Geography of Poverty Case Study

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					Geography of Poverty: Case
   Study: Moçambique
Rick Bein IUPUI Geography Department
   Fulbright Schollar to Mozambique
  11 Months Sept 2004-August 2005
            Teaching
“Maneio e planificação de Recursos
    Recreativos” (Ecotourism)
            Research
        4 Storey Agriculture
Gross Domestic Product Per
         Capita
Human Development Index
       Debt as Percent of Income




Fig. 9-20: Many developing countries have accumulated large debts relative to their GDPs.
            Much of their budgets now must be used to finance their debt.
Mozambique
 Rainfall in
millimeters:
Moçambique
Near the Zimbabwe Border
SAVE RIVER
Elephant Tracks
Elephants dig for water
Clearings
New Forest Clearing
Charcoal
         Moçambique Statistics

•   Population:             19.4 million
•   BR                      42/1000
•   DR                      20/1000
•   NIR                     2.2%
•   Doubling rate :         32 years
•   Infant Mortality Rate: 215/1000
•   Life Expectancy :       42 years
Newborn
17 % of Women Use Contraception
         in Mozambique
44 % Population Below Age 15
              Female Literacy Rates




Fig. 9-13a: Female literacy is lower than male literacy (Fig. 9-13b) in many LDCs, with
            significant gender gaps in parts of the Middle East, Africa, and South Asia.
 Gender Differences in School
         Enrollment




Fig. 9-12: As many or more girls than boys are enrolled in school in more developed
            countries, but fewer girls than boys are enrolled in many LDCs.
Gender-Related Development
        Index (GDI)




Fig. 9-10: The GDI combines four measures of development, reduced by the degree
            of disparity between males and females.
                              Types of Households
             C h a r t 3 .1 T h e D i s t r ib u t io n o f H o u s e h o l d T y p e s M o z a m b iq u e a n d t h e
                                                           R e gion s
                                                                                 S i n g l e F e m a le H e a d
                                                                                             18%


                                                                                      C o u p le M a n A b s e n t
                                                                                                      3%


                                                                                                P o ly g a m o u s
                                                                                                           3%

                                                                           S in g le M a le H e a d
                                                                                      4%




                                                                        10 0 %
                                                                         90%

                                                                         80%
                                                                         70%
                                                                         60%
C o u p le                                                               50%
  72%                                                                    40%

                                                                         30%

                                                                         20%
                                                                         10%

                                                                          0%

                                                                                           N o r th                  C e n t re   S o u th
Rural Assets
HIV in Adults above 16% in
       Moçambique
HIV Poster
Number of Students per Teacher
People per Physician
        Percent Urban Population




Fig. 13-1: Percent of the population living in urban areas is usually higher in MDCs than
            in LDCs.
MAPUTO FROM THE AIR
Maputo Water Front.
Main Mosque
  Main
Catholic
Cathedral
Assembly of God Church
  Wealthier
  High-rise
Neighborhood
Middle Class Neighborhood
My Apartment
High-rise Neighborhood
Poorer neighborhood
Itinerant shops
               Ecotourism

• Application for a forestry curriculum
• Support a national effort to develop
  tourism as a source for raising foreign
  capital
• Course mission: develop a sense of
  sustainability regarding the use of tourism
  resources
   1. What kind of tourism can
Mozambicans appreciate?
   2. How can Mozambicans
become tourists?


 • Redefining tourism as to what is available
   for low income nationals.
  4th year
  forestry
students at
 Eduardo
Mondlane
University
          Maputo City Parks
• Portuguese colonial masters created 40
  plus city parks in the capital city of Maputo
  before they left in the early 1970s.
• Parks still remain on the landscape, but
  not always used in the manner intended
  by the Portuguese.
• Parks remain as a source of recreation for
  the average Mozambicans.
Intervewing Stakeholders
This Park has become a Farm.
Largo do Ribatejo
 Economic Issues of Agriculture
• Economic issues of commercial farmers
  – Access to markets
  – Overproduction
  – Sustainable agriculture

• Economic issues of subsistence farmers
  – Population growth
  – International trade

• Increasing food supply
Percentage of Adults in Agriculture
     Four Storey Agriculture
• Dr. F. L. (Rick) Bein, Fulbright Professor
   Universidade de Eduardo Mondlane
 Faculdade de Agronomia de Engenharia
                   Florestal
 Indiana University - Purdue University at
                Indianapolis

 • Christopher J. Hill Private Consultant
  Morrungulo, Inhambane, Moçambique
          Four Storey Agriculture
• Occurs in the District of Massinga, in the
  coastal coconut zone of
• Inhambane Province, Moçambique
• Where many different types of crops grow
  together on the same land.
High Biodiversity Farming
           This highly bio-diverse
             mix of at least 20
             crops grows to:
           • Various heights,
           • Plant Life Cycles, and
           • Agro-ecological Micro-
             zones.
The study area:


  District de
  Massinga
 Province of
 Inhambane,
 Moçambique
             The Four Levels
• The fourth level, the highest, is occupied by well
  spaced coconut trees.

• The third level contains dispersed shorter useful
  trees. These consist of cashews, planted fruit
  trees, wild fruit trees and others used for fiber
  and medicinal purposes.

• The second level is occupied by plants that grow
  upright off the ground and includes cassava,
  corn and sorghum.

• The first level covers the ground and includes
  peanuts, cowpeas, pumpkins and cacana.
The fourth
 level, the
 highest, is
 occupied
 by
 dispersed
 coconut
 trees.
The third level contains dispersed fruit
 trees and other useful trees like this
            medicinal tree.
Cassava is grown in the 2nd storey. People eat
           the leaves and the roots.
Cassava
Cacana grows wild on the ground in the first level
          and complements the diet.
The Four Storeys
 Coconut trees
  dominate the

 Caju trees, that
     shade the

 Cassava.

 Cowpeas capture
  the sunlight that
  reaches the ground.
      The products of Agroforestry
                           Subsistence
Commercial
                           • Cassava
• Copra e coconuts
                           • Maize
• Cashew nuts
• Alcohol distilled from   • Peanuts
  fermented fruits         • Cowpeas
• Peanuts                  • Fruits (cultivated e Wild)
• Artisan Products         • Coconut products
• Construction Material    • Sorghum
• Firewood & Charcoal      • Products of the Mafura
• Meat                     • Sweet Potatoes
                           • Vegetables
                           • Meat
                           • Mopane worms
4 Storey Agriculture was a survival
             strategy
    that developed by trial and error
     for more that one thousand years,
    in which the farmers of Inhambane
     Province adopted new exotic
     plants
    and incorporated them with their
     native plants.
    Security of 4 Storey Agriculture.

• During war.
• When markets fail
• When crops fail
• Distributes the production of food
  throughout the year
• Diversifies the diet
Traction animals
The End
Employment Changes by Sector
Per Capita GDP US$
    Service Sector Employment




Fig. 12-1: Over half of workers are employed in the service sector in most MDCs, while
            a much smaller percentage are in the service sector in most LDCs.

				
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