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BUYING HISTORY
   Guide
                                                             over 1900 Main Street Program communities in
Congratulations!                                             the United States have seen 57,000 new businesses,
                                                             230,000 jobs and 93,000 restored or rehabilitated
As a historic property owner, you are invested in Lake       buildings. Between 2001and 2004, the Main Street
City’s past, present and future. Our National Register       program in Colorado has attracted over $21.5 Mil-
Historic District offers visitors from all over the world    lion in downtown reinvestments.
the opportunity to experience and understand our
part of the nation’s history. It is our privilege to make
sure the authentic, true story is told by preserving
                                                             Want to know more about economic impacts of historic
the unique historic structures in the Historic District.
                                                              preservation? See the list of contacts and references
This booklet explains how Lake City supports historic          in the Resources section at the end of this booklet.
preservation through the use of design guidelines and
how the stewardship of your historic property bene-
fits you, your neighbors in Lake City and the history       Historic Preservation is
of our nation.                                              Sustainable Development
Economic Benefits For Lake City                             Historic Preservation is green. By promoting the
                                                            re-use of existing materials, preservation reduces
Historic preservation reaps many community-wide             construction waste and saves the energy spent on
financial benefits in a wide variety of areas. Preser-      creating new building materials.
vation-related work creates jobs and stimulates the
economy in the tourism, construction, and commu-            Did you know that the EPA has calculated that
nity development sectors.                                   demolishing a house produces an average of 115 lbs
                                                            of waste per square foot? A demolished commercial
Perhaps most important to Lake City business is the         building generates even more waste--approxima-
relationship between tourism and historic preser-           tely 155 lbs per square foot. The EPA estimates that
vation. A national study conducted by the Travel            construction and demolition generated more than
Industry of America in 2002 assessed the impacts of         325 million tons of the waste in the country’s landfills
heritage tourists (heritage tourists are travelers who      in 2003.
regularly include visits to historical sites as part of
their trip). The study found that heritage tourists stay    When you compare the environmental impacts of
longer at a destination and spend more money than           restoring an old building to the impacts of demolition
other U.S. travelers. A similar study conducted in          and new construction, consider the following:
Colorado in 2003 found the same trends in our state,        It takes about 65 years for an energy efficient new
and determined that Heritage Tourists are more              building to save the amount of energy lost in demo-
likely than other vacationers to stay in commercial
lodging.

A recent study of the economic impacts of historic
preservation in Colorado found that Historic Preser-
vation in Colorado:
• Created almost 29,000 jobs between 1981 and
  2004, generating over $2 billion in direct and indi-
  rect economic impacts.
• Attracts tourists. In 2003, heritage tourism created
  $3.4 billion in direct and indirect economic impacts
  and nearly 61,000 jobs.
• Draws investors to the businesses in the commu-
  nity. Lake City is part of Colorado’s Main Street
  Program which focuses on downtown revitalization
  incorporating historic preservation. Since 1980,
lishing an existing building.                              credit with affordable housing credits to assist in crea-
You would have to drive your car 20,000 miles a year       ting affordable housing project in historic structures.
for 730 years to equal the amount of energy used to
build a new 50,000 square foot commercial building         Lake City is a “Certified Local Government”, which
Construction debris accounts for 25% of the munici-        means that tax credit applications can be reviewed
pal waste stream each year.                                locally or in Denver at the Colorado Historical So-
                                                           ciety. To qualify for the credits, the property owner
Also consider the resources required and the green-        must follow the Secretary of the Interior’s Standards
house gas emissions associated with manufacturing          for Rehabilitation and have the work approved in
new building materials and products in lieu of resto-      advance by either the Town of Lake City or by the
ring an existing feature on a historic building.           Colorado Historical Society. A copy of the Secretary
                                                           of the Interior’s Standards is included in the Resour-
Historic preservation practices are also locally sus-      ces section, along with the contact information for
tainable because they emphasize repair over repla-         the tax credit program. Property owners should also
cement, resulting in work that is more labor-inten-        check with their accountant to ensure the program is
sive than it is materials- intensive. This translates to   appropriate for their finances.
