BOOK ONE BEVERAGE KNOWLEDGE

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BALI HOSPITALITY PROFESSIONAL SERVICES  
 

     
 

BEVERAGES KNOWLEDGE 
Do not sell this Book, this Book is complimentary  from Hotel Team Managers 
Drs. Agustinus Agus Purwanto, MM  Chief Executive Officer   

April ‐  2009

Book One

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TYPE OF BEVERAGES:
• • • • •

Beer Cocktails Spirits Wine Non Alcoholic Beverages

A. BEER: I. HYSTORY OF BEER: A Brief History of Beer The origins of beer are older than recorded history, extending into the mythology of ancient civilizations. Beer, the oldest alcohol beverage, was discovered independently by most ancient cultures - the Babylonians, Assyrians, Egyptians, Hebrews, Africans, Chinese, Incas, Tautens, Saxons and the various wandering tribes that were found in Eurasia. These ancient peoples have left records to indicate they not only enjoyed their beer, but considered brewing to be a serious and important job. In recorded history, Babylonian clay tablets more than 6,000 years old depict the brewing of beer and give detailed recipes. An extract from an ancient Chinese manuscript states that beer, or kiu as it was called, was known to the Chinese as early as the 23rd century BC. Beer was enjoyed by ancient peoples at all levels of society. Of course, some drank with more style than others. For example, the University of Pennsylvania Museum displays a golden straw used by Queen Shubad of Mesopotamia for sipping beer. With the rise of commerce and the growth of cities during the Middle Ages, brewing became more than a household activity. Municipal brew houses were established, which eventually led to the formation of the brewing guilds. Commercial brewing on a significantly larger scale began around the 12th century in Germany. Although native Americans had developed a form of beer, Europeans brought their
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own version with them to the New World. Beer enjoys the distinction of having come over on the Mayflower and, in fact, seems to have played a part in the Pilgrims decision to land at Plymouth Rock instead of farther south, as intended. A journal kept by one of the passengers - now in the Library of Congress - states, in an entry from 1620, that the Mayflower landed at Plymouth because We could not now take time for further search or consideration, our victuals being much spent, especially our beer... The first commercial brewery in America was founded in New Amsterdam (New York) in 1623. Many patriots owned their own breweries, among them Samuel Adams and William Penn. Thomas Jefferson was also interested in brewing and made beer at Monticello. George Washington even had his own brew house on the grounds of Mount Vernon, and his handwritten recipe for beer dated 1757 and taken from his diary - is still preserved! II. TYPES OF BEER
1. Lager The word lager is derived from the German verb “lagern”, which means: to store. During the late middle ages, before the days of refrigeration, fermentation was a hit-or-miss affair, especially during the hot summer months. To ensure a supply of beer for the summer, brewers in the Bavarian Alps stored kegs of spring brew in icy mountain caves. As the beer slowly aged, the yeast settled, creating a drink that was dark but clear and sparkling with a crisper, more delicate flavour. In 1842, lager acquired its familiar golden colour when a brewery in Pilsen, Czechoslovakia perfected a pale, bottom-fermented version of the beer. Lagers typically take more time to brew and are aged longer than ales. Lagers are best enjoyed at cooler-than-room temperature.  Bock Beer  The other bottom-fermented beer is bock, named for the famous medieval German brewing town of Einbeck. Heavier than lager and darkened by high-coloured malts, bock is traditionally brewed in the winter for drinking during the spring.  3. Ale Although the term covers a fascinating variety of styles, all ales share certain characteristics. Top-fermentation and the inclusion of more hops in the wort gives these beers a distinctive fruitiness, acidity and a pleasantly-bitter seasoning. All ales typically take less time to brew and age then lagers and have a more assertive, individual personality, though their alcoholic strength may be the same. Ales are best enjoyed at room temperature or slightly warmer. 

2.

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4. Porter and Stout 

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Whether dry or sweet, flavoured with roasted malt barley, oats or certain sugars, stouts and porters are characterized by darkness and depth. Both types of beer are delicious with hearty meat stews and surprisingly good with shellfish. The pairing of oysters and stout has long been acknowledged as one of the world's great gastronomic marriages.  5. Dry “Dry” refers to the amount of residual sugar left in a beer following fermentation. This type of beer is fermented for longer than normal brews so that practically all of the residual sugar is converted into alcohol. The result is a beer which consumers describe as having a crisp flavour, clean finish and very little aftertaste. 

 

III. BEER GLOSSARY
This is a list of terms used when describing beers: Abbey

 
Commercial Belgian beers licensed by abbeys. Not to be confused with Trappist ales.

Kölsch Top-fermenting golden beer from Cologne. Kräusen

Adjuncts

 

 

Materials, like rice, corn and brewing sugar, used in place of traditional grains for cheapness or lightness of flavor. Ale

The addition of partially-fermented wort during lagering to encourage a strong secondary fermentation. Kriek

 
The oldest beer style in the world. Produced by warm or top fermentation.

 
Cherry-flavored lambic beer.

Lager

 
The cold-conditioning of beer at around 0 degrees Centigrade to encourage the yeast to settle out, increase carbonation and produce a smooth, clean-tasting beer. From the German meaning "to store".

Alt

 
Dark brown top-fermenting beer from Düsseldorf.

Alpha acid

 

Lambic

 
Belgian beer made by spontaneous fermentation.

The main component of the bittering agent in the hop flower. Attenuation

 

Lauter tun

 

The extent to which brewing sugars turn to alcohol and carbon dioxide.

Vessel used to clarify the wort after the mashing stage.

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Beer

  April  2009 

 
Generic term for an alcoholic drink made from grain. Includes both ale and lager.

Malt Barley or other cereals that have been partially germinated to allow starches to be converted into fermentable sugars. Mash British term for the pale, amber or coppercolored beers that developed from the pale ales in the 19th century.

Bitter

 

 
First stage of the brewing process, when the malt is mixed with pure hot water to extract the sugars.

Bock or Bok

 

Märzen

 
Traditional Bavarian lager brewed in March and stored until autumn for the Munich Oktoberfest.

Strong beer style of The Netherlands and Germany. Bottle-conditioned

 

Mild

 
Dark brown (occasionally pale) English and Welsh beer, lightly hopped. The oldest style of beer that once derived it color from malt cured over wood fires. One of the components of the first porters.

Beer that undergoes a secondary fermentation in the bottle. Brew kettle

 

See Copper Milk stout Cask-conditioned

 

 

Beer that undergoes a secondary fermentation in the cask. Known as "real ale", closely identified with British beers. Copper

Stout made with the addition of lactose, which is unfermentable, producing a beer low in alcohol with a creamy, slightly sweet character. Pilsner or Pilsener or Pils

 
Vessel used to boil the sugary wort with hops.

 

International brand name for a light-colored lager. Porter

Decoction mashing

 

 
Dark - brown or black - beer originating in London.

A system mainly used in lager brewing in which portions of the wort are removed from the vessel, heated to a higher temperature and then returned. Improves ensymic activity and the conversion of starch to sugar in poorly modified malts.

Priming

 
Addition of sugar to encourage a secondary fermentation in beer.

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Dry-hopping

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Reinheitsgebot Bavarian beer law of 1516 (the "Purity Pledge) that lays down that only malted grain, hops, yeast and water can be used in brewing. Now covers the whole of Germany.

The addition of a small amount of hops to a cask of beer to improve aroma and bitterness.

Dunkel

 
A dark lager beer in Germany, a Bavarian speciality that predates the first pale lagers.

Shilling

 
Ancient method of invoicing beer in Scotland on strength. Beers are called 60, 70 or 80 shilling.

Entire

 
The earliest form of porter, short for "entire butt".

Sparging

 

From the French esparger, to sprinkle; Sprinkling or spraying the spent grains in the mash tun or lauter tun to flush out any remaining malt sugars. Square

Ester

   
A traditional, open fermenting vessel. Steam beer Flavor compounds produced by the action of yeast turning sugars into alcohol and carbon dioxide. Esters may be fruity or spicy.

Fining

 
Substance that clarifies beer, usually made from the swim bladder of sturgeon fish; also known as isinglass.

 

American beer style saved by the Anchor Brewery in San Francisco. Stout

 
Once an English generic term for the strongest ("stoutest") beer in a brewery. Now considered a quintessentially Irish style.

Framboise or Frambozen

 

Raspberry-flavored lambic beer. Grist

 
The coarse powder derived from malt that has been milled or "cracked" in the brewery prior to mashing.

Trappist

 

Ales brewed by monks of the Trappist order in Belgium and The Netherlands. Union

Gueuze

 
A blend of Belgian lambic beers.

 
Method of fermentation developed in Burton-tnTrent using large oak casks.

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Helles or Hell

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Ur or Urtyp German for original. Weizen or Weisse

A pale Bavarian lager beer. Hop (Lat: Humulus Lupulus)

 

 

Herb used when brewing to add aroma and bitterness.

German for wheat or white beer.

IBU

 
International Bitterness Units. An internationally-agreed scale for measuring the bitterness of beer. A "lite" American lager may have around 10 IBU's, an English mild ale around 20 units, an India Pale Ale 40 or higher, an Irish stout 55 to 60 and barley wine 65.

Wort

 
Liquid resulting from the mashing process, rich in malt and sugars.

Infusion

 

Method of mashing used mainly in ale-brewing where the grains are left to soak with pure water while starches convert to sugar, usually carried out at a constant temperature.

IV. MANUFACTURING OF BEER Brewing is fundamentally a natural process. The art and science of brewing lies in converting natural food materials into a pure, pleasing beverage. Although great strides have been made with the techniques for achieving high-quality production, beer today is still a beverage brewed from natural products in a traditional way. Although the main ingredients of beer have remained constant (water, yeast, malt and hops), it is the precise recipe and timing of the brew that gives one a different taste from another. The production of beer is one of the most closely supervised and controlled manufacturing processes in our society. Apart from brewing company expenditures on research and quality control designed to achieve the highest standards of uniformity and purity in the product, the production of beer is also subject to regular inspection and review by federal and provincial Health Departments. Substances used in the brewing process are approved by Health Canada. On average, a batch of beer will take about 30 days to produce. To be more
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specific, brewing takes nine and a half hours, while fermentation and aging combined take between 21 and 35 days for ales and lagers respectively.
1.

2.

Water Pure water is an essential ingredient in good beer and brewers pay scrupulous attention to the source and purification of their brewing water. The water used in brewing is purified to rigidly-set standards. If it does not have the proper calcium or acidic content for maximum activity of the enzymes in the mash, it must be brought up to that standard. Malt Barley is used to make brewers' malt. At the malting companies, barley is soaked, germinated (sprouted), then dried and/or kilned/roasted to arrest further growth. During the period of controlled growth in the malting plant, specific barley enzymes are released to break down the membranes of the starch cells that make up most of the kernel. But these are internal changes only; apart from a slight change in colour, the external characteristics remain essentially unchanged. When the malt leaves a malting plant, it still looks like barley. In the brewery, the malt is screened and crushed rather than ground to flour in order to keep the husks as whole as possible. This process not only prevents the extraction of undesirable materials from the husks but also allows them to act as a filter bed for separation of the liquid extract formed during mashing. Mashing Malt is added to heated, purified water and, through a carefully controlled time and temperature process, the malt enzymes break down the starch to sugar and the complex proteins of the malt to simpler nitrogen compounds. Mashing takes place in a large, round tank called a "mash mixer" or "mash tun" and requires careful temperature control. At this point, depending on the type of beer desired, the malt is supplemented by starch from other cereals such as corn, wheat or rice. Lautering The mash is transferred to a straining (or lautering) vessel which is usually cylindrical with a slotted false bottom two to five centimetres above the true bottom. The liquid extract drains through the false bottom and is run off to the brew kettle. This extract, a sugar solution, is called "wort" but it is not yet beer. Water is "sparged" (or sprayed) though the grains to wash out as much of the extract as possible. The "spent grains" are removed and sold as cattle feed. Boiling and Hopping The brew kettle, a huge cauldron holding from 70 to 1,000 hectolitres and made of shiny copper or stainless steel, is probably the most striking sight in a brewery. It is fitted with coils or a jacketed bottom for steam heating and is designed to boil
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3.

4.

5.

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6.

7.

8.

9.

the wort under carefully-controlled conditions. Boiling, which usually lasts about two hours, serves to concentrate the wort to a desired specific gravity, to sterilize it and to obtain the desired extract from the hops. The hop resins contribute flavour, aroma and bitterness to the brew. Once the hops have flavoured the brew, they are removed. When applicable, highly-fermentable syrup may be added to the kettle. Undesirable protein substances that have survived the journey from the mash mixer are coagulated, leaving the wort clear. Hop Separation and Cooling After the beer has taken on the flavour of the hops, the wort then proceeds to the "hot wort tank". It is then cooled, usually in a simple-looking apparatus called a "plate cooler". As the wort and a coolant flow past each other on opposite sides of stainless steel plates, the temperature of the wort drops from boiling to about 10 to 15.5 °C, a drop of more than 65.6 °C, in a few seconds. Fermentation The wort is then moved to the fermenting vessels and yeast, the guarded central mystery of ancient brewer's art, is added. It is the yeast, which is a living, singlecell fungi, that breaks down the sugar in the wort to carbon dioxide and alcohol. It also adds many beer-flavouring components. There are many kinds of yeasts, but those used in making beer belong to the genus saccharomyces. The brewer uses two species of this genus. One yeast type, which rises to the top of the liquid at the completion of the fermentation process, is used in brewing ale and stout. The other, which drops to the bottom of the brewing vessel, is used in brewing lager. In all modern breweries, elaborate precautions are taken to ensure that the yeast remains pure and unchanged. Through the use of pure yeast culture plants, a particular beer flavour can be maintained year after year. During fermentation, which lasts about seven to 10 days, the yeast may multiply six-fold and in the open-tank fermenters used for brewing ale, a creamy, frothy head may be seen on top of the brew. When the fermentation is complete, the yeast is removed. Now, for the first time ,the liquid is called beer. Cellars For one to three weeks, the beer is stored cold and then filtered once or twice before it is ready for bottling or "racking" into kegs. Packaging In the bottle shop of a brewery, returned empty bottles go through washers in which they receive a thorough cleaning. After washing, the bottles are inspected electronically and visually and pass on to the rotary filler. Some of these machines can fill up to 1,200 bottles per minute. A "crowning" machine, integrated with the filler, places caps on the bottles. The filled bottles may then pass through a "tunnel pasteurizer" (often 23 metres from end to end and able to hold 15,000
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bottles) where the temperature of the beer is raised about 60 °C. for a sufficient length of time to provide biological stability, then cooled to room temperature. Emerging from the pasteurizer, the bottles are inspected, labelled, placed in boxes, stacked on pallets and carried by lift truck to the warehousing areas to await shipment. Also in the bottle shop may be the canning lines, where beer is packaged in cans for shipment. Packaged beer may be heat-pasteurized or microfiltered, providing a shelf-life of up to six months when properly stored. Draught beer, since it is normally sold and consumed within a few weeks, may not go through this process. The draught beer is placed in sterilized kegs ready for shipment. B. COCKTAILS I. What is a Cocktail? Drinks akin to cocktails first appeared sometime during the 16th century, but cocktails, as we know and use the term, was first introduced by American bartenders in the 1920ies. The reason the cocktail made it big in the happy '20ies, was the prohibition, when producing and imbibing of alcohol was made illegal. As good as all spirits available was of a rather dubious quality and tasted accordingly. Thus, the bartenders, accommodating as always, started to mix the spirits with various fruit juices and other flavorings to make it more palatable. Later, the cocktail lost its popularity most places, the United States being the main exception. The last few years, however, the cocktail has reclaimed lost ground everywhere, especially in southern Europe and other places that are full of tourists. Cocktails usually consist of three different 'classes' of ingredients. • The first, the base, is most often some sort of spirit, like vodka, whiskey, or tequila. Occasionally, such as in many punches, some sort of wine is being used as a base. • The second, the main flavoring, is added to bring out the aroma of the base and to modify its taste. The main flavoring is often such as Vermouth, various fruit juices, wine, or even eggs or cream. • The third, the special flavoring, is added to enhance the taste of the base, and often also adds the color to the cocktail. Common special flavorings include Grenadine, Blue Curacao, and others.

