L A K E C I T Y C O L O R A D O BUYING HISTORY Guide over 1900 Main Street Program communities in Congratulations! the United States have seen 57,000 new businesses, 230,000 jobs and 93,000 restored or rehabilitated As a historic property owner, you are invested in Lake buildings. Between 2001and 2004, the Main Street City’s past, present and future. Our National Register program in Colorado has attracted over $21.5 Mil- Historic District offers visitors from all over the world lion in downtown reinvestments. the opportunity to experience and understand our part of the nation’s history. It is our privilege to make sure the authentic, true story is told by preserving Want to know more about economic impacts of historic the unique historic structures in the Historic District. preservation? See the list of contacts and references This booklet explains how Lake City supports historic in the Resources section at the end of this booklet. preservation through the use of design guidelines and how the stewardship of your historic property bene- fits you, your neighbors in Lake City and the history Historic Preservation is of our nation. Sustainable Development Economic Benefits For Lake City Historic Preservation is green. By promoting the re-use of existing materials, preservation reduces Historic preservation reaps many community-wide construction waste and saves the energy spent on financial benefits in a wide variety of areas. Preser- creating new building materials. vation-related work creates jobs and stimulates the economy in the tourism, construction, and commu- Did you know that the EPA has calculated that nity development sectors. demolishing a house produces an average of 115 lbs of waste per square foot? A demolished commercial Perhaps most important to Lake City business is the building generates even more waste--approxima- relationship between tourism and historic preser- tely 155 lbs per square foot. The EPA estimates that vation. A national study conducted by the Travel construction and demolition generated more than Industry of America in 2002 assessed the impacts of 325 million tons of the waste in the country’s landfills heritage tourists (heritage tourists are travelers who in 2003. regularly include visits to historical sites as part of their trip). The study found that heritage tourists stay When you compare the environmental impacts of longer at a destination and spend more money than restoring an old building to the impacts of demolition other U.S. travelers. A similar study conducted in and new construction, consider the following: Colorado in 2003 found the same trends in our state, It takes about 65 years for an energy efficient new and determined that Heritage Tourists are more building to save the amount of energy lost in demo- likely than other vacationers to stay in commercial lodging. A recent study of the economic impacts of historic preservation in Colorado found that Historic Preser- vation in Colorado: • Created almost 29,000 jobs between 1981 and 2004, generating over $2 billion in direct and indi- rect economic impacts. • Attracts tourists. In 2003, heritage tourism created $3.4 billion in direct and indirect economic impacts and nearly 61,000 jobs. • Draws investors to the businesses in the commu- nity. Lake City is part of Colorado’s Main Street Program which focuses on downtown revitalization incorporating historic preservation. Since 1980, lishing an existing building. credit with affordable housing credits to assist in crea- You would have to drive your car 20,000 miles a year ting affordable housing project in historic structures. for 730 years to equal the amount of energy used to build a new 50,000 square foot commercial building Lake City is a “Certified Local Government”, which Construction debris accounts for 25% of the munici- means that tax credit applications can be reviewed pal waste stream each year. locally or in Denver at the Colorado Historical So- ciety. To qualify for the credits, the property owner Also consider the resources required and the green- must follow the Secretary of the Interior’s Standards house gas emissions associated with manufacturing for Rehabilitation and have the work approved in new building materials and products in lieu of resto- advance by either the Town of Lake City or by the ring an existing feature on a historic building. Colorado Historical Society. A copy of the Secretary of the Interior’s Standards is included in the Resour- Historic preservation practices are also locally sus- ces section, along with the contact information for tainable because they emphasize repair over repla- the tax credit program. Property owners should also cement, resulting in work that is more labor-inten- check with their accountant to ensure the program is sive than it is materials- intensive. This translates to appropriate for their finances. more work for locals and a smaller proportion of the Conservation Easements construction budget devoted to importing new mate- An owner of a historic property can place a preser- rials from outside of the local economy. vation easement on their property to guarantee that the historic elements of the property are preserved in Economic Benefits for the perpetuity. The easement does not change the pro- Historic Property Owner perty’s ownership. If the preservation easement is for There are a number of assistance programs for a historically designated property that is listed on the owners of designated historic properties. National Register of Historic Places, the easement can qualify as a charitable deduction for Federal Tax Credits income, estate and gift tax purposes. The amount of Federal and State tax credits are available to help that deduction is equal to the reduction in the pro- offset the costs of an approved restoration project. perty’s fair market value as a result of the easement. The federal government offers a 20% investment tax Although valuation and the resulting tax savings can credit for the approved restoration of designated his- become very complex to determine, property owners toric buildings. The State of Colorado offers a similar may save substantially on their taxes. 