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									          Chapter 11 – The Civil War

Section Notes                     Video
Preparing for War                 The Civil War
Fighting Erupts
The War behind the Lines          Maps
The War Continues                 Secession, 1860–1861
The Final Phase                   The War in the West, 1861–1863
                                  The War in the East, 1861–1863
History Close-up                  Three Days at Gettysburg
The New Weapons of War            The Battle for Vicksburg
                                  Final Campaigns, 1864–1865

Quick Facts                       Images
The Generals                      The Civil War
Causes and Effects of the Civil   African American Union Soldiers
  War                             Andersonville
Visual Summary: The Civil War     Women on the Home Front
                    Preparing for War

                        The Main Idea
The attack on Fort Sumter led both the North and the South
                to prepare for war in earnest.

                        Reading Focus
• How did the fall of Fort Sumter lead to war?
• Why did many northerners and southerners eagerly rush to war?
• Why was the loyalty of the border states important, and how did
  Lincoln obtain it?
• What were the Union and Confederate goals and strategies for
  the war?
                The Fall of Fort Sumter

• Crisis at Fort Sumter
   – Commander Robert Anderson sent the message to Lincoln that
     Confederate leaders were demanding surrender or would
   – Low on supplies, Fort Sumter remained in Union hands. The
     fort was very symbolic to both sides.
   – Lincoln would not surrender the fort, but would send food and
     other nonmilitary supplies.
   – Jefferson Davis would decide whether to attack and go to war
     or allow the symbol of federal authority to remain.
• The attack on the fort
   – Davis ordered a surprise attack before the supplies could
   – On April 12, 1891, the Confederate artillery opened fire on the
     fort, and an outgunned Fort Sumter surrendered the next day.
                    The Rush to War
   Response in the             Reaction in the South
• Lincoln calls for 7500       • With call for volunteers,
  volunteers                     the eight remaining Union
                                 slave states now forced to
• 90 days’ service to put        choose a side
  down the rebellion           • Union slave states refused
• Lincoln’s political enemy      to provide troops to fight
                                 against fellow southerners
  Stephen Douglas supports
  the action, “There can be    • Confederate states ready
                                 to call up men
  no neutrals in this war,
  only patriots—or traitors”   • First Virginia, then
                                 Arkansas, Tennessee, and
• Northerners rush to enlist     North Carolina secede
              The Border States
    Delaware, Kentucky, Maryland, & Missouri

Maryland critical—Washington, D.C., at risk surrounded by
Confederate territory. Martial law declared and new
elections held to ensure pro-Union state legislature

Missouri important—strategic access to the lower
Mississippi River. Divided loyalties but never enough
secessionist support to withdraw from the Union

Kentucky necessary—the Ohio River border left the Union
open to the threat of invasion. The governor refused to take
sides, but the state sided with the Union after Confederate
troops invaded in September 1861.

These divided loyalties meant citizens fought on both sides.
              Goals and Strategies

     Union Goals            Confederate Goals

• Needed to be carefully   • South wanted to be
  defined                    left alone with slavery
• War could not center
  around the dispute       • Prepared to defend
  over slavery—border        themselves against
  states pushed to           invasion
                           • Felt northerners
• Fight for patriotic        would soon tire of war
  reasons—to save the        and withdraw
                   Goals and Strategies

           • Larger population = more available soldiers
  The      • With more factories, could produce war supplies
Strategy   • General Winfield Scott’s plan—slowly seal the South
             off from the rest of the world—Anaconda plan
           • Newspapers pushed ―On to Richmond,‖ an attack on
             the Confederacy for a quick end to the war.

           • Ardent support for the cause made up for lack of
  The        resources
South’s    • Fighting for freedom and their homeland—¾ of the
Strategy     population did not hold slaves
           • They were convinced of their military superiority—
             many army officers were southerners.
                  Goals and Strategies

Southerners were convinced that France and Great Britain
wanted a guaranteed supply of cotton and counted on this
cotton diplomacy as a foreign-policy tool.

The Confederacy embargoed cotton to force the issue of
recognition as an independent nation when the English and
French hesitated.

Cotton diplomacy failed for many reasons:
- The British resented the attempt at blackmail.
- Southern cotton was stockpiled from the year before.
- Higher prices encouraged other countries to grow the crop.

Both sides continued to try to gain/block foreign involvement
throughout the conflict.
                       Fighting Erupts

                         The Main Idea
  Widespread fighting occurred during the first two years of
                         the Civil War.

