Midterm Exam, Fall 2008

Document Sample
Midterm Exam, Fall 2008 Powered By Docstoc
					Exam I, Version D.

Name: ____________________________________________; ID: ___________________________________

§ 1. Directions This is a multiple-choice exam that is worth 25% of your total grade. Write your name on the top page of the test. Select the BEST answer for each question. Be sure to read all answer options carefully before you select one. If more than one seems correct, look to see if there is an option for more than one (e.g., “both (a) and (b)”). Write the answer on the answer sheet. Do not write on the exam. § 2. Questions _________________________________________________________________________________________ Study-Guide Questions _________________________________________________________________________________________
1. According to your instructor, the term “politics” has two basic senses. Those senses are: (a) human choices that structure how power is distributed in society; and the legitimacy (fairness) of humans achieving their underlying desires. parties, elections and government; and the behavior of politicians; human choices that structure how power is distributed in society; and parties, elections and government. parties, elections and government; and

(b) (c) (d) 2.

According to your instructor, the government of Rome around 247 B.C. consisted of: (a) (b) (c) rule by absolute monarchy, with the aristocracy acting in an advisory capacity; a direct democracy, where citizens voted on matters of policy themselves rather than electing representatives; A republican form of government, with bicameral legislative institutions (an upper house and a lower house), and two commanders-in-chief that controlled the armed forces (called “consuls”). rule by a “chain of being,” where the leadership was selected by birth and each citizen was placed into a hierarchical cast according to his or her bloodline, and where it was said that God preordained this natural order; both (a) and (d);

(d)

(e) 3.

According to your instructor, around 508 to 267 B.C. the Greek city of Athens was ruled by: (a) A republican form of government, with bicameral legislative institutions (an upper house and a lower house), and a two commanders-in-chief that controlled the armed forces (called “consuls”). a “chain of being,” where the leadership was selected by birth and each citizen was placed into a hierarchical cast according to his or her bloodline, and where it was said that God preordained this natural order;

(b)

Examination I: Government, the Constitution and Federalism

2 of 14

(c) (d)

absolute monarchy, with the aristocracy acting in an advisory capacity; a direct democracy, where citizens voted on matters of policy themselves rather than electing representatives to do this; both (b) and (c).

(e) 4.

According to your instructor, those who were considered “gentry” in the English aristocracy were: (a) (b) (c) (d) monarchs, such as the King or Queen; serfs; peasants; those holding lower aristocratic titles, such as “Justice of the Peace,” but who are still considered to have social distinction, ranking above the serfs and peasants. those holding higher aristocratic titles, such as “Baron” or “Duke,” who were of noble birth, ranking right behind the ruling monarchs in their social importance;

(e)

5.

According to your instructor, in the 1700s prior to the American Revolution, the colonies were governed by England according to the following structure:

(a)

The King alone governed the colonies; neither the British parliament nor the colonial legislative assemblies had any power The various colonies each formed their own governments that could pass laws for their own local rule, but the King of England had a legislative veto. Also, The King and the British parliament could in theory pass laws to govern the colonies through the use of British Privy Council. After the Glorious revolution, the British parliament obtained sole authority over the colonies. This is because the King had agreed to relinquish power over these possessions when England created constitutional monarchy and brought Kings back into government, but in a more limited posture. The colonies were ruled by a triumvirate consisting of the high dukes and barons of colonial culture, the high priests of the catholic church, and the King of England.

(b)

(c)

(d)

6.

