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Final Exam, Fall 2008

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DIRECTIONS: DO NOT WRITE ON THE EXAM (other than to sign your name). ANSWERS GO ON THE ANSWER SHEET. KEEP YOUR ANSWER SHEET COVERED. NO BATHROOM BREAKS. 1. According to your instructor, “political-party liberalism” believes that government’s role with respect to capitalistic society is: (a) (b) (c) (d) 2. to correct market “externality,” by making the price of a good reflect its true cost in society; to buffer market harshness, by providing unemployment compensation and setting a fair minimum wage; to soften competitive society so that basic needs, such as health care, disability, retirement and welfare are provided; all of the above;

According to your instructor, a “progressive tax” is: (a) (b) (c) a new and innovative plan for government financing that relies upon a national sales tax rather than the outdated income tax; a new and innovative plan for government financing whereby each income level is taxed at the same rate; a tax that is based upon the economic principle of diminishing marginal utility, which states that the marginal value of an additional unit of currency is lower when the person is already saturated with dollars, but higher if dollars are scarce; a tax on large industrial corporations advocated by the Progressive Party in the 1920s;

(d)

Note: Below is a list of political theories that differ about how large or small they want government to be. Some want government to be extremely large – controlling and spending lots of money relative to the country’s gross domestic product – while others want government’s size to be extremely small. Based upon your instructor’s lecture, provide the estimation of what theory advocates. (Only one answer for each. The answers are listed last (a,b,c) and the numbered items are first). Questions: 3. European “socialism” 4. American “political-party conservatism” 5. libertarian 6. communism 7. American “political-party liberalism” Answers (a) (c) (d) it advocates that government be extremely lean, spending from 0% to 17% of gross national product; it advocates that government spend from 20% to 29% of gross national product; it advocates that government be large enough to control and spend 30% to 40% of the country’s gross national product;

1

(e) (f)

it advocates quite a large government that spends roughly 40% to 60% of the country’s gross national product; it advocates the elimination of the free market system whereby government controls all the means of production and distribution;

8 According to your instructor, when George Washington was elected as the first American president, the most important factor that influenced voter choice was: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) the fact that Washington was a Federalist rather than a Jeffersonian Republican; partisanship; the character of the candidate as indicated by his revolutionary-war credentials; his stance on taxation; both (a) and (b).

9. According to your instructor, during Washington’s presidency, an ideological split occurred between Hamilton and Jefferson. With respect to this division, select the best answer: (a) After the Washington presidency, Hamilton and Adams began to call themselves “federalists,” which denoted their belief that a strong central government was necessary for the new American union; Jefferson and Madison began calling themselves “democratic-republicans,” which denoted their belief that greater concentration of power into a central apparatus threatened the true ideals of the American revolution; it caused the subsequent presidential elections in 1796 and 1800 to be more partisan in character, with Americans aligning themselves with “Adam’s men” or “Jefferson’s men;” all of the above;

(b)

(c)

(d)

10. According to your instructor, the election of 1800 was the first presidential election where a candidate circulated political pamphlets, rallied citizens to “the cause,” and began actively soliciting votes from segments of the American public. With respect to this, select the best answer: (a) the controversy over the campaigning led to the passage of the First Amendment to the Constitution, guaranteeing the right of free speech; the campaign tactics backfired, causing Jefferson to lose the race; the tactics led to the creation of the first presidential debate between Adams and Jefferson; the tactics ushered in an era of candidate-centered politics, where voters began paying attention to things such as candidate demeanor, dress, voice tone and appearance. John Adams and the Federalists thought this was “cheating” because soliciting votes was a sign that a person lacked the virtue necessary for the office.

(b) (c) (d)

(e)

11.

With respect to political parties in America between 1800-1824, select the best answer: (a) the Federalist Party and “National Republicans” largely represented merchants, manufacturers, shippers, bankers and stock traders who were concentrated in New York and

New England; (b) the “Democratic-Republicans” tended to represent agrarian interests (large plantations to small farms), mostly from the south; The Federalist Party dominated the election victories until Andrew Jackson’s Democratic party was created. all of the above only (a) and (b).

