Census Tract Manual 1947 Edition by ylk22775

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									                                                              F O MR E
                                                  DEPARTMENT O C M E C
                                                   Bureau of the Census
                                                       Washington 25




                                                      Third Edition, revieed
                                                           and enlargd/..

                        A large part of the new material i n t h i s blanual
                           was prepared by Howard Whipple Oreen, with
                               the assistanoe of Esther M Wright
                                                        .


                                                                    O TNS
                                                                   C NE T
    Nature and general use of census t r a c t s .
    Other small-area data f o r c i t i e s .
                                                                                    .......................Page
                                                                             ....,......................... 1 1
        Enumeration districts....................................                                                                   1
         L.
        B~............a
        .k +am o
         O
    Origin and history of census t r a c t s : 1910 t o 1 4 .
    Census data available by census t r a c t s .
                                                                            ............
                                                                ........................ 2
                                                                                         90.
                                                                                                                                    1
                                                                                                                                    1
        Published data                     ............................................. 3
                                               ......................................... 3                                          2
        Unpublished data..
    Administraeve arrangements and materials.
        Committee on census enumeration areas..
                                                                   ..................... 3
                                                                    ....................
        Central library..                     .......................................... 3
                                                                          .............. 4
                                                       ................................. 3
         Lacal census t r a c t committee and key person..
        Census t r a c t maps.........
        Census t r a c t s t r e e t index..................................                                                        4
        Allocating records t o cnu'iat............ esstrcs............                                                              5
    Specific uses of census t r a c t dt............... aa.,,...........                                                            5
         Important u s e r s , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                5
                       semipubxc agencies..                        ..................................
                       Tax-supported agencies...................,.............
                                                                  ...................................
                                                                                                                                    5
                                                                                                                                    6
                       Business i , ~ t e r e s t s . .
          Item allocated bjP tracts...                                ...............................                               6
                                                                                                                                    6

i           H o u s i-n g . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6       I
            Health.....................................................                                                             7
            Recreation.................................................                                                             7
            Euain......................'..
             dato..........................                                                                                         7
            f i r e and ~ o ~ c e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .               7
            Ulre........~................
             bgis.........................                                                                                          7
            Chu~oh~~...................................................                                                             7
        Business ue..,................m.
                   ss....................                                                                                           7
i
i
    Graphic presentation of census t r a c t dt...,.......
     m
    N oenaus t r a c t areas..                            .......................................
                                                     aa..,........       8

                                                                .................................
                                                                         9
                                                                                                                                            I
                                                                                                                                            I
        Local pbnning committee..
        laying out census tracts..                              .................................
                                                                         9
                                                                        10
                                                                                                                                            I

        Numbring census tracts.....,..............................
    Appendix A.--Status of census t r a c t c i t i e a : 1940
    Appendix B ,-Ust of o e n m traat key persons (Jan. 1 1947).      ,
                                                                        U.
                                                                        22
                                                                        I3
                                                                                                                 ...............
                                                                                                                              ..        ,
    Appendix G.-Xap, Census t r a c t e i n Clweland and a part of ito                                                                  i
                     suburban area...................................   35
    Appendix D.+p,       Distribution of papulation I n Cleveland: 1940 26                                                              I
                                                                                                                                        i
                                                                                                                                        1
                                                                J a n w w . 19b7
                                                                                                                                        i
                                                     C E N S U S           T R A C T             M A N U A L


              N T R ANC GENERAL USE O CENSUS TRACTS
               AU E                  F

                Information on a small-area Sasis is essen2ial
                                                                                    I                   OTHER SMALL-AREA DATA FDR CITIES