According to your instructor, the controversies that helped ignite the revolutionary war included: (a) (b) The detailed plan by British Crown to establish a national church in the colonies by the year 1808; Various efforts by Britain to tax the colonists (e.g., the Stamp Act), which resulted in riots and fierce opposition; Britain’s fierce effort to subjugate the colonists to imperial will and to rule the territories with an “iron hand” during the previous fifty (50) years; all of the above;

(c)

(d)

Examination I: Government, the Constitution and Federalism

3 of 14

Note! The following questions involve matching. The answers applicable to each question are listed below the questions (denoted a, b, c, etc.). All of the questions concern the following matter: According to your instructor, American political culture was influenced by various enlightenment thinkers in Europe. Match the enlightenment thinker with his thoughts below (only one answer for each): 7. Niccolo Machiavelli: 8. Sir Isaac Newton: 9. Luther and Calvin: 10. Thomas Hobbes: 11. John Locke: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) governments are formed through contracts, not God; and some rights are unalienable leadership should not be by birth, but by skill. if leaders do not protect the individual’s liberty and property, they can be removed. God does not select leaders, and the church cannot anoint them. mechanical laws are what govern unexplained phenomena; things are to be understood, not feared.

Note! The following questions involve matching. The answers applicable to each question are listed below the questions (denoted a, b, c, etc.). All of the questions concern the following matter: Match the British law with its governing substance (only one answer for each): 12. The Molasses Act (or “the Sugar Act”) 13. The Stamp Act 14. The Townsend Duties 15. The Intolerable Acts (a) (b) (c) (d) placed Massachusetts under “martial law;” levied taxes on all sorts of goods imported into the colonies (analogous to a sales tax); lowered the tax rate on sugar imported into the colonies, but provided for tougher enforcement of the measure; in effect, a tax upon the use of all kinds paper, including newspaper, deeds, legal documents and even playing cards;

Examination I: Government, the Constitution and Federalism

4 of 14

16. According to your instructor, Ben Franklin’s initial reaction to the riots that erupted in the colonies over the controversial Stamp Act was: (a) To attempt to convince the British authorities that they should begin to see the colonies as representing Britain’s future; that within 50 years, Philadelphia would become the “new London” of the empire, meaning it would be the center of British commerce and intellectual culture; and that, accordingly, the way to treat the colonies was as if they were a golden egg laid by the mother goose; To seek a treaty of alliance with France, so loans and supplies could be obtained to fortify colonial defenses against Britain; To organize the Pennsylvania Militia, attend the Continental Congress and advocate for independence from Great Britain; To realize that Britain and the colonies had intractable problems that could not be solved; to see that the British viewed colonists as a provincial and inferior form of English citizenry; and to realize that there could be no future that the colonies could have as a member of the British Empire, causing him, for the first time, to see himself as an independent “American;” both (b) and (d);

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e) 17.

According to your instructor, after the battle of Saratoga, the British offered the following peace proposal: (a) That sovereignty be shared between the colonies and Great Britain, allowing the colonies to have “local rule,” much in the way that American government would (roughly ten years later) allow federal and state governments to share sovereignty. That the Stamp Act be repealed and the revenue collected from it returned to the taxpayers; That colonists be allowed to enter the Ohio country, since they helped fight to liberate it from France; That America would stay in the British empire, but have the right to veto acts of Parliament by a 2/3rds vote in upper chamber of each colony.

(b) (c) (d)

18.

According to your instructor, America won the revolutionary war because:

(a)

the north had industrialized faster than the south, allowing for the emergence of a competitive arms industry and, eventually, the production of a colonial navy that surrounded British troops at Yorktown; its primary force structure, the colonial army, was able to survive the duration of the eight-year war under dire conditions without being destroyed – its sole and primary mission being to stay alive long enough to outlast the enemy’s desire to wage a costly overseas war. British troops did not know the terrain or geography well. They did not know where the forts were located or what strategic ground to capture. The American military was a better-equipped and better-trained fighting force

(b)

(c)

(d)

19.

According to your instructor, the battle of Saratoga was important for the war because:

Examination I: Government, the Constitution and Federalism

5 of 14

(a)

it showed that the American cause was not hopeless and thereby allowed the colonies to secure an alliance with France, helping America fight the British; it trapped General Cornwallis between the colonial army and a fleet of French ships, which, together, bottled the British up and forced them to surrender. it was Washington’s finest command decision, sneaking across the Delaware river and attacking British troops who were expecting to rest for the winter, and gave the war effort a feeling of new momentum; it taught Washington a great lesson: he could not attack the entire British force head on; instead, he would have to retreat into the hills and mountainous terrain where he could wage a “war of posts.”