(c)

(d) (e)

12.

According to your instructor, the Democratic party was created by: (a) (b) Andrew Jackson, who caused a split within the “Republican” party in 1828; a large group of southern citizens who were upset with Lincoln’s stance toward slavery during the civil war; Franklin Delano Roosevelt, who built a political coalition during the great depression that was so large, it dominated American politics until 1968; Federalists who wanted to reform the party name and its tradition after its string of losses in the early 1800s.

(c)

(d)

13. for:

According to your instructor, Andrew Jackson won the presidency in 1828. His party was most famous

(a)

infusing an egalitarian philosophy in American politics that promoted an end to slavery in the south; democratizing America’s political system by allowing more (white) people to vote and by having more states select presidential electors by popular vote. reforming the Federalist party and re-establishing the Hamiltonian view of American governance; all of the above.

(b)

(c)

(d)

Note: Below is a list of political parties. You are to indicate which constituency the party represented. The questions are provided first and the answers (a,b) next. Each item has only ONE answer. Questions: 14. The Federalist Party. 15. The Republican Party of Lincoln. 16. The Democratic Party of Andrew Jackson. 17. The “Republican” party of Jefferson, from 1800 to 1824.

Answers (a) primarily represented the northern economic interests and world view (banking and merchants) primarily represented the southern economic interests and world view (agriculture and plantations)

(b)

18. According to your instructor, in the 1800s and early 1900s, the function that political parties played in America politics was radically different than the function they play today. The reason for this is because: (a) political parties used the spoils system to deliver jobs to their membership. (An example would be Tammany Hall, where the value of patronage in only Manhattan and a slice of the Bronx was a larger in 1888 than what the Andrew Carnegie iron and steel works could offer people); political parties delivered social services to their supporters. (An example would be Tammany Hall, where politicians accompanied fire trucks to “burned out” residents and offered them assistance in exchange for their families votes and support); political party bosses had real power – they controlled who would receive their party’s nomination and could therefore discipline as well as reward politicians; all of the above

(b)

(c)

(d)

19.

According to your instructor, the power of political parties began to decline because of: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) civil-service reform; the advent of voter primaries; the role of money in campaigns Post civil-war industrialization and the rise of laissez faire only (a) and (b);

20.

According to your instructor, “dealignment” is a phenomenon whereby: (a) (b) the tread on automobile tires wears unevenly, necessitating correction; there is a growing decline of party identification among voters whereby more of the electorate now considers themselves “independent” than in previous generations; large segments of the voting population end their affiliation with one major political party and decide to support the other one. (This is a rare occurrence in American politics, the last one happening with the election of FDR in 1932); none of the above;

(c)

(d)

21. According to your instructor, the advertisement for what matters most in an election has changed over time, such that three distinctive election eras may be said to exist. What defines America’s progression from one era to the next is best summarized by the following: (a) American elections began as fierce, partisan battles, then evolved into a more educated and refined form of politics once television emerged and voting rights were expanded, and now seems to be largely driven by the common sense of the people, who tend not to allow one party to have complete control over government; the first elections were based upon “character selection,” where candidates were picked according to their virtue and ability – sort of like one purports to select football players to the Hall of Fame. This was replaced quickly, however, with partisan politics. Now, however, parties are in decline, and voters seem to rely more on candidate-centered politics – such as how the candidate looks, what his or her image is, etc. Campaigns began as simple, grass-roots movements that involved the people. Next, during the age of industrialization, wealth and money had more of a role to play, causing farmers and laborers to lose political power. Now, with the proliferation of interest groups on each side, campaigns are dominated so much by money that average people have the least amount of “say” in government than ever before. The first campaigns began in America as an interpersonal experience. Candidates couldn’t use television, so they had to campaign by going to each farm to meet the people and “pound the flesh” (that is, shake hands). When television arrived, the process became more interpersonal, except for New Hampshire. The age of advertising had begun. Now, however, the internet has made elections more accessible to people than ever before, with candidates able to set up web sites and political chat rooms.