                         Reading Focus
• What factors made the major battles in the war so bloody?
• How did the Union carry out its strategy in the Mississippi Valley?
• What led to the Confederate successes in the war in the East?
• Why did the Confederate forces invade the Union, and with what
                 The Major Battles Begin
• Union army not ready to fight
   – With 90-day volunteer enlistment nearly over, the decision was
     made to send troops to Manassas Junction to attack.
• First Battle of Bull Run
   – The chaotic battle ended hope for a short war.
   – Stonewall Jackson earned his nickname and Confederate
     infantry charge caused Union troops to stampede.
   – There were 2,000 Confederate and 2,900 Union casualties.
• Results
   – Lincoln called for a million more volunteers to serve for three
   – Replaced McDowell with General George McClellan, who set
     about creating a real army out of the volunteer force
                 The Major Battles Begin
              • Top generals on each side trained at West Point.
              • Old instructional methods based on infantry and
Tactics and     cavalry charges, but with new weaponry these
Technology      tactics led to huge casualties
              • Increased range and accuracy with bullet-shaped
                ammunition and rifling
              • Shrapnel replaced cannonballs, and fragments
                mowed down troops.

              • Observation balloons were used to direct artillery
                fire, and camouflage was used to disguise tents
  New           and guns from view.
Devices of
              • The telegraph allowed for quick communication.
              • Railroads were used to move large numbers of
       The Fight for the Mississippi Valley

Ironclads were used by the Union to take the Mississippi

Ulysses S. Grant captured Forts Henry and Donelson,
opening the western Confederacy and leaving the
Mississippi River vulnerable to attack. Grant continued south
to the railroad center of Corinth, Mississippi.

The bloody Battle of Shiloh was a Confederate loss, but
there were over 23,000 total casualties. Grant realized the
Union would be saved only by complete conquest.

New Orleans fell to Admiral Farragut, and he continued up
the Mississippi River to capture Baton Rouge and Natchez.
Only Vicksburg remained in Confederate hands.
                    The War in the East

     General McClellan                2nd Battle of Bull Run
• Hesitant commander with          • Overly cautious McClellan
  100,00-man Union army              waited outside Richmond.
  designated to attack             • Lincoln turned to John Pope
  Richmond                           with his 50,000 troops in
                                     northern Virginia.
• Fought a series of battles on
  the peninsula but always         • Robert E. Lee lured Pope into
  delayed action                     battle and defeated him.

• Lincoln held troops back to      • Lincoln put McClellan back in
                                     command, telling his cabinet
  defend Washington                  members, ―We must use the
• Confederates attacked in a         tools we have.‖
  series of clashes, and           • Smaller Confederate forces
  McClellan retreated after four     more effective and led by
  victories in five battles.         better commanders
                The Union Is Invaded

Union morale was low after defeats in Virginia and the
Confederates determined to attack on Union soil, hoping to
gain an early peace.

Battle of Antietam
– McClellan caught up with Lee’s troops at Sharpsburg, Md.
– A savage single day of fighting left 23,000 dead.
– Lincoln’s order to ―destroy the rebel army‖ was ignored.
– McClellan allowed the rebels to retreat into Virginia.
– He was relieved of command.

The Battle of Fredericksburg
– Ambrose Burnside named new Union commander
– Marched massive army toward Richmond
– Attacking Confederates head-on left 13,000 Union dead.
– The battle was a disaster for the Union.
              The War behind the Lines

                       The Main Idea
      The Civil War created hardships, challenges, and
      opportunities for people in the North and the South.

                       Reading Focus
• How did the Emancipation Proclamation affect the Civil
• How did African Americans contribute to the war effort?
• What was life like in the military?
• What similarities and differences existed on the home
  front in the North and South?
           The Emancipation Proclamation

• Attitudes about the war changed with increased
   – No longer about just saving the Union, the South needed to be
     punished for the bloodshed of the war.
   – Lincoln convinced to use constitutional power to end slavery, denying
     the South the labor needed to continue the war
• Emancipation Proclamation issued on January 1, 1863
   – It freed the slaves in all areas in rebellion against the U.S.
   – Abolitionists were upset slavery continued in the Union.
   – Riots broke out with increased competition for jobs in the North.
   – Supporters felt it would shorten the war.
• Overseas reaction
   – The British felt Lincoln should have freed all of the slaves.
   – With war now about ending slavery, Britain would side with the
         African Americans and the War

In the South, African American farm and plantation labor
released white males for the war effort. Slaves performed
many non-combat jobs in the Confederate army.

Escaped slaves worked for the Union army in various jobs.
They formed Union army regiments in Louisiana, South
Carolina, and Kansas, serving in segregated units.
Initially used for labor and guard duty, when allowed into
battle they fought heroically.
The 54th Massachusetts Infantry was the most famous unit.