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Most cocktails are also decorated in some way, usually with fruit slices, orange peel, cocktail sticks, mint twigs, etc. (see section below). II. Equipments Many different contraptions are manufactured for the making of cocktails. Some of these are useful, some can be definitely nice to have, and still others are totally and utterly useless. It is up to you to decide exactly what your cocktail equipment should be, but some things are essential. First out of the essentials is the cocktail shaker. There are two basic types of shakers available. A European cocktail shaker is usually made out of metal, or glass with a metal top. It is, basically, a container which holds about half a liter, fitted with a top which closes tightly around the upper edges of the container. This top also has a smaller top, usually fitted with a built-in strainer, through which the shaken cocktail is poured. American shakers, however, consist of two cones about the same size. One is often often made of glass, and the other is metallic. These cones are held together to form a closed container, and the shaken cocktail is poured from either one. Most American shakers do not have built-in strainers, so if you use an American shaker, using a separate strainer is a good idea. Measures, also known as jiggers, are also essential. Jiggers are most often made of metal, but glass jiggers are common, as well. The standard measurements of a jigger can vary widely, depending on where you are. In the recipes in the following articles, I will use a standard jigger of 30ml (appx. 1 fl oz). In addition to the equipment mentioned above, you will find that things like these are nice to have, as well: Ice bucket, jugs, electric blender, bowls, etc. You should also have access to ordinary kitchenware, such as knives, corkscrews, chopping board, etc. You will also need stirrers (also known as swizzle sticks), straws, toothpicks, serviettes and cloths. III. Glasses Cocktail glasses come in four different basic types:
•

First, there are the glasses known as rocks glasses, also known as tumblers. These glasses are usually short and broad glasses, with straight or slightly

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sloping sides. They normally hold about 125ml and are used for spirits with ice, fruit juices and short drinks. • Second, there is the highball glass. These glasses are usually of medium width, and are tall with straight or slightly sloping sides. They normally hold between 200 and 300ml and are used for long drinks with ice. • Third, the champagne glasses are of two different kinds. The most common, the champagne flute, is a tall and narrow glass with a stem. Champagne flutes have thin-glassed sides, and the long, tapering sides can curve both inward and outward. A champagne flute holds approximately 150ml. The second type of champagne glass is the less-known champagne saucer. The champagne saucer is a broad and shallow glass with a stem. The broadness and shallowness of the glass make the champagne loose its fizz quickly, and the glass is therefore less popular than it once was. It is still, however, in use, and such cocktails as the Margarita use exclusively such glasses. • Fourth is the group known as cocktail glasses. These are the classic cocktail glasses; stemmed and with sharply sloping sides, making it Y-shaped when seen from the side. The classic cocktail glass holds about 90ml and is best suited for short, strong drinks. In addition to these glasses, some drinks, such as the Pina Colada, have special glasses. Unless you are really serious about mixing your cocktails, you don't really need to buy such glasses. Use glasses you already have instead. There are also other glasses available that will work just fine with cocktails. Use your imagination, but remember that plastic glasses (or shakers, jugs, mixing glasses, or other such equipment for that matter) should NEVER be used with cocktails, as it will make the cocktail taste of plastic. A cocktail is supposed to have a refreshing taste, not to taste like the inside of a used plastic bag. IV. Mixing a Cocktail Not all cocktails are made in the same manner. Just as the ingredients may vary, there are several ways in which to mix a cocktail. The most frequently used methods are the following:
•

Shaking: The cocktail is mixed by hand in a cocktail shaker. The shaker is first filled three quarters with ice, preferably cubes, as crushed ice will tend to melt and dilute the cocktail. The ingredients are then poured on top of the ice, in order of alcohol content (highest first). When shaking a cocktail, hold the shaker in both hands, one hand on the top and the other supporting the base of the shaker, and shake vigorously. When water has begun condensing
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•

•

•

on the outside of the shaker, the cocktail is sufficiently chilled, and the cocktail should immediately be strained into the glass. In general, shaking creates a colder cocktail than stirring does, but also a cloudier one. Stirring: The cocktail is stirred with a glass or metal rod in a mixing glass, before the cocktail is strained into a glass. As with shaking, crushed ice should not be used, and water condensing on the outside shows that the cocktail is finished. Blending: An electric blender is used to mix fruit juices, alcohol, fruit, etc. Blending is an excellent way of mixing ingredients which do not blend easily in any other way. Blend the cocktail till it has reached a smooth consistency. If the recipe requires ice, add crushed ice last, but be careful not to add too much, as the cocktail may be watered down. Blending is a much disputed method of mixing a cocktail, and in general, blending should be avoided unless the recipe demands it. Building: When building a cocktail, the ingredients are poured into the glass in which the cocktail will be served. Usually, the ingredients are floated on top of each other, but occasionally, a swizzle stick is put in the glass, allowing the ingredients to be mix

V. Decorating Cocktails Almost all cocktails are decorated in one way or another, most often with some kind of fruit, but no matter the exact decoration, cocktail sticks are almost always invaluable. Cocktail sticks come in two types; Wooden and plastic. Wooden sticks are most often used, and are suited for just about any kind of cocktail, but they cannot be reused. Plastic sticks, however, should be carefully used, as they tend to give the cocktail a slightly artificial appearance. Unlike wooden sticks, plastic ones can be reused, but should be carefully washed and boiled first. Cocktail sticks are, whatever the type, used for spearing slices of fruit, cherries, and just about anything else you care to decorate your cocktails with. Straws are also essential and go well with highballs. Straws should not be reused. The traditional cocktail garnish is, however, the red Maraschino cherries. These are used in just about any kind of cocktail, and are now also available in green, yellow and blue. In addition to this, slices of fruit, strips of orange or lemon peel, mint twigs, etc. can also be used. One often used method of decorating cocktails is that which is called frosting. Frosting leaves an edge of sugar, salt, cocoa, or any other fine powder, on the rim of the glass. There are several ways to frost glasses, and one of the most frequently used of them is this: Rub the rim of the glass with a slice of orange or lemon, then submerge the rim in
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sugar or salt (or any other powder), just so that it lines the top of the rim. Other methods use egg white or other substances for 'gluing' the powder to the glass. For a more colorful frosting, use small drops of food coloring in the powder. With some cocktails, such as the Margarita, frosting is a 'standard' decoration. VI. Tips and Tricks 1/2 oz. of liquor is equal to 1 count, assuming you are using a pourer on your bottles. To measure 1 1/2 oz. of liquor, count "1001...1002...1003" as you are pouring. After a while, you should be able to do it by eye. • To make highballs, fill glass two-thirds full of ice before adding liquor. Always pour liquor in before the mixer. Do not stir drinks containing carbonated mixers. • To make cocktails, low balls, and other shaken or stirred drinks, fill shaker halffull of ice. For low balls, fill the glass about half-full of ice before pouring drink. • Most shaken drinks which contain light cream can also be made as blended drinks, substituting vanilla ice cream for the light cream. • To make blended drinks, first fill blender half-full of ice. If necessary, add more ice as you are blending. • Always keep fruit juices and other mixers refrigerated. • In fruit drinks, e.g. strawberry margaritas always use fresh fruit, not frozen Bar terms. V. BAR TERMS
 

Mixing When using a cocktail shaker there is one golden rule to remember. Always put the ice in the shaker first, and the liquor last. This is to ensure that all ingredients are properly chilled by the ice when they are poured over the ice, and by adding the liquor last you reduce the chance of dilution. Stirring A drink that is stirred instead of shaken will retain its clarity and be free of ice chips. Drinks based on clear liquors, like a Martini, should always be stirred and not shaken (don't listen to James Bond when he order his Martini "shaken, not stirred"). When stirring a cocktail you should stir it enough to mix the ingredients, but not stir it
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too much. If you stir too much the ice will begin to dilute the liquor. A general rule is that 10-15 stirs will be sufficient for proper mixing. A drink containing carbonated beverage(s) should be stirred gently and briefly to retain the sparkle. Shaking Instead of stirring, you can shake the drink. This will mix the ingredients more than stirring, but will also result in a less clear drink. Drinks that contain ingredients that are hard to mix, such as cream, fruit juices and eggs, should be shaken vigorously to ensure that the ingredients has been well mixed. Blending Use an electric blender to mix fresh fruit, liquor, juices and ice instead of using a shaker. Not too popular everywhere, but perfect for making frozen cocktails or to blend ingredients that are otherwise impossible to mix. Floating The purpose of floating is to keep each ingredient in the drink in separate layers that do not mix with the others. This will create a drink with separate layers, and this is why floating often is referred to as layering. The easiest way to float one liquor on top of another is to use a demitasse spoon, holding it over or in the glass and slowly trickle the ingredient over the back of the spoon. Muddling Muddling is a simple mashing technique for grinding herbs, such as mint, smooth in the bottom of a glass. You can use a wooden muddler that you buy in a bar supply store or buy a bar spoon with a muddler on the end. It crushes the herbs, much as the back of a soup spoon might, without scaring the glass. Frosting To frost a glass, first dip it in water and then put it in the freezer for half an hour or so. Also note that metal and silver mugs and cups will frost better than glasses.

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Standard Bar Measurements (US)  1 part Metric Conversions 

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= any equal part  = 1/32 ounce = 1/8 ounce

1 fluid ounce (oz) = 29.573 milliliters 1 quart (qt) 1 gallon (gal) = 9.4635 deciliters = 3.7854 liters  = 1/30 ounce = 1/3 ounce

1 dash/splash

 

1 teaspoon (tsp)  1 pony

1 tablespoon (tblsp)  =

   
(*)

=

  3/8 ounce   1 ounce     1 ½ ounces   3 ounces   4 ounces   6 ounces   8 ounces   16 ounces   32 ounces    

1 milliliter (ml) 1 centiliter (cl) 1 deciliter (dl) 1 liter (l)

   

1 jigger/bar glass 1 shot 1 snit

= 1 ½ ounces = =

 

   

= 3 1/2 ounces = 34 ounces 

       

1 wineglass 1 split 1 cup

= = = = =

  

1 pint (pt)

1 quart (qt)  1 fifth

 

= 25.6 ounces (1/5 gallon) = 128 ounces

1 gallon (gal) 

  
Other Measurements  English Metric  Fifth

     
= 1/2 Quart

   
= 16.0 oz 8.0 oz 64.0 oz 32.0 oz

 
=> => => => => 750 ml 500 ml 200 ml = 25.5 oz = 17.0 oz = 6.8 oz

   

= 4/5 Quart = 1/5 Gal. = 25.6 oz

Pint (pt)  Half-Pint

 

  Half-Gallon =   =  Quart  
= (*)

1750 ml = 59.7 oz 1000 ml = 34.1 oz

A "shotglass" is usually 1.5 ounces, but sometimes 2 ounces with a measuring line at 1.5 ounces. You can also buy (in US) "short shot" glasses or "pony shots" which are 1 ounce. Pony shots are usually used with martinis, manhattans, and rob roy.

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VI. Setting up a bar Basic set of tools When setting up a bar, you will need quite a lot of equipment. The following is a list of basic bar equipment you should have in your bar to allow you to make most drinks. You may also want to take a look at the list of additional equipment that will make life behind the bar a bit easier too. • Bottle opener • Corkscrew • Can opener • Measuring cups and spoon set • Bar spoon with long handle and muddler on the end • Juice squeezer • Electric blender • Cutting board and a sharp knife • Ice bucket with an ice tong • Mixing glass • Shaker and strainer • Bottle sealers • Towels • Boxes/jars to store garnishes in • Glassware You will have to buy new supplies of the following equipment regularly. • Cocktail napkins and coasters • Swizzle sticks • Straws, both long and short ones • Cocktail picks • Sugar and salt (for coating rim of glasses) Additional equipment In addition you may wish to buy some other equipment to make things a bit easier and to be able to make additional drinks. • Ice crusher, preferably electric You can crush ice manually, but with an electric crusher, it will be a whole lot easier than using a hammer.
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• Wooden muddler • Ice pick or chipper • Vegetable peeler or a twist cutter for fruit peels • Ice scoop • Funnel • Nutmeg grater • Glassware

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When operating a bar, whether it be in-house or a business, you need to have certain types of glasses. The right glass can enhance the drink you are serving, making you look even better. You really do not want to serve wine in a coffee cup, a cocktail in a beer mug, and you definitely don't want to serve an Alabama Slammer in a sherry glass. Get the point? Different glasses • Beer mug • Beer pilsner • Brandy snifter • Champagne flute • Cocktail glass • Coffee mug • Collins glass • Cordial glass • Highball glass • Hurricane glass • Irish coffee cup • Margarita/Coupette glass • Mason jar • Old-fashioned glass • Parfait glass • Pitcher • Pousse cafe glass • Punch bowl • Red wine glass
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White wine glass • Sherry glass • Shot glass • Whiskey sour glass Glass accidents
•

When you are around any bar, home or business, you need to be concerned for yourself and your guests. Here are a few tips about accidents and what to do:
• Always use an ice scoop and not the glass itself. Tiny slivers of glass always chip

off when dipped into an ice well and your glasses become unclear after a while • If you accidentally break a glass near ice, always throw away all the ice. When glass shatters, pieces go everywhere. You really don't want pieces of glass in your drink. • Never take a hot glass and add ice into it. This can cause the glass to shatter due to thermal shock. Be careful about this. • Mechanical shock occurs when you clank two glass together. One of the glasses will almost always break. If you carry the glasses by the stem or the base you avoid fingerprints where people drink from, and you will have more support carrying the glass. VII. The History of the Cocktail Shaker Antecedents of the cocktail shaker can be traced to 7000 BC in South America where the jar gourd was valued for its use as a closed container. Ancient Egyptians in 3500 BC knew that adding spices to their grain fermentations before serving made them more palatable. A forerunner of the cocktail? Well, archaeologists have yet to find a hieroglyphic list of cocktail recipes inside the Great Pyramid of Cheops. But we do know in 1520 Cortez wrote to King Charles V of Spain from the New World of a certain drink made from cacao, served to Montezuma with much reverence, frothy and foaming from a golden cylinder. By the late 1800s, the bartender's shaker as we know it today had become a standard tool of the trade, invented by an innkeeper when pouring a drink back and forth to mix. Finding that the smaller mouth of one container fit into another, he held the two together and shook "for a bit of a show."

