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					                                             TRAINING NEED ANALYSIS



                                                                  I
                                                                         n    a     business,
                                                                         Human Resource
                                                                         is   one     of    the
                                                                         disciplines which
                                                                    drives business for
                                                                    competitiveness.        To
                                                                    achieve this training
                                                                    is    very      important.
                                                                                  Competent
                                                                    employees        will   not
remain competent forever. Their skills can deteriorate; technology may make their skills
obsolete; the organization may move into new areas, changing the type of jobs that exist
and the skills necessary to do them. This reality has not been overlooked by
management.




In order to train the employees the training need analysis is a must for enabling them
to provide quality services to the customers both inside and outside.




In order to assess the training needs, it is also necessary to derive the job contents and
job descriptions for each category and cadre in respect of Employees working in all the
Departments.
               Calendar of Events for Assessment of Training Needs


Sl.   Phases          Activities                                       Duration    Remarks
No
1     Organizatio-    Establishing liaison teams and work groups
      nal support     that help facilitate the process becomes a
                      necessary part of the needs assessment by
                      consultant.                                3 days at
2     Organizatio-    Following       the     establishment   of   each
      nal analysis    organizational analysis, which begins with departm
                      an examination of the short and long term     ent
                      goals of the organization, as well as of the
                      trends that are likely to affect these goals.

3     Requirements    While     organizational       support    and    Sl. No. 3
      analysis        organizational analysis issues are being         to 6 20
                      examined, information for a requirements         working
                      analysis should also be collected. It is in      days
                      this phase that the analyst focuses on
                      questions such as what jobs are being
                      examined? Who has information about the
                      jobs? What types of systems, such as job
                      observations, interviews, and surveys are
                      going to be used to collect information?
                      The analyst even has to ask very basic
                      questions such as what is the target job?
                      Actually, it would not be unusual for
                      important job components to change even
                      if the job is performed in different
                      geographical regions of the same state.
                      The job could differ if it is performed during
                      the winter summer or day or night
4   Task        and     The next part of the need assessment
    knowledge,          programme is a careful analysis of the job
    skill and ability   to be performed by the trainees upon
    analysis            completion of the training programme.
                        Often this process begins with specifying
                        the tasks required on the job. Then the
                        tasks are used to ask what skills,
                        knowledge and attitudes (KSAs) are
                        required to perform those tasks on the job.
                        For eg: a brief description of a bus
                        reservations clerk’s job might indicate that
                        the clerk makes and confirms reservations,
                        determines seat availability, and so on.
                        The analyst often asks questions such as
                        which KSAs are most critical to job
                        performance or which should be learned
                        before coming to the job, which in training,
                        or which are not learned until actually on
                        the job.




5   Person              Here the emphasis is not on determining
    analysis            which tasks or KSAs are necessary but on
                        assessing how well the employee actually
                        performs the KSAs required by the job. To
                        perform      person     analysis,     deriving
                        measures of job performance known as
                        criteria becomes necessary. A very
                        important aspect of person analysis is to
                        determine which necessary KSAs have
                        already been learned by the prospective
                        trainees so that precious training time is not
                        wasted repeating what has already been
                        acquired. For employees already on the
                        job, a critical aspect becomes determining
                        the current knowledge and skill level and
                        comparing this to standards for performing
                        the job.



6   Deriving            Another way of looking at instructional
    instructional       objectives is to ask what, given a particular
    Objectives          task are the effective behaviours that will
                        tell you that the task is being performed
                        correctly?
                        Well-written instructional objectives, which
                        are based on tasks and KSAs specify what
                        the trainee can accomplish when
                        successfully completing the instructional
                        programme.
 7        Summary     – Review, discussion,       re-orientation   and 10 days
          with detailed submission.
          need
          assessment




After doing training need analysis, we can divert skills into three categories: technical,
interpersonal and problem solving. Most training activities seek to modify one or more of
these skills.


Technical: Most training is directed upgrading and improving an employee’s technical
skills.


Interpersonal: Almost all employees belong to a work unit. To some degree, their work
performance depends on their ability to effectively interact with their co-workers and their
boss. Some employees have excellent interpersonal skills. But others require training to
improve theirs.


Problem Solving: Managers, as well as many employees who perform nonroutine
tasks, have to solve problems on their job. When people require these skills, but are
deficient, they can participate in problem solving training.


Training methods: Most training takes place on the job. This can be attributed to the
simplicity of such methods and their usually lower cost. However, on-the-job training can
disrupt the workplace and result in an increase in errors as learning proceeds. Also,
some skill training is too complex to learn on the job. In such cases, it should take place
outside the work setting.


On-the-Job             Training:
Popular on-the-job training
methods          include     job
rotation     and    understudy
assignments. Job rotation
involves     lateral   transfers
that enable employees to
work at different jobs.
Both       job   rotation   and
understudy         assignments
apply to the learning of technical skills. Interpersonal and problem-solving skills are
acquired more effectively by training that takes place off the job.


Off-the-Job Training: There are a number of off-the-Job training methods that
managers may want to make available to employees. The more popular are classroom
lectures, films, and simulation exercises.       Classroom lectures are well suited for
conveying specific information. They can be used effectively for developing technical and
problem-solving skills. Films can also be used to explicitly demonstrate technical skills.
Interpersonal and problem-solving skills may be best learned through simulation
exercises. However, complex computer models, such as those used by airlines in the
training of pilots, are another kind of simulation exercise.
Training and development can sustain or increase its employees’ current productivity,
while, at the same time, prepare employees for a changing world.


In conclusion, if employees are to remain productive, career development and training
programs need to be available that can support an employee’s task and emotional needs
at each stage.


    H. V. Vasuki

Director
Chinmaya Institute of Management
#7, D'Costa Layout
1st Cross, Cooke Town
Bangalore - 84
Ph: 9845204013