20% state income tax credit based on $5,000 or more of approved preservation work on designated proper- Preservation easements are much like conservation or ties. The credits are available to individuals and to open space easements and are somewhat complica- companies. Developers often combine the federal tax ted. Anyone considering this step should consult with an attorney. The Resources section of this booklet contains contact information to learn more about preservation easements. Grants and Loans Grants and loans are also available for historic pre- servation work. The best-known historic preservation grant program in Colorado is the Colorado State Historical Fund, a tax-funded grant program admi- nistered through the Colorado Historical Society in Denver. Financed by a portion of the taxes collected on gaming in Central City, Blackhawk and Cripple Creek, the Historical Fund grants an average of $13 million a year in two grant cycles. The emphasis of equity investments in the rehabilitation of historic properties eligible for the 20 percent federal historic rehabilitation tax credit, and where available, state historic tax credits. Check the Resources section for contact information for the National Trust For Histo- ric Preservation. How Does a Property Qualify for Grants and Loans? Most incentive and promotional programs require that a property has a historic designation in order to qualify for the program. An official historic designa- tion guarantees the property is both authentic and historically significant. A designation, which is achie- ved when a property is listed on a historic register, sets the program is on “brick and mortar” work on histo- the property apart as more than just an old building. rically designated and publicly accessible structures, It is a meaningful contributor to our history. but planning projects have also been funded. Private individuals are not qualified to receive funding, but Properties must meet specific criteria to obtain a his- a private entity can work with a non-profit organiza- toric designation. Usually a property must be at least tion on projects that would result in public benefits. 50 years old. Only historically significant sites are In other words, a private property owner could not considered. A historically significant site has a mea- get a grant to restore their kitchen, but a commer- ningful connection to important historic events. The cial building in a commercial historic district might connection must be appropriately researched and receive funding through their town’s development documented to ensure the connection is accurate and office for an exterior restoration that benefits the authentic. Equally importantly, the site must have his- entire district and is clearly visible to the public. The toric integrity, which means the property in its current Historical Fund has published extensive information condition must convey a clear sense of how it looked on the grant program and has public outreach staff at the time it was important in history. Without good members to explain the ins and outs of the program. historic integrity, the site lacks the physical link to the Contact information for the Fund is located in the past that is essential in understanding our history. Resources section of this book. Properties that meet these criteria are usually desi- gnated as either an individual landmark or as part of No other grant program in Colorado comes close a historic district. (There are also other designations to the fiscal impact of the Colorado State Historical that are used much less frequently.) A landmark is Fund, but there are other granting organizations with usually an individual structure or a single site contai- interest in historic preservation and history. Generally, ning a few structures. A district is made up of a group grants are made to non-profit or local government of historic properties that have a relationship to each organizations. Some of the granting organizations other. In historic districts the relationships between are listed in the Resources section of this booklet. the historic properties are as historically significant as The National Trust for Historic Preservation has a the individual resources that make up the district. number of financial and technical assistance pro- grams. Two of the Trust’s commercially oriented Lake City’s National Register Historic District provides programs are the National Trust Loan Fund, a an accurate and authentic physical representation certified Community Development Financial Institu- of three major themes in our history—precious metal tion that specializes in predevelopment, acquisition, mining between 1874 and 1904, the settlement and development of the community from raw mining town mini-permanent, bridge and rehabilitation loans for to