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At the turn of the century, New York City hotels were serving the English custom of 5 o'clock tea and it was a short leap to the 5 o'clock cocktail hour with shakers manufactured for home use looking very much like teapots. In the 1920s martinis were served from sterling silver shakers by high society while the less affluent made do with glass or nickel-plated devices. The Great War was over and sacrifice was replaced by a euphoria marked by party-going and a frenzied quest for pleasure. The mixed drink and cocktail shaker was powered by Prohibition. People who had never tasted a cocktail before were knocking on speakeasy doors. The outlaw culture had a powerful pull. Flappers with one foot on the brass rail ordered their choice of drinks with names like Between the Sheets, Fox Trot, and Zanzibar, liberated more by this act and smoking in public than by their new voting rights. The International Silver Company produced shakers in the form of the Boston Lighthouse and golf bags, as well as, traditional shapes. There were rooster- and penguin-shaped shakers, and from Germany zeppelin and aeroplane shakers. Many of these shapes were not entirely capricious. The rooster, or "cock of the walk," for example, had long served as a symbol for tavern signs. The penguin with its natural "tuxedo" symbolized the good life. The Graf Zeppelin had become the first commercial aircraft to cross the Atlantic - an 111-hour non-stop flight that captured the attention of the world. Such ingenious designs were all the rage, cocktail shaker skills and drink rituals were as important in the Jazz Age lifestyle as the latest dance steps. Colorful cocktails with sweet mixes stretched out the supply of illicit alcohol and helped disguise the taste of homemade hooch. While gin, easier to duplicate than rye or scotch, became the drink of choice and the martini society's favorite. But the real popularity explosion of cocktail shakers occurred after the repeal of Prohibition in 1933. Now they were featured frequently on the silver screen, shakers and accoutrements part of every movie set. Stars were constantly sipping cocktails when they weren't lighting each others' cigarettes, both de rigueur symbols of sophistication. Nick and Nora Charles, the delightfully sodden couple that poured their way through endless martinis in The Thin Man series, knew how to shake a drink with style, as did the tens of thousands of Americans who shook, swirled, and swilled cocktails by the shaker-full in the years following the repeal of Prohibition. Movie fans watched Fred and Ginger dance across the screen, cocktail glass in hand, and wanted their own symbol of the good life to shake themselves out of the Depression that gripped the country. The Art Deco movie set aesthetic was perfect for the Depression-driven cocktail shaker. To meet popular demand, machine age factories, geared for mass production,
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began turning them out in droves. Fashioned from the high-tech materials of the day, chrome-plated stainless steel shakers with Bakelite trim replaced those of sterling silver and were advertised as "non-tarnishing, no polishing needed." The great glass companies, such as Cambridge, Heisey, and Imperial, leaped into action. Stunning etched and silk-screened designs were created, often in brilliant hues of ruby or cobalt. Industrial design was at the height of popularity and superstar designers such as Russel Wright, Kem Weber, and Lurelle Guild created streamlined modern masterpieces, many in the shape of the new deity of architecture, the skyscraper. If there is a definitive classic it would have to be the sleek 1936 chrome-plated "Manhattan Skyscraper serving set" by master industrial designer Norman Bel Geddes, sought by collectors of today as the perfect mix of form and function. By the end of the decade, shakers had become standard household objects, affordable to all. Every family had at least one shaker on the shelf. There were now cocktail shakers in the shape of bowling pins, dumbbells, town criers bells, and even in the shape of a lady's leg. The cocktail party had influenced fashion, furniture, and interior design. Coffee tables were now cocktail tables, and the little black dress, designed by Coco Chanel, went from fad to fashion, and is now an institution. At the beginning of the 1940s, the Depression ended, but not in the way most had hoped. It ended on December 7, 1941. The golden era of the cocktail shaker was over, and America's involvement in World War II began. All metal went to the war effort. Companies that once made cocktail shakers, now made artillery shells. After the war, few thought of the shakers. We were in the atomic age, thinking of jetpropelled airplanes, a thing called television, and new cars with lots of chrome. In the early 1950s, a brief renewal of interest in cocktail shakers occurred when new homes featuring finished basements, called "roc rooms," were equipped with bars. But the push-button age had taken the fun out of mixing drinks. Shakers came with battery-powered stirring devices. Worse yet, electric blenders became popular; drop in some ice, add the alcohol of your choice, a package of "redi-mix," flick a switch and.... Gone were the rites and rituals, the showmanship, the reward for effort. Small wonder, then, that these elegant stars of the 1930s were forced into retirement. And there they sat - in attics and closets nationwide - waiting to be recalled to life. Over 50 years have passed now, and one can faintly hear the clink of ice cubes as shakers are, once again, a symbol of elegance.

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C. SPIRIT & LIQUOR

I. Stocking your bar You cannot make drinks out of the equipment, so you'll probably want to buy a selection of liquors and mixers too. It is impossible to make a list that "fits all" without including every possible liquor in the World, but here are a few guidelines on what to buy. You should always choose your bar stock to suit your guests. Young people often prefer the more exotic drinks, so you will need various fruit juices and flavored liqueurs instead of the darker liquors (like whiskey) older people often prefer. It is likely you will experience requests for drinks you cannot make, but that happen to almost every bar now and then. You can add new liquors to your bar stock later, and should learn how to mix what you have in the meantime. A well stocked bar should have the following, but you should consider the number and type of guests you expect before buying. • Gin (dry) • Vodka • Rye (or Canadian whiskey) • Bourbon • Scotch whiskey • Rum (light) • Vermouth (dry and sweet) • Tequila • White and red wine (dry) • Beer (lager) • Cognac (or other brandy) • Different liqueurs: o Advocaat (somewhat like brandy eggnog) o Amaretto (almond) o Anisette (anise) o Benedictine (herbs) o Chambord (black-raspberry)
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o Chartreuse (herbs) o Contreau (oranges, like curaçao) o Crème de Cacao (cacao) o Crème de Cassis (blackcurrant) o Crème de Menthe (mint) o Crème de Violette (lavender) o Crème Yvette (violets) o Curaçao (oranges) o Galliano (herbs and spices) o Godiva (chocolate) o Goldwasser (herbs and spices, flecked with gold leaf bits) o Grand Marnier (champagne and curaçao) o Irish Mint (whiskey and cream) o Kahlúa (coffee) o Kümmel (caraway) o Mandarine Napoléon (tangerine) o Midori (melon) o Ouzo (anise) o Peter Heering (cherry) o Prunelle (plum) o Sabra (orange and chocolate) o Sambuca (wild elderberries) o Southern Comfort (peach) o Strega (orange and spices) o Tia Maria (coffee) o Triple Sec (oranges, like curaçao)

  April  2009 

In addition to the liquors, you will need different mixers, flavorings and garnishes.
• Club soda • Tonic water • Ginger ale • 7-Up or Sprite • Cola

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• Juices: o Tomato juice o Orange juice o Pineapple juice o Cranberry juice o Grapefruit juice • Bitters • Grenadine • Maraschino liqueur • Worcestershire sauce • Tabasco sauce • Milk • Coffee • Heavy cream • Cherries (maraschino) • Green olives (small) • Cocktail onions • Lemons, limes and oranges • Sugar, salt and pepper.

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Fruited Ice Cubes Suggested Fruits Beverage ------------------------------------------------------------------------Lemon slices Iced tea Strawberries, raspberries, Lemonade lemon or lime slices Pineapple chunks; grapes; Punch strawberries; raspberries; maraschino cherries; mandarin oranges; orange, lemon or lime slices Lime slices, strawberries, Ginger ale
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raspberries To make fruited ice cubes, fill an ice-cube tray halfway with water; freeze until firm, about 1 1/2 hours. Place one or two pieces of desired fruit in each section of the tray. Fill with water; freeze until firm, about 1 1/2 hours. If desired, substitute lemonade or a light-colored juice for the water. II. Gravity Chart When making layered drinks, also known as a Pousse Cafe, you'll need to know which ingredients are heavier than the others. The technique is simple; the heaviest liquor is poured into the glass first, and the lighter ones are layered carefully on top with the lightest one on top. This table lists some common liquors, along with their Specific Gravity that is the weight of the liquor relative to water. Higher values indicate heavier liquor.
Name  Southern Comfort  Tuaca  Water  Green Chartreuse  Cointreau  Peach liqueur  Sloe gin  Kummel  Peppermint schnapps  Benedictine  Brandy  Midori melon liqueur  Rock and Rye  Apricot brandy  Blackberry brandy  Cherry brandy  Peach brandy  Campari  Yellow Chartreuse  Drambuie  Frangelico  Gravity 0.97 0.98 1.00 1.01 1.04 1.04 1.04 1.04 1.04 1.04 1.04 1.05 1.05 1.06 1.06 1.06 1.06 1.06 1.06 1.08 1.08 Amber Green Amber Amber Dark red Dark red Dark amber Red Yellow Amber White Green White Dark amber Deep red White White Color

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Orange Curacao  Triple sec  Tia maria  Apricot liqueur  Blackberry liqueur  Amaretto  Blue Curacao  Cherry liqueur  Galliano  Green Crème de Menthe  White Crème de Menthe  Strawberry liqueur Parfrait d'Amour  Coffee liqueur  Crème de Banane  Dark Crème de Cacao  White Crème de Cacao  Kahlua  Crème de Almond  Crème de Noyaux  Anisette  Crème de Cassis  1.08 1.09 1.09 1.09 1.10 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.11 1.12 1.12 1.12 1.13 1.14 1.14 1.14 1.14 1.15 1.16 1.17 1.17 1.18 Bright red White Orange White Brown Amber Dark red Light brown Blue Dark red Golden yellow Green White Red Violet Dark brown Yellow Brown White Dark brown

  April  2009 

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III. WHISKY Single Malt For a whisky to be called a single malt, it must have been made using malted barley (see 'Making Whisky') and come from one distillery, although single malts will most likely have come from more than one cask within the distillery. These whiskies are the most prized by whisky drinkers and Royal Mile Whiskies specialize in single malts.

Single Cask Malt Due to the individual nature of each cask, a whisky from one cask can differ quite dramatically from the next. In typical single malt, what you are drinking is from a group of casks that have been combined to provide the flavours that best match the character of the malt named on the label. Achieving a consistency over the years is one of the great skills of the master distiller – the customer needs to know that when she enjoyed 10 year old Talisker, if she buys a bottle again, it’s going to taste as expected. The other side of the coin is the individuality of single casks. Some selected casks will have unique characteristics that make them ideal candidates for single cask bottlings. As a result, you will often see limited edition bottlings with the bottle number and cask number on the bottle, offering something a little more unique than standard bottlings.

Vatted/Blended Malt Simply a combination of single malts from different distilleries in a single bottling. Following controversy in late 2004, the Scotch Whisky Association changed the category of Vatted or Pure Malt to Blended Malt, supposedly to avoid future confusion. Not everyone was happy about it, but hopefully the name Blended Malt will stick! The key point to remember is that a Blended Malt contains no grain whisky, whereas a traditional blend contains a combination of malt and grain whisky (see below). Johnnie Walker Green Label and Compass Box’s Eleuthera are both excellent examples of vatted/blended malts.

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Grain Whisky While malt whisky is made using purely malted barley, grain whisky uses only a small proportion of barley, together with other cereals such as wheat or maize. This has the first effect on the whisky produced. The second difference is the way it is then made. Malt whisky is made using the pot-still for distilling whisky (see 'Making Whisky' for a description and a picture of pot-stills), which, while it produces great whisky, is quite inefficient. Grain whiskies, on the other hand are made using the more modern, efficient system of the 'Coffey', or 'Patent' still, which works continuously rather than in batches. It is therefore cheaper and quicker to produce grain whisky than it is to produce malt whisky.

Blended Whisky Most whisky drunk across the world is blended whisky. Famous Grouse, Bells, Teachers, Whyte and Mackay and Johnnie Walker are a few of the most famous names. The whisky blender will use a base of perhaps 50%-60% grain whisky then add a combination of malt whiskies from several malt whisky distilleries. It allows the blender to combine different elements of various whiskies together to create a flavour he is looking for. While blends tend to be viewed as being inferior in quality to single malts, there are some excellent blended whiskies available that should not be ignored.

Age An often recognised mark of a whisky is its age. Marketing men use the age of an older whisky as a badge that somehow indicates its quality. What it is more likely to indicate is the effort spent in making it (time) and the rarity value that it holds however. 12 year olds will sometimes be chosen over an 18 year old, while in other cases, a 25 year old might have flavours and qualities that its younger counterparts cannot get close to. Whether the older the whisky is automatically better varies from one whisky to the next, depending on the individual qualities of each whisky and the way that they were made, before being bottled. On the whole, it's best not to make the mistake of assuming that older whiskies are always better.

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Vintage The year that the cask has been filled is increasingly being seen on packaging, so that you know what you year the whisky in the bottled was produced. Macallan Gran Reserva, the Classic Malts Distillers Edition bottlings and all single cask bottlings and many others display the vintage.

Cask Strength/Regular ABV Before most whiskies are bottled, water is added to bring the alcohol content down to a level where it can be drunk without inflicting pain on yourself. Just try drinking a cask strength malt at around 60% ABV (alcohol by volume) and see for yourself! As a result, most whiskies are bottled at around 40% or 43% ABV. Some whiskies are bottled at cask strength, however. If you do buy a cask strength whisky, it will tend to be more expensive, to reflect the increased volume of whisky there will be once it is watered down.

Chill-filtration Before being bottled, most whisky is chill-filtered. This process involves (as the name suggests) cooling the whisky and straining out trace elements. The result is that no sediment or particles can then find their way into the bottle. Also, whisky will naturally go cloudy when water is added (particularly as the alcohol volume drops below 46% ABV). Chill-filtration prevents this clouding. By removing these trace elements, you may end up with a whisky that is easier on the eye, but you also lose some of the flavours of the whisky. As a result, many single cask bottlings available are non chillfiltered and some distilleries have moved over to using no chill-filtration at all, such as Ardbeg.

Volume The standard size of whisky bottling is 0.7 of a litre, or 70cl in the UK. Half sizes at 35cl are also produced as are 5cl miniatures by most distilleries. More unusual sizes you will find are 20cl, 50cl, 75cl 1 litre and 2 litres amongst others.

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Single/Double Matured All Scotch must be matured in oak casks for a minimum of three years. Using casks made from newly cut oak is not an option however. New casks give off strong woody flavours that can ruin the flavour of whisky. Therefore the casks used are 'second hand', most having been used to store either sherry or bourbon first for a good period of time. In some cases, the distillery will buy the wood that is used to make the casks, then ‘rent’ the casks to bourbon or sherry producers before taking them back, the casks having spent the first stage of their lives with bourbon or sherry maturing within them. Glenmorangie are one of the companies who do just this in order to ensure that they achieve the level of quality they are looking for in their casks. A whisky may sit in the cask it was initially poured into for its lifetime before being bottled. The life of a whisky may not end once it leaves its first cask mind you. More and more distilleries are now experimenting with casks that have been used to hold other spirits as a second stage of the maturation process. Casks that have once held chardonnay, port and madeira are just a few of the options that distilleries have tried successfully. Distillery Bottled/Independent bottled Most bottles of malt that you find are bottled by the distillery that created the whisky. There are also numerous independent bottlers, including Royal Mile Whiskies, that will buy casks of whisky from a distillery in order to bottle it themselves. The result is that as each cask varies slightly, each individual bottling is slightly different from the next, each having their own character. Other major independents who we buy whisky from include Gordon & MacPhail, Signatory, Compass Box, Murray McDavid, and Hart Brothers. We feature whiskies from all of these independents on the site, especially our own! What is a single whisky? A single whisky is the product of one particular distillery.