(b)

(c)

(d)

20.

The single greatest British mistake that could have ended the war during the first week of fighting was the decision of General Howe during the battle of New York City: (a) that resulted in his failure to rendezvous with a force structure coming south from Canada to Albany, New York. Instead, Howe chose to proceed to Philadelphia by way of the Chesapeake River, going through Virginia. This stranded the force in upstate New York and resulted in the loss of the battle of Saratoga; that allowed German mercenaries to do much of the fighting work, when he knew that mercenaries are what caused the Roman army to lose its fighting strength; that allowed the ports of the colonies to remain free, thereby allowing supplies to enter from France, when he could have ordered his ships to block the same; that resulted in the capture of Fort Washington instead of pursuing Washington’s colonial army, which had been badly beaten and remain exposed on Long Island following Washington’s foolish command decision to strike the British head on; and, related to this, his failure to pursue Washington’s beaten army as they fled into New Jersey, deciding instead to camp for the winter and see his mistress.

(b)

(c)

(d)

21.

According to your instructor, William Ellison: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) was an African American born into slavery in a southern state; owned a plantation with 60 African American slaves; repaired cotton gins; all of the above; only (a) and (c);

22.

According to your instructor, the expansion of federal power in the modern era was centered around the Supreme Court’s “interpretation” of: (a) (b) (c) the supremacy clause; the necessary-and-proper clause; the Tenth Amendment;

Examination I: Government, the Constitution and Federalism

6 of 14

(d) (e) 23.

the taxing and spending clause; the commerce clause;

According to your instructor, a federal system is best described as: (a) a confederation of separate sovereigns, such as the kind of system created by the Articles of Confederation or European Union; an agreement to have more than one sovereign share the power of governing the same people; a unitary system that is hierarchical and corporate in form, and that divides the country into smaller sections, called “districts,” that are lower in rank to the central authority that created it; a system that is defined by a supremacy clause and establishes a strong central government;

(b) (c)

(d) 24.

True or False: One of the hallmark features of the Constitution is that, when it was written, it gave the federal government the power to enact laws that regulate American society for purposes of the general welfare or common good.

Note! The following questions involve a series of true/false options. Answer “A” for true; “B” for false. All of the questions concern the following matter: According to your instructor, during early American history ...

25. The south contained 90% of the African-American slave population 26. To supply African people for slavery, it was commonplace for African elites to enslave the "political outsiders" of their own cultures and sell them for trade 27. The voyage of slave ships involved packing human “cargo” (slaves) into coffin-like storage providing as small as 18 inches of space 28. As a general rule, the form of slavery that was experienced in the West Indies was the most brutal of the African slavery in North America, and that slaves from the West Indies were considered "seasoned." 29. America was the first society to use the institution of slavery 30. When capturing Africans for slavery, it was common for Europeans to personally raid villages and kidnap people -- most often, women and children. Note! The following questions involve a series of true/false options. Answer “A” for true; “B” for false. All of the questions concern the following matter: According to your instructor … 31. In 1776, there were about 500,000 African slaves, or about 1 in 6 Americans. 32. IN 1776, the year of the American Revolution, 292,000, or 40% of Virginia’s entire population, consisted of

Examination I: Government, the Constitution and Federalism

7 of 14

African-American slaves 33. In 1776, the year of the American Revolution, 60% of the entire population of South Carolina consisted of African American slaves

34. Around 1860, only 1 in four causations in the South owned slaves; and only .008% of the southern population owned more than 20 35. According to the 1840 census, 3,800 free African Americans in the south also owned African-American slaves. 36. In 1776, the year of the American Revolution, Virginia had the highest number of free African Americans (about 12,000). 37. A majority of whites in the south owned slaves 38. the slave trade -- the practice of buying and selling humans from West Africa -- was not made illegal until the end of the Civil War _________________________________________________________________________________________ Reading Questions _________________________________________________________________________________________

