 864
          V. The International Response to Darfur 867 Acting High Co mmissioner for Hu man Rights
                     Bertrand Ramcharan, 867 Statement to the UN Security Council The Crisis in Darfu r,
                     Statement of Secretary of State Co lin Powell 870 before the Senate Foreign Relat ions
                     Co mmittee Transcript of the Candidates First Debate in the 2004 Presidential 872
                     Campaign Co mments and Questions 875
VI. Final Co mments and Questions                                                         877

Chapter 11 881 International Criminal Law
Can We Deter Human Rights Violations by Using the Criminal
  Justice Process?

I. Introduction                                                                           882
II. The 1973 Coup in Chile and Its Aftermath                                              883
A. Pinochet in Po wer                                                                883
B. Pinochet Indicted                                                                 885
         III. Efforts to Bring the International Criminal Justice Process to Bear 887 upon Human Rights
               Violators Antonio Cassese, International Criminal Law 888 John Carey, UN Protection of Civil
               and Polit ical Rights 889
           Steven R. Ratner and Jason S. Abrams, Accountability for Hu man 892 Rights Atrocities in International Law
       A.       The Yugoslav War Crimes Tribunal 894 Diane Orentlicher, Yugoslavia War Crimes Tribunal 894
                   B.      The International Tribunal for Rwanda 898 Christina M. Carroll, An Assessment of the Ro le
                           and 898 Effectiveness of the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda and the Rwandan
                           National Justice System in Dealing with the Mass Atrocities of 1994 Kingsley Chiedu
                           Moghalu, The Evolving Arch itecture of 900 International Law: Image and Reality of War
                           Crimes Justice: External Perceptions of the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda
       C.       Other Country-specific Tribunals 906 Note: The Special Court for Sierra Leone 906 Note: ‘‘Ext raordinary
              Chambers’’ in Cambodia 908 Co mments and Questions 909
            IV.   The International Criminal Court 912 Philippe Kirsch and Valerie Oosterveld, Negotiating
                  an Institution 912 for the Twenty-First Century: Mult ilateral Diplo macy and the International
                  Criminal Court Global rights? [A Debate between A.C. Grayling and David Rieff] 917
A. U.S. Attitudes Toward an International Criminal Court                           924
               B.       The United States Signs and ‘‘Unsigns’’ the ICC Statute 926 President Clinton,
                        Statement on Signature of the International 926 Criminal Court Treaty Letter fro m
                        Under-Secretary o f State John R. Bolton to the 928 Secretary-General of the Un ited
                        Nations Under Secretary of State of Political Affairs Marc Grossman, 928 A merican
                        Foreign Po licy and the International Criminal Court Jack Go ldsmith, The
                        Self-Defeating International Criminal 931 Court
     C. Exempt ing the United States fro m ICC Jurisdiction 936 Statute of the International Criminal Court 936 David J. Scheffer,
           Original Intent at The Global Criminal Court 937 Note: The Early Work of the ICC 938 Co mments and Questions 939
          V.      Universal Jurisdiction 940 Menno Kamminga, Lessons Learned fro m the Exercise of 941
                  Universal Jurisdiction in Respect of Gross Human Rights Offenses Diane Orentlicher,
                  Whose Justice? Reconciling Un iversal 949 Ju risdiction with Democratic Princip les Note:
                  The Belgian Experience 950 Steven R. Ratner, Ed itorial Co mment, Belgiu m’s War Crimes
                  951 Statute: A Postmortem Case Concerning the Arrest Warrant of 11 April 2000 953
                  (Democrat ic Republic o f the Congo v. Belg iu m)
          Case Concerning the Arrest Warrant of 11 April 2000 (Democrat ic 955 Republic of the Congo v.
             Belgiu m) (joint separate opinion of Judges Higgins, Kooijmans, and Buergenthal) Co mments and
             Questions 958
VI. The ‘‘Piecemeal’’ Convention Approach Coupled with Domestic 959 Enforcement
A. Slavery and Apartheid 960
B. Torture 961
C. Terrorism 963
      D. Other Transnational Crimes 965 Co mments and Questions 966
VII. The Exercise of National Jurisdiction under Domestic Law: Amnesties 966 and Prosecutions
         Note: Hu man Rights Prosecutions in Argentina 966 Diane Orentlicher, Settling Accounts: The Duty to Prosecute
         968 Hu man Rights Vio lations of a Prior Regime Note: Non -judicial A lternatives 972 Arthur Asiimwe, Rwanda
         Estimates 1 M illion Face Genocide Charges 973 Co mments and Questions 974
VIII. Final Comments and Questions                                                      976

Chapter 12 979 The Problem of Fact-Finding and Evidence
       How Are Human Rights Violations Investigated?