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What is meant by saccharify? To saccharify means to convert to sugar. In whisky distilling it refers to the process which takes place during the malting and mash-tun stages by which enzymes in the malt, referred to as diastase, turn the starch in the cereals into sugar ready for the fermenting action of the yeast. What is diastase? When conditions of temperature and moisture favour germination, the embryo and associated parts of the barley grain secrete a mixture of enzymes commonly known as diastase. These act to modify and make soluble the starch in the barley, thus preparing it for conversion at a later stage to maltose. What is wort? Wort is the liquid drawn off the mash-tun in which the malted and unmalted cereals have been mashed with warm water. Wort contains all the sugars of the malt and certain secondary constituents. After cooling, it is passed to the fermenting vats. In Malt distilleries the cereals are all malted; in Grain distilleries a proportion only is malted, the remainder being unmalted. In some cases, Grain distilleries do not separate off wort, passing the complete mash to the fermentation vessels. What is wash? The wort or mash technically becomes wash as soon as yeast is added to start fermentation. However, the term is usually used to refer to the liquid at the end of the fermentation. It is the wash which forms the raw material of the first distillation in the Pot Still process and of the only distillation in the Patent Still process.

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What is the pot still distillation? Malt Whisky is distilled twice - although a few distilleries may undertake a third distillation - in Pot Stills which resemble huge copper kettles.

The spirit is driven off from the fermented liquid as a vapour and then condensed back to a liquid. In the first distillation the fermented liquid, or wash, is put into the Wash Still, which is heated either directly by fire or by steam-heated coils. At this stage the wash contains yeast, crude alcohol, some unfermentable matter and the by-products of fermentation. During the process of boiling the wash, changes take place in its constituents which are vital to the flavour and character of the whisky. As the wash boils, vapours pass up the neck of the still and then pass through a watercooled condenser or a worm, a coiled copper pipe of decreasing diameter enclosed in a water jacket through which cold water circulates. This condenses the vapours and the resulting distillate, known as low wines, is collected for re-distilling. The liquor remaining in the Wash Still is known as pot ale or burnt ale and is usually treated and converted into distillers’ solubles for animal feed. The low wines are distilled again in the Spirit Still, similar in appearance and construction to the Wash Still but smaller because the bulk of liquid to be dealt with is less. Three fractions are obtained from the distillation in the Spirit Still. The first is termed foreshots, the second constitutes the potable spirit, and the third is called feints. The foreshots and feints are returned to the process and redistilled in the Spirit Still with the succeeding charge of low wines. The residue in the still, called spent lees, is run to waste.

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In the case of the Spirit Still, the design of the still, the height of the head (or top) of the still and the angle of the wide-diameter pipe or lyne arm, connecting the head to the condensing unit, are all very important and have an effect on the distillate. The Pot Still has changed little in general design over the centuries. What is patent still distillation? Unlike Malt Whisky, Grain Whisky is distilled in a continuous operation in a Patent Still. This is sometimes known as the Coffey Still, after Aeneas Coffey, who developed it in 1831. Steam is fed into the base of the analyser and hot wash into the top. As the two meet on the surface of the perforated plates, the wash boils and a mixture of alcohol vapours and uncondensed steam rises to the top of the column. The spent wash runs down and is led off from the base. The hot vapours enter the rectifier at the base and as they rise through the chambers they partially condense on the sections of a long coil through which wash is flowing. The spirit vapour condenses at the top of the rectifier and is run off through a watercooled condenser to the spirit safe and on to the spirit receiver. Once the spirit begins to be collected it runs continuously until the end of distillation. Because of the rectifying element present in this process the distillate is generally lighter in aroma than most Malt Whiskies. It consequently has a milder character and requires less time to mature. What is the worm? The worm and its surrounding bath of cold running water, or worm-tub, form together the condenser unit of the Pot Still process of manufacture. The worm itself is a coiled copper tube of decreasing diameter attached by the lyne arm to the head of the Pot Still and kept continuously cold by running water. In it the vapours from the still condense.

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Fed by the still, it in turn feeds the receiving vessel with the condensed distillate. The worm is being replaced gradually by the more modern tubular condenser. What are low wines? This is the name given to the product of the first distillation in the Pot Still process of manufacture. It is the distillate derived from the wash and contains all the alcohol and secondary constituents and some water. It forms the raw material of the second distillation, which is carried out in the Spirit Still. The feints and foreshots are added to the low wines when the Spirit Still is charged. What is pot ale? Pot ale, alternatively burnt ale, is the liquor left in the Wash Still after the first distillation in the Pot Still process. It is the residue of the wash after the extraction by distillation of the low wines. IV. BRANDY A. ARMANAC HISTORY OF BRANDY The origins of brandy are unclear, and tied to the development of distillation. Concentrated alcoholic beverages were known in ancient Greece and Rome and may have a history going back to ancient Babylon. Brandy as it is known today, first began to appear in the 12th century and became generally popular in the 14th century. Initially wine was distilled as a preservation method and as a way to make the wine easier for merchants to transport. The intent was to add the water removed by distillation back to the brandy shortly before consumption. It was discovered that after having been stored in wooden casks, the resulting product had improved over the original wine.

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ARMAGNAC Armagnac, the region of France, has given its name to its distinctive kind of brandy or eau de vie, made of the same grapes as Cognac and undergoing the same aging in oak barrels, but without double distillation. Armagnac production is overseen by a Bureau National Interprofessionel de l'Armagnac (BNIA). Armagnac is the only true rival to Cognac for recognition as the finest producer of brandy in the world. Along with Cognac and Jerez in Spain, it is one of only three officially demarcated brandy regions in Europe. Its quantity of production is significantly lower than that of the Cognac region; for every six bottles of Armagnac sold around the world there are one hundred bottles of cognac sold. Armagnac has been making brandy for around 200 years longer than Cognac. Geography The Armagnac region lies between the Adour and Garonne rivers in the foothills of the Pyrenees. A part of this historical region is permitted to grow the grapes that are used in the manufacture of brandy that may be labelled with the Armagnac name. This area was officially demarcated when Armagnac was granted AOC status in 1936. The official production area is divided into three districts which lie in the departements of Gers, Landes and Lot-et-Garonne. These are: • Bas Armagnac - the largest area of production • Tenarèze • Haut Armagnac Each of these areas is controlled by separate appellation regulations. Although the term bas means "lower" in French, the best armagnacs are principally produced in Bas Armagnac. Production The region contains 40,000 acres of grape-producing vines. The production of Armagnac differs in several ways from that of Cognac. Armagnac is only distilled once and at a lower temperature to Cognac, meaning that the former retains more of the fruit character, whereas Cognac's second distillation results in greater balance. Armagnacs are aged for longer periods than Cognac, though this has little
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impact on the grape once it has been distilled. Armagnac is aged in black oak giving them darker characteristics than Cognac. Aging Requirements for Armagnac are • Three star — 2 years • VS — 3 years • VO, VSOP or Reserve ADC — 5 years • Extra, XO, Napoleon or Vieille Reserve — 6 years • Hors d’Age — 10 years Grapes Ten different varieties of grape are authorised for use in the production of Armagnac. Of these, four form the principal part: • Ugni Blanc • Folle Blanche • Baco 22A • Colombard The remaining varieties include Jurançon and Picquepoul. Producers The main producers of Armagnac are: • Sempe • Larressingle • De Montal • Cerbios • B. Gelas • Samalens • Darroze • Laberdolive • Marquis de Caussade Janneau

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B. BRANDY The word Brandy comes from the Dutch word brandewijn, ("burnt wine"), which is how the straightforward Dutch traders who introduced it to Northern Europe from Southern France and Spain in the 16th century described wine that had been "burnt," or boiled, in order to distill it. The origins of Brandy can be traced back to the expanding Moslem Mediterranean states in the 7th and 8th centuries. Arab alchemists experimented with distilling grapes and other fruits in order to make medicinal spirits. Their knowledge and techniques soon spread beyond the borders of Islam, with grape Brandy production appearing in Spain and probably Ireland (via missionary monks) by the end of the 8th century. Brandy, in its broadest definition, is a spirit made from fruit juice or fruit pulp and skin. More specifically, it is broken down into three basic groupings.

Grape Brandy is Brandy distilled from fermented grape juice or crushed but not pressed grape pulp and skin. This spirit is aged in wooden casks (usually oak) which colors it, mellows the palate, and adds additional aromas and flavors.

Pomace Brandy (Italian Grappa and French Marc are the best-known examples) is Brandy made from the pressed grape pulp, skins, and stems that remain after the grapes are crushed and pressed to extract most of the juice for wine. Pomace Brandies, which are usually minimally aged and seldom see wood, are an acquired taste. They often tend to be rather raw, although they can offer a fresh, fruity aroma of the type of grape used, a characteristic that is lost in regular oak-aged Brandy.

Fruit Brandy is the default term for all Brandies that are made from fermenting fruit other than grapes. It should not be confused with Fruit-Flavored Brandy, which is grape Brandy that has been flavored with the extract of another fruit. Fruit Brandies, except those made from berries, are generally distilled from fruit wines. Berries tend to lack enough sugar to make a wine with sufficient alcohol for proper distillation, and thus are soaked (macerated) in high-proof spirit to extract their flavor and aroma. The extract is then distilled once at a low proof. Calvados, the Apple Brandy from the Normandy region of Northwestern France, is probably the best known type of Fruit Brandy. Eau-de-vie ("water of life") is the default term in French for spirits in general, and specifically for colorless fruit brandy, particularly from the Alsace region of France and from California. Brandy, like Rum and Tequila, is an agricultural spirit. Unlike grain spirits such as Whisky, Vodka, and Gin, which are made throughout the year from grain that can be
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harvested and stored, Brandy is dependent on the seasons, the ripening of the base fruit, and the production of the wine from which it is made. Types of Brandies, originally at least, tended to be location-specific. (Cognac, for example, is a town and region in France that gave its name to the local Brandy.) Important Brandy-making regions, particularly in Europe, further differentiate their local spirits by specifying the types of grapes that can be used and the specific areas (appellation) in which the grapes used for making the base wine can be grown. C. FRENCH BRANDIES: COGNAC AND ARMANAC Cognac is the best known type of Brandy in the world, a benchmark by which most other Brandies are judged. The Cognac region is located on the west-central Atlantic coast of France, just north of Bordeaux, in the departments of Charente and Charente-Maritime. The region is further subdivided into six growing zones: Grande Champagne, Petite Champagne, Bois Ordinaries, Borderies, Fins Bois, and Bons Bois. The first two of these regions produce the best Cognac and will frequently be so designated on bottle labels. Cognacs labelled Fine Champagne are a blend of Petite and Grande Champagne. The primary grapes used in making Cognac are Ugni Blanc, Folle Blanche, and Colombard. The wines made from these grapes are thin, tart, and low in alcohol; poor characteristics for table wines, but oddly enough, perfect for making Brandy. Cognac is double distilled in pot stills and then aged in casks made from Limousin or Troncais oak. All Cognacs start out in new oak to mellow the fiery spirit and give them color. Batches that are chosen for long-term aging are, after a few years, transferred to used, or "seasoned," casks that impart less of the oak flavor notes while the Brandy matures. Virtually all Cognacs are a blend of Brandies from different vintages, and frequently, different growing zones. Even those from single vineyards or distilleries will be a mix of Brandies from different casks. As in Champagne, the production of local vineyards is sold to Cognac houses, each of which stores and ages Cognacs from different suppliers and then employs master blenders to draw from these disparate Brandies to create continuity in the house blends. Because there are no age statements on Cognacs, the industry has adopted some generally accepted terms to differentiate Cognacs. It is important to note that these terms have no legal status, and each Cognac shipper uses them according to his own criteria. V.S./V.S.P./Three Star: (V.S., very superior; V.S.P., very superior pale) A minimum of two years aging in a cask, although the industry average is four to five years. V.S.O.P.: (very superior old pale) A minimum of four years cask aging for the youngest Cognac in the blend, with the industry average being between 10 and 15 years.

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D. X.O. / LUXURY (X.O., extra old) A minimum of six years aging for the youngest cognac in the blend, with the average age running 20 years or older. All Cognac houses maintain inventories of old vintage Cognacs to use in blending these top of the line brands. The oldest Cognacs are removed from their casks in time and stored in glass demijohns (large jugs) to prevent further loss from evaporation and to limit excessively woody and astringent flavors. Luxury Cognacs are the very finest Cognacs of each individual Cognac house.

Armagnac is the oldest type of Brandy in France, with documented references to distillation dating back to the early 15th century. The Armagnac region is located in the heart of the ancient province of Gascony in the southwest corner of France. As in Cognac, there are regional growing zones: Bas-Armagnac, Haut Armagnac, and Tenareze. The primary grapes used in making Armagnac are likewise the Ugni Blanc, Folle Blanche, and Colombard. But distillation takes place in the unique alambic Armagnacais, a type of column still that is even more "inefficient" than a typical Cognac pot still.

The resulting brandy has a rustic, assertive character and aroma that requires additional cask aging to mellow it out. The best Armagnacs are aged in casks made from the local Monlezun oak. In recent years Limousin and Troncais oak casks have been added to the mix of casks as suitable Monlezun oak becomes harder to find.

Most Armagnacs are blends, but unlike Cognac, single vintages and single vineyard bottlings can be found. The categories of Armagnac are generally the same as those of Cognac (V.S., V.S.O.P., X.O., etc.). Blended Armagnacs frequently have a greater percentage of older vintages in their mix than comparable Cognacs, making them a better value for the discerning buyer.

Up until the 1970s, portable alembic Armagnacais mounted on two-wheel carts were hauled among small vineyards in Armagnac by itinerant distillers called bouillers de cru. These traveling stills, alas, have mostly given way to larger fixed-in-place setups operated by farmer cooperatives and individual operators.