                                                                                                 Enumeration districts.-An                 enumeration d i s t r i c t
     f o r the analysis of modern problems of l a r g e c i t i e s                     i s the a r e a assigned t o an enumerator i n t h e f e d e r a l
     and f o r t h e e f f i c i e n t adminlstrztion of t h e i r munici-              Census. Enumeration d i s t r i c t s do n o t c r o s s t h e bound-
     p a l , welfare, and commercial enterprises. To meet                               a r i e s of a comty, township, incorporated p l a c e , ward,
     t h i s need, c e r t a i n large c i t i e s , and sometimes t h e i r            o r other p o l i t i c a l subdivision. Each census t r a c t , i n
     suburbs, have been divided i n t o census traczs. I n                              the census t r a c t c i t i e s , i s composed of one or more
     current p r a c t i c e , each t r a c t ordinarily contains a                     enumeration d i s t r i c t s .
     population between 3,000 and 6,000. The t r a c t s a r e                                    No d a t a a r e published f o r enumeration d i s t r i c t s
     permanently e s t a b l i s h e d , so t h a t comparisons can be                  a s such, s i n c e they have l i t t l e s i g n i f i c a n c e beyond
     made from year t o year and from census t o census; they                           serving a s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e u n i t s f o r t h e enumeration
     a r e l a i d out with a view t o approximate uniformity i n                       of t h e population. I n p a r t i c u l a r , they a r e not per-
     population and with some regard for uniformity i n                                 manent a r e a s , but a r e changed from census t o census,
     s i z e ; and each i s designed. t o include an area "ally                          in conf orml:y wit& changes In population density, etc.
     homogeneous with res3ect t c race, national o r i g i n ,                          The Bureau of t h e Census makes some t a b u l a t i o n s by
     economic s t a t u s , and l i v i n g conditions.                                 enlmeration d i s t r i c t s f o r control p'xposes, however.
                Tracts were establlshed i n 1940 or e a r l i e r f o r                 The s u b j e c t s covered include sex, age, r a c e , n a t i v i t y ,
     a l l of t h e c i t i e s which had a population of 250,000                       and farm residence of t h e population and various char-
      or more I n 1930, together with a Pew smaller c i t i e s                         a c t e r l s t i c s of housing. T r a n s c r i p t s of these tabula-
      ir, which an a c t i v e l o c a l i n t e r e s t had developed.        It       t i o n s , w l t h maps showing t h e l o c a t i o n or t h e enu-
      should be noted, then, t h a t the cefisus t r a c t s are not
      a p a r t of t h e uniform system of area subdlvision used
      i n t h e taking of censuses, bul; a r e the reslllt, In most
                                                                                    I   meration d i s t r i c t s , may be purchased a t cost from t h e
                                                                                         Census Bureau.
                                                                                                  Blocks .-Certain               bas1 c housing d a t a from t h e
      c a s e s , of l o c a l initiative.                                               1940 census were published by blocks l o r those c i t i e s
                 For t t o s e c l t l e s i n which t r a c t s were established        which had a population of 50,000 or more i n 1930.
      i n 1930 o r e a r l i e r census d a t a a r e already available                  These d a t a , whlch appear I n a s e r i e s of Supplements
      f o r two o r more decades; ar-d wlth succeeding censuses,                         t o the F i r s t S e r i e s Housing b u l l e t i n s ( o f t e n r e f e r r e d
      t h e s e r i e s of comparable data w i l l be expanded. Like-                    t o a s Block S ~ p p l e m e n t s ) , include c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s by
      wise l o c a l organizations i n t h e c i t i e s collec: t h e i r               occupancy and t e n u r e , s t a t e of r e p a i r and plumbing
      own d a t a , year by year, and thus e s t a b l i s h t h e i r own               equipment, year b u i l t , and average monthly r e n t or
      comparative s e r i e s .                                                          r e n t a l value of a l l dwelling u n i t s ; number of u n i t s
                 Census t r a c t s providea commor. base f o r a l l l o c a l          occupied by nonwhlte households; number of occupied
      s t a t i s t i c s . Thus, h e a l t h , juvenile delinquency, rec-               u n i t s with 1.51 or more persons per room; mortgage
      reation, andschool data may a l l be r e l a t e d on a t r a c t                  s t a t u s of owner-occupied dwelling u n i t s ; and number
      basis.                                                                             of r e s i d b c t i a l s t r u c t u r e s .
                 Census t r a c t s mite i t possible t o i s o l a t e a r e a s
      of change within a com.unlty which are obscured i n                                             ORIGIN AND HISTORY OF CENSUS TRACTS
      the c i t y t o t a l s . Tuberculosis r a t e s , f o r example, m y
      Increase i n c e r t a i n t r a c t s while decreasing i n the                             1910.-The           census t r a c t idea was o r i g i n a t e d by
      c i t y a s a whole. Sales volume may f a l l off i n s o m                       the l a t e D r . Walter Laidlaw i n New York C i t y i n 1906.
      t r a c t s while increasing generally. A analysis of the n                       A t t h a t t i m e D r . Laidlaw was d i r e c t i n g population
      data by census t r a c t s w i l l often show whether changes                     studies f o r t h e Federation of Churches. He found s t a -
       observed a r e Cue t o agency p o l i c i e s o r t o changing                   t i s t i c s by boroughs p r a c t l c a l l y u s e l e s s f o r h i s pur-
      population o r family c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .                             poses because of t h e wide d i v e r s i t y of population
                 Census t r a c t s provide a simple means of r e l a t i n g           c k a r a c t e r i s t i cs within t h e s e l a r g e a r e a s . S t a t i s t i c s
      VarlOUS phenomena t o the economic l e v e l of tp.e popu-                        for assembly d i s t r i c t s were equally u n s a t i s f a c t o r y
       l a t i o n . S a l e s of commodities, bank deposits, b i r t h                 not only because they included a l a r g e , heterogeneous
      and death r a t e s , reading h a b i t s , cr:me--all a r e re-                  population but because t h e i r boundaries were changed
       l a t e d t o the economic s t a t u s of the population, Com-                   from time t o ti-.                With t h e a c t i v e support of t h e
       binations of widely separated census t r a c t s having                            e
                                                                                        Nw York City Tenement House Departmnt and t h e De-
       the same economic s t e t u s , a s measured by such census                      partment or Health, D r . Laidlaw undertook t h e t a s k or
       data a s value or rent of home, a r e therefore frequently                       dividing the c i t y i n t o 40-acre t r a o t s and persuaded
       more Useful t o t h e a n a l y s t than an equally large a r e a                the Bureau of t h e Census t o adopt t h e s e a r e a s i n t h e
       Qf Contiguous t r a c t s             having q u i t e dissimilar popula-        enumeration and t a b u l a t i o n Of the 1910 census for New
a"     tion characteristics.                                                            York c i t y . The Bureau of t h e Oenaus a l s o e s t a b l i s h e d
census t r a c t s in the other seven cities having a PoPu-             there 1s an inclination'tq make some m o d + r x cation            o-l:
lation of 500,000 or more a t that tirm. These arere                    the procedure followed i n 1940b C o n s i d e r a t ion i8 be-
Baltimore, Bost~n, Chicago, Cleveland, Philadelphia I                   ing given co a program under WhlcC t h e C l                 t       ~         ~
Pittsburgh, and S t . Louis. Nw York City , hmever,
                                        e                               pay a s u b s t a n t i a l part of t h e e x t r a coat xnvQlveQ  in
was the only city t o make use of the data by Census                    tabulating t h e i r census t r a c t data.
tracts.                                                                           A c&plete l i s t of a l l the census tract cities,
           lgm. -~ithough the Bureau of the Census tabu-                 the population or the central c i t y and i t s adlacan%
lated census tract data i n 1920 for t h i s 8fime 118%of                tracted area, if any, the number of t r a c % s            I n mch,
 cities, again only Nw York C i t y made immediate use
                                e                                        the average population per t r a c t , and t h e d a t e of the
of the figures, The tabulations and analytical maps                      f i r s t census taken on a t r a c t basis are P r e s e n t e d
were published by the Nw York City 1920 Census Com-
                                   e                                     Appendix A.
 mlttee, Inc., In a large-size volume of &44 pages,
About the middle of the decade, Cleveland and Chicago                           CENSUS DATA AVAILABLE BY CENSUS TRACTS
 also obtained the census t r a c t tabulations for t h e i r
 cities,                                                                         Pub1 jshed data.-In Volume f of t h e Is40 pop*
           1930.-As the 1930 census approached, ten addi-               l a t i o n Reports, is given the population of e a c h t r a c t a d
 tional c i t i e s becarae interested i n t h e census t r a c t       area by ceneus t r a c t s , a i t h 1930 f i g u r e s            for thoge
 idea t o the extent of laying out tentative t r a c t 8 and            c i t i e s which had t r a c t s i n 1930. There 1 s in a b d i t l o n
 obtaining the approval of these tracts from tbe Direc-                 a map showing the boundaries of t h e t t r a c t s                      jin each
 tor of the Census, making a t o t a l of 18 c i t i e a t o r          area. he censua t r a c t w s appear a l e 0 in the First
 that censui; The new census t r a c t cities were Berkeley,            Seriea bulletins ror the several Etatea--the                      bulletins
 Buffalo, Cinoinnatl, Columbu~,          Indianapolis, t o e Angeles,   whioh were eventually bound up t o g e t h e r                          t o rorm
 Nashville, Syracuse, Waehington, and Yonkera,                          Volume I.
            Organizations or individuals i n most Of the                          Following is a list or the i t e m l n c l u d e d ln t b            ;
 aitlea obtalned Ghe~ tabulation8 by oenaua t r a c t 8 from             Oeneua Traat b u l l e t i n f o r each oity. S p e o l r l e a C s          Lm
 the Bureau of the Censue f o r whioh they paid a aum                    f o r the nonwhite element i n the population w e r e pub-
 estimated t o aover most of the additional coate in-                    lished, i n supplementary t a b l e s , f o r c e n s u s                 tracts
 volved. I n eeveral or the cttlea, theae data Were                      having a nonwhite population of 260 or more , as indi-
 published; i n others, copies of the tabulatiom were                    cated below. Ins addltion there a r e o r c o u r s e nonwhite
 made available to local organizations in need of them.                  data f o r a11 t r a c t s i n t h e t h r e e c l a s s l f i c a t l o n a Sn-
            1940.-During the 1930' s interest i n smell-area             Volvlng race, namely, items 1, 2, and 8, i n the X ollar-
  data was further encouraged, and 42 c i t i e s were added             ing series:
  t o the census tract I l s t . A t the time of the 1940                          1. Race and nativity.
  cenew 60 c i t i e s i n continental United States1 had                         2. Age by r a c e , n a t i v i t y , and sex. ( A g e I s shown
  been tracted. These included a l l but one of the 58                                  i n 5-year groups and certain s p e c l a l age,
  Cities of 250,600 inhabitants o r more (in ls40)and 26                                breaks, such a s "21 and over." )
  s m l l e r c l t i e s , most oS vihlch had a population well                  3. Years of school completed by persons 2fS Ye9;rs
  in excess of 100,000. More than one-fourth of t h e                                   old and over, by sex. (Published                    f o r non-
  Nat1onta population lived in these c i t i e s .                                      white also. )
            Wenty-Sive Cities have l a i d out t r a c t s in ad-                  4. Employment status and c l a s s of worker for p e r -
   jacent.suburban areas. In some instances these repre-                                sons 14 years old and over, by s e x ,                      (Pub-
   sent a part O r 811 of the balance of the county; In                                 l i s h e d f o r nonwhite also.)
  other lnstancss they include the entire metropolitan                             5 Major occupation group of enployed p e r s o n a 1Q
                                                                                    .
   district.                                                                            years old and over, by sex. ( P u b l l shed for
            The more important i t e m tabulated f o r census                           nonwhite i n Southern c i t i e s a l s o . )
  t r a c t s in 194.0 were published by the Census Bureau i n                     6. Country of b i r t h of f oreign-born             whl            br
   a series of bulletlns,onefor each census t r a c t city,                             sex.
   this being a change from the procedure i n previous                             7 ; Citizenship of foreign-born white 21 Yeam
                                  the
   censuses, under ~ h l c h c l t i e s receiving the census                           old and over, b y sex.
   tract tabulatlona paid moderate amounts t o cover the                          8. Occupancy s t a t u s and tenure by race o f ooc*
   extra cost involved in taking readings f o r such small                              pants f o r a l l dwelling units.
   areas, Enaking up the census t r a c t tables, etc. These                       9 Value of owner-occupied units. (Pub11
                                                                                    .
   bulletins were distributed l i k e other census publica-                             nonwhite also. )
   tions. The response to t h i s free service i n many or                       10. Estimated monthly r e n t or o w n e r - o c c Q i e d uniW.
   the c i t i e s was very disappointlng, however, several                      11. Contract m o n t w r e n t of t e n a n t - o c c u p ~ e mits*
                                                                                                                                             d
   or them railing even t o f w l s h adequate address lists                            (Published f o r nonarnite also. 1
    lor the di8tribution of t h e i r bulletim. Consequently,                    12. Average and median monthly contract o r esti-
   r h i l e no definite plans for 1960 have been established,                          mated r e n t of a l l duelling units,
                                                                                 13. Gross monthly rent or tenant-occupied noa*-
 *b
    1 m * 8 ,mmalso l o i d ou* in Honolulu, but since t h i s
    done a s 'I&     Of a plan for setting up traota in the
 anera gan?t0$3r of bW4i1where 100~1        subdivisions of the
 @~ahfr~e*r e UFiPnt4 traeded, 1 N a o i t y has not been oon-
         n
                                                                                        unlte.
                                                                                 14, Type of structure or a l l dnelling uni* S     -
                                                                                 16. S t a t e of r e p a i r and plumbing equipment of ax
 &dolad a s la i@o@. traat- oify.                                                       dwelling u n i t s , (Published f o r nonwhle e ua*
     16. Size of           household i n occl~piedunits. (Pub-          census t r a c t data. A t present a an., 1947) the members
               lished f o r nonwhite also.)                             of t h i s committee are:
       17. Persons per room i n a l l occupied units and i n                      Howard Whlpple Green, Chairman, Secretary, Cleve-
               tenant-occupied units. (Published f a r non-                        land Health Council and Director, Cleveland Real
               white also.)                                                        Property Inventory
       18. Radios i n occupied units.                                             C. E. Batschelet, Chief, Geography Division, Bu-
       19. Refrigeration equipment i n occupied units.                             reau of t h e Census, Washington, D. C.
       20. Heating f u e l by type of central heating i n                        W. Thurber Fales, Director of S t a t i s t i c a l Sec-
               oqcwied units.                                                      ti on, Baltimore C i t y Health Department, Balti-
        The Block Supplement f o r each tracted c i t y car-                       more, Ud.
r i e s three items f o r census t r a c t s not included i n                    Ernest M. Fisher, Professor, Urban Land Economics,
the Census Tract bulletin, namely,                                                 School of Business, Columbia University, Nw                 e
        1 Total structures.
          .                                                                        York City
        2. Dwelling units by year built.                                         Mrs. Shirley K. Hart, Director of Division of
        3. Mortgage s t a t u s of owner-occupied units.                           S t a t i s t i c s and Research, Federal Housing Admln-
        Volume IY of the 1940 Housing Reports also pre-                            i s t r a t i o n , Washington, D. C .
sents by t r a c t s , i n table 9, mortgage data f o r m e d                    Philip Y Hauser, Assistant Dirgctor, Bureau of
                                                                                                 .
homes.                                                                             t h e Census, Washington, D. C.
        Unpubl ished data. -In               addition t o the data               Vergil D. Reed, Associate Director of Research,
published in the Census Tract bulletins, there is con-                             J. Walter Thompson Company, New York City
siderable material available i n tabulated but unpub-                            Leon E. Truesdell, Chief, Population Dlvision,
lished form. These tabulations can be obtained from                                Bureau of the Census, Washington, D. C.
the Bureau of t h Census f o r the cost oftranscription
                             ~                                                    Lent D. Upson, School of Public A f f a i r s and Social
or photostating, plus the actual cost of any review                                Work, Vayne University, D e t r o i t , Michigan
or v e r i f i c a t i o n which may be necessary before the                     The major e f f o r t of t h i s commlttee p r i o r t o 1940
data can be released.                                                  Was directed t m a r d extending t h e number of tracted
        A l l 1940 tabulations f o r small areas, including            areas t o include a l l c i t l e s of 250,000 inhabitants o r
census t r a c t s , a r e outlined i n complete d e t a i l i n the   more. The c o m i t t e e not only e n l i s t e d l o c a l i n t e r e s t
"Key t o the Published and Tabulated Data for Small                    in census t r a c t s but a l s o gave a s s i s t a n c e t o local
Areas.* A s the t i t l e indicates, t h i s booklet shows             groups i n laying out t r a c t s in t h e i r c i t i e s .
what tabulation8 were made and what data were pub-                               Each year t h e committee has held sessions i n con-
lished f o r small areas. I t is available without cost                nection with the annual meetings of the American Sta-
from the Bureau of t h e Census.                                       t i s t i c a l Association t o discuss developments i n the
        In general, a l l population items were tabulated              use of census t r a c t s . A consistent e f f o r t has been
by race and nativity and allhousing items by occupancy                 made t o d i s t r i b u t e pertinent inforrmtion to a l l in-
and tenure and color of occupants wherever applicable             .    terested persons.
This generalization applies t o both published and un-                           Central 1 ibrary-A l i b r a r y of publications i n
published tabulations. Tabulated but unpublished i t e m               which census t r a c t data a r e presented is maintained
f o r census t r a c t s include:                                      i n Cleveland by Howard Whipple Qreen. A l l persons and
        1. Nativity of minor races.                                    organleatiom publishing material by census t r a c t s
        2. School attendance.                                          have been asked t o f i l e one copy of each publication
        3. Industry'group of employed workers 14 years                 In t h i s l i b r a r y . Their cooperation has made t h i s cen-
               old and over.                                           t r a l l i b r a r y of r e a l assistance t o persons desiring
        4. Exterior material of residential structures.                t o study what others have done.
        5 . Residential structures by type.                                      The Bureau of t h e Census a l s o maintains a simi-
        6. Farm or nonfarm location or urban dwelling                  l a r l i b r a r y of census t r a c t publications.
               units.                                                          Local Census Tract Committee and Key Per-
        7. Number of rooms i n dwelling units,                         son.-     There should be a l o c a l Census Tract Committee
        8. Lighting equipment.                                         i n each t r a c t e d c i t y . TMs coaanltw should ordinarily
        Q, Cooking fuel.                                               comprise not more than rive o r s i x people, perhaps
       10. Heating equipment,                                          beginning with a s e l e c t i o n from the l a r g e r committee
       1 . Water supply.
        1                                                              which cooperated i n making up the o r i g i n a l census
       12. T o i l e t f a c i l i t i e s .                           t r a c t lay-out, (See p. 9). The c o m i t t e e should ehare
       13. Bathtub or shower.                                          responsibility i n preparing and publlehing a Census
       14. Whether rent includes furniture.                            Tract S t r e e t Index and also adequate Census Tract
                                                                       a p e . The members should asauma primary responsibility
                                                                       for developing census t r a c t me among t h e group or
      ADMINISTRATIVE AWCIEXEWS AND WTERIALS                            l n t e m s t a each represents and t h e comnittee should:
                                                                       serve as a clearing h o m e f o r t h e exahange of Idea$
      Comnlttee on Census Enumeration Areas.-A                         among the s e v e r a l interests within the c l t y .
conxilttee on Census bumeration Areas was established                           The Key Person a c t s a6 chairman or 8eor.etary.of
In 2932 by the American S t a t i s t i c a l Association t o          the aommittee , whi ch should be responalble f o r ' ohoos*
a%lmCtate and develop local l n t e r e s t i n the use of             ing his auacesacr upon h i s resignation or death., H           e
should be a l e a d e r i n h i s community, capable o f pro-                          t h e boundary s t r e e t names on a copy of t h l s 0 ~ t l i n 9
moting tb use of census t r a c t s and e c t i v e l y engaged                        map, one obtains an o u t l i n e ma:, showing t r a c t bomd-
i n work involving t h e use of t r a c t s and t r a c t data.                        a r l e s and numbers and names of bo'mdary s t r e e t s . By
He should be a " l i v e wire,* have broad community in-                               shading n o m e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s on a copy of t h e o u t l i n e
t e r e s t s , and be i n touch w i t h c l t y agencies, c i v i c                   r a p , one c b t a i n s t h e f o u r t h type of map, which sh3ws
and welfare organizat Fons, u n i v e r s i t y research people,                       r e s i d e n t i a l and nonreslCentia1 a r e a s . These m p s m y
and t h e business i n t e r e s t s o l t h e c i t y . He should be                  be lithographed t o t h e same s c a l e zs t h e s t r e e t map
aware o l t h e availab1.e s t a t i s t i c a l information about                      o r I n smaller s i z e s .
h l s c i t y end have some knowledge of t h e needs f o r                                         The f i r s t p l a t e rur, i n nonphotograghic blue with
various types of data.                                                                  t h e second p l a t e In r e d provides a u s e f u l working
          A t t h e p r e s e n t tlme,Key Persons a r e about evenly                   map. Local d a t a m y be spotted by actv&l s t r e e t 10-
divided among s o c i a l agencles, business, u n i v e r s i t i e s ,                 c a t i o n s , but t h e s t r e e t s and s t r e e t names a r e elimi-
and municipal agencies. A l i s t o l t h e Key Perscns is                              nated when t h e map is reproduced ph3tographically.
given i n Appendix 8 .                                                                             The o u t l i n e maps should be a v a i l a b l e i n s l z e s
          C e n ~ u stract mRps.-- I d e a l l y , the l o c a l com-                   6-1/2 3y 1 md 17 by 22. The l a t t e r is p r e l e r a b l e
                                                                                                            1
mittee should have f o u r kinds of maps a v a i l a b l e l o r                        because it I s e a s i e r t o work with, and imperfections
quantity d i s t r i b u t i o n . These include: ( 1 ) A s t r e e t                   In Spotting and shading a r e eliminated when t h e map
,lap showing census t r a c t s and a l l s t r e e t s ; (2) an out-                   is reduced t o 8-1/2 by 11 i n p u b l l c a t i o n .
l i n e map showing census t r a c t s and names of some                                           ParKs, cemeteries, and other sertlpu5lic groper-
boundary s t r e e t s ; (3) an o u t l i n e map showing census                        t i e s end i n d u s t r i a l a r e a s should be bloclced out w i t h
t r a c t s Only; and ( 4 ) a map showing census t r a c t s and                   1    some shading which w i l l not be ccnfused w i t h d c t s o r
nonresidential areas--parks, cemeteries, and industrial                                 shadings used i n showing s t a t i s f i c a l d a t a .
areas. Type (2) maps a r e pub:.iJhed I n t h e 1940 Re-                                            I f t h e a r e a o u t s i d e t h e c l t y limits is t r a c t e d ,
p o r t s of t h e Census Bureau and aspecimenon a smaller                              tho e n t i r e t r a c t e d a r e a should be shown on t h e v a r i o u s
s c a l e is presented a s Appendix C.                                                  meps. In t r e c t maps which include a r e a s o u t s l d e t h e
          A d e t a i l e d s t r e e t map 1s required by any agency                   c e n t r a l c i t y , t h e boundaries of m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , town-
whloh covers t h e cornunity o r any p a r t of t h e commu-                            ships, o r countiss should be l l n e d more h e a v i l y than
n i t y on an address b a s l s . Thus, such a m p is required                          the other t r a c t boundari ee.
 by the Community Fund i n l a y i n g out its campaign                                             The Key Person should a l s o have c e r t a i n b a s i c
 areas, t h e V i s l t i n g Nurse Asscclation f o r i t s adrnlnls-                   a n e l y t i c a l ,maps a v a i l a b l e f o r d i s t r i b u t i o n . Those
t r a t i v e d i n t r i c t s , and t h e Chamber or Comerce In l o -                 most frequently requested e r e dot m p s of p o p l ~ l a t i o n ,
 cating business s i t e s .                                                             families, white and Negro populations shown s e p a r a t e l y ,
           Outline maps a r e equally l m o r t a n t because it l a                    and maps shaded according t o home ownership and eco-
 only by t h e i r use t h a t an agency cen p r e s e n t i t s                        nomic s t a t u s . These a r e base d a t a w i t h which n e a r l y
 f a c t s v i s u a l l y f o r study and demonstration. Items                          every study starts. IS, Is e a s i e r t o v i s u a l i z e t h e
most e f f e c t i v e l y presented In t h l s manner may include                       usefulness of t r a c t s i f t h e s e b a s i c f a c t o r s a r e al-
 the success of fund c o l l e c t i o n s by a r e a , d i s t r i b u t i o n          ready mapped.
 of s e r v l c e s rendered, d i s t r i b u t i o n of r e t a i l s a l e s ,
 or more general r e l a t e d informatlon such as i n c r e a s e s
                                                                                                                                             -
                                                                                                    Census tract street index. The census t r a c t
                                                                                         s t r e e t index shows t h e t r a o t i n which every s t r e e t
 and decreases of population md d i s t r i b u t i o n of popu-                         number is located. I t is used t o a l l o c a t e any s p e o l f l c
 l a t i o n by e c o ~ o m i cs t a t u s , r a c e , age, and education.                event t o t h e t r a c t i n which i t occurred o r i n which
           Not only a r e o u t l i n e maps e s s e n t i a l f o r showing              t h e individual concerned resides. U n t i l auoh                            index
 t h e geographical d i s t r i b u t i o n o f such i t e m , but they                   is a v a i l a b l e , l i t t l e , i f any, l o c a l d a t a w113 be Wbu-
 a r e equally necessary,in p o r t r a y l n g v i s u a l l y t h e re-                                                              n
                                                                                          l a t e d on a t r a c t b a s i s . O the o t h e r hand, qIOlzsCmdt3
 l a t i o n s h i p between items such a s 1ur.d collec2;ions and                        of l o c a l records w l l l be codad and tabulated by t r a c t s
 economic s t a t u s , nurslng s e r v i c e by type o f popula-                          i f t h e working t o o l s a r e made r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e .
 t i o n , r e t a i l s a l e s by economic s t a t u s , j u v e n i l e de-                       A s t h e f i r s t s t e p i n c o n s t r u c t l a g t h i s inbex, a
 linquency by n a t i v i t y of p a r e n t s , o r a n y of a thousand                   card should be made l o r each s t r e e t , avenue, boule-
 and one 2henomena under study by the c i v i c , s o o l a l ,                            vard, a l l e y , o r o t h e r thoroughfare, and The range of
 eQd business i n t e r e s t s i n every oommunity.                                       the possible numbers within each cer~sust r a c t Listed
           The s t r e e t map w l t h aensus t r a c t boundaries                         on t h e card a g a i n s t t h e census t r a c t tlesignation. The
  should be of such s i e e t h a t Gh6 s t r e e t names a r e easy                       s t r e e t index is made up from theso cards erranged i n
 to read. The s m a l l e r t h e nap t h e Bheaper it Is t o                              alphabetical order.
 p r i n t and t h e e a s i e r t o handle. But the s m a l l e r t h e                             The s t r e e t name should be p r l n t e d I n c a p i t a l
 map, t h e harder t h e a k r e e t names a r e t o read.                                 l e t t e r s a r bold type.
            The s t r e e t s an0 s t r e e t names should be prlnted                                 I f a s t r e e t is lcnown by two namrts, it should be
  i n blaolt: w l t h t h e t r & a t boundaries and n m b e r s i n                       l i s t e d under each name, I f o s t r e e t name I s changed,
  red. Thla means t h e preparation o r two p l a t e s l o r                              the o l d name should a l s o be l i s t e d Sor a reasonable
  lithographing--a p l a t e showing s t r e e t s and s t r e e t                         length o l time. (The o f f ice responsi b l e f o r d l s t r i -
  n w s and a p l a t e showing t r a c t boundaries and                                                 of
                                                                                          b ~ t l o n t h e index should maintair: a card f i l e of
  numbers.                                                                                a l l changes of s t r e e t names f o r cross-referonce pur-
            The e@cond p h t e run alone provides o u t l i n e maps                      poses even a l t e r t h e old names: a r e dropped from t h e
  skowi~lff       only c r a c t boundaries and numbers. By putting                       published index.)
         I f thesame         s t r e e t has more than one designation,                 ALLEN RD.                           ARLINGTON ST. 5 .
a s both ' s t r e e t n and 'avenue,Vhe l e s s important des-                                                      19       1-499..      ... .. ... 01
ignation should'be shown i n pcirenthesis.                                                                                    500-799........            04
         I f the same s t r e e t has both north and south or                           APLINGTON ST. N .                     800-1299...,...            05
e a s t and west numbers, it should of course be l l s t e d                              1-499    .......... 31
twice  .                                                                                  500-1099..    .. ... 02
         S t r e e t numbers should be indented under the s t r e e t        '            1100-1699......           08
name an6 should be l l s r e d consecutively.
         The f i r s t and l a s t posslSle numbers should be                              A 1 locat lng records to census tracts. -- CenSuS
used rather than t h e actual numbers i n order t o allow                        d a t a presented by census t r a c t s provide material i n
for possible new Suildings. For example, list 100 t o                            themselves f o r s o c i a l and economlc s t u d i e s of a com-
199 even though actual numbers i n the block run from                            munity's population. These d a t a a r e w e d d i r e c t l y by
1 1 t o 167.
  1                                                                              many municipal agencies, s o c i a l anti welfare organlza-
         I n the case of a s t r e e t which forms the boundary                  t l o n s , and c o m e r c i a l firms I n determining market po-
between two t r a c t s , the even numbers w i l l r e f e r t o                 t e n t i a l s . The decennial census d a t a should, however,
one t r a c t , the odd numbers t o the other t r a c t . Atten-                 be considered c h i e f l y a s a base. To r e a l i z e t h e f u l l
t l o n should be d r a m t o t h i s f a c t by adding the word                 value of census tracts., l o c a l d e t a must be tabulated
"even" or 'odd.                                                                  on a ' t r a c f b a s i s . B t e r i a l c o l l e c t e d l o c a l l y can be
         The census t r a c t designation should be printed                      evaluated against t h e backgro-md of population and
t o the r i g h t of t h e s t r e e t numbers. The column giving                houslm data provided by t h e Census. Local s e r i e s
census t r a c t l d e n t l f i c a t i o n should be s e t a s close t o       serve t o keep the d a t a c u r r e n t and provlde d a t a which
the s t r e e t numbers a s possible In order t h a t the                        the Bureau of the Census cannot SUPply.
eye can s h i f t e a s i l y from s t r e e t number t o t r e c t                        I f records a r e f i l l e d out "on t h e s p o t , * t h e
designation.                                                                     f i e l d worker or enumerator s h o u l d - e n t e r t h e census
         This index can be 3rinted i n narrow columns, 3                         t r a c t l d e n t l f i c a t i o n at t h e same time he records the
t o 6 columns t o t h e page. The larger the type t h e                          address. T h i s is a very simple procedure and becomes
l a r g e r w i l l be the number o r pagea. The smaller the                     almost automatic es1;ecially I f t h e f i e l d worker 1s
type t h e smaller w i l l be the number of pages, but t h e                     assigned t o a d e f i n i t e a r e a comprising Only a few
harder it w i l l be t o read. The material should not be                        t r a c t s . A t f i r s t t h e f i e l d worker w i l l r e f e r t o a
reduced beyond the point of easy readability. The                                census t r a c t s t r e e t map,andany enumerator going over
more addresses each page c a r r i e s the l e s s frequently                    a t e r r i t o r y only once w i l l c e r t a i n l y need such a map
a coder w i l l have t o turn the pages. Both sides of                           of the area.
t h e page should be used.                                                                 I f records a r e coded i n t h e o f f i c e , a census
         Each gage should carry In t h e upper outside cor-                      t r a c t s t r e e t index is e s s e n t i a l . The work w i l l be
ner t h e names of the f l r s t and l a s t s t r e e t s l i s t e d on        speeded upappreciably i f t h e records a r e f i r s t s o r t e d
t h e two facing pages.                                                          a l p h a b e t i c a l l y by s t r e e t . I f the cards a r e already
         The index should be bound i n such a way t h a t it                     i n some o t h e r order :or permanent r i l i n g , they should
can be opened f l a t and w i l l n'ot have t o be held open                     be numbered consecutively before being s o r t e d i n t o
while i n use.                                                                   s t r e e t order so t h a t they can be rearranged e a s i l y
         The census t r a c t location should a l s o be given                   and exactly i n t h e o r i g i n a l permanent order. The
f o r h o s p i t a l s , h o t e l s and apartment houses, office               amount of time required f o r such s o r t i n g is more than
~ u i l d i n g s ,public and semipublic buildin@;s, schools                     compensated i n t h e tlme saved i n looking up t h e s t r e e t
and colleges, and pablic housing developments. These                             names I n t h e census t r a c t s t r e e t index.
should be l i s t e d by name i n a separate section. The
l i s t should be arranged according t o category znd t h e
S P e C l f i ~hospitals, hotels, and so on within each cate-                                                                 AA
                                                                                               SPECIFIC USZS OF rJWSUS TRACT D T
gory should be l i s t e d i n alphabetic order. The s t r e e t
address and t r a c t deslgnatiod should be given undbr                                    Important u e e r s , -The wide range of applica-
each name just a s s t r e e t rimers and census t r a c t                       t l o n of census t r a c t d a t a is i n d i c a t e d by t h e l'ist of
designations a r e l i s t e d under s t r e e t names.                          organizations s p e c i f i c a l l y reported t o be using these
         Clear and concise instructions on how t o use t h e                     d a t a , e i t h e r t h e b a s i c census statistics o r l o c a l d a t a
index should be Included. A t r a c t map should also be                         c l a s a i f i e d by census t r a c t s :
included.                                                                                    Tax-supported agsnc i e s : C l t y engineers; depart-
         Following is a suggested form for the s t r e e t in-                         ments o r education; department8 of h e a l t h ; depart-
dex, according t o t h e prinOiplles ouGlined here:                                    ments of p u b l i c p r o p e r t i e s , parks, etc.; departmnts
         ABBOTT CT.                          AD-     ST. (PL.)                           f
                                                                                       O p u b l i c u t l l i t l e s (water, l i g h t and power, sewage
             800-1199.. .....           02       2700-4899..,... C4                    d i s p o s a l ) ; departments of p u b l i c welfare; depart-
                                                                                       Inents o r p u b l i c works; d e p a r t m n t s of r e c r e a t l o n ;
     ABERDEEN Am.                      ADDISON ST.                                     f i r e departments;' housing agencles; juvenlle courts;
       700-1299..       .. .,. 02                    . . .. 01
                                         1-599. r , ,, .                               plEUUing comnlssions: p o l i c e departments; proba-
  Even 1300-1498       ....,. 01         400-799........        02                     t i o n c a m d s s i o n s ; w b l l c l i b r a r i e s ; s a n l t a r y en-
  odd 13Q1-1599        ....,. 02                                                       gineers; t a x a s s e s s o r s ; .tiransit systems; zoning
                          ... 03
                                                                             +