more work for locals and a smaller proportion of the       Conservation Easements
construction budget devoted to importing new mate-         An owner of a historic property can place a preser-
rials from outside of the local economy.                   vation easement on their property to guarantee that
                                                           the historic elements of the property are preserved in
Economic Benefits for the                                  perpetuity. The easement does not change the pro-
Historic Property Owner                                    perty’s ownership. If the preservation easement is for
There are a number of assistance programs for              a historically designated property that is listed on the
owners of designated historic properties.                  National Register of Historic Places, the easement
                                                           can qualify as a charitable deduction for Federal
Tax Credits                                                income, estate and gift tax purposes. The amount of
Federal and State tax credits are available to help        that deduction is equal to the reduction in the pro-
offset the costs of an approved restoration project.       perty’s fair market value as a result of the easement.
The federal government offers a 20% investment tax         Although valuation and the resulting tax savings can
credit for the approved restoration of designated his-     become very complex to determine, property owners
toric buildings. The State of Colorado offers a similar    may save substantially on their taxes.
20% state income tax credit based on $5,000 or more
of approved preservation work on designated proper-        Preservation easements are much like conservation or
ties. The credits are available to individuals and to      open space easements and are somewhat complica-
companies. Developers often combine the federal tax        ted. Anyone considering this step should consult with
                                                           an attorney. The Resources section of this booklet
                                                           contains contact information to learn more about
                                                           preservation easements.

                                                           Grants and Loans
                                                           Grants and loans are also available for historic pre-
                                                           servation work. The best-known historic preservation
                                                           grant program in Colorado is the Colorado State
                                                           Historical Fund, a tax-funded grant program admi-
                                                           nistered through the Colorado Historical Society in
                                                           Denver. Financed by a portion of the taxes collected
                                                           on gaming in Central City, Blackhawk and Cripple
                                                           Creek, the Historical Fund grants an average of $13
                                                           million a year in two grant cycles. The emphasis of
                                                            equity investments in the rehabilitation of historic
                                                            properties eligible for the 20 percent federal historic
                                                            rehabilitation tax credit, and where available, state
                                                            historic tax credits. Check the Resources section for
                                                            contact information for the National Trust For Histo-
                                                            ric Preservation.

                                                            How Does a Property Qualify
                                                            for Grants and Loans?
                                                            Most incentive and promotional programs require
                                                            that a property has a historic designation in order to
                                                            qualify for the program. An official historic designa-
                                                            tion guarantees the property is both authentic and
                                                            historically significant. A designation, which is achie-
                                                            ved when a property is listed on a historic register, sets
the program is on “brick and mortar” work on histo-         the property apart as more than just an old building.
rically designated and publicly accessible structures,      It is a meaningful contributor to our history.
but planning projects have also been funded. Private
individuals are not qualified to receive funding, but       Properties must meet specific criteria to obtain a his-
a private entity can work with a non-profit organiza-       toric designation. Usually a property must be at least
tion on projects that would result in public benefits.      50 years old. Only historically significant sites are
In other words, a private property owner could not          considered. A historically significant site has a mea-
get a grant to restore their kitchen, but a commer-         ningful connection to important historic events. The
cial building in a commercial historic district might       connection must be appropriately researched and
receive funding through their town’s development            documented to ensure the connection is accurate and
office for an exterior restoration that benefits the        authentic. Equally importantly, the site must have his-
entire district and is clearly visible to the public. The   toric integrity, which means the property in its current
Historical Fund has published extensive information         condition must convey a clear sense of how it looked
on the grant program and has public outreach staff          at the time it was important in history. Without good
members to explain the ins and outs of the program.         historic integrity, the site lacks the physical link to the
Contact information for the Fund is located in the          past that is essential in understanding our history.