180,000 African Americans served in Union armies, taking
part in 200 battles. More than 38,00 died serving the Union.
                    Life in the Military

           • Disease was responsible for most deaths, and
             various epidemics swept through the camps.
           • Sanitary Commission worked to improve conditions.

Camp       • Conditions were poor, tents were crowded, and the
 life        ground muddy or dusty depending on the weather.
           • Camp rations were good, but while on the march
             soldiers relied on hardtack and coffee.

           • Prisoner exchanges ended in 1863, and both sides
 Prison      were guilty of inhumane treatment of prisoners.
           • Most notorious camps—Andersonville and Elmira
                 Life on the Home Front

  Southern Home Front                   Confederate Draft

• Shortages made life difficult.   • Needed to maintain the army
• There were few factories, and    • Confederate Congress
  food production dropped            enacted 1st military draft in
  because of war.                    American history—April 1862
• War was fought on credit,        • Unpopular conscription
  and inflation resulted.            contradicted states’ rights
• High prices and shortages led    • Governors of Georgia and
  to food riots.                     North Carolina tried to block
                                     the draft.
• Soldiers deserted to take care
  of their families.               • Slaveholders were exempted
                                     from the draft.
• Poor men were patriotic, but
  their families came first.       • Some areas were placed
                                     under martial law.
        Copperheads and the Union Draft

No shortages, but the Union needed to draft more soldiers

Union draft law allowed the wealthy to hire substitutes or
pay a $300 fee—making the war a poor man’s fight.
Antidraft riots fueled an existing antiwar movement, called
Peace Democrats by supporters, Copperheads by critics.

Vocal critics who opposed the war, the draft, or
emancipation were arrested and jailed without trials.
This was possible because Lincoln suspended habeas
corpus across the entire country, saying he was willing to
violate the constitution in order to save the nation.
              Women in the Civil War
  Southern Women                Northern Women
• Spied for the Confederacy   • Stepped into jobs so men
                                could go fight
• Took over farms, stores,
  and plantations             • Produced huge amounts of
                                food with the aid of new
• Worked in the few             farm equipment
  factories and made
  ammunition for the troops   • Female teachers went
                                south to educate former
• Formed societies to make      slaves after the war
  bandages, shirts and
  bedclothes                  • Became the first women to
                                hold federal clerical jobs
• Acted as volunteer nurses
  before Confederate          • Served in the Union army
  Congress passed law           as nurses and volunteered
  allowing them to be hired     to work in hospitals
  as army nurses
                   The War Continues

                        The Main Idea
 Important fighting occurred in all sections of the country as
                        well as at sea.

                        Reading Focus
• In what ways was the war at sea an important part of the Civil
• What were each side’s goals in the West and how were events
  there influenced by the rest of the war?
• What three major battles took place in 1863, and why was each
• Why was the fighting around Chattanooga, Tennessee, important
  to the outcome of the war?
                   The Civil War at Sea
              • Boats built for speed that brought cotton out and
                silk, soap, pepper, and other goods into the
            • Confederates hoped to destroy the Union
              blockade with a captured Union ironclad ship, the
The Monitor   Merrimack, rebuilt and renamed the Virginia.
  and the
 Merrimac   • Union attacked with new vessel, the Monitor. The
              first battle between ironclads had no winner, but
              it changed naval warfare.

              • Confederates used unconventional tactics to
Confederate     combat stronger Union navy.
  Raiders     • Had 29 commerce raider ships roaming the
                oceans, successfully attacking Union merchant
                ships and disrupting the North’s foreign trade
                  The War in the West

• California and the territories
   – Kansas was admitted as a free state in 1861, and six more
     western territories were added. Lincoln appointed pro-Union
     officials to head the governments.
   – The draft was not enforced in the West, but California supplied
     volunteers and territorial mines provided vast amounts of gold
     and silver.

   – The Battle of Glorieta Pass secured the west for the Union.
• Native Americans and the war
   – War divided the Cherokee and the other nations over the
     issues of loyalty and slavery, and they fought on both sides.
   – Cherokee leader Stand Watie was the last Confederate
     general to surrender at war’s end.
                      Three Major Battles
  Battle of Chancellorsville             The Battle of Gettysburg
• General Joseph Hooker was in         • Overconfident after his great
  command of Union army.                 victory, Lee pushed his troops
                                         into battle here against the
• Lee sent Stonewall Jackson in a        advice of James Longstreet.
  surprise attack, nearly destroying
  the Union army on the first day.     • Half the men in Pickett’s
                                         Charge perished, and Lee finally
• Battle was General Lee’s greatest      gave up the fight and retreated
  victory, defeating a force twice       back to Virginia.
  its size. Lee determined to invade
  the North again, hoping a victory       The Siege of Vicksburg
  there would end the war.
                                       • General Grant began the Union
• Lee marched north, and Lincoln         siege of Vicksburg in May 1863.
  replaced Hooker with General
  George Meade.                        • With constant shelling of the city,
                                         citizens were forced to dig into
• Confederates on the lookout for a      hillsides to try to escape the
  rumored shoe supply skirmished         barrage.
  with Union cavalry.
                                       • After forty-eight days, the city
• Both sides rushed troops to            surrendered. Four days later the
  Gettysburg, Pennsylvania.              last Confederate fort on the
                                         Mississippi surrendered as well.
            The Chattanooga Campaign