       1600-2099..,.                   APB@PNa DR.                                     commiss;lons ; o t h e r c i t y and county agencies J statre
       8100-2199       ...... W          5900-COlS..,..,        09                     and f e d e r a l agencies. -
                    S e m i p u b l i c agencies: Area dsvelocment associa-                      t r a c t s a r e analyzel against t h e background cf popula-
           t1or.s; ar",useums;                  boy and g i r l sccut organiza-                  t i o n and housing lnformaticn Xovided by the Census.
           ~ i o c s ;boys' clubs; bureaus of municipal research;                                Finally, t r a c t s provide a common small-area base f o r
           camp :ire g i r l E ; child care agencies; ct,urches and                              the comparison of a l l l o c a l data a s w e l l as census
           federations of chwches; conmmitg chests; coun-                                        data.
           c i i s of s o c i a l ~ g e n c i e s ;f6mlly r e l i e f agencies;                             City plann ing.--lt has become an accepted prin-
           foundations; h e a l t h and welfare planning organiza-                               c i p l e i n r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a planning t h a t f a m i l i e s f i n d
           t1or.s; h e a l t h councils; h o s p i t a l s ; hospital c o u p                    the most satisfactory l i v i n g arrangement8 i n neighbor-
            c l l e ; housing agencies; leagues of women voters;                                 hoods s e t apart from each otherand f r o n n o n r e s i d e n t i a l
           parent-teachers associations; red cross chapters;                                     ereas by existing or proposed major s t r e e t s o r other
           salvation arw; settlement houses; tuberculosis                                        b a r r i e r s , not cut by thoroughfares nor c u t i n t o by
           leagues; urbari leagues; v l s i t l n g nurse associations ;                         conf li cting busi ness and i n d u s t r i a l cl evelopment , and
        r young men's Christian a s s o c i a t i o n s ; young women's                          l a r g e enough t o support and be provided w i t h t h e i r
            c h r l s t i a n associations.                                                      own school, recreational and shopping f a c l l i t l e s znd
                    B u s i n e s s i ~ t e r a s t s : Advertlslng agencies; auto-               ~ n s t i t u t l o n s . " ~Residential a r e a s a r e grouped i n t o
           mobile clubs; banks; chain drug and grocery stores;                                   r e l a t i v e l y homogeneous neighborhoods and neighborhoods
            chambers of comerce; departmont s t o r e s ; gas qom-                               i n t o comnunities ccnformi ng t o census t r a c t boundaries.
           panles; house-to-house s e l l i n g firms; i n d u s t r i a l                       The areas are designed on the b a s i s of block and cen-
            committees; insurance ccmpanies; l i g h t and poaer                                 sus t r a c t data concernltig land 2 8 8 , types of dwellings,
           u t i l i t i e s ; manufacturers; marketin@:research firms;                          value and age of dwellings, f a m i l i e s p e r a c r e , r a c e ,
           mortgage bankers; newspapers; r a d i o s t a t i o n s ; real,                        country of b i r t h of 'f0rei~;n born, etC.
            e s t e t a firms; r e t a i l . s t o r e s ; savings and loan aa-                              Citizen part1cipa:ion              i n c i v i c a f f a i r s i s be-
            sqciations; telephone companies; transportation                                      lieved t o be much more a l e r t and a c t i v e when t h e mu-
            companies ;                                                                          nicipal government and planning a r e organized on a
                 Item8 a l l m a t e d b y t r a c t s . - - l o c a l p u b l i c a n d         r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l comunitgrbasis. W i t h t h i s k i n d o r
        secipublic records a l l o c a t e d Sy t r a c t s include t h e                         c i t y plan, the a c t i v i t i e s of murilcipal and welfare
        rollawing:                                                                               agencies can be b e t t e r coorCinated. Each i n d i v i d u a l
                  Aooidents, especially t r a r r i c and home accidents;                        agency i n a large c i t y , l i k e a l a r g e business con-
            b i r t h s ; cases atter,ded by p u b l i c h e e l t h nurse, vis-                  cern, must analyze its market i f it is t o function
            iting nurse, or other nurses; children attending                                     etficien3y.
            summer camps; communicable d i s e a s e cases, especially                                       Tr@.naportnt       ion.--Traffic        surveys and s t u d i e s
            tuberculosis and venereal disease; condemnations; '$ t h e uee of public transportation, can be e f f e c t i v e l y
            contributors t o public fund c o l l e c t l o n a ; crlmes;                         made on a census t r a c t basis. Some c i t i e s have prd-
            deaths; f i r e s ; foreclosures; juvenile delinquency                                vlded useful s e r i e s of maps BhOWingthe mode of t r a n s -
            (by place of both residence and of occurrence);                                      portatlor? used by er.ployed persons going t o and from
            memberships i n various kinds of organizations;mem-                                  work. Plans f c r future expansion o r c o n t r a c t i o n of
            bers o r churches; p a t i e n t s a t maternal and child                             t r a n s i t service must be made on a long-tern b a s i s ,
            h e a l t h centers; p a t i e n t s using f a c i l i t i e s of toa-               and the need for a sound b a s i s f o r e s t i m a t i n g f u t u f e
            p l t a l s ; p a t i e n t s ueing out-patient departments or                    /  populatlon krowt~. by t r a c t 6 is imperative. Origin
            hospitals; permits f o r new building, conversions, , and destinatlor. checks may be made on a t r a c t b a s i s
            and demolitions; persons p a r t i c i p a t i n g in s p e c i t l c ' with origin and destination zones representing combi-
            group r e c r e a t i o n a l and educational e c t l v i t i e s : Soy              nations of t r a c t s . T r a n s i t companies have sometimes
            scouts, g i r l s c o u t s , Y.M.C.P.,, T.W.2.A.)                   s e t e l e - 1 disregerled t r a c t s because t r a n s i t l i n e s run along
            ment housee, s t c . ; pereons using: f a c i l i t i e s of pub-                     main BtreetB whlch are a l s o t r a c t boundaries. I n
            l i c l i b r a r l e a ; persons uaing p u b l i c playgrounds,                      these instances, t h e zones can be designed t o lnclude
            golf comses, wiimxiing pools, e t c . ; public r e l i e f                            census t r a c t s on e i t h e r Bide of t h e main thoroughfares
            cases; school census records; subscribers t o blue                                    so t h a t a11 of t h e t e r r i t o r y feeding t h e l l n e w i l l be
             cross and other hospitalizatf.on ylans; unemploy-                                    included and the t r a n s i t company w i l l have base popu-
            ment aomensation oasos; votes I n elections.                                          l a t i o n data from census t r a c t publications a s w e l l a s
i                Business records a l l o c a t e d by census t r a c t s                         informatLon colLected from r i d e r s . Census t r a c t d a t a
1       inolude:                                                                                 a r e a l s o used i n s e l e c t i n g etops, e s p e c i a l l y on ex-
(                  Charge customers; depositors i n banks; insurance , press l i n e s .
            polioy holders; o r i g i n and d e e t i n a t i o n of users or                                Housing. --The need f o r housing d a t a on a small
I           public t r a n s p o r t a t i o n ; owner8 of automobiles, re-                      a r e a basis seems almost too abvious t o d i s c u s s , I t
             f r i g e r a t ~ n e , e t c . ; purchasers of a l l kinds of mer-                  1 9 , of course, e s s e n t i a l t h a t any agency i n t e r e s t e d
    ,        chandlse j s t o r e s a l e s ; subscribers t o i'tbBgaZi118S                       i n housing conditions must have d e t a i l e d information
             and newspapers; telephone subscribers; users of                                      on value, occlJpancy s t a t u s , age, s t a t e or r e p a i r and
    ,      .e l e c t r i c i t y ; users of gas.                                                plumbing equipment, new construction, conversions,
    ,            To 'recapitu3late, uses of census tract; d a t a a r e                          demolitions, condemnations, population t r e n d s , family
    s   or bhme main types, Census d a t a by t r a c t s serve a s                              movements, and so on.
    ;   a basks f o r Qividlng the c i t y i n t o administrative or
    ;                                            ,
        business areas h w i ~ homogeneous populations or popu-                                           'A Genexel Plan 04 Oenliral Oleveland," Olerelan.3 aity
                                                                                                           "
    t   $tions            O&, k n o m c h a r a o t e r l a t l c s , Local data by              Planning Oomisaion, Oatober, 1946.
                     I
          Heal ih. -A knowledge of t h e geographical d i s t r l -                                                                           .
                                                                                               conducive t o c o n f l a g r a t i o n s Spe c i a 1 cor.trol measures
b u t l o n of c e r t a i n p o p u l a t i o n groups and of t h e various                   may be e s t a b l i s h e d a c c c r d i n g t o age and m t e r i a l of
m o r t a l i t y end morbidity cases is e s s e n t i a l t o a pub-                          s t r u c t u r e s , h e a t i n g and l i g h t i n g equipment conmon i n
l i c h e a l t h program. "Well-baby" c l i n i c s should be                                 each neighborhood, d e n s i t y of b u i l d i n g , and s o on.
l o c a t e d where t h e b a b i e s r e q u i r i n g such s e r v i c e l i v e ,           Census t r a c t ? have a l s o been found v e r y u s e f u l i n
Hospital out-patient departments shofid be d i s t r i b u t e d                               analyzing f a l s e alarms.
throughout t h e c i t y where they ail1 be convenient t o                                               S i m l l e r l y , t h e p o l i c e department e s t a b l i s h e s de-
p a t l e n t s . Nurplng s e r v l c e s should be organized t o                              t a i l s according t o t h e frequency and type of crimes
care f o r cases I n g r e & t e s t need. Tuberculosis and                                    i n each a r e a . E s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n h a s been g i v e n I n
venereal d i s e a s e c l i n i c s should be located where such                              r e c e n t y e a r s t o a r e a s where j u v e n i l e c r i m s a r e com-
cases a r e p r e v a l e n t . Furthermore, t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s               mon. The j u v e n i l e c o u r t is l i k e w i s e i r - t e r e s t e d i n t h e
of t h e "problemn a r e a s should be thoroughly analyzed                                 I   neighborhood and p o p u l a t i o n c h a r a c t e r l s t i c s cf a r e a s
i n order t h a t c u b l i c h e a l . t t educatior. can be -or.cen-                         where t h e s e " c h i l d r e n i n t r o u b l e " l i v e .
t r a t e d where it i s needed n o s t and s l a n t e d t o reach                                       Ljbr8ries.-Libraries,                        t o o , f i n d they a r e vis-
t h e r i g h t public. The p u b l i c h e a l t h o f f i c i a l should                     i t e d more f r e q u e n t l y i f t h e y know t h e i r p o p u l a t i o n s
know whether he 1s comSatlnglovincomes, poor housing,                                          and s t o c k t h e l r s h e l v e s a c c o r d i n g l y . The s u c c e s s
old-world t r a d i t i o n s , Ignorance, o r just indif ferbence.                            s t o r y of t h e Norwood L i b r a r y i n Cleveland Is e s p e c i a l l y
                        t    -
           R e c r e ~ ion. Recreational f a c i l i t i e s a l s o can                       I n t e r e s t i n g . A Large p e r c e n t a g e of t h e pop.llation is
                                                                                               of f o r e i g n o x t r a c t i o n '8ilth t h e Yugoslavs predomirat-
be developed w i s e l y only :f t h e a d m i n i s t r a t o r s have a
thorough knowledge of t h e population d l s t r i b u t i or],                                ing. I t was intended t h a t t h i s l i b r a r y should become
age, e d u c ~ t i o n ,h e a l t h , crlme r a t e , e x i s t i n g recrea-                  a c u l t u r a l c e n t e r f o r t h e nei$hborhoo&. The s i t e was
t i o n a l o p p o r t u q l t i e s , and s o on. One Commissioner of                        s e l e c t e d and t h e program developed only a f t e r inten-
Recreation r e ? c r t s , f o r example , t h a t census t r a c t                            s i v e study of t h e popu1ar;ion c h a r a c t e r l s t i c s of t h e
d a t a r e a d i l y r e s o l v e d a r e c e n t controversy regarding                      erea.
a proposed s i t e f o r e new neighborhood hvJse. To dem-                                                Ckrrches .-Federations                      of churches i n s e v e r a l
c n s t r a t e the r e l a t i v e needs of two a r e a s under con-                           c i t i e s havs organized t h e i r neighborhood c o r n i t t e e s
s i d e r a t i o n , h e gave t n e City Council e s e r i e s of census                       on a census t r a c t b a s i s . Many l n d l v i d u a l churches
t r a c t r a p s on which he had s p o t t e d the number of                                  have analyzed t h e l r performance and t h e i r o3portuni-
 c h i l d r e n 6 t o 20 y e a r s of age, children ur,der 6--the                             t i e s i n t e r m of t h e census t r a c t of r e s i d e n c e of
 f u t u r e "markett1--cases of j . ~ v e n i l e delinquency, cases                          t h e l r members and t?le p o p u l a t i o n c l - a r e c t e r l s t i c s of
of v e n e r e a l d i s e a s e , i l l e g i t i m s e b i r t h s , a c t i v e clubs       t h e a r e a immediately s u r r o u n d i n g them. One church,
and c l u b memberships, commercial r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s                     f o r example, d i s c o v e r e d on t h e e v e of moving t h a t Its
includ?ng movies, s k a t i n g r i n k s , dance h a l l s , pool                             downtown l o c a t i o n , which hzd once been a r e s i d e n t i a l
rooms, and b a r s , a s w e l l a s p ~ b lcl r e c r e a t l o r l e c i l l -               a r e a of larg: home:: l a t e r r e p l a c e d by b u s l n ? s s , was
t i e s . These maps, he s a i d , t o l d t h e i r own s t o r y and                         golng through a new pkase of development i n t o an
                                   l
t h e C i t y C o ~ ~ c ihad no doubt where t h e n e x t neigh-                               apartment house a r e a . This church s t a y e d and today is
borhood house should be located.                                                                s e r v i n g a l a r g e r populat,ion t h a n ever.
           P~3lic       playgrounds, swimmixg pools, golf courses,                                        Business uses. -How many p e r s o n s e r e t h e r e ?
and p a r k s should be l o c a t e d acd operated i n r e l a t i o n                         Bow many f a m i l i e s ? How l a r g e a r e t h e f a m i l i e s ? Where
 t o t h e needs of t h e population. S i m i l a r l y , S e t t l e -                         do they l i v e ? Do t h e y own o r r e n t ? Do t h e y l i v e i n
ment houses; Boys Clubs, Boy S c o u t , G i r l Scout, Carrip-                                 single-family houses, two-family houses, o r apartment
f i r e G i r l c r g a n i z a t i o n s , Y.IJI.C.A.,      Y.F.C.A.,        and many         :~ouses? Do t h e y have t e l e p h o n e s , electrici:y, g a s ,
o t h e r s should s p o t t h e i r a c t i v e memberships a g a i n s t                     and running water? What k i n d of work do t h e y do?
t h e p a r t of t h e p o p l l a t i o n t o whl-h t h e y appeal i n                        What a r e t h e lr incomes? \\%at e d u c a t i o n a l background
o r d e r t o s e e what groups t h e y a r e missing and i n whzt                              do they have? Are t h e y w h i t e o r Negro? Are t h e y
areas they a r e nsedlessly duplicating efforts.                                                fareigr. born me, i f s o , what i s t h e country of t h e i r
                        t
           E d u c ~ ion. -.To supplement t h e decennial census
                                ;                                                               b i r t h ? These a r e some of t h e q u e s t i o n s many b u s i n e s s
population d a t a , many school censuses a r e now taken                                       men ask about t h e l r markets. C i t y totala a r e f r e q u e n t -
by census t r a c t s . The school board r e l i e s on t h e s e                               l y or l i t t l e use t o him, b u t d a t a by census t r a c t s
d a t a z o g e t h e r w i t h t r a c t t a b u l a t i o n s of b i r t h s t o es-          g i v e him t h e answers by w h i c h h e c a n measure h i s
t i m a t e b o t h i m . e d i a t e and long-term requirements f o r                          S a l e s performance and e v a l u a t e h i s market p o t e n t i a l s .
 school f a c i l i t i e s i n each a r e a . Census d a t a by t r a c t s                              Oertain products a r e pa-chased c h i e f l y by home
a l s o provide b a s i c information on t h e population                                  ,    owners. SORB p r o d u c t s s e l l b e s t t o p e r s o n s i n homes
 c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of each school a r e a . Similarly, school                      having e l e c t r i c i t y , g a s , o i l h e a t , and r u n n i n g water.
a u t h o r i t i e s r e q u i r e t r a c t d a t a on c h i l d h e a l t h , rec-          bSome products s e l l b e s t I n homes equlpped w i t h me-
 r e a t i o n , j u v e n i l e delinquency, and s o on. All of                                c h a n i c a l r e f r i g e r a t o r s , b a t h t u b s , r a d i o s , and c e n t r a l
t h e s e combined w i t h t h e department's own reoords of                                   h e a t i n g I n s t a l l a t l o n e . With census t r a c t s I t is easy
school performance, attendanoe, and sickness form t h e                                        t o f i n d out where such homes a r e c o n c e n t r a t e d eind how
b a s i s f o r determining teaching methods and h e a l t h ,                                 many t h e r e a r e .
 PeCreatiOn, and s o c i a l p r o g r a m designed t o meet t h e                                        Commodities bought f o r i n d i v i d u a l r a t h e r t h a n
needs of each school.                                                                          household u s e a l s o v a r y I n s a l a b i l l D Y , The kind and
           Fire and pol ice. -The                   T i r e department s p o t s               a m ~ u n to: c l o t h i n g purchased is r e l a t e d t o a w , sex,
 fl~?ea      and r e l a t e s t h e s e t o nelghbQrhood conditions                           and ocaupatlon a s ~ 8 1 1 s t o inoome. Reading h a b i t s
                                                                                                                                            a
are related t o these characteristics and t o educa-                                    Finally,any firm interested i n r e a l e s t a t e finds
tional attainment.                                                             1  veritable goyd mine In census t r a c t s t a t i s t i c s . The
          The market analyst w i l l determine these relation-                 seal estate appraiser is i n t e r e s t e d i n property loca-
ships, based upon past performance, in order t o define                        ;ion and neighborhood c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and trends.
the potential m r k e t . The sales depaptment w i l l es-                     :ensus t r a c t and block s t a t i s t i c s a r e sometimes the
t a b l i s h i t s s a l e s t e r r i t o r i e s In accordance with them.   >nly source of precise inf o m a t ion on neighborhood
The advertising department w i l l write i t s a,dvertise-                     :haracteristlcs such as age of neighborhood, economic
ments t o appeal t o the market and s e l e c t the adver-                     rating, population trends, prevailing r a c e o r nation-
t i s l n g media ahlch best reach t h i s market.                             a l i t y , percentage of home ownership, prevailing type
          Retail o u t l e t s are located ' ~ i s e l y only a f t e r        sf employment ( c l a s s of worker and occupation), pre-
careful study o,p market potentials. Hardware stores,                          vailing type of Pamily u n i t , vacancy t r e n d s , average
for example, do not have t h e m r k e t p o t e n t i a l i t i e s i n       monthly contract o r estimated r e n t , mortgage Status
an apartment house area thaz they have i n a neighbor-                         of owned homes, etc, From l o c a l s e r i e s he can usually
hood of single-family dwellings. A suburban ladies'                            0bt;ain census t r a c t tabulations of new construction,
apparel shop, open from 9 t o 8 , has l i t t l e success i n                  conversions, and demoli tions.
an area where most of the Women a r e employed downtown                                  I t i s not possible here t o outlfqe i n d e t a i l the
during the same hol;rs. Even types of s t o r e s which can                    methods of applying block and census t r a c t S t a t i S t l ~ S
reasonably expect success i n any location must stock                          t o many specific public welfare and business problem.
t h e l r shelves with the r i g h t comodities, the right                      his review attempts t o show t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s . Every
brands, and the r i g h t price-ranges, according t o the                      agency knows i t s problem b e t t e r than , any one e l s e .
buying haDits of t h e i r p o t e n t i a l cuatomers. Kost                   It is hoped t h a t t h i s summary of uses of census t r a c t
smll r e t a i l o u t l e t s depend upon qulck turnover of                   data my give the reader an idea of t h e i r p o t e n t i a l i -
stock. If they Zlnd d u t what s e l l s best entirely                         t i e s f o r him. Other ideas w i l l develop w i t h a c t u a l
5hrough the painful trial-and-error procedure, they                            use of the data.
may learn too l a t e .
          Manufacturers of natlonal brands, of course, are
 just a s much interested i n market characteristics as                                 QRAPHIC PRESENTATION OF CENSUS TRACT DATA
 Individual r e t a i l t l r s . Some c i t i e s have regular pantry-
inventorysurveysto determinenot only the comnoditles                                    The d i s t r i b u t i o n of families, population, educa-
but the specif i c brands purchased in d i f feren: sec-                       t l o 3 a l and n a t i o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , economic s t a -
tions of $he c i t y . National concerns regularly analyze                     tus, telephones, r e f r i g e r a t o r s , s a l e s of commodlties,
s a l e s by areas. Frequently they are surprised t o find                     shopping centers, and many other f a c t o r s can be pre-
they a r e losing ground in some one s p e c i f i c area de-                  sented easily on maps. a p s , l i k e c h a r t s , should t e l l
s p i t e an over-all increase i n s a l e s , k study of t h i s              & story a t a glance.
one area may quickllr reveal the cause of t h e i r weak-                                Dot maps provide the simplest means of presenting
ness and serve a8 a warning against possible future                            data by census t r a c t s . They are easy t o make and easy
losses in other similar areas.                                                 t o undgrstana (See example i n Appendix D.) Leroy and
          Newspapers, magazines, and radio s t a t i o n s are                 p a p a n t pens of d i f f e r e n t s i z e s make dots of d i f f e r -
 constantly analyzing t h e i r areas of influence. They                       ent s i ~ e s . drop pen or a bow compass makes c i r c l e s ,
                                                                                                   A
want t o know t h e i r coverage for t h e i r own s a l e s pro-              ahioh when f i l l e d i n provide l a r g e r dots. Two c l a s s i -
motion purposes. A advertiser wants to know not only
                               n                                               f i c a t i o n s , such a s nmle andr L ~ ~ l may, b e shown on     e
t h e t o t a l c i r c u l a t i c n b.it a l s o where t h i s ciroulation   the same map by using blaak and red dots, open c i r -
Is and whether it is i n t h e areas he wants t o reach.                        c l e s and f i l l e d - i n c i r a l e s , or dots and crosses. More
           U t i l i t y companies use census t r a c t data f o r many        than two classifications may be Shown by us& ~ d l f -
purposes. They must know how many people and how many                           ferent colors, but the use of more than two symbols'
families l l v e i n an area, whether they l i v e in single-                   usually creates confusion. I t is b e t t e r t o present
family o r multl-fatnily s t r u c t u r e s orapartment houses,                eaoh on a separate map. Dots shoulC be of uniform
where vacancies are, what neighborhoods a r e relatively                        s i z e on any one map or on any s e r i e s of maps. Dots
s t a b l e and what neighborhoods a r e characterized by                       should be spread evenly over t h e t r a c t , but ocoaslon-
lrequent moves, which areas are l i k e l y t o decline in                      a l l y i t may be deaireble t o spot some items such a s
POpU18tiOn, and which t o increase, and wbich areas                             t h e location of stores by exact address. Dot maps,
may remain approximately the aama i n population size                           of course, s h w only ?he geographical d i s t r i b u t i o n or
but change in charabter as from whlte t o Negro or                              absolute numbers.
 from 8-Lngle+ta@ly t o rooming house nelghborhoodu.                                      Cross-hatched or shaded maps a r e used t o show a
These data a r e essential f o r planning extension or                          characteristic f o r each t r a c t i n terms of mr centages
 curtailment of telephone, e l e c t r i a l i g h t , gas, and                 o r averages, such as average mcnthly rent, or percent-
 transportation seFvice, planning t e r r i t o r i e s for meter               ages of owner-occupied hones. In black and whlte
 readers and c o l l e c t o r e , and f o r planning s a l e s promo-          maps, the class intervals should be shcwn by shadings
 t i o n campaigns. Telephone cowanies have a special                                             f
                                                                                In order O t h e i r i n t e n s i t y or by differences in t h e
 need f o r t r a c t daea since they mu8t install trunk                       proFortion or area covered by ink. I n making Colored
 Lines and constiruot exchanges well i n advance of the                        maps, the colors of the rainbow should be used, with
imrriaal or large populations. This poses a very real                           blue indicating low valuas and red, high values. Per-
 problem i n aubwban areas where population centers                             centage change from one date t o another may a l s o be
 may $6 Wl4elY separated,                                                      Shown by mans of cross-hatching.
            Overlay maps a r e especially e f f e c t i v e i n showing                               NEVI CENSUS TRACT AREAS
                              n
 r e l a t i o n s h i p s . A easy way of comparing one area with
t h e r e s t of the cormunity is t o superimpose an over-                                  In connection w l t h t h e 1950 census additional
 l a y map wlth t h e outlines o f the s p e c i f i c area under                 l a r g e c i t i e s may be t r a c t e d , or t h e t r a c t scheme may
 investigation over dot m p s and shaded mps showing                              be extended i n t o t h e suburban a r e a s of more of t h e
v a r i o u s f a c t s about the whole comunity.                                 present t r a c t e d c i t i e s , m conditions under whioh
                                                                                                                                 a
            Census t r a c t data are especially useful i n re-                  new t r a c t c i t i e s w i l l be approved f o r 1950 have not
l a t i n g verlous f a c t o r s t o economic status. Although                  y e t been f i n a l l y determined. The most important ele-
 Income s t a t i s t i c s are not available by census t r a c t s ,            ments receiving consideration w i l l be t h e s l z e of
average monthly contract or estimated rent i s avail-                            t h e c i t y and t h e i n d i c a t i o n 0-C wide-spread and a c t i v e
a b l e and usually serves a s a good index of economic                          l o c a l i n t e r e s t . It L s recognized t h a t i n a number of
s t a t u s . The r e l a t i o n of t h i s factor t o other charac-            c i t i e s t h e extension of t r a c t s I n t o suaurban a r e a s
t e r i s t i c s of the population may be readily determined.                   would very g r e a t l y improve t h e usefulness of census
horn many records which t h e research worker may want                           t r a c t tabulations.
t o study, economic s t a t u s is not available. Sales                                    For a c i t y which has n o t y e t been t r a c t e d , it
s l i p s , b i r t h and death recores, reportable disease                     w i l l be necessary t o organize a l o c a l planning com-
r e c o r d s , and hundreCs of others carry no indication                      m i t t e e t o do t h e planning and t o negotiate with the
Of ecor,omic s t a t u s other than the address.               Spotting         Census Bureau. Likewise, it w l l l o r d i n a r i l y be nec-
t h e s e f a c t o r s ~y census t r a c t of address reveals the               e s s a r y t o expand t h e permanens census committee,
r e l a t i o n s h i p between them and economic status.                       e s p e c i a l l y by adding r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of t h e outside
            Census t r a c t s may be grouped according t o c y S              .areas, f o r t h e work involved i n t r a c t l n g t h e sub-
I n t e r v a l e of contract or estimated rent, or they may                    urban area.
be arrayed by magnitude of average rent and divided                                       Local planning commit tee. +!he l o c a l planning
I n t o groups with equal numbers of families. Halves,                          cormnlttees v a r y g r e a t l y i n composition from one c i t y
f o u r t h s , f i f t h s , or tenths a r e most commonly used.               t o another. The following l i s t i n d i c a t e s some O t h e      r
F o r example, the number of families i n Cleveland In                         types or r e p r e s e n t a t i o n in which a r e t o be found t h e
1940 may be c l a s s i f i e d according t o economic statU.9                 varlous c i t l e s .
i n e l t h e r of the f o l l m i n g ways:                                                       1. An o f f i c i a l o r t h e Police Department.
                                                                                            . .-2, & o r f i c i a l ---- t h e F.i r e Department.
                                                                                                          I               of
                                                                                                   3 . 3 h e buslness manager of a - l o c a l newspaper.
         Average monthly    Percent       A l e m a monthly         Percant                        4. A p u b l i c u t i l i t y laan.
          aoebraat cr          of          oontraat or                of                           5. A member of t h e Real E s t a t e Board.
         eatiaatsd ramt     tamrilles     estimate4 r a m           isrilles
                                                                                                   6. The S e c r e t a r y o r Research Director of
         Under $15.00               Ix7   ) 7.79   -
                                                   -     @.96        10.0                                t h e Chamber of C~mnerce o r Board of
         $15.00
                 --
                  $19.99            8.7    19.35
                                                   -      2.
                                                           8W        10.0
                                                                                                         Trade. .
                                                   ---
          20.00    84.99       14.4        88.01         w.64        10.0
                  -                                                                                7. The Chief Engineer of t h e Planning Com-
          26.00
          30.00   -
                  -
                   E9.99
                   84.99
                               17.3
                               88.1
                                           1
                                           87.68
                                                         7
                                                         W8
                                                          .6
                                                                5    10.0
                                                                     10.0
                                                                                                   mission.
          36.03
          40.00   -
                  -
                   39.93
                   44-49
                               U.8
                                5.0
                                           80.88   38.44

