Basic logic and critical Thinking Be ready for the challenge: Upcoming exam Real time demonstration of critical thinking in your argumentation essay Key questions: What is critical thinking? Is it negative? Can it be creative? Explain. How does critical thinking relate to evaluations of evidence and credibility of sources? How should critical thinking be applied to composing your essay? What are ethos, pathos, and logos and how do they relate to writing argument effectively? How do deductive arguments, inductive ones, and uncovering premises relate to this task? Wow! This is, as Oprah would say, “BIG!” Remember that the premises are often hidden, that is, the assumptions are often unstated (suppressed) in tricky arguments, and you are left to dig them out plus decide whether they are valid. Click on this site; for 2 bonus points comment on the fallacies in the top two tv ads in a typed paragraph. Know two distinct methods of arriving at conclusions (forms of argument). What is induction? How is it used on a daily basis? What are its strengths and weaknesses? What is deduction? How is it used on a daily basis? What are its strengths and weaknesses? How do logical fallacies relate to critical thinking? Be able to provide “homegrown” examples of logical fallacies. The fact that the source is in print does not mean that it is sacred. Analyze it. Any agendas? Biases? Fallacies? Here we go again: take those critical thinking tools out of the toolbox and use them by directly integrating them into the text of your argumentation essay. Cavalcade of Fallacies •What are fallacies? •Why is spotting them important in critical thinking and writing an argumentation essay? •Click on the following items in sequence and test yourself on which fallacy may have been committed. o Everyone likes a wild fling now and then. o Hasty generalization. You might, but that does not mean everyone does. o If you don’t support the action (war in Iraq) you can’t support the troops. o Either or. Other options are possible, but this argument makes it look like only two exist. Also, irrelevant argument. You can support the troops without thinking the war is the best option. o Erik Santos visited moveon.org two times last week and he also saw Moore’s Farenheit 911. He has several Islamic friends. He’s surely an unpatriotic Muslim sympathesizer. o Where do we start? Guilt by association. Ambiguity. What is patriotic supposed to mean in this context? Jesus Lemus, Hollywood movie star, uses levitra and swears by it. You should use it, too. False or irrelevant authority. You can’t prove that the Iraqui people don’t want the U.S. occupying their country. They must want us there. Appeal to ignorance. After smoking marijuana for medicinal purposes last year, a well- know 101A student started doing cocaine this fall. It’s easy to see that the pot caused the coke habit. False cause. The vice president stated that if we had “made the wrong choice [in voting for president] chances are that we could be hit again [by terrorists].” Red herring. The veep is using scare tactics on the gullible and avoiding the real issues. Also, note the suppressed premise of the argument: The administration in power at the time may be responsible for terrorist attacks like 9/11…hmmmm. If you voted to support the war in the first place, and if you changes your mind afterwards, you are an untrustworthy “flip flopper” Irrelevant argument. If the conclusion were true, it would suggest that the only virtue of leadership is refusing to change one’s mind or policy, and that changing course is automatically suspect. The President is unfit to lead. He can’t even pronounce the word sovereignty and he scowled during the debates. Irrelevant argument. Also attacking the person (ad hominem). Making fun of his gaffes is not the same as proving he lacks leadership qualities.
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