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French Brandy is the catch-all designation for Brandy produced from grapes grown in other regions. These Brandies are usually distilled in column stills and aged in oak casks for varying periods of time. They are frequently blended with wine, grape juice, oak flavorings, and other Brandies, including Cognac, in order to smooth out the rough edges. Cognac-like quality designations such as V.S.O.P. and Napoleon are frequently used, but have no legal standing. E. SPANISH BRANDIES Brandy de Jerez is made by the Sherry houses centered around the city of Jerez de la Frontera in the southwest corner of Spain. Virtually all Brandy de Jerez; however, is made from wines produced elsewhere in Spain -- primarily from the Airen grape in La Mancha and Extremadura -- as the local Sherry grapes are too valuable to divert into Brandy production. Nowadays most of the distilling is likewise done elsewhere in Spain using column stills. It is then shipped to Jerez for aging in used Sherry casks in a solera system similar to that used for Sherry wine. A solera is a series of large casks (called butts), each holding a slightly older spirit than the previous one beside it. When brandy is drawn off (racked) from the last butt (no more than a third of the volume is removed) it is replenished with brandy drawn from the next butt in line all the way down the solera line to the first butt, where newly distilled brandy is added. This system of racking the brandy through a series of casks blends together a variety of vintages (some soleras have over 30 stages) and results in a speeding up of the maturation process. Basic Brandy de Jerez Solera must age for a minimum of six months, Reserva for one year and Gran Reserva for a minimum of three years. In practice, the best Reservas and Gran Reservas are frequently aged for 12 to 15 years. The lush, slightly sweet and fruity notes to be found in Brandy de Jerez come not only from aging in Sherry casks, but also from the judicious use of fruit-based flavor concentrates and oak essence (boise). Penedès Brandy comes from the Penedès region of Catalonia in the northeast corner of Spain near Barcelona. Modeled after the Cognacs of France and made from a mix of regional grapes and locally-grown Ugni Blanc of Cognac, it is distilled in pot stills. One of the two local producers (Torres) ages in soleras consisting of butts made from French Limousin oak, whereas the other (Mascaro) ages in the standard non-solera manner, but also in Limousin oak. The resulting Brandy is heartier than Cognac, but leaner and drier than Brandy de Jerez.

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F. ITALIAN BRANDIES Italy has a long history of Brandy production dating back to at least the 16th century, but unlike Spain or France there are no specific Brandy-producing regions. Italian Brandies are made from regional wine grapes, and most are produced in column stills, although there are now a number of small artisanal producers using pot stills. They are aged in oak for a minimum of one to two years, with six to eight years being the industry average. Italian Brandies tend to be on the light and delicate side with a touch of residual sweetness. G. POMACE BRANDIES: GETTING TO GRIPS WITH GRAPPA Italy produces a substantial amount of Grappa, both of the raw, firewater variety and the more elegant, artisanal efforts that are made from one designated grape type and frequently packaged in hand-blown bottles. Both types of Grappa can be unaged or aged for a few years in old casks that will tame the hard edge of the spirit without imparting much flavor or color. Marc from France is produced in all of the nation’s wine-producing regions, but is mostly consumed locally. Marc de gewürztraminer from Alsace is particularly noteworthy because it retains some of the distinctive perfumed nose and spicy character of the grape. California pomace Brandies from the United States are broadly in the Italian style and are usually called Grappas, even when they are made from non-Italian grape varieties. This is also true of the pomace Brandies from Canada. H. GERMAN BRANDIES German monks were distilling Brandy by the 14th century and the German distillers had organized their own guild as early as 1588. Yet almost from the start, German Brandy (called weinbrand ) has been made from imported wine rather than the more valuable local varieties. Most German Brandies are produced in pot stills and must be aged for a minimum of six months in oak. Brandies that have been aged in oak for at least one year are called uralt or alter (meaning "older"). The best German Brandies are smooth, somewhat lighter than Cognac, and finish with a touch of sweetness. I. UNITED STATES BRANDIES Brandy production in California dates back to the Spanish missions in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. In the years following the Civil War, Brandy became a major industry, with a substantial export trade to Europe by the end of the century. For a time
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Leland Stanford, founder of Stanford University, was the world’s largest brandy producer. Phylloxera and National Prohibition almost shut down the industry in the 1920s. Repeal started things up again, but as with the bourbon industry, the advent of World War II resulted in the brandy producers further marking time. Soon after the end of the war the industry commissioned the Department of Viticulture and Oenology at the University of California at Davis to develop a prototype "California-style" brandy. It had a clean palate, was lighter in style than most European Brandies, and had a flavor profile that made it a good mixer. Starting in the late 1940s, the California brandy producers began to change over to this new style. Contemporary California Brandies are made primarily in column stills from table grape varieties such as the Thompson Seedless and Flame Tokay, although a handful of small new-generation Cognac-inspired pot distillers, such as Jepson and RMS, are using the classic Ugni Blanc, Colombard, and Folle Blanche grapes. California Brandies are aged for two to 12 years in used American oak (both Brandy and Bourbon casks) to limit woodiness in the palate, although the pot distillers also use French oak. Several California distillers, most notably Korbel, have utilized the Spanish solera method of maturing their Brandy. California Brandies do not use quality designations such as V.S.O.P. or stars. The more expensive brands will usually contain a percentage of older vintages and pot-distilled Brandies in the blend. J. LATIN AMERICA BRANDIES

In Mexico a surprising amount of wine is made, but it is little known outside of the country because most of it is used for Brandy production. Mexican Brandies are made from a mix of grapes, including Thompson Seedless, Palomino, and Ugni Blanc. Both column and pot stills are used in production whereas the solera system is generally used for aging. Brandy now outsells tequila and rum in Mexico.

South American Brandies are generally confined to their domestic markets. The best known type is Pisco, a clear, raw Brandy from Peru and Chile that is made from Muscat grapes and double-distilled in pot stills. The resulting Brandy has a perfumed fragrance and serves as the base for a variety of mixed drinks, including the famous Pisco Sour.

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K. OTHER BRANDIES FROM AROUND THE WORLD Greece produces pot-distilled Brandies, many of which, such as the well-known Metaxa, are flavored with Muscat wine, anise, or other spices. Winemaking in Israel is a wellestablished tradition dating back thousands of years. But Brandy production dates back only to the 1880s when the French Jewish philanthropist Baron Edmond de Rothschild established what has become the modern Israeli wine industry along French lines. Israeli brandy is made in the manner of Cognac from Colombard grapes, with distillation in both pot and column stills and maturation in French Limousin oak casks. In the Caucasus region, along the eastern shore of the Black Sea, the ancient nations of Georgia and Armenia draw on monastic traditions to produce rich, intensely flavored pot still Brandies both from local grapes and from such imported varieties as Muscadine (from France), Sercial and Verdelho (most famously from Madeira). South Africa has produced Brandies since the arrival of the first Dutch settlers in the 17th century, but these early spirits from the Cape Colony earned a reputation for being harsh firewater (witblits, white lightning, was a typical nickname). The introduction of modern production techniques and government regulations in the early 20th century gradually led to an improvement in the quality of local Brandies. Modern South African Brandies are made from Ugni Blanc, Colombard, Chenin Blanc, and Palomino grapes, produced in both pot and column stills, and aged for a minimum of three years in oak. L. APPLE AND OTHER FRUIT BRANDIES Normandy is one of the few regions in France that does not have a substantial grape wine industry. Instead it is apple country, with a substantial tradition of producing hard and sweet cider that in turn can be distilled into an Apple Brandy known as Calvados. The local cider apples, which tend to be small and tart, are closer in type to crab apples than to modern table apples. This spirit has its own appellations, with the best brands coming from Appellation Controlee Pays d’Auge near the Atlantic seaport of Deauville, and the rest in 10 adjacent regions that are designated Appellation Reglementee. Most Pays d’Auge and some of the better Appellation Reglementee are produced in pot stills. All varieties of Calvados are aged in oak casks for a minimum of two years. Cognac-style quality and age terms such as V.S.O.P. and Hors d’Age are frequently used on labels, but have no legal meaning. In the United States, Applejack, as Apple Brandy is called locally, is thought by many to be the first spirit produced in the British colonies. This colonial tradition has continued on the East Coast with the Laird’s Distillery in New Jersey (established in 1780 and the oldest distillery in America). Apple Brandies that are more like eau-de-vie are produced in California and Oregon.

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The fruit-growing regions of the upper Rhine River are the prime eau-de-vie production areas of Europe. The Black Forest region of Bavaria in Germany, and Alsace in France, are known for their Cherry Brandies (Kir in France, Kirschwasser in Germany), Raspberry Brandies (Framboise and Himbeergeist), and Pear Brandies (Poire). Similar eaux-de-vies are now being produced in the United States in California and Oregon. Some Plum Brandy is also made in these regions (Mirabelle from France is an example), but the best known type of Plum Brandy is Slivovitz, which is made from the small blue Sljiva plum throughout Eastern Europe and the Balkans. M. CALVADOS Calvados is an apple brandy from the French région of Lower Normandy. Like most French wines, Calvados is governed by appellation contrôlée regulations. The Appellation Calvados contrôlée area includes all of the Calvados, Manche, and Orne départements and parts of Eure, Mayenne, Sarthe, and Eure-et-Loir. The more restrictive Appellation Calvados Pays d'Auge contrôlée area is limited to the east end of the département of Calvados and a few adjoining districts.

Calvados should be aged in oak for several years before bottling. The phrases vieilli en chêne and vieilli en fûts de chêne are indicators of this. The longer it is aged, the smoother the drink becomes (up to a point; eventually the quality of the drink will fall off). A half-bottle of twenty-year-old Calvados can easily cost the same price as a normal-sized bottle of ten-year-old Calvados.

Calvados is the basis of the tradition of le trou Normand, or "the Norman hole". This is a small drink of Calvados taken between courses in a very long meal, supposed to reawaken the appetite.

Cut brandy Cut brandy is a liquor made of brandy and hard grain liquor. Sugar is used to soften taste.

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Grades Cut brandies are graded by the relative amount of brandy it contains. Grades are represented by stars. • 0 stars, almost no brandy at all, only some bringing color to the grainz liquor. • 1 star, one third (1/3) of brandy • 3 stars, three fourth (3/4) of brandy

N. COGNAC Cognac, named after the town of Cognac in France, is a kind of brandy, which must be produced in the region surrounding the town. The wine to be distilled must be made from Folle Blanche, Ugni Blanc or Colombard grapes. It must be distilled twice in copper pot stills and aged at least 2 1/2 years in oak barrels in order to be called "cognac". A related drink produced in another region is Armagnac. Producing region and legal definitions The region of Cognac, divided up into six growth areas, or crus (singular cru), covers the department of Charente-Maritime, a large part of the Charente and a few areas in DeuxSèvres and the Dordogne. The six crus are, in order of decreasing appreciation of the Cognacs coming from them: Grande Champagne, Petite Champagne, Borderies, Fins Bois, Bons Bois, and Bois Ordinaires. A cognac made from just the first two of these crus (with at least 50 percent from Grande Champagne) is called "Fine Champagne" cognac, although no cognac has anything to do with the sparkling wine Champagne. ("Champagne" coming in both cases from old words alluding to agricultural fields.) If a brandy is produced that fails to meet any of the strict criteria set down by the "governing body" of cognac, the BNIC – Bureau National Interprofessionel du Cognac – it may not be called cognac, nor sold as such.

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A Cognac Pot Still Map of the Cognac region • • • It must be produced within the delimited region, from wine using certain grape varieties; It must be obtained through double distillation, in typical copper Charentais stills; It must age in oak barrels, which give it its color and part of its taste. Many of the cognac producers in the town allow visitors to taste their product; the bigger companies have guided tours.

Process of fabrication Cognac is made from eaux-de-vie (literally, "water of life") produced by doubly distilling the white wines produced in any of the growth areas. The wine is a very dry, acidic, thin wine, not really suitable for drinking, but excellent for distillation. It may only be made from a strict list of grape varieties. Distillation takes place in traditionally shaped Charentais copper stills, the design and dimensions of which are also controlled. Two distillations must be carried out; the resulting eau-de-vie is a colourless spirit of about 70 percent alcohol. Cognac may not be sold to the public, or indeed called 'Cognac' until it has been aged for at least two years, counting from the end of the period of distillation (1 April following the year the grapes were harvested). During the aging, a large percentage of the alcohol (and water) in the eaux-de-vie evaporates through the porous oak barrels. This is termed locally the "part des anges", or angels' share, a phrase also used in Scotch Whisky production. A black fungus, Torula compniacensis richon, thrives on the alcoholic vapours and normally grows on the walls of the aging cellars. The final product is diluted to 40 percent alcohol content (80 proof). The age of the cognac is shown as that of the youngest eau-de-vie used in the blend. The blend is usually of different ages and from different local areas. This blending, or marriage, of different eaux-de-vie is important to obtain a complexity of flavours absent from an eau-de-vie from a single distillery or vineyard. Each cognac house has a master taster (maître de chai) who is responsible for creating this delicate blend of spirits, so that the cognac produced by a company today will taste exactly the same as a cognac
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produced by that same company 50 years ago, or in 50 years' time. In this respect it may be seen to be similar to a blended whisky or non-vintage Champagne, which also rely on blending to achieve a consistent brand flavour.

Grades include • VS (Very Special) or *** (three stars), where the youngest brandy is stored at least two years in cask. • VSOP (Very Superior Old Pale), Réserve, where the youngest brandy is stored at least four years in cask. • XO (Extra Old), Napoléon, Hors d'Age, where the youngest brandy is stored at least seven years in cask.

Each cognac house also produces its own premium-level cognac. These include: • Louis XIII by Rémy Martin is composed of more than 1,200 of the finest eaux-de-vie aged between 40 years and a century in very old Limousin oak barrels. • Richard Hennessy - produced by Hennessy, 'Richard' is a blend of over 100 eaux-devie aged up to 200 years. It is sold in a Baccarrat crystal blackman and is named after the founder of the company. • L'Esprit de Courvoisier - Courvoisier's leading cognac, presented in a hand-cut Lalique decanter, blended from eaux-de-vie up to 200 years old, and individually numbered. Brands include Braastad Courvoisier Hennessy Martell Rémy Martin Hine Meukow Cognac is mainly sold by trading houses. Some of them were founded centuries ago, and still rule the market today. Bache-Gabrielsen
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• • • • • • •

•

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• • • • • • • • • • • • •

Camus Courvoisier (Owned by Allied Domecq) Delamain Hennessy (owned by LVMH) Hine Martell Rémy Martin Moyet Otard Pierre Ferrand Renault Meukow Birkedal Hartmann