established small town, and the early and continuous residential, commercial and public use projects, and development of tourism in the American culture. The National Trust Community Investment Corpo- ration. This for-profit subsidiary of the Trust makes Historic districts often cover an area, such as an origi- The Lake City Historic District nal townsite, where some of the buildings don’t meet Lake City’s National Register Historic District en- the criteria for historic designation. These buildings compasses an area that represents the development are considered “non-contributing” elements of the of Lake City from its earliest days as a mining town district because they do not add to the area’s historic between 1874 and 1904, to its growth as a tourist and significance. There are some buildings in Lake Ci- recreation mecca up until 1954. ty’s Historic District that do not add to the historical architecture, or to the historic themes of the district. What roles did the area within Lake City’s historic These buildings are classified as non-contributing district play in our history? The original buildings elements within the district. show us how people lived and worked in the specta- cular gold and silver rush days when Colorado was Historic Register Listings on the verge of statehood and the nation was expan- There are only a few historic registers. A property can ding west. The remaining businesses and homes of be placed on the Colorado State Register, the Natio- those earliest settlers are rare living testimony to how nal Register of Historic Places, or a combination of our country developed. After 1904, when mining died the two. Placement on any of the registers is a great out in Lake City, the new form of gold came to Hins- achievement and provides a reliable guaranty that the dale County in the form of the tourist. property is authentic legitimately important in our history. To learn more about nominating a property Never overlook the impacts of the tourists, whose tra- to either of these Registers, contact the Colorado veling habits first supported railroads and stagecoa- Historical Society. Contact information is provided in ches, and later influenced which Colorado highways the Resources Section. would be built and/or paved. Tourism, a massive economic generator in Colorado, is a major historic The State and National Registers are honorary theme in the development of the state. Our tenacious listings and have no state or federal regulatory re- longing for a “rustic” life that we may never have quirements. Lake City, like many cities and counties, lived is so poignant Lake City’s modern log cabins recognizes the unique and extraordinary charac- built by vacationers from the city. One of only a few teristics of their historic district by promoting the communities with a series of historic examples of area and implementing protective measures for their early tourism, Lake City’s historic district illustrates historically important structures in the form of design an extraordinary insight into our past. guidelines. Learn more about Lake City’s history and its historic What is the National Register of Historic Places? district by visiting the Hinsdale County Historical The National Register of Historic Places is the Nation’s Museum, or by reading the many published works official list of cultural resources worthy of preservation. on Lake City history. “Historic Homes of Lake City, Authorized under the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966, the National Register is part of a national Colorado; An Official Guide to Residences in the program to coordinate and support public and private Lake City Historic District” by Grant Houston, pro- efforts to identify, evaluate, and protect our historic and vides great summaries of both the stories and archi- archeological resources. Properties listed in the Register include districts, sites, buildings, structures, and objects tectural styles of the buildings in the historic district. that are significant in American history, architecture, The Lake City Design Guidelines book is also a good archeology, engineering, and culture. The National resource for local history and architecture. Register is administered by the National Park Service, which is part of the U.S. Department of the Interior. National Register properties are distinguished by Lake City Design Guidelines http://www.colorado. having been documented and evaluated according com/docs/DESIGN1.PDF to uniform standards. These criteria recognize the accomplishments of all peoples who have contributed to the history and heritage of the United States and are With such an important historic treasure, Lake City designed to help state and local governments, Federal has established design guidelines to provide general agencies, and others identify important historic and archeological properties worthy of preservation and of direction for new construction and remodeling work consideration in planning and development decisions. on properties located within the historic district. All (Quoted from the National Park Service) new construction and all exterior alterations to buil- dings located in the historic district must comply with the Design Guidelines. The Guidelines: • Assist a property owner in obtaining historic tax credits and grants. Lake City’s Design Guidelines incorporate the Secretary of the Interior’s Stan- dards for working on historic buildings. These Standards are used throughout the United States. Adherence