Note! The following questions involve matching. The answers applicable to each question are listed below the questions (denoted a, b, c, etc.). All of the questions concern the following matter: Match the following terms with their definitions (only one answer for each) 39. Referenda 40. Reserved powers 41. Concurrent powers 42. Externalities 43. Enumerated powers

(a) (b) (c) (d)

powers specifically granted to the federal government in the Constitution costs imposed on people who are not direct participants in an activity powers that can be exercised by both the national government and state governments. powers not specifically delegated to the national government and retained by the states under the Tenth Amendment to the Constitution proposed laws or constitutional amendments submitted to the voters for their direct approval or rejection

(e)

Examination I: Government, the Constitution and Federalism

8 of 14

Note! The following questions involve matching. The answers applicable to each question are listed below the questions (denoted a, b, c, etc.). All of the questions concern the following matter: Match the following textbook terms with their definitions (only one answer for each): 44. Centralized federalism 45. Dual federalism 46. New federalism (a) Early system of federalism in which the fundamental powers of government are clearly divided between the national and state governments (b) The system of federalism wherein the national government assumes primary responsibility for determining national goals in all major policy areas (c) attempts to return power and responsibility to the states and reduce the role of the national government

47.

According to your TEXT, “home rule” is: (a) the power given by states to city governments to pass laws that manage their municipal affairs;

(b) constitutional arrangement whereby the national authority is supreme and the state governments are merely like counties or districts (c) a constitutional arrangement whereby the national and state governments share power, the specifics of which are outlined in a written constitution (d) rules that try to regulate privacy in the home.

48.

According to your TEXT, a unitary system is: (a) the power given by states to city governments to pass laws that manage their municipal affairs;

(b) constitutional arrangement whereby the national authority is supreme and the state governments are merely like counties or districts (c) a constitutional arrangement whereby the national and state governments share power, the specifics of which are outlined in a written constitution (d) a constitutional arrangement whereby a national “government” is created, but where the states remain sovereign (have ultimate authority).

49.

According to your TEXT, a confederation is:

Examination I: Government, the Constitution and Federalism

9 of 14

(a)

the power given by states to city governments to pass laws that manage their municipal affairs;

(b) constitutional arrangement whereby the national authority is supreme and the state governments are merely like counties or districts (c) a constitutional arrangement whereby the national and state governments share power, the specifics of which are outlined in a written constitution (d) a constitutional arrangement whereby a national “government” is created, but where the states remain sovereign (have ultimate authority). 50. According to your text, “preemption” is (a) the power given by states to city governments to pass laws that manage their municipal affairs;

(b) early system of federalism in which the fundamental powers of government are clearly divided between the national and state governments, meaning that the federal government is preempted from acting within a state domain (c) a constitutional arrangement whereby the national and state governments share power, the specifics of which are outlined in a written constitution (d) total or partial federal assumption of power in a particular field, restricting the authority of the states

_________________________________________________________________________________________ New Questions _________________________________________________________________________________________ 51. According to your instructor, the “first modern country” was: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) America in 1787 England after about 1688 The Roman Republic The Athenian Democracy America in 1776

52. According to your instructor, the colony that was founded as a “poor colony” to cure the ills of the “deserving poor” was: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Georgia West Virginia Virginia Carolina Maryland

53. According to your instructor, in England during the time of the “glorious revolution” (1688), the people who supported the new financial institutions (banking, finance capitalism) and who wanted more political participation by “the people” and greater toleration of dissent were the __________ party, and were generally members of the ___________ class. (a) Whigs; gentry (b) Tories; aristocracy