(b)

(c)

(d)

22. According to your instructor, the transformation of America from an agrarian society into an industrial power had the following effect upon political ideology: (a) It changed the left-right issues that existed in colonial America because standing up for farmers and being against banks and “Wall Street culture” now sounded like left-wing talk. That is, it sounds like the talk of labor fighting capital. This is why Jefferson’s rhetoric today sounds like Ralph Nader’s. It made Andrew Jackson and Franklin Roosevelt, both Democrats, believe in the same world view and ideology It validated Jefferson’s ideas about what was truly in America’s economic self interest, and how the country could grow into a prosperous Republic with virtue; It created a new “conservatism” based upon the economic hegemony that began to displace agrarian ideology as the rationalization for the economic power center of American politics. The new replacement, called laissez faire ideology, offered a rationalization for why the new forms of economic power should have preference over other entities and concerns within the political culture; both (a) and (b);

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

Note! The following questions involve a series of true/false options. Answer “A” for true; “B” for false. All of the questions concern the following matter: Your instructor lectured you about several stories involving the election of Thomas Jefferson in 1800. For each statement below, indicate whether it is true or false: 23. Jefferson's arch nemesis, Alexander Hamilton, actually lobbied in favor of Jefferson's presidency in the House of Representatives and helped him become president of the United States; 24. Jefferson's own running mate in the 1800 election, Aaron Burr, actually tried to PREVENT Jefferson from ultimately gaining the Presidency so he (Burr) could "leap frog" into the position. 25. The stalemate in the House of Representatives almost led to armed conflict, as the Governor of Pennsylvania threatened to raise 20,000 militia men to march on the capitol. 26. Jefferson struck a secret deal with federalists wherein he promised not to break away from key policy positions in exchange for the federalists delivering the victory to him in the House of Representatives 27. Jefferson never struck a deal with Federalists because he was too principled to do so. The reason he won the election in the House is because the new Republicans elected in 1800 to the Congress were able to put an end to the tie. 28. Jefferson sued in the Supreme Court to win the presidency, with Federalist John Marshall hearing the case. The case was historic, because, when declaring Jefferson the winner, it also declared that the Court had the power of judicial review, something that irked Jefferson immensely.

29. Assume for the moment that Obama and McCain are running against each other for president in 2008. Assume further that Obama and McCain end up in an electoral tie, with each candidate receiving 269 votes in the electoral college. If this had happened: A. The person having a majority of the popular vote wins the race; B. The House of Representatives would have to decide the winner, because neither candidate received a majority of votes available in the electoral college; C. The Supreme Court would have to declare the winner; D. The Senate would have to decide the winner between Obama and McCain;

30. According to your instructor, if neither presidential candidate wins enough electoral votes to win the presidency: A. The House of Representatives must decide the election, with each member receiving one vote, free to choose which candidate they want; B. The Supreme Court decides the winner by requiring a hand count of the votes and an ballot analysis of “hanging chads.” C. The Senate decides the presidential election by simple majority vote, with the vice president breaking ties; D. The House of Representatives must decide the election, but instead of each member casting one vote, each state’s entire delegation counts as only one vote. This means that the representatives of each

state must vote among themselves to determine which way their state will vote.

31. According to your instructor, the system for electing a president is unlikely to end in a tie because: A. the election in the House of Representatives can’t end in tie since it has an odd number of members (465) and since, in any event, the Speaker of the House breaks ties; B. the Supreme Court selects the president, and they have an odd number of members (nine); C. if the vote in the House ends in a tie, the president is considered to be under a “constitutional disability.” Under this circumstance, the vice president (chosen by the Senate) simply ascends to the presidency just the same as if the president had died in office. This ensures that someone will win, because the sitting Vice President can break a tie vote in the Senate. D. The Constitution requires that the current President remain in office until his or her successor is qualified. Hence, if there would be a tie this year, Bush will have to stay until another election can be held. Note! The following questions involve a series of true/false options. Answer “A” for true; “B” for false. All of the questions concern the following matter: 32. Elections held in early American history (at or near 1776) did not employ the secret ballot; rather, voters would have to declare their vote in public. 33. The basic way that someone like Jefferson would win elections in Virginia around 1776 was to hold a large, festive barbecue with kegs of rum, ale, and plenty of food. People would eat, drink, and then go forward to pronounce their vote in public. 34. During the first Jefferson-Adams presidential election, the candidates began personally campaigning for the office and asked voters to support them. Adams and Jefferson even participated in the first public town hall debate where they outlined differences in tax policies. 35. During the first Jefferson-Adams election, campaign themes began to emerge in the party press and in handbills and flyers printed by supporters of each side. The themes said things such as, "This election is about keeping the Virginia philosopher from the chair” and “keep the monocrats out of office.”