                                                   -
                                           BZ.67-86.10
                                                                     10.0
                                                                     10.0                    8. Ths Health C o m l s s l o n e r o r t h e Registrar
          45.C.Q
          SDM    - 49.98
                   54.93
          55.M) and over     1.
                              16
                                5.1
                                3.8
                                           85.47
                                           0
                                           65.01
                                                7  -
                                                   O W
                                                   5
                                                   -
                                                  808.81
                                                                     10.0
                                                                     lO.0
                                                                    00
                                                                    1.
                                                                                                 or V i t a l Statistics of t h e C i t y Health
                                                                                                   Department.
                               103.a                                103.o
                                                                                             9. The Director                 of t h e Public Housing A -
                                                                                                                                                       u
          The p m c t i c e of r e l a t i n g various h c t o r s t o eco-                         thority.
noMc gltstus by divldlng census t r a c t s into economic                                      10. The Executive S e c r e t a r y or Research D i -
g r o w s of equal numbers of famllies has been most ef-                                            r e c t o r of t h e Councll of S o c i a l Agencies.
 felctlvely debloped In Cleveland. Howard Whipple                                              11. The Chief Librarian.
Green uses "economic tenthsn i n a l l or N s analyses                                         12. A professor of socfology In a l o c a l col-
 of t h e Real Property Inventory and In the studies he                                             lege o r u n i v e r s l t y .
 conducts f o r the Cleveland Health Council. Other                                            13. A r e p r e s e n t a t i v e churchman.
 c i t i e s have recently begun t o use t h i s technique.                                    14. The superintendent of schools.
           Flnally, a review of recent studies based upon                                      15. The p r e s i d e n t of a l o c a l bank.
 census t r e c t data prompts a caution t o research work-                              Before a c i t y Is t r a c t e d , such a commlttee should
 ers t o be sure t h a t they know what they want t o show.                    be organized t o plan t h e lay-out of t h e census t r a c t s
 Often a death r a t e r a t h e r than the absolute number of                 i n order t h a t t h e r e m y be general agreement as t o
 d e a t h s I s t h e more inf ormatlve .figure for a t r a c t .             t h e subdivlslans which t i l l b e s t serve a l l t h e l n t e r -
 The percentage of t o t a l automobile sales i n each cen-                    e s t s of the com,unity. One persan should be chosen
 s u s t r a c t i s quite a d i f f e r e n t thing from the per-             t o assums r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e a c t u a l work. If he
 centage or t o t a l familLes i n each t r a c t purchasing                   submits the p l a n s t o t h e committee f o r discussion
 automobiles, Simllarly, the percentage of the c i t y ' s                     from time t o time, t h i s w i l l help t o f o r e s t a l l s e r i o u s
 t o t a l r e f r i g e r a t o r s i n each t r a c t does not t e l l the   e r r o r s and a t the same time everyone w l l l understand
 same s t o r y a s t h e percentage of homes having r e f r l g -              t h e b a s i s of various compromises or apparent peculi-
  e n a t o r s i n each t r a c t .                                            a r i t i e s i n the lay-out. If a wldely r e p r e s e n t a t i v e
           A good r u l e t o follow i e t h i s : Ee sure of what              committee i s a c t i v e i n t h e planning Stages, local. or-
 you want t o show, make your map clear and slmple, and                         ganizations a r e more l i k e l y t o be ready t o make use
'$et it t e l l the story.                                                      of census t r a c t s as soon a s t h e y a r e established.
     . The need        for getting l l the local i n t e r e s t s to-
                                          a                                     a high h i l l and the reminder In a v a l l e y since this
gether in the planning stages cannot be over-emhasize&                          arrangement would render needlessly                               the use
The Bureau of the Census                         base its decisions re-
                                                                                of the t r a c t l i n e s as b ~ u n d a r l e sor an admlnis+,rative
garding any t r a c t plan i n considerable Part Upon                           district bjr any agency'
evidence concerning t h e support of l o c a l organiza-                                  so f a r as practicable, each t r a c t sho-~:d contain
tions which wollld be expected t o use t r a c t data.                          a population reasonably homogeneous both a s t o r a c i a l
          If the               plan lac..udes the entire metropoll-             charzcteristlcs and as t o economic s t a t u s . The type
tan d i s t r i c t or county, it is essential t o include                      of living accommodations of t h e a r e a a f f o r d s tk0 best
the county and suburban o f f i c i a l s in the planning                       available index t o economic s t a t u s . I t is recognized
committee.                                                                      t h a t the r a c i a l and economic c h a r a c t e r l s t l c s of the
          persons or groups of persons proposing t o t r a c t                                       may
                                                                                ~ o ~ u l a t i o n not be                          Over a long period
a cornunity should be cautioned t h a t the project w i l l                     of years. 1n general, kowever, t h e same changes w l l l
take time. A thorough study or existing conditions                              occur throughout a small area so t h a t eventually
and probable trends must be made in order t o design                            there w i l l again be homogeneity although the charac-
useful, homogeneous areas. &ny agencies w i l l have                            t 6 r i s t i c S m be d i f f e r e n t from those of t h e original
                                                                                                     Y
already divided t h e c c m w i t y i n t o sections f o r t h e i r            population. I n any case I any one t r a c t should not
o m purposes, end i t w i l l require much study and ne-                        originally include areas with widely d i s s i m i l a r char-
gotiation t o devise t r a c t s which w i l l meet t h e l r                   a c t e r i s ~ i c s . It would be unfortunate t o have one part
needs. I f such care i s not taken, th planners w l l l                         of the t r a c t composed of ~ x p e n s i v ehomes and t h e other
soon find t h a t the t r a c t s a r e not used.                               p a r t conposed of slm dwellings s i n c e , over-all or
          men the Bureau of the Census approves the t r a c t                   average s t a t i s t i c s f o r the t r a c t would not r e f l e c t
plan and the c i t y officially joins the llst of tracted                       the status of e i t h e r group.
c i t i e s , the person who d i d most of the work usually                               Especial care should be taken t o include a l l of
becomes the Key Person and other members ol the                                 a given houaing development i n one t r a c t . I f the de-
Planning Committee are selected t o constitute the                              velopmnt is l a r g e enough, it may c o n s t i t u t e a sepa-
permanent Census Tract Committee.                                               rate tract.
         Laying out census tracts.-The                       s i z e of the                I t ls a good Idea to a l l o t a s i n g l e t r a c t t o
t r a c t s w i l l necessarily vary i n d i f f e r e n t p a r t s of         each very l a r g e , permanent i n s t i t u t i o n within the
the city. Ideally, t r a c t s snould be as nearly equal                        clty. For exain?le, a large prison, t u b e r c u l o s i s sanl-
i n population a s possible and should have an average                          torium, or military i n s t a l l a t i o n should be given a
population of about 7,600. The average s i z e of the                           t r a c t allocation 0r its own. Usually, these i n s t i t u -
present t r a c t 8 i s thuo somwhat too small. I n the                          tlons are r-ot under municipal 3 u r i s d i c t l o n . Many of
 densely populated sections of t h e city, t r a c t s or very                  them are under an agency s e t up f o r the purposes of
small area w i l l hzve 1               arge populat 1 ons, of course;          adainistering i n s t it ut ions. Other agencies, theref ore,
but i n no case should the population of any one t r a c t                       exclude these population groups from t h e i r adminis-
exceed 12,000. X the outlying sections, on the other
                           n                                                    t r a t i v e planning, operation, and r e p o r t s . These groups
hand, t r a c t s of large area may have small popula-                          a r e also frequectly excluded from t h e base population
tiona; but no t r a c t should ordinarily have l e s s than                      in the calculation of c i t y r a t e s , and they a r e cer-
6,000 population, Size and nomogenelty oi population                             t a i n l y excluded i r o n the estimates of p o t e n t i a l mar-
and unlPormltY I n c n a r a c t e r i s t i c s of dwelllngs r a t h e r       kets for t y s t kinds o f 3 u s l n e s s e s .
than area should be the basic c r l t e r l a i n leylng out                               A few c i t i e s have had t h e same ward b o h d a r i e s
t r a c t s . Each t r a c t , however, should be compact.                       f o r a long period. In these instances, they have found
          When t r a c t l n g undeveloped parts of tP.3 c i t y , the           it advantageous t o design t r a c t s t o conform with ward
 local committee shouLd bear i n mind the expected                               boundaries, since mri agencies have previously main-
pattern cf development s o tbat eventually, a f t e r the                        tained t h e l r records on a ward b a s i s m d s i n c e popu-
area 1s b u i l t UP,                   of t a e t r a c t s W be f u r t h e r  l a t i o n data from previous censuses a r e a l s o available
 subdivided i n t o t r a c t s more nearly approximating the                    by wards. I r ward boundaries a r e not l i k e l y t o remain
 ideal popillation. Historical continuity w i l l be maln-                       perrraanent or if they v i o l a t e t h e ocher c r i t e r i a f o r
 t;ained because t h e sum of these new t r a c t s may be                       %-act boundaries, a good design of t r a c t s should not
 compared w i t h . the old t r a c t a s used i n prior censuses.               be sacrificed f o r t h e sake of conforming to ward
When new t e r r i t o r y is annexed t o t h e c l t y , t h i s area           boundaries.
 should be' s e t up a s a new t r a c t or t r a c t s whenever                            I f t r a c t s a r e extended t o t h e suburban area out-
possible and not added t o an old t r a c t or t r a c t s .                     eld0 tho c i t y l l m l t s , these t r a c t s should. conf o m to
           I t i s i w o r t a n t t h a t t h e boundary l i n e s Of t h e      the boundaries or . t h e minor c i v i l d i v i s i o n s (town-
 t r a c t s be d e f l n i t a . These bowldary lines should or-                 ships, etc. ). Each incorporated place, unless very
 dinQrilY be the centers or s t r e e t s . Rivers , railroad                     amall, should constitute one o r more separate t r a c t s .
 tracks, and park boundaries m y be used where these                             The area outslde incorporated piaoes should be dl-
 axe dafinite and permanent divldlhg llhes between one                            vided into t r a c t s with each ~ r a c t          embracing a l l or a
 sectlon o l the c i t y and another. Alleys ahould not                          P a r t of the remainder of a mlhor c i v i l division, de-
 be wed sfnoe they tend t o disappeer as t h e c i t y de-                        pending upon Lts area and populat,Lon. In o t h e r words,
 velops, ~ e i b h e r ahoud "i.taaginsl.y" or * d e s o r l b e d ~ u b w b a n r a c t s should be so d ~ s t g n e dt h a t ' t h e y can
                                                                                                  t
 llne6.I be m8,&S ~ I ~ C L I     they c&nnot be Identified i th8      n
                                                                             '