Examination I: Government, the Constitution and Federalism

10 of 14

(c) Whigs; peasants (d) Whigs; aristocracy (e) Tories; gentry

54. The Virginia Plan that was submitted by Madison at the constitutional conventional can best be described as: (a) Constitutional Monarchy (b) Dual Sovereignty With Limited Government (meaning the States have powers that the federal government cannot interfere with) (c) Parliamentary System (d) Three co-equal branches of government, each independent of the other

55. According to your instructor, the center of legitimacy in a parliamentary system is: (a) the judiciary, because it is closest to the idea of having lords over the law (b) the executive branch, because it exercises many of the king’s old powers (c) the upper chamber of the parliament or congress, because it is composed of the most refined or socially elite elements of society (d) the executive cabinet or privy council, because it is an intermediate body between executive and legislative (e) the lower chamber of the parliament or congress, because it is closest to the people

56. According to your instructor, the central flaw in the Athenian form of government (direct democracy) was: (a) (b) (c) (d) they didn’t let women or slaves vote mob rule or mob justice the consuls had too much power, causing Caesar to take over the ruling government “the people” didn’t have enough say, thereby making the rule illegitimate

57. According to your instructor, the central flaw in the Athenian form of government (direct democracy) was: (a) (b) (c) (d) they didn’t let women or slaves vote mob rule or mob justice the consuls had too much power, causing Caesar to take over the ruling government “the people” didn’t have enough say, thereby making the rule illegitimate

Note! The following questions involve matching. The answers applicable to each question are listed below the questions (denoted a, b, c, etc.). All of the questions concern the following matter: Match the following textbook terms with their definitions (only one answer for each): 58. autocratic

Examination I: Government, the Constitution and Federalism

11 of 14

59. dictatorship 60. authoritarian 61. monarchy 62. totalitarian (a) (b) (c) rule by the strongest person (usually, the head of the military) rule by a person of hereditary succession rule by a regime that is not limited by law or competitors

(d) rule tends to be concentrated in a single person (the term being concerned with the extent of participation by society in government) (e) rule by a regime that is not limited by law, but is limited by competitors

63. With respect the Palatine Court developed for the Carolinas by John Locke, your instructor noted that: (a) It could only judge the legality of statutes, not pass laws, and was therefore the first attempt at creating the judiciary as a separate branch of government in America. (b) It could both pass laws and interpret them, making it a legislature and a supreme court all in one (c) It was composed of eight proprietors (d) It was popularly elected 64. According to your instructor, the outbreak of finance capitalism in England in the 1600s (called the "Financial Revolution") had the following effect upon England: (a) It made the monarchy stronger because the King controlled the treasury, which contained the capitalization used to operate the capitalist financial network. (b) It manifestly changed Europe because, for the first time, it created "class consciousness" that later developed in European socialism. (c) It complimented the Glorious Revolution because it created social mobility – and thus power -- for the middle-class Gentry, which helped cause a two-party system to develop in England between Tories and Whigs. (d) It crippled the economy and created an uprising among the haves and the have nots 65. When your instructor lectured you about American slavery, he mentioned that all framers were not the same on this issue. In particular, he quoted from a letter written by _____________, which had voiced strong opposition to racial discrimination. (a) (b) (c) (d) George Washington Thomas Jefferson Abigail Adams James Madison

66. In colonial America, it was common for colonies to have an upper and lower house of the legislature. According to your instructor, the upper house, called the “General Court,” basically functioned as:

Examination I: Government, the Constitution and Federalism

12 of 14

(a) (b) (c) (d)

an executive council an executive cabinet the “democratic branch” both a Senate and a Supreme Court all in one.

67. In colonial America, it was common for colonies to have an upper and lower house of the legislature. According to your instructor, the upper house, called the “General Court,” basically functioned as: (a) (b) (c) (d) an executive council an executive cabinet the “democratic branch” both a Senate and a Supreme Court all in one.

