Geography of Poverty: Case
Rick Bein IUPUI Geography Department
Fulbright Schollar to Mozambique
11 Months Sept 2004-August 2005
“Maneio e planificação de Recursos
4 Storey Agriculture
Gross Domestic Product Per
Human Development Index
Debt as Percent of Income
Fig. 9-20: Many developing countries have accumulated large debts relative to their GDPs.
Much of their budgets now must be used to finance their debt.
Near the Zimbabwe Border
Elephants dig for water
New Forest Clearing
• Population: 19.4 million
• BR 42/1000
• DR 20/1000
• NIR 2.2%
• Doubling rate : 32 years
• Infant Mortality Rate: 215/1000
• Life Expectancy : 42 years
17 % of Women Use Contraception
44 % Population Below Age 15
Female Literacy Rates
Fig. 9-13a: Female literacy is lower than male literacy (Fig. 9-13b) in many LDCs, with
significant gender gaps in parts of the Middle East, Africa, and South Asia.
Gender Differences in School
Fig. 9-12: As many or more girls than boys are enrolled in school in more developed
countries, but fewer girls than boys are enrolled in many LDCs.
Fig. 9-10: The GDI combines four measures of development, reduced by the degree
of disparity between males and females.
Types of Households
C h a r t 3 .1 T h e D i s t r ib u t io n o f H o u s e h o l d T y p e s M o z a m b iq u e a n d t h e
R e gion s
S i n g l e F e m a le H e a d
C o u p le M a n A b s e n t
P o ly g a m o u s
S in g le M a le H e a d
10 0 %
C o u p le 50%
N o r th C e n t re S o u th
HIV in Adults above 16% in
Number of Students per Teacher
People per Physician
Percent Urban Population
Fig. 13-1: Percent of the population living in urban areas is usually higher in MDCs than
MAPUTO FROM THE AIR
Maputo Water Front.
Assembly of God Church
Middle Class Neighborhood
• Application for a forestry curriculum
• Support a national effort to develop
tourism as a source for raising foreign
• Course mission: develop a sense of
sustainability regarding the use of tourism
1. What kind of tourism can
2. How can Mozambicans
• Redefining tourism as to what is available
for low income nationals.
Maputo City Parks
• Portuguese colonial masters created 40
plus city parks in the capital city of Maputo
before they left in the early 1970s.
• Parks still remain on the landscape, but
not always used in the manner intended
by the Portuguese.
• Parks remain as a source of recreation for
the average Mozambicans.
This Park has become a Farm.
Largo do Ribatejo
Economic Issues of Agriculture
• Economic issues of commercial farmers
– Access to markets
– Sustainable agriculture
• Economic issues of subsistence farmers
– Population growth
– International trade
• Increasing food supply
Percentage of Adults in Agriculture
Four Storey Agriculture
• Dr. F. L. (Rick) Bein, Fulbright Professor
Universidade de Eduardo Mondlane
Faculdade de Agronomia de Engenharia
Indiana University - Purdue University at
• Christopher J. Hill Private Consultant
Morrungulo, Inhambane, Moçambique
Four Storey Agriculture
• Occurs in the District of Massinga, in the
coastal coconut zone of
• Inhambane Province, Moçambique
• Where many different types of crops grow
together on the same land.
High Biodiversity Farming
This highly bio-diverse
mix of at least 20
crops grows to:
• Various heights,
• Plant Life Cycles, and
• Agro-ecological Micro-
The study area:
The Four Levels
• The fourth level, the highest, is occupied by well
spaced coconut trees.
• The third level contains dispersed shorter useful
trees. These consist of cashews, planted fruit
trees, wild fruit trees and others used for fiber
and medicinal purposes.
• The second level is occupied by plants that grow
upright off the ground and includes cassava,
corn and sorghum.
• The first level covers the ground and includes
peanuts, cowpeas, pumpkins and cacana.
The third level contains dispersed fruit
trees and other useful trees like this
Cassava is grown in the 2nd storey. People eat
the leaves and the roots.
Cacana grows wild on the ground in the first level
and complements the diet.
The Four Storeys
Caju trees, that
the sunlight that
reaches the ground.
The products of Agroforestry
• Copra e coconuts
• Cashew nuts
• Alcohol distilled from • Peanuts
fermented fruits • Cowpeas
• Peanuts • Fruits (cultivated e Wild)
• Artisan Products • Coconut products
• Construction Material • Sorghum
• Firewood & Charcoal • Products of the Mafura
• Meat • Sweet Potatoes
• Mopane worms
4 Storey Agriculture was a survival
that developed by trial and error
for more that one thousand years,
in which the farmers of Inhambane
Province adopted new exotic
and incorporated them with their
Security of 4 Storey Agriculture.
• During war.
• When markets fail
• When crops fail
• Distributes the production of food
throughout the year
• Diversifies the diet
Employment Changes by Sector
Per Capita GDP US$
Service Sector Employment
Fig. 12-1: Over half of workers are employed in the service sector in most MDCs, while
a much smaller percentage are in the service sector in most LDCs.