The string of Confederate losses ended with Braxton Bragg’s
victory at the Battle of Chickamauga. But the retreating
Union army discovered the road to Chattanooga had been
left unprotected, and they fled to the city.

Bragg pursued, but the Union soldiers were ready to defend
the city. Confederate troops prepared to starve them out.

Grant arrived and opened a supply line to feed the trapped
Union troops. The siege ended, and the Union won the two
battles that followed. This gave the Union control of the
railroad center at Chattanooga and would allow Grant
access to Georgia, the heart of the Lower South.
                      The Final Phase

                        The Main Idea
   Southerners continued to hope for victory in 1864, but
   military and political events caused those hopes to fade.

                        Reading Focus
• What tactics did Grant use against Lee to change the course of
  the war?
• How did the election of 1864 affect Confederate hopes for victory
  in the Civil War?
• How did the actions of Sherman and Grant help bring the war to
  an end?
                     Grant versus Lee

• General Ulysses S. Grant
   – Lincoln gave him command of Union armies in March 1864,
     and Grant made William Tecumseh Sherman commander
     on the western front of the war.
   – Grant wanted to take advantage of the Confederate
     shortages of men and supplies to end the war before the
     November election.
   – Ordered Sherman to ―get into the interior of the enemy’s
     country as far as you can and inflict all the damage you can
     against their war resources‖
• General Robert E. Lee
   – South could not win the war, but a new president might
     accept southern independence in return for peace.
   – Lee planned to make the cost of fighting so high for the
     North that Lincoln would lose the upcoming election.
                       Fierce Fighting

               Grant kept his troops on the attack, winning the
               Battle of the Wilderness and pushing south. The
               Battle of Spotsylvania cost many casualties on
               both sides, but Grant continued toward Richmond.

               During the Battle of Cold Harbor men pinned
Cold Harbor    their names and addresses on uniforms for
    and        identification. With this loss and after failing to
Petersburg     capture the rail center at Petersburg, Grant began
               a siege of that city to put pressure on Richmond.

               Meanwhile, Sherman won the Battle of Atlanta
Sherman on     and laid siege to Atlanta’s defenses. He took the
 the move      city after closing down the last railroad line, one
               month before the Union presidential elections.
              Confederate Hopes Fade

Democrats nominated George McClellan and adopted a
party platform calling for an immediate end to the war.

Southerners found new hope, but the Republicans tried to
broaden Lincoln’s appeal by picking Tennessee’s Andrew
Johnson for the ticket. Lincoln expected to lose the election.

Sherman’s capture of Atlanta allowed Lincoln to easily
defeat McClellan. Congress passed the 13th Amendment
ending slavery, and the war seemed nearly over to all but
die-hard secessionists. Lincoln announced his intention to
be forgiving, but the bloody war continued.
             The War Comes to an End
  Sherman’s March               The fall of Richmond
• After the election,           • Lee only had 35,000
  Sherman marched across          defenders at Petersburg,
  Georgia in what came to         and they were low on
  be known as the March to        supplies.
  the Sea.
                                • Grant decided not to wait
• Sherman cut a swath of          for Sherman’s troops.
  destruction 300 miles long
  and 50–60 miles wide.         • Instead, he broke through
                                  Lee’s defenses at
• After taking Savannah,          Petersburg and went on to
  Sherman turned north            take Richmond.
  through South Carolina,
  destroying civilian           • Lee tried to escape with
  property all along the way.     his few remaining troops,
                                  but Grant blocked their
             Surrender at Appomattox
     Lee and Grant                  The war is over
• With Union forces             • News of Lee’s surrender
  surrounding them, Lee           brought joyful celebrations
  decided to surrender.           in the north.
• Grant presented the terms     • Lincoln requested ―Dixie‖
  of the surrender to Lee.        be played at the White
  Extremely generous for          House.
  such a bloody conflict,
  Lee’s troops merely had to    • The last of the
  turn over their weapons         Confederate forces
  and leave.                      surrendered on May 26,
• Grant announced, ―The
  war is over. The rebels are   • Sadly, President Lincoln
  our countrymen again.‖          would not live to see the
                                  official end of the war.
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