O. RUM Rum is a distilled beverage made from sugarcane by-products such as molasses and sugarcane juice by a process of fermentation and distillation. The distillate, a clear liquid, is then usually aged in oak and other casks. While there are rum producers in places such as Australia, India, Reunion Island, and elsewhere around the world, the majority of rum production occurs in and around the Caribbean and along the Demerara river in South America. Some major rum brands include Bacardi, Barbancourt, Brugal, Captain Morgan, Appleton Estate, Havana Club, Stroh, Matusalem, Mount Gay, Bundaberg, Myers, Malibu Rum, Gosling's, Cruzan, Pusser's, Flor de Caña, Don Q, and Ron Zacapa Centenario. "Overproof" rums, such as Wray and Nephew, contain a higher alcohol content. Rum is produced in a variety of styles. Light rums are commonly used in mixed drinks, while golden and dark rums are appropriate for use in cooking as well as cocktails. Premium brands of rum are also available that are made to be consumed neat or on the rocks. Rum plays a part in the culture of most islands of the West Indies, and has famous associations with the British Royal Navy and piracy. Rum has also served as a popular
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medium of exchange that helped to promote slavery along with providing economic instigation for Australia's Rum Rebellion and the American Revolution. Origins of the name The origin of the word rum is unclear. A common claim is that the name was derived from rumbullion meaning "a great tumult or uproar". Another claim is that the name is from the large drinking glasses used by Dutch seamen known as rummers, from the Dutch word roemer, a drinking glass. Other options include contractions of the words saccharum, Latin for sugar, or arôme, French for aroma. Regardless of the original source, the name had come into common use by May 1657 when the General Court of Massachusetts made illegal the sale of strong liquor "whether known by the name of rumme, strong water, wine, brandy, etc., In current usage, the name used for a rum is often based on the rum's place of origin. For rums from Spanish-speaking locales the word ron is used. A ron añejo indicates a rum that has been significantly aged and is often used for premium products. Rhum is the term used for rums from French-speaking locales, while rhum vieux is an aged French rum that meets several other requirements. Some of the many other names for rum are Nelson's Blood, Kill-Devil, Demon Water, Pirate's Drink, Navy Neaters, and Barbados water. A version of rum from Newfoundland is referred to by the name Screech, while some low-grade West Indies rums are called tafia. History Origins The precursors to rum date back to antiquity. Development of fermented drinks produced from sugarcane juice is believed to have first occurred either in ancient India or China, and spread from there. An example of such an early drink is brum. Produced by the Malay people, brum dates back thousands of years. Marco Polo also recorded a 14th-century account of a "very good wine of sugar" that was offered to him in what is modern-day Iran. The first distillation of rum took place on the sugarcane plantations of the Caribbean in the 17th century. Plantation slaves first discovered that molasses, a by-product of the sugar refining process, fermented into alcohol. Later, distillation of these alcoholic byproducts concentrated the alcohol and removed impurities, producing the first true rums. Tradition suggests that rum first originated on the island of Barbados. Regardless of its
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initial source, early Caribbean rums were not known for high quality. A 1651 document from Barbados stated "The chief fuddling they make in the island is Rumbullion, alias Kill-Divil, and this is made of sugar canes distilled, a hot, hellish, and terrible liquor". Colonial America After rum's development in the Caribbean, the drink's popularity spread to Colonial America. To support the demand for the drink, the first rum distillery in the colonies was set up in 1664 on current day Staten Island. Boston, Massachusetts had a distillery three years later. The manufacture of rum became early Colonial New England's largest and most prosperous industry. The rum produced there was quite popular, and was even considered the best in the world during much of the 18th century. Rhode Island rum even joined gold as an accepted currency in Europe for a period of time. Estimates of rum consumption in the American colonies before the American Revolutionary War had every man, woman, or child drinking an average of 3 Imperial gallons (13.5 liters) of rum each year. To support this demand for the molasses to produce rum, along with the increasing demand for sugar in Europe during the 17th and 18th centuries, a labor source to work the sugar plantations in the Caribbean was needed. A triangular trade was established between Africa, the Caribbean, and the colonies to help support this need. The circular exchange of slaves, molasses, and rum was quite profitable, and the disruption to the trade caused by the Sugar Act in 1764 may have even helped cause the American Revolution. The popularity of rum continued after the American Revolution with George Washington insisting on a barrel of Barbados rum at his 1789 inauguration. Eventually the restrictions on rum from the British islands of the Caribbean combined with the development of American whiskey led to a decline in the drink's popularity. Naval rum Rum's association with piracy began with English privateers trading on the valuable commodity. As some of the privateers became pirates and buccaneers, their fondness for rum remained, the association between the two only being strengthened by literary works such as Robert Louis Stevenson's Treasure Island. The association of rum with the British Royal Navy began in 1655 when the British fleet captured the island of Jamaica. With the availability of domestically produced rum, the
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British changed the daily ration of liquor given to seamen from French brandy to rum. While the ration was originally given neat, or mixed with lemon juice, the practice of watering down the rum began around 1740. To help minimize the effect of the alcohol on his sailors, Admiral Edward Vernon directed that the rum ration be watered down before being issued. In honor of the grogram cloak the Admiral wore in rough weather, the mixture of water and rum became known as grog. The Royal Navy continued to give its sailors a daily rum ration, known as a "tot," until the practice was abolished after July 31, 1970. A story involving naval rum is that following his victory at the Battle of Trafalgar, Horatio Nelson's body was preserved in a cask of rum to allow transport back to England. Upon arrival, however, the cask was opened and found to be empty of rum. The pickled body was removed and, upon inspection, it was discovered that the sailors had drilled a hole in the bottom of the cask and drank all the rum, in the process drinking Nelson's blood. Thus, this tale serves as a basis for the term Nelson's Blood being used to describe rum. The details of the story are disputed, with some historians claiming the term originated instead from a toast to Admiral Nelson. Colonial Australia Rum became an important trade good in the early period of the colony of New South Wales. The value of rum was based upon the lack of coinage among the population of the colony, and due to the drink's ability to allow its consumer to temporarily forget about the lack of creature comforts available in the new colony. The value of rum was such that convict settlers could be induced to work the lands owned by officers of the New South Wales Corps. Due to rum's popularity among the settlers, the colony gained a reputation for drunkenness even though their alcohol consumption was less than levels commonly consumed in England at the time. When William Bligh became governor of the colony in 1806, he attempted to remedy the perceived problem with drunkenness by outlawing the use of rum as a medium of exchange. In response to this action, and several others, the New South Wales Corps marched, with fixed bayonets, to Government House and placed Bligh under arrest. The mutineers continued to control the colony until the arrival of Governor Lachlan Macquarie in 1810.

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Caribbean light rum Until the second half of the 19th century all rums were heavy or dark rums that were considered appropriate for the working poor, unlike the refined double-distilled spirits of Europe. In order to expand the market for rum, the Spanish Royal Development Board offered a prize to anyone who could improve the rum making process. This resulted in many refinements in the process which greatly improved the quality of rum. One of the most important figures in this development process was Don Facundo Bacardi Masso, who moved from Spain to Santiago de Cuba in 1843. Don Facundo's experiments with distillation techniques, charcoal filtering, cultivating of specialized yeast strains, and aging with American oak casks helped to produce a smoother and mellower drink typical of modern light rums. It was with this new rum that Don Facundo founded Bacardí y Compañía in 1862. Categorization Dividing rum into meaningful groupings is complicated by the fact that there is no single standard for what constitutes rum. Instead rum is defined by the varying rules and laws of the nations that produce the spirit. The differences in definitions include issues such as spirit proof, minimum aging, and even naming standards. Examples of the differences in proof is Colombia, requiring their rum possess a minimum alcohol content of 50 ABV, while Chile and Venezuela require only a minimum of 40 ABV. Mexico requires rum be aged a minimum of 8 months, the Dominican Republic and Panama requires one year, and Venezuela requires two years. Naming standards also vary, Nicaragua has white - ron blanco, lite, silver - ron plata, gold and dark - black label, gran reserva and the world famous centenario, with Argentina defining rums as white, gold, light, and extra light. Barbados uses the terms white, overproof, and matured, while the United States defines rum, rum liqueur, and flavored rum. World famous Ron Flor de Caña, produces several types of rum from its base in Nicaragua. Despite these differences in standards and nomenclature, the following divisions are provided to help show the wide variety of rums that are produced.

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Regional Variations Within the Caribbean, each island or production area has a unique style. For the most part, these styles can be grouped by the language that is traditionally spoken. Due to the overwhelming influence of Puerto Rican rum, most rum consumed in the United States is produced in the Spanish-speaking style. · Spanish-speaking islands traditionally produce light rums with a fairly clean taste. Rums from Cuba, Puerto Rico and Dominican Republic are typical of this style. Also under this category the rum produced in Nicaragua can be included, it is a slow-aging, color intesifying, aromatic and flavorsome rum. Nicaragua in fact, produces some of the best rum in the whole world,. Its world renowned Ron Flor de Caña is gaining wide popularity among consumers in the United States. English-speaking islands are known for darker rums with a fuller taste that retains a greater amount of the underlying molasses flavor. Rums from Jamaica, Bermuda, and the Demerara region are typical of this style. French-speaking islands are best known for their agricultural rums (rhum agricole). These rums, being produced exclusively from sugarcane juice, retain a greater amount of the original flavor of the sugarcane. Rums from Guadeloupe, Haïti and Martinique are typical of this style. Cachaça is a spirit similar to rum that is produced in Brazil. The Indonesian spirit Batavia Arrack, or Arrak, is a spirit similar to rum that includes rice in its production. Mexico produces a number of brands of light and dark rum, as well as other less expensive flavored and unflavored sugar cane based liquors, such as aguardiente de caña and charanda. In some cases cane liquor is flavored with mezcal to produce a pseudo-tequila-like drink. A spirit known as Aguardiente, distilled from molasses infused with anise, with additional sugarcane juice added after distillation, is produced in Central America and northern South America. Grades Example of dark, gold, and light rums. The grades and variations used to describe rum depend on the location that a rum was produced. Despite these variations the following terms are frequently used to describe various types of rum:

·

·

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Light Rums, also referred to as light, silver, and white rums. In general, light rum has very little flavor aside from a general sweetness, and serves accordingly as a base for cocktails. Light rums are sometimes filtered after aging to remove any color. Gold Rums, also called amber rums, are medium-bodied rums which are generally aged. The rum can obtain its flavor through addition of spices and caramel/color (a variation often sold as Spiced Rum), but historically gains its darker color from aging in wooden casks (typically oak). Dark Rum, also known as black rum, classes as a grade darker than gold rum. It is generally aged longer, in heavily charred barrels. Dark rum has a much stronger flavor than either light or gold rum, and hints of spices can be detected, along with a strong molasses or caramel overtone. It is used to provide substance in rum drinks, as well as color. In addition to uses in mixed drinks, dark rum is the type of rum most commonly used in cooking. It was this type of rum immortalized in the song 'The Old Black Rum' by the Newfoundland folk group Great Big Sea. Flavored Rum: Some manufacturers have begun to sell rums which they have infused with flavors of fruits such as mango, orange, citrus, coconut, and limke which is a lime rum found in Sweden. These serve to flavor similarly themed tropical drinks which generally comprise less than 40% alcohol. Overproof Rum is rum which is much higher than the standard 40% alcohol. Most of these rums bear greater than 75%, in fact, and preparations of 151 to 160 proof occur commonly. Premium Rum: As with other sipping spirits, such as Cognac and Scotch, a market exists for premium and super-premium spirits. These are generally boutique brands which sell very aged and carefully produced rums. They have more character and flavor than their "mixing" counterparts, and are generally consumed without the addition of other ingredients. Production methodology Unlike some other spirits, such as Cognac and Scotch, rum has no defined production methods. Instead, rum production is based on traditional styles that vary between locations and distillers.

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Fermentation Sugarcane is harvested to make sugarcane juice and molasses. Most rum produced is made from molasses. Within the Caribbean, much of this molasses is from Brazil.[ A notable exception is the French-speaking islands where sugarcane juice is the preferred base ingredient. To the base ingredient yeast, and potentially water, are added to start fermentation. While some rum producers allow wild yeast to perform the fermentation, most use specific strains of yeast to help provide a consistent taste and predictable fermentation time. Dunder, the yeast-rich foam from previous fermentations, is the traditional yeast source in Jamaica. "The yeast employed will determine the final taste and aroma profile," says Jamaican master blender Joy Spence. Distillers that make lighter rums, such as Bacardi, prefer to use faster-working yeasts. Use of slower-working yeasts causes more esters to accumulate during fermentation, allowing for a fuller-tasting rum. Distillation As with all other aspects of rum production, there is no standard method used for distillation. While some producers work in batches using pot stills, most rum production is done using column still distillation.[25] Pot still output contains more congeners than the output from column stills and thus produces a fuller-tasting rum.[1] Aging and blending Many countries require that rum be aged for at least one year. This aging is commonly performed in used bourbon casks,[25] but may also be performed in stainless steel tanks or other types of wooden casks. Due to the tropical climate common to most rumproducing areas, rum matures at a much faster rate than is typical for Scotch or Cognac. An indication of this faster rate is the angel's share, or amount of product lost to evaporation. While products aged in France or Scotland see about 2% loss each year, rum producers may see as much as 10%.[25] After aging, rum is normally blended to ensure a consistent flavor. As part of this blending process, light rums may be filtered to remove any color gained during aging. For darker rums, caramel may be added to the rum to adjust the color of the final product. In cuisine Rum Besides rum punch, cocktails such as the Cuba Libre and Daiquiri have well-known stories of their invention in the Caribbean. Tiki culture in the US helped expand rum's
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horizons with inventions such as the Mai Tai and Zombie. Other well-known cocktails containing rum include the Piña Colada, a drink made popular by Rupert Holmes' song "Escape (The Piña Colada Song)",[27] and the Mojito. Cold-weather drinks made with rum include the Rum toddy and Hot Buttered Rum.[28] In addition to these well-known cocktails, a number of local specialties utilize rum. Examples of these local drinks include Bermuda's Dark and Stormy (dark rum with ginger beer), and the Painkiller from the British Virgin Islands. Rum may also be used as a base in the manufacture of liqueurs. Spiced Rum is made by infusing rum with a combination of spices. Another combination is jagertee, a mixture of rum and black tea. Rum may also be used in a number of cooked dishes. It may be used as a flavoring agent in items such as rum balls or rum cakes. Rum is commonly used to macerate fruit used in fruitcakes and is also used in marinades for some Caribbean dishes. Rum is also used in the preparation of Bananas Foster and some hard sauces. Ti Punch is short for "petit punch", little punch. This is a very traditional drink in the French-speaking region of the Caribbean. List of rum producers Caribbean Rums
• Antigua: Antigua Distillery Ltd (Cavalier and English Harbor), Bambu Rum • Barbados: Hanschell Inniss Ltd. (Cockspur Rum), Caribbean Spirit/Twelve

• • • • • • • • •

Islands Shipping Co (Malibu Rum), Mount Gay, R.L. Seale & Company Ltd.(Foursquare Rum) Bermuda: Gosling Brothers Ltd. (Gosling's Rum) Cayman Islands: Tortuga Rum Company Ltd (Tortuga) Cuba: Havana Club Dominica Soca Rum Dominican Republic: Brugal, Bermudez, Barcelo (The Three B'S), Matusalem Grenada: Westerhall Plantation Haiti: Rhum Barbancourt Jamaica: Appleton Estate, Myers's, Estate Industries Ltd (Tia Maria) Martinique: Clement, DePaz, St. James

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• Puerto Rico: Bacardi (part of American Whiskey Trail), Captain Morgan, Don Q,

Ron del Barrilito • Trinidad and Tobago: Angostura Rums (Angostura 1824, Angostura 1919), Fernandes Vat 19 Gold Rum, Fernandes Vat 19 White Rum, Fernandes Forres Park Puncheon Rum, 10 Cane Rum • US Virgin Islands: Virgin Islands Rum Industries, Inc (Cruzan) • British Virgin Islands: Pusser's Ltd. (Pusser's) Central/South American Rums
• Costa Rica: Ron Centenario • Colombia : Ron Santa Fe, Ron Caldas • Guatemala: Ron Zacapa Centenario, Ron Zacapa Centenario XO, Ron Botran, • Guyana (Demerera): El Dorado, Lemon Hart • Nicaragua: Compañía Licorera de Nicaragua, S.A. (Flor de Caña and Ron Plata) • Panama: Carta Vieja, Varela Hermanos (Ron Abuelo, Ron Cortez) • Venezuela: Cacique, Ocumare, Pampero, Ron Santa Teresa 1796. • Mexico: Porfidio

