1990s hypothesis by ilo32820

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									           1990s hypothesis
• Computer networks can improve the
  quality of life in developing nations at a
  relatively low cost
• Marginal impact increased by a lack of
  alternative ICT and transportation
• Raising the quality of rural life will reduce
  pressure for urban migration
             We have done
•   Training
•   ICT readiness assessments
•   Pilot projects
•   Conferences and workshops
               Training
• Internet Society/World Bank Developing
  Nations Workshops
• trained over 2,500 networking pioneers
  from every developing nation but North
  Korea.
• Cisco Networking Academy: over 10,000
  academies in 155 countries
   E-readiness assessments

• 10 statistical/questionnaire methodologies
• 8 case study methodologies
• 137 nations have been assessed at least
  once
• 55 nations have been assessed at least 5
  times
• 10 nations have been assessed at least 10
  times
Mosaic dimensions
      Successful Applications

•   Education
•   Health care
•   E-commerce
•   Democracy and human rights
•   E-government
•   News and entertainment
Many successful pilots
E-government
Entertainment and connection
     to the outside world
            N-Logue rural Kiosk

• Remote medicine
• Remote veterinary
• Remote agricultural
  advice
• E-government
• E-mail
• digital photography
• desktop publishing
• Telephony
• Break even at
  $75/mo.
E-choupal home page
          E-choupal services

•   Login
•   Weather
•   Crop best practices
•   Market related information
•   Agricultural queries
•   Suggestion box
•   Farmer profile
•   Government schemes
•   News
   Cuban Youth Computer Clubs

• 350 YCCs
• Geographically
  dispersed
• Education
• Games
• Email
• News
YCC mobile unit
YCC mobile unit
         Where are we?

• Many applications have been
  demonstrated.
• The Internet is on the “radar screen”
• But the digital divide persists
• Capital is not available
The “digital divide” persists
       Internet subscribers, 2005
Income     Population Subscribers   Per 100
Low            2,338       37,408       1.6
Lower
               2,430      150,660       6.2
middle
Upper
                 576      120,384      20.9
middle
High           1,001      366,366      36.6
World          6,345      951,750       15
Cannot attract private capital
• Cost of 20 hours access as percent of
  average monthly GNI per capita (2003)



   Low income nations           258.3

   Lower middle income           32.2

   Upper middle income           13.3

   High income                    1.7
 VSAT– the only way to
connect most rural areas
      A grand challenge


Connecting the approximately three
billion people residing in three million
rural villages of the developing nations
within ten years.
           Grand challenges

• I believe that this nation should commit itself
  to achieving the goal, before this decade is
  out, of landing a man on the moon and
  returning him safely to Earth.
  John F. Kennedy, 1961

• That's one small step for a man, one giant
  leap for mankind.
  Neil Armstrong, 1969
      An unconnected nation
• No national backbone network
• No residential connectivity
• No commercial application
• Character-oriented email and news primary
  applications
• Connectivity only in a few universities

• The US in 1989
Fiber Backbone, Mesh, POPs
                     FiberAfrica
•   70,000 Km fiber core
•   30,000 Km fiber spurs
•   Wireless to fiber
•   Reach 400 million
•   Walking/bicycling distance
•   1 billion dollars

Daunting, but with
  precedents
       Cost context, $billion
•   Manhattan project: 1.889
•   US Interstate Highway system: 128.9
•   Apollo program: 25.4
•   GPS: 8.3 through 1995, 21.8 to complete
•   Baseball stadium: .581
•   B2 bomber: 2.2
•   US pet food: 10 per year
•   G8 African pledge: 25 per year (new)

								
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