Resources section of this book.                             Properties that meet these criteria are usually desi-
                                                            gnated as either an individual landmark or as part of
No other grant program in Colorado comes close              a historic district. (There are also other designations
to the fiscal impact of the Colorado State Historical       that are used much less frequently.) A landmark is
Fund, but there are other granting organizations with       usually an individual structure or a single site contai-
interest in historic preservation and history. Generally,   ning a few structures. A district is made up of a group
grants are made to non-profit or local government           of historic properties that have a relationship to each
organizations. Some of the granting organizations           other. In historic districts the relationships between
are listed in the Resources section of this booklet.        the historic properties are as historically significant as
The National Trust for Historic Preservation has a          the individual resources that make up the district.
number of financial and technical assistance pro-
grams. Two of the Trust’s commercially oriented
                                                               Lake City’s National Register Historic District provides
programs are the National Trust Loan Fund, a                   an accurate and authentic physical representation
certified Community Development Financial Institu-             of three major themes in our history—precious metal
tion that specializes in predevelopment, acquisition,          mining between 1874 and 1904, the settlement and
                                                              development of the community from raw mining town
mini-permanent, bridge and rehabilitation loans for          to established small town, and the early and continuous
residential, commercial and public use projects, and             development of tourism in the American culture.
The National Trust Community Investment Corpo-
ration. This for-profit subsidiary of the Trust makes
Historic districts often cover an area, such as an origi-        The Lake City Historic District
nal townsite, where some of the buildings don’t meet             Lake City’s National Register Historic District en-
the criteria for historic designation. These buildings           compasses an area that represents the development
are considered “non-contributing” elements of the                of Lake City from its earliest days as a mining town
district because they do not add to the area’s historic          between 1874 and 1904, to its growth as a tourist and
significance. There are some buildings in Lake Ci-               recreation mecca up until 1954.
ty’s Historic District that do not add to the historical
architecture, or to the historic themes of the district.         What roles did the area within Lake City’s historic
These buildings are classified as non-contributing               district play in our history? The original buildings
elements within the district.                                    show us how people lived and worked in the specta-
                                                                 cular gold and silver rush days when Colorado was
Historic Register Listings                                       on the verge of statehood and the nation was expan-
There are only a few historic registers. A property can          ding west. The remaining businesses and homes of
be placed on the Colorado State Register, the Natio-             those earliest settlers are rare living testimony to how
nal Register of Historic Places, or a combination of             our country developed. After 1904, when mining died
the two. Placement on any of the registers is a great            out in Lake City, the new form of gold came to Hins-
achievement and provides a reliable guaranty that the            dale County in the form of the tourist.
property is authentic legitimately important in our
history. To learn more about nominating a property               Never overlook the impacts of the tourists, whose tra-
to either of these Registers, contact the Colorado               veling habits first supported railroads and stagecoa-
Historical Society. Contact information is provided in           ches, and later influenced which Colorado highways
the Resources Section.                                           would be built and/or paved. Tourism, a massive
                                                                 economic generator in Colorado, is a major historic
The State and National Registers are honorary                    theme in the development of the state. Our tenacious
listings and have no state or federal regulatory re-             longing for a “rustic” life that we may never have
quirements. Lake City, like many cities and counties,            lived is so poignant Lake City’s modern log cabins
recognizes the unique and extraordinary charac-                  built by vacationers from the city. One of only a few
teristics of their historic district by promoting the            communities with a series of historic examples of
area and implementing protective measures for their              early tourism, Lake City’s historic district illustrates
historically important structures in the form of design          an extraordinary insight into our past.
guidelines.
                                                                 Learn more about Lake City’s history and its historic
      What is the National Register of Historic Places?
                                                                 district by visiting the Hinsdale County Historical
   The National Register of Historic Places is the Nation’s      Museum, or by reading the many published works
   official list of cultural resources worthy of preservation.   on Lake City history. “Historic Homes of Lake City,
     Authorized under the National Historic Preservation
   Act of 1966, the National Register is part of a national      Colorado; An Official Guide to Residences in the
 program to coordinate and support public and private            Lake City Historic District” by Grant Houston, pro-
 efforts to identify, evaluate, and protect our historic and     vides great summaries of both the stories and archi-
 archeological resources. Properties listed in the Register
  include districts, sites, buildings, structures, and objects   tectural styles of the buildings in the historic district.
    that are significant in American history, architecture,      The Lake City Design Guidelines book is also a good
     archeology, engineering, and culture. The National          resource for local history and architecture.
   Register is administered by the National Park Service,
     which is part of the U.S. Department of the Interior.