36. According to your instructor, the first American presidential campaign to rely upon a "rapid response team" to quickly discredit negative attacks made by an opponent was the campaign of: A. B. C. D. Bill Clinton in 1992 Thomas Jefferson in 1800 Andrew Jackson in 1828 Franklin Roosevelt in 1932

37. According to your instructor, during the 1840 campaign of Whig candidate William Henry Harrison the following occurred: A. One group of Whig party members pushed a ten foot, paper and tin ball emblazoned with pro-Harrison slogans for hundreds of miles, leading to the popular expression "keep the

ball rolling," while others handed out whiskey in log cabin-shaped bottles supplied by the E.C. Booz distillery, leading to the American expression "booze." B. The election ended in a tie and had to be decided by the House of Representatives, where Federalists struck a deal that allowed Harrison to win The election tied and resulted in the passage of the 12th Amendment, which changed the way that tied elections were decided decided by the Supreme Court Andrew jackson died, his last public act being his never-ending endorsement of Martin Van Buren

C.

D.

38. True or False. According to your instructor, at the start of Franklin Roosevelt’s second term, Republicans only had 17 members in the Senate. 39. True or False. According to your instructor, the phrase “tax and spend politicians” was invented by Republicans who were opposed to the New Deal and saw it as a kind of corruption in American politics. Note! The following questions involve a series of true/false options. Answer “A” for true; “B” for false. All of the questions concern the following matter: According to your instructor, the "second new deal" consisted of: 40. The FDIC program (insuring depositors if the banks fail) 41. The National Labor Relations Act 42. The Social Security Act 43. Significant progressive taxation (tax the rich more)

___________________________________________________________________________________ TEXT QUESTIONS ___________________________________________________________________________________
44. According to your text, “executive privilege” is: (a) (b) (c) the refusal by presidents to spend monies appropriated by Congress; the right that Bill Clinton claimed when defending his conduct with Monica Lewinsky; the duty of the president to consult with key members of Congress before launching hostilities against other countries; the right of the president to withhold from other branches of government or the public certain communications that occur inside the White House;

(d)

45.

According to your text, an “executive order” is: (a) (b) a command given by a military officer in a chain of military hierarchy; the broad discretionary power to make decisions that chief executive officers of private corporations have but which the Constitution denies to the president; a rule or regulation issued by the president that has the effect and formal status of legislation; an order issued by the Supreme Court which indicates that Court has accepted your case for appeal;

(c) (d)

46.

According to your text, an “executive agreement” is: (a) a power, not specifically contained within the Constitution, that allows the president to form agreements with other nations that have the effect of a treaty, even though the Senate does not ratify it; the broad discretionary power to make decisions that chief executive officers of private corporations have but which the Constitution denies to the president; the right of the president to withhold from other branches of government or the public certain communications that occur inside the White House;” the duty of the president to consult with key members of Congress before launching hostilities against other countries;

(b)

(c)

(d)

47.

According to your text, a “rider” is: (a) (b) an amendment to a bill that is not germane to the bill’s purpose; an interest group that contributes money to the “wrong” political party, because one or more of its members is crossing party lines to supporting its agenda (e.g., Republicans that vote pro choice); the name given to a bill that travels through more than one committee; the informal term for “passenger” used by the transportation department;

(c) (d)

48.