                                                                                  be recombined to give t o t a l s f o r the l a r g e r incorpo-
 f l a ~ ,Oile p;eE1-t of a W&ct s f l ~ ~ l d be loCaitsd. on
                                                         not                      xatad Places a n t f o r mi,nor a i v i l dlvlsions.
           The physical s t a r t i n g p o i n t f o r laying out t r a c t s      t h e c i t y , such a s l a n d u s e zones, p r o p e r t y v a l u e s ,
I n a given c i t y is a map of t h e c i t y drawn on a f a i r l y                and t h e l o c a t i o n of p a r k s , c e m e t e r i e s , r a i l r o a d prop-
l a r g e . s c a l e , say 800 f e e t t o t h e inch. This map                    e r t y , i n d u s t r i a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s , r e t a i l s t o r e s , and
should, of a o w s e , show a l l s t r e e t s .                                   apartment houses. C i t y mapa m y be secured n o t only
           A copy of t h e map showlng t h e enumeration d i s -                    from t h e c i t y e n g i n e e r ' s o f f i c e o r t h e p l a n n i n g com-
t r t a t t s used l n t h e l a s t census should be obtained                      mission, but from s o c i a l a g e n c i e s , academic r e s e a r c h
from tihe Bureau o r t h e Census, together with the tabu-                          departments, and commercial f i r m s The naps prepared.
& a t i o n s o r census. d a t a by enumeration d i s t r i c t s . I n            by the Sanborn k p Company f o r t h e use of f i r e in-
1 9 4 0 t h e s e t a b u l a t i o n s included r a c e , n a t i v i t y , sex,   surance companies a r e worthy of s p e c i f i c mention.
and age o r t h e population.                                                                  If t h e p a c t p l a n e x t e n d s beyond t h e c i t y limits,
           Basic housing d a t a were tabulated by blocks i n                       maps of t h e suburban a r e a s may be o b t a i n e d from t h e
1940 f o r c i t i e s which had 50,000 Inhabitants o r more                        county and s t a t e p l a n n i n g commissions, from s t a t e
i n 1930. The blocks can be combined t o make up pro-                               highway departments, and from t h e U. S. Geological
Posed census t r a c t s . The block data include a l l                             Survey. In some i n s t a n c e s the e l e c t r i c l i g h t o r t e l e -
d w e l l i n g wits c l a s s i r i e d by occupancy s t a t u s and               phone company m y have m p s showing a l l r o a d s and t h e
t e n u r e , s t a t e of r e p a i r and plumbing equipment, and                  l o c a t i o n of a l l dwellings II? t h e suburban a r e a it
c o n t r a c t o r estimated monthly r e n t ; occupied dwelling                   serves,
Ilnits by color of occupants and number reporting more                                        Numbering censue t r w t s . -The s i m p l e s t method
 t h a n 1.51 persons p e r room; mortgage s t a t u s of owner-                    of numbering census t r a c t s is c o n s e c u t i v e l y : 1, 2, 3,
 occupied u n i t s ; and number of r e s i d e n t i a l s t r u c t u r e s .     etc.
A n a l y t i c a l block maps based on these data a r e a l s o                              8ome c i t i e s have d e v i s e d t r a c t numbers which
a v a i l a b l e f o r s o m c i t i e s . This information by blocks              a l s o i d e n t i f y a r e a s l a r g e r t h a n t h e t r a c t . Each of
and enumeration d i s t r i c t s w i l l be h e l p f u l i n defining             the l a r g e r a r e a s is a s s i g n e d a p r e f i x number o r l e t -
homogeneous *areas.                                                                 t e r , t h e t r a c t s within t h e a r e a being nuqbered con-
            I t may be possible t o l a y out some of t h e t r a c t s             secutively. Tor example, when a n e n t i r e county is
 s o t h a t they w i l l be made up orgroups of t h e enumera-                     t r a c t e d , t h e t r a c t numbers a r e keyed t o e a c h Incorpo-
 t i o n d i s t r i c t s used I n t h e l a s t census. I n t h i s               r a t e d place and t o t h e u n i n c o r p o r a t e d balance of t h e
 e v e n t , t h e t a b u l a t i o n s f o r enumeration d i s t r i c t s can    county. This p r a c t i c e n o t o n l y makes I t e a s y t o
 b e summarized by t r a c t s f o r comparison with t h e next                     i d e n t i f y t h e general l o c a t i o n of t h e t r a c t when r e f -
 census. No attempt should be m d e , however, t o have                             erence is m d e t o it by number b u t a l s o f a c i l i t a t e s
 t h e new t r a c t s conform with t h e old enuner&tlon d i s -                   compilation of t o t a l s f o r e a c h o f t h e l a r g e r a r e a s .
 t r i c t s a t t h e coat of having poorly designed t r a c t s .                           Where t r a c t s have been designed t o conform with
            A s p e c i a l e f f o r t should be made t o obtain a l l             ward boundaries, t h e nard number may s i m i l a r l y be em-
 maps showing c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of d i f f e r e n t p a r t s or       ployed a s a p r e f i x .
                                        Appendix B.-LIBT            OF OENSU9 TRACT KEY PERSONS (JAN.                    1, 1947)