to the Standards is required for all his- toric incentive programs. A copy of the Standards is included in the References section. • • Strengthen the unique character of the historic district, by suggesting ways to enhance, rather than compete with the district’s established character. • • Protect property values in the historic district by encouraging compatible infill and alterations. • • Encourage authenticity and protect the increasing value of a historic building, by discouraging imita- tions of historic structures. Guidelines are not rigid rules. They provide general direction and identify goals for new construction and alteration while allowing for a variety of options in achieving those goals. If you are planning any construction on a property in the historic district, get a copy of the design gui- delines from the Lake City Town Hall. You will need to submit your plan for your project to the Town for approval before you can begin work. The Town’s His- toric Preservation Officer and the Hinsdale County Building Inspector can help answer your questions. Town of Lake City, Historic Preservation Officer, 230 Bluff Street, PO Box 518, Lake City, CO 81235 970-944-2333 Hinsdale County Building Inspector, PO Box 277, Lake City, CO 81235 970-944-2225 Any construction work on buildings located in the historic district must be reviewed and found to meet the Lake City Design Guidelines before construction work can begin. Resources and Contact Information Colorado Preservation, Inc. Historic Preservation Advocacy in Colorado Local Contacts-Lake City Limited Technical Assistance in Historic Preservation Town of Lake City, Historic Preservation Officer Mary Allman-Koernig, Executive Director 230 Bluff Street PO Box 518 333 West Colfax Avenue, Suite 300 Lake City, CO 81235 Denver, Colorado 80204 Phone: 970-944-2333 Phone: 303.893.4260 Email: email@example.com Hinsdale County Building Inspector Website: www.coloradopreservation.org PO Box 277 Lake City, CO 81235 Phone: 970-944-2225 National Contacts- General National Trust For Historic Preservation Lake City Main Street Program Programs and Assistance Lake City Downtown Improvement & • Grants Revitalization Team (DIRT), Inc. • Community Development Kristie Borchers, Executive Director • Heritage Tourism PO Box 973 • Sustainability Lake City, CO 81235 • Main Street Programs Phone: 970-944-DIRT (3478) Email: firstname.lastname@example.org National Trust for Historic Preservation Website: www.lakecitydirt.com Mountains/Plains Office Physical Location: Denver Regional Office Lake City DIRT Office Barbara Pahl, Director New address: 231 Silver Street, Suite 5 Jim Lindbergh, Assistant Director Located upstairs above the Miners 535 16th Street, Suite 750 and Merchants Bank Denver, Colorado 80202 Phone: 303-623-1504 2008 DIRT Board of Directors and Staff Email: email@example.com President Marian Hollingsworth Website for Regional Office: www.preservationnation. Vice President Ray Blaum org/about-us/regional-offices/mountains-plains/ Secretary Elaine Gray Website for the National Trust: www. Treasurer Steve Robinson preservationnation.org Organization Chair Michelle Truly Economic Restructuring Michelle Pierce Contacts for Specific Topics Design Chair Martha Levine Promotion Chair Angela Hollingsworth Economic Impacts and Conservation Easements At-large Director Roger Aymami Colorado Historical Foundation At-large Director John Roose Primarily holds preservation easements At-large Director Grant Houston Website has a link to the 2005 study on the economic Executive Director Kristie Borchers impacts of historic preservation in Colorado Lane Ittelson, Executive Director State Contacts--General Phone: (303) 894-2503 Colorado Historical Society Programs and Assistance Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Tax Credits Website: www.cohf.org National and State Historic Property Registers Office location: Colorado State Historical Fund Grant-Humphreys Mansion Links to other History and Historic 770 Pennsylvania Preservation Websites Denver, Colorado Mailing address: Colorado Historical Society 1300 Broadway 1300 Broadway Denver, Colorado 80203 Denver CO 80203 Phone: 303.866.3395 Sustainability Email: email@example.com National Trust for Historic Preservation Website: www.coloradohistory-oahp. Website: www.preservationnation. org/whatsnew/whatsnew.htm org/issues/sustainability Click on the subjects at the top of the screen for help Tax Credits, Grants and Loans El Pomar Foundation State and Federal Tax Credits 10 Lake Circle Colorado Historical Society Colorado Springs, CO 80906 Joseph Saldibar Phone: 719/633-7733 or 800/554-7711 Phone: 303.866.3741 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Colorado Historical Society Website: www.elpomar.org 1300 Broadway Denver, Colorado 80203 Gates Family Foundation Website: www.coloradohistory-oahp.org/ 3575 Cherry Creek North Drive Suite 100 programareas/itc/taxcredits.htm Denver, Colorado 80209-3600 Tax Credits Information Sheet available on Phone: 303-722-1881 the web at www.coloradohistory-oahp. Email: email@example.com org/programareas/itc/itc_faq.pdf ) Website: www.gatesfamilyfoundation.org National Park Service website: 1772 Foundation www.nps.gov/history/tax.htm Contact information is made available on the website whenever the foundation is accepting proposals. Check with the Grants website for contact information. Colorado State Historical Fund Website: www.1772foundation.org 225 E. 16th Ave. #950 Denver, CO 80203 Phone: 