I.      The Challenge: To Find Out What Is Really Happening 980
II.     Gathering the Facts: Allegations of Judicial Persecution of Mapuche 981 Leaders in Chile
                 A.       Fact-Finding by Nongovernmental Organizations 981 International Federation fo r
                          Hu man Rights, Chile — The 981 Mapache People Between Oblivion and Exclusion
                          Diane Orentlicher, Bearing Witness: The Art and Science of 988 Hu man Rights
                          Fact-Finding Hans Thoolen and Berth Verstappen, Human Rights Missions: 992 A Study
                          of the Fact-Finding Practice of Non-Govern mental Organizations Hurst Hannum,
                          Fact-Finding by Non-Govern mental Hu man 994 Rights Organizations Andrew F. Smith,
                          International Conflict and the Media, 995 A Curriculu m Gu ide: Incubator Baby Incident
                 B. Fact-Finding by the UN and Other Inter-Govern mental 999 Organizations Report of the
                      Special Rapporteur on the situation of 999 hu man rights and fundamental freedo ms of
                      indigenous people, Mr. Rodolfo Stavenhagen (Addendum: M ission to Chile)
                  Govern ment of Ch ile, Report I — Reco mmendations of the 1004 Special Rapporteur on the Situation of
                     Hu man Rights and Fundamental Freedo ms of Indigenous Chileans Report on the situation of human
                     rights in Myanmar, submitted 1006 by Mr. Paulo Se´rgio Pinheiro, Special Rapporteur
                M. Cherif Bassiouni, Appraising UN Justice-Related Fact-Finding 1012 M issions
                 C. The Need for General Standards for Fact-Finding by 1017 Intergovernmental Organizations
                     Office o f the High Co mmissioner for Hu man Rights, Training 1017 Manual on Hu man Rights
                     Monitoring Belgrade Min imal Rules of Procedure for International 1025 Hu man Rights
                     Fact-Finding Missions
                 D.      Fact-Finding by Judicial and Quasi-Judicial Bodies 1027 Inter-A merican Court of Hu man
                         Rights, Case of the Mayagna 1029 (Su mo) Co mmun ity of Awas Tingni: Transcript of the public
                         hearing on the merits, November 16, 17, and 18, 2000, at the seat of the Court (unofficial
                         translation) Co mments and Questions 1039
III.    E valuating the Facts 1041
                  A.      Admissibility and Evaluation of Ev idence 1041 The Case of the Mayagna (Sumo )
                     Awas Tingni Co mmunity v. 1042 Nicaragua
   B. The Burden and Standard of Proof 1044 Bertrand G. Ramcharan, Evidence 1044 Vela´squez Rodrı´guez v. Honduras 1047
   Gangaram Panday v. Suriname 1053 Bleier v. Uruguay 1054 Sevtap Veznedaroglu v. Turkey 1 055 Co mments and Questions
IV. Final Comments and Questions 1062

Chapter 13 1063 Human Rights and Foreign Policy
      The United States–China Relationship