Akron, Ohio: Dr. H. 0. DeGraff, Head, Dept. or Soci-                                          Dayton, Ohio: Herbert W. S t a r i c k , Planning D i r e c t o r ,
                             o l w m , U n i v e r s i t y of Akron, 302 E.                                                 C i t y Plan Board, 530 Muniolpai Bldg.
                            Buohel Ave.                                                       Denver, Colo.: Dr. F. L. Carniichael, D i r e c t o r , Bureau
A t l a n t a , Qa.: Frank K. Shaw, FJngineer, The I n d u s t r i a l                                                      of Business and S o c i a l Researoh,
                            Bureau, A t l a n t a Chamber of Commerce,                                                      U n i v e r s i t y of Denver, 2011 Glenarm
                            33 Pryor S t . , N. 5.                                                                          Place
A t l a n t i c C i t y , N. J.: Mall Dodson, P u b l i c R e l a t i o n s                  Des Moines, Iowa: Thorpe B.Goreham,Pianning Engineer,
                            Ofricer, City Hall                                                                              C i t y Plan and Zoning Commission,Clty
Augusta, Ga.: L. S. Moody, S e c r e t a r y , The Chamber of                                                               Hall
                            commerce                                                         D e t r o i t , Mich. : Dr. Lent D. Upson, D l r e c t o r , School
A u s t i n , Texas: D r . rJarl M. Rosenquist, Department of                                                               of ?ublic A f f a i r s and Soc. Work,
                            Sociology, ' J n i v e r s i t y 3r Texas                                                       Wayne U n i v e r s i t y (1)
B a l t l ~ o r e ,Md.: D r . \V. Thurber F a l e s , D l r e c t o r , S t a -              3ulutr1, Minn.: John C. Hunner, S e c r e t a r y and Chier
                            t i s t i c a l Section, Baltimore City Health                                                  Technician, C i t y Planning C o m i s s l o n ,
                            Department, hlunicipal O f r i c e Building                                                     209 C i t y Hall
Berkeley; C a l i f . : Samuel C. May, D i r e c t o r , Bureau of                           E l i z a b e t h , N. J. : Mrs. Frances M. Burrus, Executive
                            P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of                                Director, E l i z a b e t h Housing Authority,
                            California (4)                                                                                  688 htaple Ave.
Birmingharr,, Ala. : Oeorge V. T r u s s , D i r e c t o r , Bureau                          H a r t f o r d , Corn.: Dr. Charles      ;.            Chakerlan, Research
                            or V i t a l S t a t i s t i c s , J e i r e r s o n County                                     D i r e c t o r , Council of Soc. Agencies
                            Board of Health, Fourth Ave. and                                                                or Greater Hartford, Essex Building,
                            N i n e t e e n t h S t . , N,                                                                  1 5 Lewis S t . ( 3 )
Boston, Mass.: Miss Dorothy W. ?dyers, S t a t i s t i c i a n , , Honolulu, Hawaii: John F. Child, Jr. Business Survey
                            O r e a t e r Boston Community Council, I                                                      and Research Service, 305 Damon Build-
                            261 F r a n k l i n S t . (10)                                                                  ing (:)
B u l f a l o , N. Y.: Miss S a r a Kerr, D e c u t l v e S e c r e t a r y ,                Houston, Texas: G l b e r t L. Hooker, Research ~ i r e c t o r ,
                            B u f f a l o Foundat ion, 232 Delaware Ave           .                                        Council of S o c i a l Agencies, 1014-1/2
                             (21                                                                                           c a p i t o l Ave, (2)
Cambridge, Mass.: Noyes CollLnson, Executive Secre-                                          I n d i a n a p o l i s , :nd.: Sydney B. Markey, Associate Sec-
                            t a r y , Cambridge Community Council,                                                         r e t a r y , Counc 1 1 of S o c i a l . Agencies,
                            1 8 B r a t t l e S t . (38)                                                                   9 0 1 Lemcke Bldg. (4)
Camdem, N. 5.: Clarenae E. M o U e t t e , D i r e c t o r , C i t y                         J e r s e y C i t y , N. J.: Wgh Zlarke, C i t y Development En-
                            Planning Commission, C i t y H a l l -                               $                         g i n e e r , De$. of Parks and P u b l i c
Chicago, I l l . : Dr. Louis Wirfh, Department of Soci-                                                                    Froperty, C i t y Hall
                            ology, U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago, 1126                      Kansas C i t y , Mo,: m e n A. Davlson, A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r ,
                            E a s t 6 9 t h S t . (37)                                                                     Council of S o c i a l Agencles, 1020
C i n c i n n a t i , Ohio: D r . James A. Quinn, Department of                                                            McGee st. ( 6 )
                            Sociology, U n i v e r s i t y or C i n c i n n a t i ,          Long Beach and Los Angeles, C a l i f . : Guy E. Marion,
                            Burnet Woods S t a t i o n (21)                                                                Kanager, Research Department, Lo8
Cleveland, 0hio'              Howard Whlpple Green, S e c r e t a r y ,                                                    Angeles Chamber or Cxrneroe, 1151
                            Cleveland Health Council, 1001 Suron                                                           s o u t h Broadway ( 1 5 )
                            Road (15)                                                        Mem~hie, Tenn. : L. P. ~ o c k r i l l , E n g l ~ e e r - S e c r e t a r y ,
Columbus, Ohio: James C . Yocurn, Bureau of Business Re-                                                                   C i t y Planning Commission, Room 26,
                            search, The Ohio S t a t e Unlversity ( 1 0 )                                                  Police Station
D a l l a s , Texas: D r . W a l t e r T. Watson, Department o l                             Kilwaukee, Vis.: Norman N. G i l l , Executive D i r e c t o r ,
                            Sociology, Southern Methodist Uni-                                                            .Citizens BuretiJ of Milwaukee , 126
                            versity                                                                                        E a s t Wells S t . ( 2 )
Mlnneapolls, Minn. : Paul M. Segner, Research Analyst,            providence, R. I.: Harold C. Edelston, Research set-
                  Cen. Plan. and Res. Dept., Minneapo-                                   r e t a r y , Providence Council of Social
                  l i s Council of Soc. Agencies, 314            .-                      Agencies, 100 North Main S t . (3)
                  Citizens Aid Bldg., 404 So. 8th St.             Richnond, Va.: m. Alleri S. Donnahoe, D i r e c t o r
Nashville, Tenn.: Walter L. Stone, Director O Re-   f                                    of Research, Richmond Chamber of
                  search, Councll of Community Agencies,                                 Commerce
                  303 Chamber of Comerce Bldg. (3)                Rochester, N. Y. : J. Franklin Bonner, Director, onr roe
Newark, N. J. : Joseph Reilly, Public Relations Agent,                                   County Dlv. of Reg. Plan,, 1460 South
                  Newark Housing Authority, 57 Sussex Ave.                               Ave. (7)
Nw Haven, Conn.: Dr. John H. Watkins, Department of
  e                                                               St. Louis, MO.: Roy Wenzlick,Ro~Wenzlick and Compam
                  Public Health,Yale University School                                   915 Olive S t r e e t (1)
                  of Mdioine                                      St. Paul, Minn.: Oeorge H. Herrold, Planning Engineer,
Nev Orleans, La. : Dr. Harlan W, Ollmre, Department                                      The C i t y Planning 3oard, Court House
                  of Soclology, Tulane University of                                     (2)
                  Louisiana (15)                                  San Francisco, Calif.: R. 8 . Koeber, Manager,Research
Nw York City, N. Y. : Dr. Neva R. Deardort?, Director,
 e                                                                                       Departmnt , Sari Franc1 sco Chamber of
                  Research Bureau,Welfare Council of                                     C o m r c e , 533 Pine S t r e e t (4)
                    e
                  Nw York City, 44 East 23rd S t . (10)                                      .
                                                                  Savannah, 5a. : Leo F Johnson, Manager, Savannah Cham-
-land,   Calif.: Samuel C. May, Director, Bur. of Pub-                                   ber of Commerce, P.O. Box 530
                  l i c Administration, Unlverslty of             S e a t t l e , Wash.: Dr. Calvin F. Schmid, Department or
                  Calif ornla, Berkeley (41                                              Sociology, VniVerSity of Washington
Oklahoma City, Okla, : Jack Hull, Manager, Research               Syracuse, N, Y. : Professor William 0. Lehman, Depart-
                  Division, Oklahoma City Chamber of                                     ment of Sociology, Syracuse Unlver-
                  Comerce                                                                s i t y (10)
Phlladelphia, Pa. : Horace C. Fehr, Commercial Engineer-          Toledo, Ohio: Charles E. Hatch, Secretary-Engineer,
                            The
                  S U ~ V ~ Y S , Bell Telephone Co. of                                  C i t y Plan Commisaion, 4 t h F l o o r t C o w t
                  Pa., 1835 Arch st. (3)                                                 House
Pittsburgh, Pa.: Aubrey Mallach, Bureau or Social Re-             Trenton, N. J. : Professor Harlan H. Miller, Department
                  searoh, Federation of Bocial Agen-                                     of SoCiOlogy,New J e r s e y S t a t e Teach-
                  Cle8 of Pittsburgh and Allegheny Co.,                                  e r s College ( 5 )
                  619 8mitMield S t r e e t (22)                  Washington, D. C.: Miss R i t a E. Beuchert, Director
Portland, Oreg.: TheronR. Howser, Secretary, Clty                                        of Research and S t a t i s t i c s , Council
                  Planning Commission, Clty Hall, 1009                                   O Social Agencies, 1101 K S t r e e t ,
                                                                                           f
                  9. W 4 Fifth Ave.                                                      N. W.

L o u i s v i l l e , Ky,: Mr. Fred Lodge, Louisville and Jef-
                           ferson County Planning and zoning
                           Comfssion
                                N
                 CENSUS TRllCTS I CLEVELAND AND
                  A PART OF ITS STJBURBAB AREA




SCALE IN MILES
APPENDIX D   16
                          DEPAWrMENT OF COMMBRCE
                             BUREAU OFTHE CENSUB
                                WASHINGTON 25


         ~'roceduresfor Defining Census Areas in Tracted Cities for
               Presentation of Retail Trade and Other Data

           (A Supplement to the Census Tract Manual, 3rd Edition
                   Revised and Enlarged, January 1947)

                                June 1950
Purpose of this Supplement - This supplement estfiblishes means for defining
areas within tracted cities which will be accorded precedence in the tabula-
tion and presentation of Census data for groups of tracts, Where feasible,
the areas should be so defined that they can provide a uniform pattern for
presentation of population, housing, income, retail trade, and other Census
statistics. However, as immediate use can be made of intra-city areas for
the presentation of retail trade data from the 1948 Census of Business,
this supplement also makes provision for defining a set of areas specifically
for this purgose for those cities where it is not feasible to define "general
purposettareas at this time. The "general purposett and Itspecialpurposet'
areas will be identified subsequently in this manual as Census Community
areas and Census Retail Trade areas, respectively.
                                 -
Publication of Retail Trade Data In its regular publication program, the
Bureau of the Census publishes data on number of retail stores, their sales
and payroll, and the number of employees and proprietors for each incorpor-
ated place of 2,500 inhabitant$ or more, as well as for each county, standard
metropolitan area, and State. For the smallest communities, data are presented
for a maximum of ten major kind-of-business groups; for the largest ones, de-
tail is provided for as many as 90 individualrkindsof business. The regular
publications, however, provide no tabulations for areas within cities.