303.866.2825 Anshutz Family Foundation Email: firstname.lastname@example.org 555 Seventeenth Street, Suite 2400 Website: www.coloradohistory-oahp. Denver, Colorado 80202 org/programareas/shf/shfindex.htm phone: 303-293-2338 Granting Agencies and Organizations with email: email@example.com interests in Historic Preservation: Website: www.anschutzfamilyfoundation.org Bacon Family Foundation. Colorado Endowment for the Humanities Managed by the Western Colorado Community Fund 1490 Lafayette St. Suite 101 For questions about the application process Denver, Colorado 80218 Phone: 970- 243-3767 phone: 303.894.7951 e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org email: email@example.com All proposals should be mailed to: Website: www.coloradohumanities.org Bacon Family Foundation P.O. Box 4750 Grand Junction, CO 81502-4750 Loan Programs National Trust for Historic Preservation Boettcher Foundation Mountains/Plains Office 600 Seventeenth Street Denver Regional Office Suite 2210 South Barbara Pahl, Director Denver, Colorado 80202-5422 Jim Lindbergh, Assistant Director Phone:303-534-1937 or 800-323-9640 535 16th Street, Suite 750 Emails: grants@BoettcherFoundation.org Denver, Colorado 80202 scholarships@BoettcherFoundation.org Phone: 303-623-1504 info@BoettcherFoundation.org Website: www.boettcherfoundation.org Historic Registers Colorado Department of Local Affairs National Register of Historic Places and Jack Kirtland Colorado State Register of Historic Places 222 S. 6th St., Rm. 409 Colorado Historical Society Grand Junction, CO 81501 Chris Geddes Phone: 970-248-7333 225 E. 16th Ave., Suite 950 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Denver, CO 80203 Phone: 303.866.4683 Colorado Scenic Byways Program Website:http://www.coloradohistory-oahp. Alpine Loop Byway org/programareas/register/registers.htm BLM-Gunnison Resource Area 216 N. Colorado National Park Service website: Gunnison CO 81230 www.nps.gov/history/nr Phone: 970-641-0471 Historic Preservation and Restoration Heritage Tourism Standards and Guidelines Colorado Tourism Office website for heritage tourism www.nps.gov/history/standards.htm www.colorado.com/article245 www.nps.gov/history/hps/tps/standguide/ www.colorado.com/article249 Community Development and National Trust for Historic Preservation Heritage Main Street Program Tourism Program Colorado Main Street Program at the Colorado 535 16th Street, Suite 750 Community Revitalization Association Denver, CO 80202 240 S. Broadway, Suite 201 Phone: 303- 623-1504 Denver, Colorado 80209 email@example.com Phone: 303-282-0625 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Website: http://ccraonline.org Website for Main Street Information: http://www. ccraonline.org/mainstreetprogram.html National Trust for Historic Preservation Main Street Program National Main Street Center of the National Trust for Historic Preservation 1785 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W. Washington, DC 20036 Main Phone Line: 202.588.6219 General E-mail: email@example.com Website: http://www.mainstreet.org The Secretary of the Interior’s sible. Treatments that cause damage to historic Standards For Historic Properties materials will not be used. The Secretary of the Interior’s Standards are listed 8. Archeological resources will be protected and pre- below. You can also find these standards on the served in place. If such resources must be distur- Web with extended explanations and examples at bed, mitigation measures will be undertaken. www.nps.gov/history/hps/tps/standguide/ Standards for Rehabilitation: When working with a historic building, you can 1. A property will be used as it was historically or choose one of four possible approaches, Preservation, be given a new use that requires minimal change Rehabilitation, Reconstruction, or Restoration. In to its distinctive materials, features, spaces, and most cases, the Rehabilitation approach is used when spatial relationships. the building is being adapted to a modern use. 2. The historic character of a property will be re- The standards for each approach are listed below. tained and preserved. The removal of distinctive materials or alteration of features, spaces, and Standards for Preservation: spatial relationships that characterize a property 1. A property will be used as it was historically, or be will be avoided. given a new use that maximizes the retention of 3. Each property will be recognized as a physical distinctive materials, features, spaces, and spatial record of its time, place, and use. Changes that relationships. Where a treatment and use have not create a false sense of historical development, been identified, a property will be protected and, such as adding conjectural features or elements if necessary, stabilized until additional work may from other historic properties, will not be under- be undertaken. taken. 2. The historic character of a property will be retai- 4. Changes to a property that have acquired historic ned and preserved. The replacement of intact or significance in their own right will be retained and repairable historic materials or alteration of featu- preserved. res, spaces, and spatial relationships that characte- 5. Distinctive materials, features, finishes, and rize a property will be avoided. construction techniques or examples of crafts- 3. Each property will be recognized as a physical manship that characterize a property will be record of its time, place, and use. Work needed preserved. to stabilize, consolidate, and conserve existing 6. Deteriorated historic features will be repaired historic materials and features will be physically rather than replaced. Where the severity of dete- and visually compatible, identifiable upon close rioration requires replacement of a distinctive fea- inspection, and properly documented for future ture, the new feature will match the old in design, research. color, texture, and, where possible, materials. 