Rums from Other Areas
• Austria: Stroh, often considered a rum but, due to the addition of aroma, is not. • Australia: Bundaberg, Beenleigh • Canada: Lamb's • India: Old Monk • Mauritius: Green Island • Newfoundland: Newfoundland Screech, London Dock, Old Sam, & Cabot

Tower • Philippines: Tondeña, Tanduay • Spain: Arehucas, Barceló • Sweden: Träkumla Puerto Rican rums:
• • • •

Bacardi Palo Viejo Don Q Licor 43
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• • • • •

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Licor 86 Ron Llave Castillo Ron del Barrilito El Barrilito

P. GIN Gin is a spirit made from the distillation of white grain spirit and juniper berries, which provide its distinctive flavor. The taste of ordinary gin is very dry, and as such it is frequently mixed with other beverages. It should not be confused with sloe gin, a sweet liqueur traditionally made from sloes (the fruit of the blackthorn) infused in gin. The most common style of gin, typically used for mixed drinks, is "London dry gin", which refers not to brand, marque, or origin, but to a distillation process. London dry gin is a high-proof spirit, usually produced in a column still and redistilled after the botanicals are added to the base spirit. In addition to juniper, it is usually made with a small amount of citrus botanicals like lemon and bitter orange peel. Other botanicals that may be used include anise, angelica root, orris root, licorice root, cinnamon, coriander, and cassia bark. A well-made gin will be dry with a smooth texture lacking in harshness. The flavor will be harmonious yet with a crisp character with a pronounced juniper flavor. Other types of gin include Jenever (Dutch gin), Plymouth gin, and Old Tom gin (said to approximate the pot-distilled 18th century spirit). Compound gin is gin where the juniper flavoring is added to the neutral spirit and there is no re-distillation. History Gin originated in the Netherlands in the 17th century. Its invention is often credited to the physician Franciscus Sylvius. It spread to England after the Glorious Revolution put a Dutchman on the British throne. Dutch gin, known as jenever, is a distinctly different drink from English-style gin; it is distilled with barley and sometimes aged in wood, giving it a slight resemblance to whisky. Schiedam, in South Holland, is famous for its jenever. Jenever is produced in a pot still and is typically lower in alcohol and more strongly flavoured than London gin.
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Hogarth's Gin Lane Gin became very popular in England after the government allowed unlicensed gin production and at the same time imposed a heavy duty on all imported spirits. This created a market for poor-quality grain that was unfit for brewing beer, and thousands of gin-shops sprang up all over England. By 1740 the production of gin had increased to six times that of beer, and because of its cheapness it became extremely popular with the poor. Of the 15,000 drinking establishments in London, over half were gin-shops. Beer maintained a healthy reputation as it was often safer to drink the brewed ale than unclean plain water. Gin, though, was blamed for various social and medical problems, and it may have been a factor in the high death rate that caused London's previously increasing population to remain stable. The reputation of the two drinks was illustrated by William Hogarth in his engravings Beer Street and Gin Lane (1751). This negative reputation survives today in the English language, in terms like "gin-mills" to describe disreputable bars or "gin-soaked" to refer to drunks, and in the phrase "Mother's Ruin," a common British name for gin. The Gin Act of 1736 imposed high taxes on retailers but led to riots in the streets. The prohibitive duty was gradually reduced and finally abolished in 1742. The Gin Act of 1751 was more successful, however. It forced distillers to sell only to licensed retailers and brought gin-shops under the jurisdiction of local magistrates. Gin in the 18th century was produced in pot stills, and was somewhat sweeter than the London gin known today. In London in the early eighteenth century, gin sold on the black market was prepared in illicit stills (of which there were 1500 in 1726) and was often adulterated with turpentine and sulphuric acid. The column still was invented in 1832, and the "London dry" style was developed later in the 19th century. In tropical English colonies, gin was used to mask the bitter flavour of quinine, a protection against malaria, which was diluted in tonic water. This was the origin of today's popular gin and tonic combination, even though quinine is no longer used against malaria. Many other gin-based mixed drinks were invented, including the martini. Secretly produced "bathtub gin" was a common drink in the speakeasies of Prohibition-era America due to the relative simplicity of the basic production methods. It remained popular as the basis of many cocktails after the repeal of Prohibition. At the present time there are numerous types and manufactures of gin, the most notable of which are listed below. Tanqueray Ten has received several awards since its 2000 debut, including double gold medals in 2004 and 2005 at the San Francisco Spirits
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Competition. Bombay Sapphire is another premium gin that has won international awards since debuting in 1992. In 2005, the Monde Selection in Brussels awarded South Gin (made by Pacific Dawn Distillers of New Zealand) the "Grand Gold with Palm Leaves," rating it the best gin in the world. The National Gin Museum is in Hasselt, Belgium. Common mixers for gin · · · · · · · · · · · · · Vermouth - in a martini Tonic water - in a Gin and tonic Soda water - in a Gin Rickey Orange juice Orange soda Lemon juice Lime juice Grapefruit juice Ginger Ale or Ginger Beer Cranberry juice Milk for 'Gin Milk Punch' Kool-Aid Fresca

Cocktails with gin · · · · · · · · · Martini Tin Roof Tom Collins Maiden's Prayer Salty Dog Singapore Sling Gimlet Gin and Tonic Pimm's N°1.
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· · · · · ·

Punkdutch Apoica Orange Blossom Pink Gin Presbyterian Satan's Whiskers

Brands of gin Premium / famous brands · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · Aristocrat gin Beefeater - first produced in 1820 Blackwood's Superior Nordic Vintage Dry Gin BOLS - Dutch jenever Bombay - distilled with eight botanicals Bombay Sapphire - distilled with ten botanicals Boodles Booth's - first produced in 1790 by Sir Felix Booth Broker's Premium London Dry Gin, 47%. Highly rated in tests. Burnett's Gin - based on a 1770 recipe by Sir Robert Burnett Calvert Gin Cork Dry Gin - Ireland's preferred brand Geek Gin Gilbey's Gin - inexpensive, low-qualty Ginebra San Miguel - has juniper berries as its main flavor, produced by the company of the same name and is the largest-selling gin in the world although it is mainly sold in the Philippines · · · Gordon's Greenall's Hendrick's Gin - infused with cucumber, coriander, citrus peel and rose petals
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· · · · · · ·

McCormick Gin Martin Miller's Gin - London dry gin, with over eight botanicals blended with icelandic spring water Phillips Dry Gin - English gin since 1963 Plymouth - first distilled in 1793 Seagram's Gin Silver Wolf Gin South Gin - triple distilled in New Zealand using nine botanicals, two of which are native: manuka berries and kawa kawa leaves, believed by the indigenous Māori people to offer medicinal properties

· · · · · ·

Steinhäger Taaka - a London Dry Gin with a secret formula Tanqueray Tanqueray Ten Toojburn's Signature Whitley Neill London Dry Gin - premium gin containing two African botanicals, the fruit of the Baobab tree, the "Tree of Life", and the Cape Gooseberry

Other brands and variations · · · · · · · · · · Anchor Junipero Gin - produced in California by Anchor Steam Brewery Bafferts Gin - Triple-distilled with four botanicals in England Barton Gin Bellringer Gin - 94.4 proof English gin Bols Gin Bombadier Military Gin Boodles British Gin - 90.4 proof gin Boomsma Jonge Genevere Gin Burnett's Crown Select Gin Caballito: Panama's finest export gin
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· · · · · · · ·

Cadenhead's Old Raj Gin - 110 proof gin containing a small amount of saffron, which imparts a slight yellowish/greenish tint Citadelle - distilled with nineteen botanicals in France Cascade Mountain Gin - uses hand-picked wild juniper berries, distilled in Oregon Damrak Amsterdam Dirty Olive - olive-flavored Fleischmann's Gin - Marketed as the original American gin, first distilled in 1870 Gilbey's London Dry Gin Gin Bulag - the Philippines' most famous choice of gin. Directly translated as "Blind Gin," this concoction has been aptly named after gin drunkards have been reported to lose their eyesight after three straight days of gin insobriety.

· · · · · · · · · · · · ·

Gin Llave - Argentina's prime and extra-smooth concoction Gin Lubuski Gin Xoriguer - Minorcan local gin Ginebra San Miguel Gordon's London Gin - by appointment to Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II of Great Britain Hamptons Gin Juniper Green Organic Gin - first gin made from all organic ingredients in England with four botanicals Leyden Dry Gin - distilled three times in small batches, twice in column stills then in a pot still Mr. Boston Larios - from Spain Quintessential Sarticious Gin - Dutch style gin distilled in Santa Cruz, California, orange and cilantro Smeets - Belgian brand, produce a great range of fruit flavoured gins "Jenèvre de fruits" as well as their original

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·

South - New Zealand made gin, flavoured with juniper berries, lemon, orange, coriander seeds, Angelica leaves, Orris, Gentian root, and two New Zealand natives, Kawakawa leaves and Manuka berries

· ·

Swordsman Uganda Waragi - popular triple distilled local Ugandan Gin Van Gogh Gin - Dutch gin produced with ten botanicals in small batches. Triple distilled, twice in column stills then in a traditional pot still

Q. VODKA Vodka is typically a colourless liquor, usually distilled from fermented grain. The word is a diminutive form for "water" in various Slavic languages (voda, woda, вода). Except for various types of flavorings, vodka consists of water and alcohol (ethanol). It usually has an alcohol content ranging from 35% to 50% by volume. The classic Russian vodka is 40% (80 proof). This can be attributed to the Russian standards for vodka production introduced in 1894 by Alexander III from research undertaken by the Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleev. According to the Vodka Museum in Moscow, Mendeleev found the perfect percentage to be 38, but since spirits in his time were taxed on their strength the percentage was rounded up to 40 to simplify the tax computation. At strengths less than this vodka drunk neat (not mixed with other liquids) can taste 'watery' and above this strength the taste of vodka can have more 'burn'. Under US Federal law, the minimum alcohol strength of vodka is also 40% by volume, whilst in Europe the minimum is 37.5% by volume.[citation needed] Although vodka is generally drunk neat in its Eastern European and Scandinavian homeland, its growth in popularity elsewhere owes much to its usefulness in cocktails and other mixed drinks, such as the Bloody Mary, the Screwdriver, the Vodka Tonic, and the Vodka Martini.

