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					Chapter 1 Objectives
 List the topics covered in this course
 Identify the two major differences between
  die casting and other metal casting
 List the three elements that form the basis for
  most die casting materials
 List at least five services provided by the die
  casting trade association, NADCA
New Term

 Metalcasting
  • The industry of pouring liquid metal into a mold
    to achieve a desired shape.

Metal Casting History
 An ancient industry:
  •   Sand casting
  •   Investment casting
  •   Lost foam casting
  •   Permanent mold casting
  •   Centrifugal casting
 All foundry processes

Die Casting vs Foundry Process
 Die casting is a variation of metalcasting
 Liquid metal injected into reusable steel
  mold, or die, very quickly with high pressures
 Reusable steel tooling and injection of liquid
  metal with high pressures differentiates die
  casting from other metalcasting processes

Sand, Investment, and
Lost Foam Casting
 Use gravity   to fill the mold
 Mold is destroyed to remove casting
 Metal flow is slow
 Walls are much thicker than in die casting
 Cycle time is longer than die casting because
  of inability of mold material to remove heat

Permanent Mold Casting
 Cousin to die casting
 Mold removed, not destroyed
 Uses gravity to fill mold
 Metal flow is slow
 Mold is steel - has
  comparatively good thermal conductivity
 Machines smaller

Centifugal Casting
 Frequently made by  jewelers
 The choice for low volume castings with a
  small amount of pressure
 Molds are placed around the circumference
  of a centrifuge
  • As centrifuge spins, metal poured in at center
    and centrifugal force distributes metal to the
Die Casting History
 Begun during middle of 19th   century
 In 1849, 1st machine for casting printing type
 20 years before began casting other shapes
 Linotype machine direct result of the casting
  of printer’s type
 1892 - parts for phonographs, cash registers
 1900’S - babitt alloy bearings produced
History of Casting Alloys
 Various compositions of tin   and lead were
  the first die casting alloys
 Development of zinc alloys just prior to
  World War I caused decline of tin and lead
 Magnesium and copper used next
 1930s-many of today’s alloys developed
 Still making refinements resulting in new
  alloys with increased strength and stability   1-9
Process Improvements
 To die steels
 To die construction
 In casting capability
 In production capacity of the   process

Current Industry - 1995 Figures
 Approximately 450 die casters in North America
  with sales of $8 billion
 Die castings produced from aluminum, copper,
  lead, magnesium and zinc alloys as well as various
  composite materials
 The top three alloys were:
    • Aluminum
    • Zinc
    • Magnesium
Current Use of Castings
 Cars
 Appliances
 Office equipment
 Sporting goods
 Machinery
 Toys
 Many other applications
Types of Casting Operations
 “Captive” die caster
  • Produces die castings for their own use, for
    example, General Motors
 “Custom” die caster
  • Produce castings for customers’ use
  • Typically only manufacture for other companies,
    not themselves

North American Die
Casting Association (NADCA)
 North American trade   association is NADCA
 Mission is to be the worldwide leader of and
  resource for stimulating continuous
  improvement in the die casting industry
 Provides services to its members

R&D of New Materials
and Technologies
 Die casting alloy performance
 Die life
 Process capability
 Process simulation
 Energy conservation
 Environmental management/pollution
 Rapid tooling                        1-15
Education and training
 At Chicago headquarters
 At local chapters
 In-plant
 Through Learn@Home courses

                        “Education for the Die
                        Casting Industry”

Government Relations,
Safety, and Awards
 Source forfederal govt. relations activity
 Speak with single voice in Washington, D.C.
  • $5.8 million in DOE research dollars in 1998
 Recognizes outstanding safetyrecords
 Annual Awards to distinguished members
 Annual scholarships awarded

Marketing Statistics and Surveys
 End Markets  for Die Castings
 Financial Survey
 Die Cast Machine Study

Meeting. Conferences,
and Exposition
 International Congress and Exposition held
  every two years
 Other conferences and meetings, including:
  •   Plant Management Conference
  •   Government Affairs Briefing
  •   Die Materials Conference
  •   Computer Modeling
  •   Technology Workshops
Other Services

 Die Casting
  Engineer Magazine
 Publications,
  software and video
 Diecasting Development
 NADCA website at
 Die casting began in the   19th century
 Castings today:
  • Top alloys-aluminum, zinc, magnesium
  • Used in a wide variety of items
  • Produced by captive or custom die casters
 NADCA,  is the trade association representing
  the industry
  • Provides many services to the industry