       National Register properties are distinguished by         Lake City Design Guidelines http://www.colorado.
   having been documented and evaluated according                com/docs/DESIGN1.PDF
      to uniform standards. These criteria recognize the
 accomplishments of all peoples who have contributed
 to the history and heritage of the United States and are        With such an important historic treasure, Lake City
 designed to help state and local governments, Federal           has established design guidelines to provide general
    agencies, and others identify important historic and
 archeological properties worthy of preservation and of          direction for new construction and remodeling work
  consideration in planning and development decisions.           on properties located within the historic district. All
              (Quoted from the National Park Service)            new construction and all exterior alterations to buil-
dings located in the historic district must comply with
the Design Guidelines.
The Guidelines:
• Assist a property owner in obtaining historic tax
   credits and grants. Lake City’s Design Guidelines
   incorporate the Secretary of the Interior’s Stan-
   dards for working on historic buildings. These
   Standards are used throughout the United States.
   Adherence to the Standards is required for all his-
   toric incentive programs. A copy of the Standards
   is included in the References section.
•
• Strengthen the unique character of the historic
   district, by suggesting ways to enhance, rather than
   compete with the district’s established character.
•
• Protect property values in the historic district by
   encouraging compatible infill and alterations.
•
• Encourage authenticity and protect the increasing
   value of a historic building, by discouraging imita-
   tions of historic structures.

       Guidelines are not rigid rules. They provide
      general direction and identify goals for new
     construction and alteration while allowing for a
       variety of options in achieving those goals.

If you are planning any construction on a property
in the historic district, get a copy of the design gui-
delines from the Lake City Town Hall. You will need
to submit your plan for your project to the Town for
approval before you can begin work. The Town’s His-
toric Preservation Officer and the Hinsdale County
Building Inspector can help answer your questions.

Town of Lake City, Historic Preservation Officer,
230 Bluff Street, PO Box 518, Lake City, CO 81235
970-944-2333
Hinsdale County Building Inspector, PO Box 277,
Lake City, CO 81235 970-944-2225

        Any construction work on buildings located
        in the historic district must be reviewed and
      found to meet the Lake City Design Guidelines
            before construction work can begin.
Resources and Contact Information                         Colorado Preservation, Inc.
                                                          Historic Preservation Advocacy in Colorado
Local Contacts-Lake City
                                                          Limited Technical Assistance in Historic Preservation
Town of Lake City, Historic Preservation Officer          Mary Allman-Koernig, Executive Director
230 Bluff Street PO Box 518                               333 West Colfax Avenue, Suite 300
Lake City, CO 81235                                       Denver, Colorado 80204
Phone: 970-944-2333                                       Phone: 303.893.4260
                                                          Email: info@coloradopreservation.org
Hinsdale County Building Inspector                        Website: www.coloradopreservation.org
PO Box 277
Lake City, CO 81235
Phone: 970-944-2225                                       National Contacts- General
                                                          National Trust For Historic Preservation
Lake City Main Street Program                             Programs and Assistance
Lake City Downtown Improvement &                          • Grants
Revitalization Team (DIRT), Inc.                          • Community Development
Kristie Borchers, Executive Director                      • Heritage Tourism
PO Box 973                                                • Sustainability
Lake City, CO 81235                                       • Main Street Programs
Phone: 970-944-DIRT (3478)
Email: ed@lakecitydirt.com                                National Trust for Historic Preservation
Website: www.lakecitydirt.com                             Mountains/Plains Office
Physical Location:                                        Denver Regional Office
Lake City DIRT Office                                     Barbara Pahl, Director
New address: 231 Silver Street, Suite 5                   Jim Lindbergh, Assistant Director
Located upstairs above the Miners                         535 16th Street, Suite 750
and Merchants Bank                                        Denver, Colorado 80202
                                                          Phone: 303-623-1504
2008 DIRT Board of Directors and Staff                    Email: mpro@nthp.org
President                Marian Hollingsworth             Website for Regional Office: www.preservationnation.
Vice President            Ray Blaum                       org/about-us/regional-offices/mountains-plains/
Secretary                 Elaine Gray                     Website for the National Trust: www.