4. Changes to a property that have acquired historic Replacement of missing features will be substanti- significance in their own right will be retained and ated by documentary and physical evidence. preserved. 7. Chemical or physical treatments, if appropriate, 5. Distinctive materials, features, finishes, and will be undertaken using the gentlest means pos- construction techniques or examples of crafts- sible. Treatments that cause damage to historic manship that characterize a property will be materials will not be used. preserved. 8. Archeological resources will be protected and pre- 6. The existing condition of historic features will served in place. If such resources must be distur- be evaluated to determine the appropriate level bed, mitigation measures will be undertaken. of intervention needed. Where the severity of 9. New additions, exterior alterations, or related deterioration requires repair or limited replace- new construction will not destroy historic ma- ment of a distinctive feature, the new material terials, features, and spatial relationships that will match the old in composition, design, color, characterize the property. The new work shall be and texture. differentiated from the old and will be compatible 7. Chemical or physical treatments, if appropriate, with the historic materials, features, size, scale and will be undertaken using the gentlest means pos- proportion, and massing to protect the integrity of the property and its environment. 10. Designs that were never executed historically will 10. New additions and adjacent or related new not be constructed. construction will be undertaken in a such a man- ner that, if removed in the future, the essential Standards for Reconstruction: form and integrity of the historic property and its 1. Reconstruction will be used to depict vanished environment would be unimpaired. or non-surviving portions of a property when documentary and physical evidence is available Standards for Restoration: to permit accurate reconstruction with minimal 1. A property will be used as it was historically or conjecture, and such reconstruction is essential to be given a new use which reflects the property’s the public understanding of the property. restoration period. 2. Reconstruction of a landscape, building, structu- 2. Materials and features from the restoration period re, or object in its historic location will be prece- will be retained and preserved. The removal of ded by a thorough archeological investigation to materials or alteration of features, spaces, and identify and evaluate those features and artifacts spatial relationships that characterize the period which are essential to an accurate reconstruction. will not be undertaken. If such resources must be disturbed, mitigation 3. Each property will be recognized as a physical measures will be undertaken. record of its time, place, and use. Work needed to 3. Reconstruction will include measures to preserve stabilize, consolidate and conserve materials and any remaining historic materials, features, and features from the restoration period will be phy- spatial relationships. sically and visually compatible, identifiable upon 4. Reconstruction will be based on the accurate close inspection, and properly documented for duplication of historic features and elements subs- future research. tantiated by documentary or physical evidence ra- 4. Materials, features, spaces, and finishes that cha- ther than on conjectural designs or the availability racterize other historical periods will be docu- of different features from other historic proper- mented prior to their alteration or removal. ties. A reconstructed property will re-create the 5. Distinctive materials, features, finishes, and appearance of the non-surviving historic property construction techniques or examples of crafts- in materials, design, color, and texture. manship that characterize the restoration period 5. A reconstruction will be clearly identified as a will be preserved. contemporary re-creation. 6. Deteriorated features from the restoration period 6. Designs that were never executed historically will will be repaired rather than replaced. Where the not be constructed. severity of deterioration requires replacement of a distinctive feature, the new feature will match the old in design, color, texture, and, where possi- ble, materials. 7. Replacement of missing features from the restora- tion period will be substantiated by documentary and physical evidence. A false sense of history will not be created by adding conjectural features, features from other properties, or by combining features that never existed together historically. 8. Chemical or physical treatments, if appropriate, will be undertaken using the gentlest means pos- sible. Treatments that cause damage to historic materials will not be used. 9. Archeological resources affected by a project will be protected and preserved in place. If such resources must be disturbed, mitigation measures will be undertaken.
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