Limitations on the Presentation of Retail Trade D@ta - The presentation of
Census Bureau data on retail trade is subject to limitations resulting from
the requirement for applying Census rules which aye designed to prevent the
disclosure of figures for individual businesses. These rules limit presentation
to data in which the figures for no one business establishm&nt are predominan-t
and in which there are at least three business establishments represented, The
types of disclosure covered by these rules include both the disclosure which is
directly made apparent by the published figures, and indirect disclosure, i,e.,
disclosure which can occur by subtracting figures included in one table from
those included in another. The disclosure rules do not apply to the figures
on number of establishments classified by kind of business but do apply t o
data concerning the business activity of those establishments, e.g,, sales,
payroll, employment, etc,
          The likelihood of having to withhold data on retail establishments to
avoid disclosure becomes greater as the kind-of-bu$iness detail required is in-
creased or as the size of individual areas as measured by the number of retail
       .   stores is decreased, Most individual Census tracts, for example, have too
           few retail stores to permit showing data in kind-of-business detail. Even
           for areas considerably larger than tracts, Indirect disclosure ca;n result if
           tabblations in the same kind-of-business detail are prepared for more than
           one set of areas within the same community. This can occur because the over-
           lapping of the areas of one set with those of another has the effect of pro-
           viding data for fractions of areas by subtraction, thereby increasing the dis-
           closure probability.

                                                      -
           The Necessity for a Standard Area Pattern Individual business organizations,
           concerned with marketing their own products or with making market analyses for
           others, may have their own area basis for compiling data for a community, In
           these cases, Census retail trade data might be of maximum value to them if
           compiled for their own sets of areas. Although the Census Bureau would be
           willing to prepare such tabulations on a reimbursable basis, the application
           of disclosure rules results in a progressive decrease in the kind-of-business
           detail which can be provided for each successive tabulation (i. . each
                                                                          e,
           different set of areas) for any community, and the disclosure analysis which
           is required before data can be released becomes progressively more costly. In
           order to avoid discrimination among those requesting special area tabulations,
           the Census Bureau.is providing in this supplement means for adoption of
           standard area patterns which should be designed to have the optimum value
           generally to users of retail trade data, even though they do not exactly cor-
           respond with the patterns for which data could be made available if there were
           no restrictions resulting from appliaation of disclosure rules. The standard
           pattern of areas is to be accorded precedence in the tabulations made for the
           communities where adopted. Because of the disclosure problem, any subsequent
           tabulations for such communities will be subject to a reduction in detail and
           to added cost of preparation as compared with the tabulation for the standard
           pattern.

                                -
           Approved Area m e s The types of areas which can 'be set up in accordance with
           the procedures in this manual are:

                     (I) Census Community Areas   - ,generalpurpose areas suitable
                           for presentation of various Census data.

                     (2)                              -
                           Census Retail Trade Areas special purpose areas designed
                           specifically for use-in connection with the presentation of
                           retail trade data.
           The subsequent procedure also makes provision for the defining of certain types
           of sub-areas within the regular-are8patterns.

           Local Census Tract Committee Responsibility - The Local Census Tract Committee
           has the responsibility for recommending to the Census Bureau an area plan for
           tabulating Census data for its own community. The Bureau of the Census will
           make the final determination.
                     Because of the particular interest of business groups in data for such
           areas, it is neoessary that any recommendation of an area pattern be made with
           full knowledge of the requirements of advertising agencies, newspapers, utilities,
           market analysis organizatbns, and other groups which need information on the
b PJ
     distribution of retail trade within the city. It shall be the responsibility
     of the local key person to arrange for adequate re~resentation the committee
                                                                     on
     of such groups, including invitations to each of tpe principal local daily
     newspapers, Chamber of Commerce (or Board of Trade), Amer ican Marketing Associa-
     tion local chapter, American Statistical Associati~plocal chapter, and each of
     the more important utility companies located withiq the community. In addition,
     the participation of other groups usually represented on the Local Tract Com-
     mittee, such as departments of the municipal goverqent, including planning
     commissions, welfare agencies, etc., also is desirable. Compliance with the
     above requirements for representation is a prerequisite for Census Bureau ap-
     proval of the area plan. The Census Bureau will iqform the local key person of
     requests for city tabulations of Census data which have been made directly to
     the Bureau.

     Cities for which Census Community or Census Retail Trade Areas can be Defined -
     Because of the difficulties involved in determinin4 the specific area locatton
     of business establishments where the areas are notedefinedby tract boqdaries,
.*   it generally is not feasible to attempt to establiqh Community or Retail Trade
     areas in non-tracted cities. Where the city is loqated in a standaxd metropol-
     itan area, it may be feasible to extend the area pattern to ccsveri%he whole
f                                                                f
     metropolitan area, provided tracts have been estabtished. I it is important
     to cover the whole metropolitan area, the Census Tract Committee should take
     the steps necessary to tract untracted areas. Coqunity or Retail Trade area
     boundaries may be established before tract boundarges are formally established;
     however, in such cases, it will be considered that there is a commitment to so
     designate tract boundaries that the previously estqblished area. boundaries in
     all cases will coincide with tract lines.

     Area Boundaries - Census Community or Census Retail. Trade areas in tracted cities
     are to c~nsistof whole Census tracts or combinations of tracts. Where these
     areas are to be extended beyond the boundaries of q tracted city, the additio~al
     limitation applies that any individual area covering more than one incorporated
     place cannot be restricted to only a part of an incorporated place but must
     cover it entirely. In addition, where an area is $ cover both an incorporated
                                                        0
     place and adjacent unincorporated territory, all of the incorporated place
     must be covered in that area. Because Census reta+l trade data will be published
     for each place of 2,500 inhabitants or more, areas consisting of all of an in-
     corporated place and of an adjacent unincorporated territo?~should be a$ large as
     possible to minimize the disclosure which might regult from subtracting figures
     for the incorporated place from those for an area which includes both the in-
     corporated place and adjacent territory.
               The above rules require area boundaries $ follow tract lines, This
                                                        0
     not only makes it possible to compile data other than those from the Census of
     Business on the same basis but permits tabulation ~f Census of Business data at
     a considerable saving over what would otherwise be possible. Where following
     present tract lines seriously limits the value of %abulations of business data,
     the local Census Tract Committee may recommend estgblishing new tracts to be
     created by splitting existing tracts. However, thgs should be done only very
     rarely because of the increased tabulation costs resulting from the larger
     number of tracts for which data would have to be spparately summarized and
     because comparisons from Census to Census are more difficult where such bhanges
    a r e made. C r i t e r i a provided i n the Census Tract Manual s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r t h e
    purpose of detkrmirih~       Rrac2 boundaries should-.be abserved. i n proposed s p l i t s
    of t r a c t s . Approval of the Census Bureau i s required before s p l i t s f n t r a c t s
    can be adopted.

    Sub-Areas    -       The establishment of sub-areas within areas i s not precluded by
    t h i s supplement and may be desirable t o accommodate data requirements necessi-
    t a t i n g differing degrees of d e t a i l or differing area sizes. Adoption of a sub-
    area p a t t e r n may a l s o provide a bridge between a community area p a t t e r n and a
    r e t a i l trade area p a t t e r n where there is d i f f i c u l t y i n designing t h e former t o
    meet important needs f o r r e t a i l trade data, It should be observed, of cowse,
    t h a t as compared with whole areas, tabulations for sub-areas w i l l require a
    s a c r i f i c e i n kind-of-business d e t a i l and an increased cost of preparation.
               .Sub-area boundaries a r e required t o follow the same r u l e as those
    f o r the Census Community o r Census Retail Trade areas. However, where it i s
    important t o make tabulations f o r "principal thoroughf arest1 regardless of t r a c t
    boundaries, a request f o r advice on such sub-areas should be referred t o the
    Census Bureau before any wor$,is done. In general, "principal thoroughf are1'
    tabulatioqs are comparatively very costly t o make because. of the map search
    necessary t o locate s t o r e s within areas which are not i d e n t i f i e d i n terms of
    the location information recorded on Census report forms and because of the
    nature of the disclosure analysis required.

.   Permanence of Areas        - As the value of area tabulations is g r e a t l y increased by
    the a b i l i t y t o make comparisons over time, it is..5mportant t h a t the areas be
    designed with t h e understanding t h a t they w i l l continue t o be used, without
    revision of boundaries, i n tabulations t o be made from future Censuses. Even
    though i t i s not always possible t o anticipate changes i n the composition of
    o i t y neighborhoods, the value of permanent boundaries and of befng able t o
    make comparisons from time t o time outweighs any advantages which might be
    obtained by revising boundaries 'to r e f l e c t s h i f t s within the c i t y . .The above
    is not intended t o preclude the addition of new areas i n cases where the
    boundaries of the c i t y have been extended.

    S i ~ of Areas
            e          - There are no r i g i d specifications with respect t o the s i z e of
    any individual Census Community o r Census Retail Trade area except a s implied
    i n the requirement f o r following t r a c t lines. .However, the areas i n any c i t y
    should average a t l e a s t 400 r e t a i l stores and 30,000 inhabitants. It is ex-
    pected t h a t i n most c i t i e s a somewhat higher average w i l l be found t o be
    desirable, p a r t i c u l a r l y with r e s p e c t t o the number of s t o r e s . . For t h e purpose
    of showing r e t a i l trade qata i n kind-of-business d e t a i l , it should be observed
    t h a t the greater the number of s t o r e s within the area, the more d e t a i l can
    be shown without v i o l a t i o n of Census disclosure rules.
          The following table with respect t o the kind-of-business d e t a i l
which can be provided may be useful as a guide i n establishing areas:


                  Number of                      Approximate number of
                  retail                         kfnd-of -business groups
                  s t o r e s i n Area           f o r which data can be shown

                  Under 50                       Total only
                  50-99                          3
                  100-199                        10
                  200-499                        15
                  500 and over           .       25

To aid Local Census Tract Committees i n devising areas so they w i l l be of
d e s i r e d s i z e , i n terms of number of r e t a i l s t o r e s , the Census Bureau, on
r e q u e s t , w i l l f u r n i s h a tabulation of the approximate number of r e t a i l
establishments, by Census t r a c t . A l i s t of the s p e c i f i c kinds of business
which can be shown a t various l e v e l s of d e t a i l s a l s o w i l l be provided on
request


Cost of Area Tabulations - A l l s p e c i a l area tabulations w i l l be prepared by
t h e Census Bureau on a reimbursable cost basis. The charge f o r such tabulations,
however, does not include the cost of collecting the data but only t h e additional
c o s t involved i n the tabulation and issuance of the data on t h e area basis. Cost
estimates can be secured from the Bureau. The Bureau reserves the r i g h t t o in-
clude i n i t s own publications area tabulations prepared on a reimbursable b a s i s .


Approval of Area Plan         -The area p a t t e r n recommended by the Local Census Tract
Committee should be transmitted t o the Census Bureau f o r approval. The trans-
m i t t a l should include a l i s t of persons, and the organizations which they
represented, who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h i s undertaking of the Committee; the c r i t e r i a
followed i n designing the areas; the t r a c t numbers which comprise each area and
sub-area; and any additional information, such as maps or s t r e e t boundaries,
which a r e necessary t o describe the Committee's recommendations.

                 The area p a t t e r n recommended by the Local Census Tract Committee i f
p o s s i b l e should represent agreement of a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s , I f complete agreement
on a s e t of areas cannot be obtained, both majority and minority reports
should be submitted.
                                  DEPARTM~NT COMMERCE
                                           OF
                                       BUREAU OF   THE CENSUS
                                                                          +



                                                                         ;,pa
                                                                                ::au        TH

                 .THE DEFINITION AND ESTABLISHMENT OF CENSUS TRACTS
                              BY L C L TRACT COMMITTEES
                                  OA

             (second Supplement t o Census Tract Manual, January 1947)

                                         November 1952


Preface

              This statement is a supplement t o t h e Census Tract Manual,
January 1947, and serves as a r e v i s i o n of pages 9-11 d e a l i n g with t h e pro-
cedures of defining census t r a c t s . Attention i s a l s o d i r e c t e d t o t h e
f i r s t supplement t o the Census Tract Manual of June 1950, Procedures f o r
Defining Census Areas i n Tracted C i t i e s f o r Presentation of R e t a i l Trade
and Other Data.

I.   Nature and General Use of Census Tracts

                  Census s t a t i s t i c s on a small-area b a s i s have many uses i n -tihe
analysis of problems of l a r g e c i t i e s and other urban t e r r i t o r y and i n t h e
e f f i c i e n t administration and management of municipal, welfare, and business
enterprises. To meet t h i s need c e r t a i n l a r g e c i t i e s and Standard Metropolitan
Areas are divided i n t o census t r a c t s ,

                Census t r a c t s a r e small, permanently-established, geographical
areas f o r which census data are compiled and by t h e use of which comparisons
can be made from one census t o t h e next. They a r e l a i d out with a view t o
approximate uriiformity i n population and with some regard f o r uniformity i n
s i z e , and each is designed t o include an a r e a f a i r l y homogeneous with r e s p e c t
'I3 r a c i a l charac-beristics and economic s t a t u s .


I     Census P a c t Committee

                   Delineation of census t r a c t s should be performed under t h e
d i r e c t i o n of a l o c a l census t r a c t committee, I f a permanent committee of
t h i s type has .not been established, one should b e organized, Representatives
of various l o c a l groups i n t e r e s t e d i n l o c a l d a t a should b e i n v i t e d t o serve,
Such groups w511 include c3ty and county planning boards, chambers of
commerce, colleges and u n i v e r s i t i e s , councils of s o c i a l agencies, r e a l
e s t a t e boards,, representatives of c i t y and county governments, l o c a l housing
a u t h o r i t i e s , newspaper publishers, public u t i l i t i e s , and a d v e r t i s i n g and
market analysis agencies. Representatives of t h e l o c a l chapters of t h e
American S t a t i s t i c a l Association and t h e American Marketing Association
should be invited.

             The i n i t i a l delineation of t h e proposed census t r a c t s should be
entrusted t o an individual o r t o a small subcommittee of t h e main c
The individual or individuals chosen should be thoroughly f a m i l i a r
a r e a and should understand t h e purposes of t r a c t i n g .
The Definition and Establishment of Census Tracts by Local Tract Committees
                                                   -
111" Aids i n Txacting from the Bureau of the Census
                   n
                  A Itenumeration district!! map w i l l be furnished t o - t h e committee
on request by t h e Bureau of the Census for each county, c i t y , t o m , o r other
p o l i t i c a l area which i s t o be divided i n t o t r a c t s . This map or these maps
w i l l show the boundaries and identifying number f o r each enumeration d i s b i c t
which was established within the area for the taking of t h e 1950 Census., An
enumeration d i s t r i c t , often referred t o as an "E.D.," i s a small work area,
normally containing several hundred people, which is s e t up before the taking
of a census, Later during the course of the census each E.D, i s canvassed or
enumerated by one person who is known as the enumerator.

          A l i s t of the E , D , ' s by t h e i r identifying number designations w i l l
accompany the map and give the t o t a l 1950 population f o r each EoD.

               The E.D. maps together with t h e E.D. population t o t a l s provide t h e
infor~nationon how many 'people l i v e i n the various p a r t s of t h e area and tl'lus
a s s i s t the committee i n designing t r a c t s whi& w i l l have approximately t h e
population desired.