According to your text, a “responsible party” is one that:

(a) (b)

avoids negative campaigning and, instead, debates only on the issues; adopts a platform, recruits candidates who agree with it, and holds the candidates responsible if they fail to enact its provisions; allows the people to elect its nominees in a primary system, instead of relying upon party bosses to ultimately determine the winner; occupies the White House while having a majority control of both chambers of Congress. When this happens, government is no longer “divided,” and only one party is responsible for the success or failure that results during the term of governance.

(c)

(d)

49.

According to your text, “franking privilege” is: (a) (b) a law that allows Congressmen to have free hot dogs in Washington at taxpayer expense; a new liberal radio network that is headed by Al Franken and is designed to compete with Rush Limbaugh, the popular conservative radio-show host; what Frank Gifford is known to give airline stewardesses; a law that gives free use of the U.S. mails to members of Congress to promote communication with constituents.

(c) (d)

50.

According to your text, “halo effect” is: (a) a technique used by Bill Clinton to speak his way out of out of trouble and scandal, also referred to as “silver tongue devil” the effect that a new president has with the American public right after the election and during the first year in office what happens when rain occurs during sunshine tendency of survey respondents to provide socially acceptable answers

(b)

(c) (d) 51.

According to your text, a “policy network” is: (a) (b) (c) a television channel created to rival the home shopping network; groups of average Americans who form groups, such as the National Rifle Association; the interaction that occurs among lobbyists, elected officials, staff personnel, and bureaucrats, about a common policy area; none of the above;

(d)

52.

According to your text, “malapportionment” is: (a) (b) (c) (d) a condition of malnourishment that can lead to scurvy; Unequal numbers of people in legislative districts resulting in inequality of voter representation; A Brazilian man who invented the harpsichord; the loss of party cohesion in Congress as the president’s poll numbers go down;

53.

According to your text, “gerrymandering” is: (a) (b) drawing district boundary lines for political advantage; the power of interest groups to have greater control in congressional committees compared to the chamber of the whole; the power that interest groups exercise within bureaucratic agencies to gain a favorable rule-making climate; (b) and (c) only;

(c)

(d)

54.

According to your text, “markup” is: (a) (b) (c) (d) line-by-line revision of a bill in committee by editing each phrase and word; a pricing system in capitalist countries that allows merchants to charge more than retailers; the process by which Senators continuously debate a bill, resulting in the bill’s eventual defeat; none of the above;

55.

According to your text, a “discharge petition” is: (a) a petition that attempted to create term limits in Congress and which would have resulted in many representatives being discharged from their offices; a petition issued by the Congress to obtain the termination of an agency head of the bureaucracy; a petition signed by at least 218 House members to force a floor vote on a bill within a committee that opposes it; a petition signed by at least 60 Senators to end floor debate and force a vote on a bill.

(b) (c)

(d)

___________________________________________________________________________________ FRESH QUESTIONS ___________________________________________________________________________________ 56. According to your instructor’s lecture, the idea of “pluralism” in political science means: a. creating a diverse society where people of different cultures can meaningfully coexist without prejudice or favoritism for a particular cultural form b. that public policy is primarily a function of interest-group competition, which form an equilibrium that can shift based upon election returns and other big events in the larger policy marketplace c. a three branch government with an independent judiciary d. a system of government where the legislature is supreme and the other branches are subservient to the lower house of the legislature e. the view that marriage should have more than one cultural form – between a man and wife, a man and man, or a wife and wife. 57. According to your instructor’s lecture, the social security policy debate in Congress is not optimally organized into group/counter-group competition because: a. one of the major stakeholders in the debate, the young, are not organized into an interest group b. the rich class and powerful corporate lobby have hijacked the process through massive campaign donations c. “social security” as it was intended doesn’t really exist; the government spends the payroll taxes like they do any general revenue. The money isn’t set aside. d. ever since the ascendancy of Reagan, Republicans have liked old people. 58. According to your instructor, one might conceive of politics as being divided into “stakeholders” and “spectators.” The difference between the two is that: a. one is organized, the other is not b. one tends to watch politics on television every four years and root for their favorite team, the other is involved in politics every day by lobbying Congress and working on policy issues c. one has more to directly lose from policy change, the other tends to not have as much to lose d. all of the above