Treasurer                Steve Robinson                   preservationnation.org
Organization Chair         Michelle Truly
Economic Restructuring Michelle Pierce                    Contacts for Specific Topics
Design Chair               Martha Levine
Promotion Chair           Angela Hollingsworth            Economic Impacts and Conservation Easements
At-large Director         Roger Aymami                    Colorado Historical Foundation
At-large Director         John Roose                      Primarily holds preservation easements
At-large Director         Grant Houston                   Website has a link to the 2005 study on the economic
Executive Director        Kristie Borchers                impacts of historic preservation in Colorado
                                                          Lane Ittelson, Executive Director
State Contacts--General                                   Phone: (303) 894-2503
Colorado Historical Society Programs and Assistance       Email: lane@cohf.org
Tax Credits                                               Website: www.cohf.org
National and State Historic Property Registers            Office location:
Colorado State Historical Fund                            Grant-Humphreys Mansion
Links to other History and Historic                       770 Pennsylvania
Preservation Websites                                     Denver, Colorado
                                                          Mailing address:
Colorado Historical Society                               1300 Broadway
1300 Broadway                                             Denver, Colorado 80203
Denver CO 80203
Phone: 303.866.3395                                       Sustainability
Email: oahp@chs.state.co.us                               National Trust for Historic Preservation
Website: www.coloradohistory-oahp.                        Website: www.preservationnation.
org/whatsnew/whatsnew.htm                                 org/issues/sustainability
Click on the subjects at the top of the screen for help
Tax Credits, Grants and Loans                    El Pomar Foundation
State and Federal Tax Credits                    10 Lake Circle
Colorado Historical Society                      Colorado Springs, CO 80906
Joseph Saldibar                                  Phone: 719/633-7733 or 800/554-7711
Phone: 303.866.3741                              Email: grants@elpomar.org
Colorado Historical Society                      Website: www.elpomar.org
1300 Broadway
Denver, Colorado 80203                           Gates Family Foundation
Website: www.coloradohistory-oahp.org/           3575 Cherry Creek North Drive Suite 100
programareas/itc/taxcredits.htm                  Denver, Colorado 80209-3600
Tax Credits Information Sheet available on       Phone: 303-722-1881
the web at www.coloradohistory-oahp.             Email: info@gatesfamilyfoundation.org
org/programareas/itc/itc_faq.pdf )               Website: www.gatesfamilyfoundation.org

National Park Service website:                   1772 Foundation
www.nps.gov/history/tax.htm                      Contact information is made available
                                                 on the website whenever the foundation
                                                 is accepting proposals. Check with the
Grants
                                                 website for contact information.
Colorado State Historical Fund                   Website: www.1772foundation.org
225 E. 16th Ave. #950 Denver, CO 80203
Phone: 303.866.2825                              Anshutz Family Foundation
Email: shf@chs.state.co.us                       555 Seventeenth Street, Suite 2400
Website: www.coloradohistory-oahp.               Denver, Colorado 80202
org/programareas/shf/shfindex.htm                phone: 303-293-2338
Granting Agencies and Organizations with         email: info@anschutzfamilyfoundation.org
interests in Historic Preservation:              Website: www.anschutzfamilyfoundation.org
Bacon Family Foundation.
                                                 Colorado Endowment for the Humanities
Managed by the Western Colorado Community Fund
                                                 1490 Lafayette St. Suite 101
For questions about the application process
                                                 Denver, Colorado 80218
Phone: 970- 243-3767
                                                 phone: 303.894.7951
e-mail: mcawood@wc-cf.org
                                                 email: info@coloradohumanities.org
All proposals should be mailed to:
                                                 Website: www.coloradohumanities.org
Bacon Family Foundation
P.O. Box 4750
Grand Junction, CO 81502-4750                    Loan Programs
                                                 National Trust for Historic Preservation
Boettcher Foundation                             Mountains/Plains Office
600 Seventeenth Street                           Denver Regional Office
Suite 2210 South                                 Barbara Pahl, Director
Denver, Colorado 80202-5422                      Jim Lindbergh, Assistant Director
Phone:303-534-1937 or 800-323-9640               535 16th Street, Suite 750
Emails: grants@BoettcherFoundation.org           Denver, Colorado 80202
scholarships@BoettcherFoundation.org             Phone: 303-623-1504
info@BoettcherFoundation.org
Website: www.boettcherfoundation.org
                                                 Historic Registers
Colorado Department of Local Affairs             National Register of Historic Places and
Jack Kirtland                                    Colorado State Register of Historic Places
222 S. 6th St., Rm. 409                          Colorado Historical Society
Grand Junction, CO 81501                         Chris Geddes
Phone: 970-248-7333                              225 E. 16th Ave., Suite 950
Email: jack.kirtland@state.co.us                 Denver, CO 80203
                                                 Phone: 303.866.4683
Colorado Scenic Byways Program                   Website:http://www.coloradohistory-oahp.