           I.        Human Rights and U.S. Foreign Policy 1065 Kenneth Cmiel, The Emergence of Hu man
                     Rights Politics in the 1065 United States Richard B. Bilder, Hu man Rights and U.S. Foreign
                     Policy: Short-Term 1070 Prospects
                  A.       Congressional Action: Laying the Foundation 1072 Richard B. Lillich, U.S. Foreign Policy,
                           Hu man Rights, and 1072 Foreign Trade and Investment in Private Investors Abroad — Problems
                           and Solutions
B.     Presidential Hu man Rights Policies and their Crit ics, 1975 – 2005 1074
       1. Almost at the Beginning: President Carter 1074
                 Cyrus R. Vance, Hu man Rights and Foreign Policy 1075 Henry A. Kissinger, Continuity and Change in 1078
              American Foreign Po licy
                 U.S. Institute for Peace, U.S. Hu man Rights Policy: A 20             1082 Year Assessment
                 Orville H. Schell Jr., Carter on Rights — A 1086 Re-Evaluation
       2. Selective Rights, Selective Applicat ion: The Reagan 1087
            Admin istration International Co mmission of Jurists, Human Rights and 1087
                    U.S. Fo reign Po licy
                 Art Buchwald, Moderate Repression 1089 International Co mmission of Jurists, Human Rights and 1090
                    U.S. Fo reign Po licy
                   U.S. Institute of Peace, Hu man Rights in the Pursuit of 1092 Peace: A 20 Year Assessment Note:
                      Key Differences in Hu man Rights Policy Under 1095 Carter an d Reagan
                 Jero me J. Shestack, An Unsteady Focus: The Vulnerabilities           1097 of the Reagan Administration’s Hu man
                    Rights Policy
       3. Turning Down the Vo lu me: The First President Bush 1098
                 U.S. Institute for Peace, Hu man Rights and Peace:           1098 A 20 Year Assessment
       4. Searching for a Po licy : The Clinton Administration 1102
                 Hu man Rights Policy Under the New 1103 Ad min istration, Statement of the Honorable Timothy E. Wirth,
                    Counselor, U.S. Depart ment of State
                 John Shattuck, Hu man Rights and Democracy in Asia 1104 Mary McGrory, Hu man Rights Retreat 1107
       5. National Security, Reg ime Change, and Hu man Rights: 1109 George W. Bush
                 Assistant Secretary of State for Democracy, Hu man 1109 Rights and Labor Lorne W. Cra ner, Supporting Hu man
                    Rights and Democracy: The U.S. Record 2003-2004
                Don Feder, Hu man Rights Not a Foreign Policy 1111 Concern Michael Ignatieff, Is the
                  Hu man Rights Era Ending? 1112 Co mments and Questions 1114
C.     U.S. Fo reign Po licy, Hu man Rights, and Relations with China 1115
       1. The United States Evaluates the World: The State Depart ment’s 1115 Annual Reports on Hu man Rights
                 U.S. State Depart ment, Country Reports on Human 1115
                    Rights Practices: Ch ina Ch ina Lashes Out at Human Rights Report 1119 Info rmation Office of the State
                 Council of the 1120
                    People’s Republic of China, The Hu man Rights Record of the Un ited States in 2004
                         2.        Multilateral Diplo macy at the UN Hu man Rights Co mmission 1124 Note verbale dated
                                   14 March 2005 fro m the 1126 Permanent Mis sion of Cuba to the United Nations Office
                                   at Geneva addressed to the Office of the High Co mmissioner for Hu man Rights
                       3. Linkages and Conditionality: Using U.S. Econo mic and Political 1129 Po wer
                             Remarks by Gov. William Clinton, A Vision for 1129 Democracy President’s News
                             Conference (May 26, 1994) 1130 Editorial, Speak Louder on Rights in China 1134
                             Director of the State Depart ment’s Po licy Planning Staff 1135 Richard N. Haass,
                             China and the Future of
                         U.S. – China Relations George Kourous and Tom Barry, U.S. China Policy: 1139
                      Trade, Aid, and Hu man Rights William H. Overholt, Be Tougher on Burma Than 1141
                      China Co mments and Questions Co mments and Questions 1143
II.    Human Rights Policies of Other States 1144
       A.       The European Un ion 1144 European Un ion, Gu idelines on Human Rights Dialogues 1146
                 B.       Japan 1149 Yo zo Yo kota and Chiyuki Aoi, Japan’s Foreign Policy towards 1149 Hu man Rights:
                          Uncertain Changes Japan, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Hu man Rights Pamphlet 1159 Statement
                   by H.E. A mbassador Shigeru Endo, Delegation of 1160 Japan, on Agenda Item 9: Question of the
                   Vio lation of Hu man Rights and Fundamental Freedo ms in Any Part of the World Co mments and
                   Questions 1161
II.   Final Comments and Questions 1162

Index                                                                     1165

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