59. When your instructor was talking about advisory primaries, he told a story about one involving: a. b. c. d. Richard Nixon in California in 1972 John Fitzgerald Kennedy in West Virginia in 1960 Franklin Delano Roosevelt in Pennsylvania in 1932 Andrew Jackson in Georgia in 1832

60. According to your instructor’s lecture, one of the main reasons why the presidential nomination system was reformed in 1968 was the fact that: a. Robert Kennedy was shot, and the Democrats had no other primary winners to nominate b. Johnson’s vice president, Hubert Humpherey, won the Democratic nomination without entering a single primary

c. the primary system was thought to be too long and costly, which made reformers cut the number of primaries that were nationally available d. the first state to hold its primary was California, which was not representative of the country. After much discussion, the reformers picked Iowa and New Hampshire as the first contests. 61. According to your instructor’s lecture, the framer’s invention of the electoral college did not anticipate political parties. This is evidenced by the fact that the voting procedures in the college (before being revised by the 12th Amendment): a. did not allow electors to have more than one vote, thus preventing each member from voting for a vice presidential candidate of a given team. b. worked in such a manner as to cause ties between running mates, because the college did not anticipate the idea of individuals running as a “team.” c. were given according to the social rank of the elector, such that high-level people had more than one vote, but people of lower rank had only one vote d. specifically indicated that a vote could not be cast for a Democrat or Republican, but only a registered independent. 62. True or False. Your professor loves A.M. talk radio (e.g., Drudge, O’Reily, etc.) and thinks students should spend more time listening to it. This is because it is so informative and teaches students to learn about the world. 63. During one of your instructor’s lectures about ideology, he mentioned a theorist by the name of Phillip Converse. The point of Converse’s theory was to say that: ideology is a quasi-logical belief system that has idea elements being linked together by something called a “constraint” b. ideology is a good trait which allows people to find truth and wisdom and educate others as to why their beliefs are wrong c. American politics changed in the wake of Franklin Roosevelt, and that we all live in a postRoosevelt world, including conservatives d. Today’s Democrats are more like yesterday’s Republicans. 64. According to your instructor’s lecture, Ronald Reagan cut the top tax rate in 1981 to: a. b. c. d. e. 75% 90% 50% 23% 36% a.

65. True or false. Deficit spending today as a percentage of GNP is much worse than what it was under Franklin Roosevelt during World War II. 66. According to your professor, “democratic theory” is: a. b. c. d. the idea that interest groups are what determine the basic structure of policy the idea that a rich elite governs America the idea that majority sentiment should govern America the idea that democracy should have capitalism and liberty mixed with it

67. According to your instructor, the presence of “bell curves” represents a theoretical problem for the view that majority sentiment should control government, because: most people do not want to control government anyway when two interest groups compete, the curve is rectangular, not bell shaped the curvature of human intelligence is not yet known to science with sufficient certainty the people who determine the “winner” of polls tend only to have average information and capacity e. people who have curvature of the spine take calcium supplements anyway. 68. True or False. According to your instructor’s lecture, the percentage of people voting in elections who know that the term of office in the House of Representatives is 2 years is only 30%. That is, 7 in 10 don’t know this fact. 69. According to your instructor, one of the ways that one can make better sense of majority sentiment (polls, voting) in American government is to: a. treat the results as though the respondents have great abilities and a high amount of information, and require elected representatives to follow the dictates of this sentiment b. treat the results as pure idiocy, capable of telling us nothing about what government should or should not do c. treat the results only as a kind of psychology or mood that tells us whether or not the electorate is experiencing high levels of discomfort from the current course of governance. This, then, would allow us a more adequate reason to say when some other course of governance should be tried d. increase the number of polls taken so that confusion in results can be eliminated and make sure poll methodology is more sound 70. One of the examples your instructor used in class to demonstrate “candidate-centered politics” was: a. b. c. d. e. Plunket of Tammany Hall Plunket of the Oakland Raiders “Czar leadership” Washington’s election to the presidency Al Gore being told to wear blue jeans and kiss his wife. a. b. c. d.