                     Attention i s called t o tl.ie f a c t t h a t certain population and housing
-tabul:xLio;n~!lave been prepared f o r E,D. s and may be obtained a t t h e c;ost of
photost3ting. The population tabulation shows t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n of t h e popu-
l a t i o n by race, sex, and n a t i v i t y as well as by color and age. The content
of the E.11. housing tabulation is substantially t h e same as t h e t a b u l a t i o n by
c i t y b.loclro and is available for a l l areas nutside block ci-tiea. Block
s t s t i s - t i c s from t h e 1950 Census of Housing are published i n Series 13-E with
a sepa~ate            report for each of the 209 cities..which i n 1940, or i n a subsequent
census p r i o r t o 1950, had a popula-tf on of 50,000 ox more.

           The Bureau of t h e Census a l s o stands ready t o answer t h e qi~esLSons
of local cor!mlit-beet; concerning t r a c t ing problems.
                                                         Inquiries       be s e n t to
any f:ie%d office of the Bureau of t h e Census or t o t h e Director, B1xrea.u of
%he Census, Waslzingt~n25, D.C ,

            In alldition, arrangements may be made f o r f i e l d representatives of
t h e Bureau of t h e Census t o give advice locally on t h e d & f i n i t i o n a i d e s t a b l i s h -
ment of cemus t r a c t s i n t h e area.

IV,    Population of Tracts

             The proposed t r a c t s should be l a i d out t o contain from 2,500 t o
8,000 irhabitants, or even more, with about 4,000 being t h e minimum average
s i z e for the needs of l o c a l and na%ional users. Where a t r a c t with fewer
%ha 2,500 inhabitants is proposed, t h e reasons for s o doing should be given,
unlees the t r a c t i s an i n s t i t u t i o n and has 2,000 inhabitants or more.

V.    - of Tracts
      Rounr3.wies

              Census t r a c t boundaries should follow permapent and e a s i l y recognizable
l i n e s as f ar--as possible. These include s t r e e t s , Pighways, r a i l r o a d s , streams,
county, city, and town l i m i t s , and the like.
Page 3
The Definition and Establishnent of Census Tracts by Local Tract Committees
               The use of a m a j o ~business s t r e e t as a census t r a c t boundary ma^^
not be adv-isak1.e. The t r a c t boundary may be moved over by perhaps one block so
t h a t a l l of the busfiess establishments facing t h e major business s t r e e t l i e
within the same census t r a c t , This would permit t h e inclusion in t h e same
t r a c t of business establishments t h a t are p a r t of t h e same business nucleus.
I t would also faciliabate a meaningful. grouping of t r a c t s i n t o l a r g e r areas
  -i

                                                   .
such as census r e t a i l trade or census cmukzity w e a s (see the June, 1950
Supplement t o ~e Census Tract ~anual.)
VZ,    Homogeneity of Tracts
             Census t r a c t s should be homogeneous as f a r as practicable, t h a t i s ,
they shoidd contatn people of similar r a c i a l or n a t i o n d i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ,
of similar economic status, and with similar housing. It is not desirable,
for example, t o have one p a r t of a t r a c t composed of expensive homes and t h e
other p a r t of slum dwellings, because average s t a t i s t i c s f o r the t r a c t as a
whole would not r e f l e c t the s t a t u s of e i t h e r group,
          The use of groups of E.D.'s f o r census t r a c t s i s ordinarily n o t
advisable, Not only are E.D. 1s temporary-.work areas whose boundaries were
selected without referenee t o homogeneity, but t h e i r boundaries may change
from census to census so t h a t c o ~ a r a b l e
                                                 E.D, f i g u r e s from past decades
would generally not be available.
              Some attention should be given i n the design of census t r a c t 8 ' t o
t h e distribution of .business establishments so t h a t business s t a t i s t i c s , if
collected by. t r a c t s , may not bring together i n t h e same t r a c t those establish-
ments which represent different cen-bers of business (see t h e .June, 1950
Supplemero-t "c t h e Census Tract Manual). I n all the l a r g e r c i t i e s , a t l e a s t
one t r a c t should be delineated t o include t h e c e n t r a l business d i s t r i c t even
though its population may f a l l below 2,500.
VII.    Delineation of Tracts
          The drawing of t h e proposed census t r a c t boundaries should b e
done on 8 large-sca?ce, current map or maps of t h e w e a which show s t r e e t s ,
highways, r silroads, streams, c i t y limits, e'cc. In drawtng the boundaries
use should b e made of a l l available naps and s t a t i s % i c a l information
the E,D, map and population data. The c r i t e r i a already men'cioned,shouZd be
closely adhered t o , and for convenience a r e summarized below,


                      From 2,500 t o 8,000 fnhabitants or more with 4,000
                      being t h e minimum average si1;e. &LY t r a c t with
                      fewer than 2,500 should have a supporting explmatl.on,
             B.   Boundariess
                                                                      l
                      Permanen$ and e a s i l y ~ e c o g n i z q b l s i n e s , such as s t r e e t s ,
                      highways, railroads, streams, c i t y limits, etc. Major business
                      s t r e e t s should be used with caution.
Page 4

The Definition and Establishment of .Census Tracts by Local Tract Committees
          C   . Homogeneity  i

                1. As f"ar as practicable censw t r a c t s should contain people of
                   similar racial or nationality characteristics, of similar
                   economic s-batus, and with similar housing,
                2 E,D, J s being temporary working areas plaaned for eadh census
                 .
                   without regard t o homogeneity me s o t necessarily suitable
                   u n i t s for designing cqnsus tracts.
                3.   Attention should be given t o the grouping of business
                     establishments,
           .
          D Additional instructions applicable t o the trac-bing of urban fringe
                     t e r r i t o r y and the remainder of counties are:
                1. iiach separately incorporated or unincorporated place
                    (recognized I a 1950 Series A Population Bulletin) which has
                                    n
                   2,500 h h a h i t a n t s or more should form at l e a s t one census t r a c t ,
                                                             9


                2.   The ren@inder of the qrea should consist of one or more censu8
                     tract s o
                     a,   In t h e fo3lowing $tates where minor c i v i l divisions (towns,
                          townships, etc. ) form relatively permanent areas, are we31
                          Imown locally, and are significant as governmental units, t h e
                                                     s
                          boundaries of the EYI.C.Do should be observed I establishing
                                                                               n
                          census trectsr
                             Comectlcut                    mesota                 North Dakota
                             IllFaois                      Missouri               Ohio
                             Bdiana                        Nebraska               Pennsylvania
                             Iowa                          Nevada                 Rhode Island
                             Kansas                        NW Hampshir&           South Dakota
                             Mahe                           e
                                                           Nw Jersey              V'ermont
                             Massachusetts                  e
                                                           Nw York                West Virginia
                             Michigan                      North Carollna         Wisconsin
                                                           . . . should be designated as--
                          This does not mean that every M C D
                          one o r more censw tracts. I f M.C.Dfs ha* small popu3a$ioh,
                          they should be corpbined, Where an urban place (with 2,500
                          inhabitants or more) i s s e t up as a t r a b t , the balance of the
                          M,C,Dz in which i-t; located may be a t r a c t , or i f it is too
                                              is
                          small, it should be combined with adjacent M.C.Df s o r parts
                          of M.C.Dfs t o form a tract.

                     b.   In t h e following States the boundaries of minor c i v i l divisions
                                                     n
                          also should be obqewd i establishiqg census t r a c t s unless i%
                          c a s be clearly demonstra%edthat these units da not have
                          sigaif icant lacal use r
                                           Arkansas           Mississippi
                                           DeLaware            OlCLahoma
                                           Maryland           Virginia
Page 5

The Definition and Establi'shment of Census Tracts by Local Tract Committees

                      c.   In the S t a t e of Washington -the minor c i v i l divisions
                           (election precincts) were replaced f o r census purposes by
                           census coumty divisions. Nw census t r a c t s i n t h i s State
                                                          e
                           should observe t h e boundaries of t h e census county divisions,

                      d.   In the remaining S t a t e s where M.C.DaLs have frequently
                           changing boundaries or are not well known locally, t h e
                           t r a c t s should be l a i d out with permanent and e a s i l y
                           recognizable boundaries without regard t o M.C.D:           bouadaries,

VIII. Numbering of Tracts
           Tracts should be identified by a s e r i e s of consecu-Live numbers (1, 2,
3, etc ) within each county. The central c i t y should be numbered f2rs.l; and then
          c.

the remainder of county. The numbering i n the county preferably should s t a p t
i n the northeast corner, It is also preferable t h a t consecutive numbers be
assigned contiguous t r a c l s .
      L

          Prefixes (A,, B, C , D, etc. f o r example) may b e used as desired t o
distinguish the c i t y or the remainder of comty or p a r t s of e i t h e r , such n.s
community areas. In the remainder of county a separate preF'1x coi.l.lrl 11o u . ~ s df o r
each urban place.

                The Bureau of the census w i l l be glad Lo advise new t.rac:ted el:.ineason t h e
d e t a i l s of &theirnumbering systems a t t h e time -tracts a r e e a t a l ~ l i s h c d .

              The proposed t r a c t numbers should be entered on the map w-itb:ir, 'bile
t r a c t boundaries.

      -
      Written Descriptions of Tract Boundaries

          In addition t o drawing t h e pr,oposed t r a c t boundaries on a map, a -byl>ed
description of the boundaries of each t r a c t should be furnished. The descx~igt-ion
should start a t t h e northwestern corner of t h e t r a c t and proceed i n a el-ocirw'ise
direction as i n t h e example below:

               Tract 1 :
                      1         Oswego Blvd.                     (~ o r t ' n )
                                Kirkpatrick ( s t , )            (~ast   )
                                Nw York Central R R
                                 e                    ..         (south)
                                Hiawatha Dlvd;                   (West)

X. Review by Local Tract CormnitLee
                    The proposed t r a c t s , a f t e r approval by t h e Bureau of t h e Census, become
" o f f i c i a l f 1 for the purpose of compiling future census s t a t i s t i c s . It i s important,
therefore, t h a t they represent the best judgment of those representative local
groups which use small-area census data. After t h e i n i t i a l d e l i n e a t i o n of t h e
t r a c t s has been accomplished, they should be s c r u t i n i z e d by t h e l o c a l census t r a c t
committee and changes considered desirable should be made before t h e recommendations
are transmitted t o the Bureau of t h e Census,
The ~ e f i n i t i o nand ~ s t a b i i s h m e n tof Census Tracts by Local Tract Committees

           It i 6 much t o be preferred t h a t the final. review of the proposed t r a c t s
be made a t m e % h e and a t one meekling of the census t r a c t committee t o which all
in-terested people have been invited. In t h i s way suggested changes can be.
                                           t
discussed and decided upon a c c o ~ d i n g o the wishes of the majority present, a
procedure which cannot be followed i f the recommendations a r e considered separately
by various groups and individuals.

                   A qanvenient time and place f o r the review meeting should be s e t and
s u f f i c i e n t advance n o t i c e given. Under such circumstances those who were invited
but did not attend will have l i t t l e justification a t same iqture date t o guestdon
t h e layout of %he t r a c t s as recommended t o the Bureau of t h e Census,
XI,   Approval of Tracts by City and Coulnty Officials
               From each incorporated place which is divided i n t o two or more census
t r a c t s there should be provided a statement or l e t t e r from t h e mayor, c i t y manager,
or other responsible o f f i c i a l which indicates h i s approval of the census t r a c t ..plan.
If t h i s o f f i c i a l i s a member of t h e census -tract committee, it i s assumed t h a t he
has approved, and accordingly such a l e t t e r is not necessary. For t r a c t s i n t h e
county outside of. incorporated places a statement or l e t t e r of approval from a
responsillle c.o~.l?l.ty ficj-a1 i s needed. A exception is made in the New Vnglmid
                              of                      n
States where a statementi o r l e t t e r i s desired from a n o f f i c i a l i n each town t h a t
is divided i n t o two o r more census t r a c t s .
           Tllese l e t t e r s o r statements skould be obtained a f t e r the census t r a c t
plan has been reviewed by -Ghe Bureau of t h e Census and an agreement on t h e f i n a l
boundaries h a s been reached by the Bureau and t h e local committee. It is well,
             obtain -tihe cooperation of the government o f f i c i a l s early i n t h e
hbwever, t r ~
prepasatlon of Che t r a c t plan.
 XI1. ---
      Transmi.i;*ta 1 of Tract Recammendations
            A f t e r t h e proposea t r a c t s are agreed upon by t h e census -tract committee,
t h e chairman sliould forward -t;he following material by registered mail t o t h e
Bureau of the Census, Geography Division, Washington 25, D.C, :
            Z    Maps of t h e areas trac-ted showing,

                 a + Tract boundaries
                 b , Tract numbers

                 It i s d e s i r a b l e %hat'a duplicate copy of t h e maps be submitted.
                 This w i l l f a c i l i t a t e t h e work of review a t t h e Bureau of %he
                 Census and make it possible t o return one copy i f any changes are
                 s~~ggested  .
            2.   Estimated population of proposed t r a c t s .
            3,   4 typed description of .the boundaries of each t r a c t .
            4.   Names of l o c a l organizations and individuals on the census t r a c t
                 committee and any-others who reviewed t h e t r a c t proposal.
                                                                        "   $

Page 7
The Definition a;nd Eetablishment of Cen~uq'Ilracts bg Loca) Tract C d t t e e s
         &provd of Tracts by the Bureau oe the Census

             Final approval of the census t r g c t s rests with t h e Bureau of t h e
Census. If any changes in the layout of the proposed t r a c t s are deemed desirable,
they w i l l be described in a l e t t e r t o tb l o c a l census t r a c t conrait-bee.

           After appmTraJ, the Bweau will use, the t r a c t s i n those censuses where
                         for
data are . ~ ~ l l e c t e d small areas.
        E'vrther Requlreqents bg: the Bqrsau, of the C a w
                 After t r a c t s are approved, the Bureau of t h e Census expects t h e l o c a l
cemus t r a c t committee t o prepare and publish a census t r a c t base map and a cemus
t r a c t s t r e s t index. The c e n ~ t r a c t map or naps shm t h e boundaries of each
                                            ~s
t r a c t sad are tools far local urors of census t r a c t data. The cemus t r a c t s t r e e t
Fndex is mother t o o l f o r the use of cenrsus t r a c t data which malres it po;ssLble t o
alloca.Ce quickly asy data collected by s t r e e t address t o t h e proper census t r a c t s .
The a v a i l a b i l i t y o f these two aids for any tractcsd area m d t h e existence of an
active local census t r a c t committee ape considered by the Bureau of t h e Census f o
h e t h e minimum evidence of a strong l o c a l internst Fn census t r a c t data.

             'laz an extension of the b a d t program, however, t h e Bureau of t h e Censw
wants t o make it clear that the e ~ t a b l i s h m a tof s a t i s f a c t o r y t r a c t s w i ' t h h an
area does not automatically mean t h a t detailed s t a t i s t i c s w i l l be published for
such weas. It does mean that the boundaries of such areas can be observed in t h e
enwneratiopil and Jn tabulations made for s d w a s , The degree t o which the
Bureau can undertake the publication of these data ie contingent on the avaikability
of funds f o r t h l s purpose. The establishment of t h e tracttr, hanever, w i l l place
the c i t y or area ;n a
                       i        i t o obtain data by t r a c t s a t reLatively low cost f o
                                 &                                                                            rm
Major Censuses.
                                        ation Areas
                   B Cammrtttee on Census E5;1Urnera=bion Areas appointed by t h e American
S t a t i s t i c a l Assaciation advises the Bureau of t h e C e n s u s cens~& t r a c t problems
and helps t o pramote the ext;ensian of census t r a c t s and %heirwider use. The
chairman of t h i s committee, FZt.. Howard Whipple Green, has given long and valuable
                                                    r
service t o the census t r a c t program. M . Green appoints t h e 9ey Census Tract
Person who has the responsibility f o r representing t h e local committee i n i t s
relations with the Bureau of the Census.

								
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