68. True or False. After the American revolution, in 1776, the vast majority of the colonies created executives (governors) that were strong and vigorous (having great powers), because it was necessary to have these vigorous executives to fight the war. 69. According to your instructor, Alexander Hamilton’s key observation about the power of federal judiciary is that the court system should not be feared, because: (a) (b) (c) (d) it’s members were appointed by the elected branches of government its members were subject to removal for bad behavior it lacked the key political powers, the power of the “sword” (police, military) and “purse” (tax and spend) supreme court opinions could be overturned by the public through amendments to the constitution

70. When discussing the significance of the American constitution, your instructor noted that: (a) it was the first government in history to have created democracy (b) its ratification was significantly more democratic than the level of democracy generally seen in any other country in history (c) it had removed social sectors from the definition of who should govern (e.g., no House of Lords) (d) it was the first society to have utilized some system of checks and balances (shared power) in governing arrangements 71. With respect to the new government created by the framing generation, “Madisonians” had thought that: (a) (b) (c) (d) 72. Congress would be the central and most important branch of government The President would be the central and most important branch of government The Judiciary would be the central and most important branch of government, because they had the last say The bureaucracy would be the most central and important branch of government

With respect to the new government created by the framing generation, “Hamiltonians” thought that: (a) (b) (c) (d) Congress would be the central and most important branch of government the president would play at least an equal role with the Congress the government would collapse into monarchy and the country would balkanize into smaller countries, like Europe it gave the federal government too much power, and that a weaker central authority was needed to protect state’s rights

Note! The following questions involve a series of true/false options. Answer “A” for true; “B” for false. All of the questions concern the following matter: When discussing the way the Court interprets the legality of federal power today (in the wake of Roosevelt), your instructor argued that:

Examination I: Government, the Constitution and Federalism

13 of 14

73. Section 8 of Article I of the constitution has really evolved into a parliamentary system rather than a constitutional system 74. electoral politics generally dictate what meaningful limitations Congress has, not any court decision arising from the reasonable meaning of sentences found in Section 8. 75. the commerce clause has been interpreted into a “do-all” clause, and that the Court reads the clause in such a way as to allow Congress the power to regulate for the general welfare of society. 76. that one of the reasons why federal power has grown so much is that the psychology of remoteness experienced in agrarian society has dissipated as society has become more complex and interrelated 77. that the new federal power regime that exists today may, in fact, be more logically consistent with the constitution as it exists today, because of the structural changes we have made to the document (making people more important than states, democratizing the Senate and executive). 78. that this particular issue seems to validate Hamilton’s view of the judiciary more so than the concern expressed by De Tocqueville. 79. that when social forces cause a strong hegemony (consensus) to exist within both of the popular branches of government (president and congress), that the Court in federal power cases has shown a tendency to act as a dependent and passive institution.

80. When lecturing you about the influence that Roman culture had upon the West (and thus, America), which of the following practices did your professor attribute to Rome: (a) (b) (c) (d) systematic rationality and the invention of academic disciplines (philosophy, history, etc.); technology, hierarchy, order and sport monotheism slavery

81. When lecturing you about Rome, your instructor indicated that the social elite in Roman culture from roughly 510 B.C. through 247 B,C. were the: (a) (b) (c) (d) patricians monarchy emperors plebeians

82. According to your instructor, the first government to have a multi-branch government that observed some rough separation of powers (legislative from executive) and that could be argued to be a “proto-form” of (or bearing some meaningful relation to) the structure of American government, is: (a) England in the days of absolute monarchy

Examination I: Government, the Constitution and Federalism

14 of 14

(b) (c) (d)

England in the days of limited (constitutional) monarchy the early Hebrew traditions which gave rise to monotheism The Roman Republic in its heyday, before authority was collapsed (centralized) under the rule of emperors

83. According to your instructor, citizens participating in the direct democracy of Athens would assemble every so often and would take action against people who they thought might threaten their system of government. That is, they would take action against would-be tyrants and other potentially powerful people. What would this action be? (a) (b) (c) (d) lynching hanging imprisonment ostracism (or banishment)


				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:488
posted:4/19/2009
language:English
pages:14
Description: exam given in philosophy and development of american government