Alpine Loop Byway                                org/programareas/register/registers.htm
BLM-Gunnison Resource Area
216 N. Colorado                                  National Park Service website:
Gunnison CO 81230                                www.nps.gov/history/nr
Phone: 970-641-0471
Historic Preservation and Restoration                   Heritage Tourism
Standards and Guidelines                                Colorado Tourism Office website for heritage tourism
www.nps.gov/history/standards.htm                       www.colorado.com/article245
www.nps.gov/history/hps/tps/standguide/                 www.colorado.com/article249

Community Development and                               National Trust for Historic Preservation Heritage
Main Street Program                                     Tourism Program
Colorado Main Street Program at the Colorado            535 16th Street, Suite 750
Community Revitalization Association                    Denver, CO 80202
240 S. Broadway, Suite 201                              Phone: 303- 623-1504
Denver, Colorado 80209                                  cht@nthp.org
Phone: 303-282-0625
Email: info@ccraonline.org
Website: http://ccraonline.org
Website for Main Street Information: http://www.
ccraonline.org/mainstreetprogram.html

National Trust for Historic Preservation
Main Street Program
National Main Street Center of the National Trust for
Historic Preservation
1785 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W.
Washington, DC 20036
Main Phone Line: 202.588.6219
General E-mail: mainstreet@nthp.org
Website: http://www.mainstreet.org
The Secretary of the Interior’s                               sible. Treatments that cause damage to historic
Standards For Historic Properties                             materials will not be used.
The Secretary of the Interior’s Standards are listed       8. Archeological resources will be protected and pre-
below. You can also find these standards on the               served in place. If such resources must be distur-
Web with extended explanations and examples at                bed, mitigation measures will be undertaken.
www.nps.gov/history/hps/tps/standguide/
                                                           Standards for Rehabilitation:
When working with a historic building, you can             1. A property will be used as it was historically or
choose one of four possible approaches, Preservation,         be given a new use that requires minimal change
Rehabilitation, Reconstruction, or Restoration. In            to its distinctive materials, features, spaces, and
most cases, the Rehabilitation approach is used when          spatial relationships.
the building is being adapted to a modern use.             2. The historic character of a property will be re-
The standards for each approach are listed below.             tained and preserved. The removal of distinctive
                                                              materials or alteration of features, spaces, and
Standards for Preservation:                                   spatial relationships that characterize a property
1. A property will be used as it was historically, or be      will be avoided.
   given a new use that maximizes the retention of         3. Each property will be recognized as a physical
   distinctive materials, features, spaces, and spatial       record of its time, place, and use. Changes that
   relationships. Where a treatment and use have not          create a false sense of historical development,
   been identified, a property will be protected and,         such as adding conjectural features or elements
   if necessary, stabilized until additional work may         from other historic properties, will not be under-
   be undertaken.                                             taken.
2. The historic character of a property will be retai-     4. Changes to a property that have acquired historic
   ned and preserved. The replacement of intact or            significance in their own right will be retained and
   repairable historic materials or alteration of featu-      preserved.
   res, spaces, and spatial relationships that characte-   5. Distinctive materials, features, finishes, and
   rize a property will be avoided.                           construction techniques or examples of crafts-
3. Each property will be recognized as a physical             manship that characterize a property will be
   record of its time, place, and use. Work needed            preserved.
   to stabilize, consolidate, and conserve existing        6. Deteriorated historic features will be repaired
   historic materials and features will be physically         rather than replaced. Where the severity of dete-
   and visually compatible, identifiable upon close           rioration requires replacement of a distinctive fea-
   inspection, and properly documented for future             ture, the new feature will match the old in design,
   research.                                                  color, texture, and, where possible, materials.