71. According to your instructor, the term “Czar leadership” in Congress referred to: a. concentrating power in the hands of the political-party elites in Congress, such as the Speaker of the House, so that the institution could be more powerful rather than the individual members b. the seniority system that allows senior members like Bob Byrd to be especially powerful c. the committee system that allows key committees to have more influence than the Congress as a whole d. the Hamilton plan, which called for a life-tenured president and limited monarch 72. According to your instructor, the way Congress organizes itself today a. more power is given to individual members at the expense of the institution as a whole, because of the way that the seniority and committee system works b. Czar leadership still applies c. political parties are more important than in the 1800s d. is not materially different from the way it was organized in the 1800s

73. According to your instructor, Plunket of Tammany Hall stands for the proposition that: a. candidate-centered politics is what defines electoral choices b. you study human nature and act accordin’ c. Czar leadership in Congress could not survive the transformation of culture in the 1900s d. the influence of party is on the decline 74. According to your instructor, presidents were nominated to run for election from 1800 through 1824 using the following method: a. b. c. d. national political party convention advisory primaries democratic primaries King Caucus

75. According to your instructor’s lecture, when America first arrives as a nation in 1776 (or, if you like, 1787), there are no political parties. Yet, there was still “democracy” (people electing leaders). If there were not any political parties, how did the voters know who would accept their vote for higher office and who were the basic choices? a. in general, they did not know. They simply voted for the most esteemed people they could think of. b. the elites who wanted elected (e.g., Washington) would rely upon their closest inside circle of associates to distribute the word via social networks that the person was a viable choice on election day. Therefore, social cliques and networks fulfilled the role that parties later would. c. they looked at the ballot on election day, which had the names of the candidates printed whenever they went to the voting booth d. they examined campaign advertising and literature and listened to the candidates make speeches and campaign promises. 76. When explaining what campaigning was like in early America before political parties existed, your instructor mentioned the campaign of James Madison, who was seeking election to Virginia’s convention to ratify the newly proposed American Constitution. Specifically, in that election, your instructor mentioned that: a. b. c. d. Madison had been campaigning for office for over a year the campaign was one of the most negative and dirty campaigns in history Mr. Madison never “campaigned.” He just showed up on the day of election and won. The election resulted in a tie with Madison’s running mate

77. According to your instructor, Thomas Jefferson’s world view was described as “agrarian ideology.” It consisted of the following premises a. Finance capitalism, with its banks and stock markets, was good for the country b. urbanization was bad for the country, and large cities could be thought of as “sores upon the body” -- meaning the more one had, the less healthy one was c. the chosen people of virtue are those that labor in the earth (meaning own farms), rather than make money the way bankers and stock traders do d. America needed to promote the manufacturing industry so that large mills and new technology could be developed e. both (b) and (c)

78. According to your instructor, the term “hegemony” refers to: a. domination of a viewpoint that would not necessarily be dominate except for the fact that the people who hold it also have the power b. a state of equilibrium in a pluralist universe whereby policy reflects the common good c. when the hedges in your front yard become really obnoxious because you don’t trim them d. a situation where income distribution is neither flat nor extreme, so that, although you have income differences, you do not have the extremely poor and rich. Colonial America is said to have had this. e. a type of economic relationship whereby a mother country makes the country it is colonizing only trade through its network, not the network of its competitors.

79. Let us assume that the term “conservatism” stands for “the desire to preserve the existing economic power center in the culture.” Then, according to this definition (and your instructor’s lectures), the three forms of “conservatism” that have dominated American political culture at one time or another, in ORDER, are: a. b. c. d. laissez faire first, Herbert Hoover second, and the “Reagan Revolution” third laissez faire first, agrarian ideology second, and the “Reagan Revolution’ third agrarian ideology first, laissez faire second, and the “Reagan Revolution” third laissez faire first, Keynesian economics second, and the “Reagan Revolution” third


				
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