4. Changes to a property that have acquired historic          Replacement of missing features will be substanti-
   significance in their own right will be retained and       ated by documentary and physical evidence.
   preserved.                                              7. Chemical or physical treatments, if appropriate,
5. Distinctive materials, features, finishes, and             will be undertaken using the gentlest means pos-
   construction techniques or examples of crafts-             sible. Treatments that cause damage to historic
   manship that characterize a property will be               materials will not be used.
   preserved.                                              8. Archeological resources will be protected and pre-
6. The existing condition of historic features will           served in place. If such resources must be distur-
   be evaluated to determine the appropriate level            bed, mitigation measures will be undertaken.
   of intervention needed. Where the severity of           9. New additions, exterior alterations, or related
   deterioration requires repair or limited replace-          new construction will not destroy historic ma-
   ment of a distinctive feature, the new material            terials, features, and spatial relationships that
   will match the old in composition, design, color,          characterize the property. The new work shall be
   and texture.                                               differentiated from the old and will be compatible
7. Chemical or physical treatments, if appropriate,           with the historic materials, features, size, scale and
   will be undertaken using the gentlest means pos-           proportion, and massing to protect the integrity
    of the property and its environment.                  10. Designs that were never executed historically will
10. New additions and adjacent or related new                 not be constructed.
    construction will be undertaken in a such a man-
    ner that, if removed in the future, the essential     Standards for Reconstruction:
    form and integrity of the historic property and its   1. Reconstruction will be used to depict vanished
    environment would be unimpaired.                         or non-surviving portions of a property when
                                                             documentary and physical evidence is available
Standards for Restoration:                                   to permit accurate reconstruction with minimal
1. A property will be used as it was historically or         conjecture, and such reconstruction is essential to
   be given a new use which reflects the property’s          the public understanding of the property.
   restoration period.                                    2. Reconstruction of a landscape, building, structu-
2. Materials and features from the restoration period        re, or object in its historic location will be prece-
   will be retained and preserved. The removal of            ded by a thorough archeological investigation to
   materials or alteration of features, spaces, and          identify and evaluate those features and artifacts
   spatial relationships that characterize the period        which are essential to an accurate reconstruction.
   will not be undertaken.                                   If such resources must be disturbed, mitigation
3. Each property will be recognized as a physical            measures will be undertaken.
   record of its time, place, and use. Work needed to     3. Reconstruction will include measures to preserve
   stabilize, consolidate and conserve materials and         any remaining historic materials, features, and
   features from the restoration period will be phy-         spatial relationships.
   sically and visually compatible, identifiable upon     4. Reconstruction will be based on the accurate
   close inspection, and properly documented for             duplication of historic features and elements subs-
   future research.                                          tantiated by documentary or physical evidence ra-
4. Materials, features, spaces, and finishes that cha-       ther than on conjectural designs or the availability
   racterize other historical periods will be docu-          of different features from other historic proper-
   mented prior to their alteration or removal.              ties. A reconstructed property will re-create the
5. Distinctive materials, features, finishes, and            appearance of the non-surviving historic property
   construction techniques or examples of crafts-            in materials, design, color, and texture.
   manship that characterize the restoration period       5. A reconstruction will be clearly identified as a
   will be preserved.                                        contemporary re-creation.
6. Deteriorated features from the restoration period      6. Designs that were never executed historically will
   will be repaired rather than replaced. Where the          not be constructed.
   severity of deterioration requires replacement of
   a distinctive feature, the new feature will match
   the old in design, color, texture, and, where possi-
   ble, materials.
7. Replacement of missing features from the restora-
   tion period will be substantiated by documentary
   and physical evidence. A false sense of history
   will not be created by adding conjectural features,
   features from other properties, or by combining
   features that never existed together historically.
8. Chemical or physical treatments, if appropriate,
   will be undertaken using the gentlest means pos-
   sible. Treatments that cause damage to historic
   materials will not be used.
9. Archeological resources affected by a project
   will be protected and preserved in place. If such
   resources must be disturbed, mitigation measures
   will be undertaken.

								
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