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Origin The origins of vodka (and of its name) cannot be traced definitively, but it is believed to have originated in the grain-growing region that now embraces Belarus, Lithuania, Poland, Ukraine, and western Russia. It also has a long tradition in Scandinavia. The word can be found in the Primary Chronicle of Novgorod dating to 1533, where the term vodka is used in the context of herbal alcoholic tinctures. A number of pharmaceutical lists contain the terms "vodka of bread wine" (водка хлебного вина) and "vodka in half of bread wine" (водка полу хлебного вина). As alcohol had long been used as a basis for medicines, this implies that the term vodka is a noun derived from the verb vodit’, razvodit’ (водить, разводить), "to dilute with water". Bread wine was a spirit distilled from alcohol made from grain (as opposed to grape wine) and hence "vodka of bread wine" would be a water dilution of a distilled grain spirit. While the word could be found in manuscripts and in lubok (лубок, pictures with text explaining the plot, a Russian predecessor of the comic), it began to appear in Russian dictionaries in the mid-19th century. Interestingly, peoples in the area of vodka's probable origin have names for vodka with roots meaning "to burn": Polish: gorzałka; Ukrainian: горілка, horilka; Belarusian: гарэлка, harelka; Lithuanian: degtinė; Latvian: degvīns, šņabis; Swedish: brännvin; in Russian during 17th and 18th century горящее вино (goryashchee vino, "burning wine") was widely used. History For many centuries beverages contained little alcohol. It is estimated that the maximum amount was about 16% as only this amount is reachable by means of natural fermentation. The still allowing for distillation – “the burning of wine” – was invented in the 8th century. The process of distillation was kept secret for a long time. The first description of a distilling apparatus comes from the 13th century. The device was later described by a university professor in his treatise about wine. To produce beverages containing 60% alcohol with the device, the distillation process had to be repeated several times. The general knowledge about distillation was being slowly developed until 1800, when Edward Adam invented the process of rectification which removed its “bad taste”. Further changes were made in 1817 by Johannes Pistorius, a German brewer, who built the first machine which could produce a beverage containing 85% of alcohol in just one
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distillation. In 1830 in Ireland designed an apparatus that could work continuously and allowed for production of beverage containing almost 90% of alcohol. A similar rectification machine, but working periodically, was for the first time used in 1852 in a brewery in Saint Denis by Pierre Savalle. The present-day distillation-rectification machines, designed in the 19th and 20th centuries, are essentially modernized versions of those devices. Currently, such machines can work continuously and produce beverages containing 95.6% alcohol without any taste or smell. The process of distillation with still was widely promoted throughout Europe by Dutch traders. In the 17th century they also played a great role in exchanging the various types of alcohols such as mead, wine, beer, and also the stronger ones such as rum, cognac, whisky and vodka, between the countries of their origin. Poland In Poland, vodka has been produced since the early Middle Ages. The first written record of vodka in Poland dates from 1405 in the Sandomierz court registry. These early spirits were used as medicines. Stefan Falimierz asserted in his 1534 works on herbs that vodka could serve "to increase fertility and awaken lust." Wódka lub gorzałka (1614), by Jerzy Potański, contains valuable information on the production of vodka. Jakub Kazimierz Hawra, in his book Skład albo skarbiec znakomitych sekretów (A Treasury of Excellent Secrets, Kraków, 1693), gave detailed recipes for making vodka from rye. Some Polish vodka blends go back centuries. Most notable are Żubrówka, from about the 16th century; Goldwasser, from the early 17th; and aged Starka vodka, from the 16th. In the mid-17th century, the szlachta (nobility) were granted a monopoly on producing and selling vodka in their territories. This privilege was a source of substantial profits. One of the most famous distilleries of the aristocracy was established by Princess Lubomirska and later operated by her grandson, Count Alfred Wojciech Potocki. The Vodka Industry Museum, now housed at the headquarters of Count Potocki's distillery, has an original document attesting that the distillery already existed in 1784. Today it operates as "Polmos Łańcut." Large-scale vodka production began in Poland at the end of the 16th century, initially at Kraków, whence spirits were exported to Silesia before 1550. Silesian cities also bought vodka from Poznań, a city that in 1580 had 498 working spirits distilleries. Soon, however, Gdańsk outpaced both these cities. In the 17th and 18th centuries, Polish vodka
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was known in the Netherlands, Denmark, England, Russia, Germany, Austria, Hungary, Moldavia, Ukraine and the Black Sea basin. Early production methods were primitive. The beverage was usually low-proof, and the distillation process had to be repeated several times (a three-stage distillation process was common). The first distillate was called "brantówka," the second — "szumówka," the third — "okowita" (from "aqua vitae"), which generally contained 70–80% alcohol by volume. Then the beverage was watered down, yielding a simple vodka (30–35%), or a stronger one if the watering was done using an alembic. The exact production methods were described in 1768 by Jan Paweł Biretowski and in 1774 by Jan Chryzostom Simon. The beginning of the 19th century inaugurated the production of potato vodka, which immediately revolutionized the market. The end of the 18th century marked the start of the vodka industry in Poland. Vodkas produced by szlachta and clergy became a mass product. The first industrial distillery was opened in 1782 in Lwów by Jan Baczewski. He was soon followed by Jakób Haberfeld, who in 1804 established a factory at Oświęcim, and by Hartwig Kantorowicz (1823) at Poznań. The implementation of new technologies in the second half of the 19th century, which allowed the production of clear vodkas, contributed to their success. The first rectification distillery was established in 1871. In 1925 the production of clear vodkas was made a Polish government monopoly. After World War II, all vodka distilleries were taken over by Poland's communist government. During the 1980s, the sale of vodka was rationed. After the victory of the Solidarity movement, all distilleries were privatized, leading to an explosion of brands. Russia The "vodka belt" countries of central and eastern Europe and Scandinavia are the historic home of vodka, and also have the highest vodka consumption in the world A drink similar to modern vodka first appeared probably sometime in the 15th–16th centuries.[citation needed] It was not originally called vodka — instead, the term bread wine was used. Until mid-18th century, it remained relatively low on alcohol content, not exceeding 20% by volume. It was mostly sold in taverns and was quite expensive: in 17th century, a keg (12 liters) of bread wine was estimated to cost as much as one and a half or two cows. At the same time, the word vodka was already in use, but it described herbal tinctures (similar to absinthe), containing up to 75% of alcohol, and made for medicinal purposes.
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The first written usage of the word vodka in an official Russian document in its modern meaning is dated by the decree of Empress Elizabeth of June 8, 1751, which regulated the ownership of vodka distilleries. The taxes on vodka became a key element of government finances in Tsarist Russia, providing at times up to 40% of state revenue. By the 1860s, due to the government policy of promoting consumption of statemanufactured vodka, it became the drink of choice for many Russians. In 1863, the government monopoly on vodka production was repealed, causing prices to plummet and making vodka available even to low-income citizens. By 1911, vodka comprised 89% of all alcohol consumed in Russia. This level has fluctuated somewhat during the 20th century, but remained quite high at all times. The most recent estimates put it at 70% (2001). Ukraine Horilka (Ukrainian: горілка) is the Ukrainian term for "vodka". Horilka may also be used in a generic sense in the Ukrainian language to mean moonshine, whisky or other strong spirits. Among East Slavic peoples, the term horilka is used to streess the Ukrainian origin of a vodka.[citation needed] A pertsivka or horilka z pertsem (pepper vodka) is a vodka with whole fruits of capsicum put into the bottle, turning horilka into a sort of bitters. Horilkas are also often made with honey, mint, or even milk[citation needed], the latter not typical of vodkas of other origins. Some claim that horilka is considered stronger and spicier than typical Russian vodka. Today Vodka is now one of the world's most popular spirits. It was rarely drunk outside Europe before the 1950s, but its popularity spread to the the Americas by way of post-war France. Pablo Picasso once said, "The three most astonishing things in the past halfcentury were the blues, cubism, and Polish vodka." By 1975, vodka sales in the United States overtook those of bourbon, previously the most popular hard liquor and the native spirit of that country. In the second half of the 20th century, vodka owed its popularity in part to its reputation as an alcoholic beverage that "leaves you breathless," as one ad put it — no smell of liquor remaining detectable on the breath. According to The Penguin Book of Spirits and Liqueurs, "Its low level of fusel oils and congenerics — impurities that flavour spirits but that can contribute to the after-effects of heavy consumption — led to its being considered among the 'safer' spirits, though not
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in terms of its powers of intoxication, which, depending on strength, may be considerable." (Pamela Vandyke Price, [Harmondsworth & New York: Penguin Books, 1980], pp. 196ff.) Russian culinary author William Pokhlebkin compiled a history of the production of vodka in Russia during the late 1970s as part of the Soviet case in a trade dispute; this was later published as A History of Vodka. Pokhlebkin claimed that while there was a wealth of publications about the history of consumption and distribution of vodka, virtually nothing had been written about vodka production. Among his assertions were that the word "vodka" was used in popular speech in Russia considerably earlier than the middle of the 18th century, but its meaning both before and during that century differed from the present use, and for this reason the word did not appear in print until the 1860s. Production Vodka may be distilled from any starch/sugar-rich plant matter; most vodka today is produced from grains such as sorghum, corn, rye, or wheat. Among grain vodkas, rye and wheat vodkas are generally considered superior. Some vodka is made from potatoes, molasses, soybeans, grapes, sugar beets and sometimes even byproducts of oil refining or wood pulp processing. In some Central European countries like Poland some vodka is produced by just fermenting a solution of crystal sugar and some salts for the yeast and distilling this after a few weeks.[citation needed] Today vodka is produced throughout the world, see List of vodkas. Distilling and filtering A common property of vodkas produced in the USA and Europe is the extensive use of filtration prior to any additional processing, such as the addition of flavourants. Filtering is sometimes done in the still during distillation, as well as afterward, where the distilled vodka is filtered through charcoal and other media. This is because under U.S. and European law vodka must not have any distinctive aroma, character, colour or flavour. However, this is not the case in the traditional vodka producing nations, so many distillers from these countries prefer to use very accurate distillation but minimal filtering, thus preserving the unique flavours and characteristics of their products. The "stillmaster" is the person in charge of distilling the vodka and directing its filtration. When done correctly, much of the "fore-shots" or "heads" and the "tails" separated in distillation process are discarded. These portions of the distillate contain flavour compounds such as ethyl acetate and ethyl lactate (heads) as well as the fusel oils
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(tails) that alter the clean taste of vodka. Through numerous rounds of distillation, the taste of the vodka is improved and its clarity is enhanced. In some distilled liquors such as rum and baijiu, some of the heads and tails are not removed in order to give the liquor its unique flavour and mouth-feel. Proper distillation and excluding some of the heads also removes methanol from vodka (and other distilled liquors), which can be poisonous in larger amounts. Methanol is formed when cellulose is fermented. This can be avoided by fermenting sugar with a high quality Turbo Yeast, so little methanol is formed. A fermentation of sugar, water, and Turbo Yeast will typically produce 1 ppm (one millionth) in the mash. This is much less methanol than found in ordinary orange juice, and about one twentieth of that found in commercial whisky and cognac. Repeated distillation of vodka will make its ethanol level much higher than legally allowed. Depending on the distillation method and the technique of the stillmaster, the final filtered and distilled vodka may have as much as 95-96% ethanol. As such, most vodka is diluted with water prior to bottling. Flavouring Apart from the alcoholic content, vodkas may be classified into two main groups: clear vodkas and flavoured vodkas. From the latter ones, one can separate bitter tinctures, such as Russian Yubileynaya (anniversary vodka) and Pertsovka (pepper vodka). While most vodkas are unflavoured, a wide variety of flavoured vodkas have long been produced in traditional vodka-drinking areas, often as homemade recipes to improve vodka's taste, or for medicinal purposes. Flavourings include red pepper, ginger, various fruit flavours, vanilla, chocolate (without sweetener), and cinnamon. Ukrainians produce a commercial vodka that includes St John's Wort. Poles and Belarusians add the leaves of the local bison grass to produce Żubrówka (Polish) and Zubrovka (Belarussian) vodka, with slightly sweet flavour and light amber colour. In Ukraine and Russia, vodka flavoured with honey and pepper (Pertsovka, in Russian, Z pertsem, in Ukrainian) is also very popular. In Poland, a famous vodka containing honey is called krupnik. This tradition of flavouring is also prevalent in the Nordic countries, where vodka seasoned with various herbs, fruits and spices is the appropriate strong drink for all traditional seasonal festivities, midsummer in particular. In Sweden alone there are some forty-odd common varieties of herb-flavoured vodka (kryddat brännvin). In Poland there is a separate category, nalewka, for vodka-based spirits with fruit, root, flower, or herb
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extracts, which are often homemade or produced commercially by small distilleries. Its alcohol content may vary from 15 to 75%. The Poles also make a very pure (95%, 190 proof) rectified spirit (Polish language: spirytus rektyfikowany), which is used in a variety of ways. Technically a form of vodka, it is sold in liquor stores, not pharmacies. Similarly, the German market often carries German, Hungarian, Polish, and Ukrainian-made varieties of vodka of 90 to 95% alcohol content (as well as Stroh rum (a spiced rum) of the same potency). A Bulgarian vodka, Balkan 176°, is 88% alcohol.

Other processing Due to the high alcohol content of certain brands of vodka, it can be stored in ice or a freezer without any crystallization of water. In countries where alcohol levels are generally low (the USA for example, due to alcohol taxation levels varying directly with alcohol content), individuals sometimes increase the alcohol percentage by a form of freeze distillation. This is done by placing the vodka in an open vessel (bowl, etc) in the freezer, and then after it has reached a temperature below the freezing point of water, adding one or more ice cubes, to which the free water within the vodka will crystallize, leaving a higher alcohol concentration behind. Vodka and the EU Vodka producers in Finland, Poland and Sweden are campaigning for EU legislation that will categorize only spirits made from grain and potatoes as "Vodka" instead of any spirit made from any ethyl alcohol (provided, for example, from apples and grapes). This proposition has provoked heavy criticism from south European countries, which often distill used mash from wine-making into spirits (although higher quality mash is usually distilled into some variety of pomace brandy, lower-quality mash is better turned into a neutral-flavoured spirits instead). Any drink then not made from either grain or potatoes would then have to be labeled as "Spirit Drinks" instead. The brands that would be affected if the law is passed include: · · · Cîroc Moskva Vodka Kirov Vodka
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Health Vodka consumed in sufficient amounts, as any alcoholic beverage, can cause the dehydration, digestive irritation and other symptoms associated with a hangover because these are inherent properties of ethanol, even if to a lesser degree than the methanol, fusel oils, and other alcohols which are absent in pure vodka. In some countries, black market vodka or "bathtub" vodka is widespread, as it can be produced easily to avoid taxation. However, severe poisoning, blindness, or death can occur as a result of impurities, notably methanol presence. [2] Worldwide vodka brands Stolichnaya ("Capital"), Russia Solidarność ("Solidarity"), Poland Monopolowa, Poland's first industrial vodka distillery, founded 1782 by Jan Baczewski Zodiac, United States

Evolution Vodka POLAND

Absolut, Sweden

Ikon True Russian Vodka

Żubrówka, bison grass vodka, Poland

Finlandia, Finland

Wodka Gorbatschow, Germany

Chopin, Poland

Vor, Russia

Russkaya ("Russian"), Soviet Union. This 1992 bottle is from postindependence Belarus, but retains the Soviet-style labeling and foil cap

Kaliningradskaya, Russia (Kaliningrad Oblast)

Xellent, Switzerland (Xellent Swiss Vodka)

Belvedere, (Poland)

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R. TEQUILA INTRODUCTION The brand "tequila" is controlled by the Mexican government. Anybody interested in its production must comply with strict regulations set forth by the Secretary of Economy (formerly Secretary of Industry and Commerce) who has delegated authority upon the Tequila Regulatory Council (Consejo Regulador del Tequila) CRT, a private non-profit organization based in Guadalajara, Jalisco responsible for the regulation, verification, and quality certification of tequila. The Council oversees every aspect of production, from agave cultivation to bottling and labeling in order to guarantee consumers of the genuineness of the product. To ensure that tequila is genuine, it must be produced according to the strict standard NOM-006-SCFI-1994 and must bear the official standard or NOM (Norma Oficial Mexicana) and the Council's monogram "CRT" on the label. Premium Tequila must also have the "100% Agave" markings on the label. Each approved tequila distiller gets its own NOM that ensures that the product complies with the official Denomonation of Origin. History The history of tequila began when the Spaniards arrived in Mexico in the 16th Century. The Conquistadors brought the process of distillation with them and when it reached the western Mexican town of Tequila the townspeople were quick to put it to good use. They knew that the blue agave plant contained sugars that could be fermented, and very probably there was a fermented drink that the native Indians would drink. By fermenting and distilling the sweet sap of the blue agave plant, they produced liquor with a distinctive taste. For many years tequila was a local liquor with relatively low demand. In the early 1980's the famous Herradura Reposado was sold almost exclusively at the distillery in Amatitán with few cases going to Mexico City. But then in the 90's it became fashionable to sip tequila and production soared as new brands were introduced to a growing and discriminating market. People began to demand more authentic tequilas, particularly those made following artisan tradition and Premium Tequilas made 100% with the sap of the blue agave. With the new millennium more brands came into the market and tequila has become one of the top three best seller liquors in the world. Blue agave production has soared covering extensive fields where none were harvested before. As one travels in the western states of Jalisco, Michoacan, Nayarit, and Guanajuato you will sea beautiful rolling hills covered by a pale blue agave that seem to go as far as the eye can see.
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There is a lot of confusion in encyclopaedias and dictionaries about the meaning of the term “tequila”. Merriam-Webster defines it as “a Mexican liquor distilled from pulque”, a serious error that most tequila websites repeat. The famous Encyclopaedia Britannica defines it as: “distilled liquor, usually clear in colour and unaged, that is made from the fermented juice of the Mexican agave plant, specifically several varieties of Agave tequilana Weber.” We all know that tequila can be clear, pale, amber, and even dark brown and it is aged to produce Añejo. TEQUILA AND MEZCAL Mezcal is part of the Mexican culture. It may be a popular saying, a social icon, a toast, there's always mezcal, or tequila for that matter. Just as Cognac is a special type of brandy produced from specific grapes grown in a select region of France not all brandy has the distinction of being Cognac. In like manner, all liquors distilled from any agave plant are "mezcal", but only those made from the blue agave are branded as Tequila, all the others are mezcal. The most famous mezcal is distilled from a variety of agave grown in the state of Oaxaca in southern Mexico, and the finest comes from the wild agave known as "papalomé" that it is so potent that two shots can really knock you down! The language of tequila can be very confusing. To begin with Tequila is the name of the town where production originally began, and it is also the name of the volcano overlooking this town. Locals in the Tequila Region refer to the blue agave plant as "mezcal", and the fields where this plant is harvested are known as "mezcaleras". Many distillers call to the distilled liquor mezcal and is only called tequila when finally bottled. Before tequila became known as it is today, it was called "vino mezcal" or mezcal wine. The official Mexican standard or NOM defines Tequila as the product of fermentation and distillation of the blue agave juices (mostos) obtained at the distillery from agave cores or piñas grown in the Tequila Region and allows for the addition of up to 49% sugars from sources other than the agave plant. However the NOM defines as Tequila 100% Agave as the one containing sugars exclusively from the blue agave plant and it must be bottled at the distillery. Alcohol content must be between to 35º and 55º Guy Lussac (70 to 110 Proof). MANUFACTURING OF TEQUILLA The process of tequila begins when a blue agave plant is ripe, usually 8 to 12 years after it is planted. Leaves are chopped away from its core by a "jimador" who assesses the
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plants ripeness. If the plant is harvested too soon, there won't be enough sugars to do the job. Too late and the agave's sugars will have already been used to form a once-in-alifetime stem "quiote" that springs 25 to 40 feet high so that the seeds grown at the top of the stem can scatter with the wind. The jimador's task is a crucial one; once he decides that the plant is ready, he wields a special long knife known as a "coa" to clear the core. The cores or piñas (Spanish for pineapple) weight an average of 40 to 70 pounds, and can weight up to 200 pounds. The photo shows a ripe agave, at least 8 year old) that is being harvested. The “piña” in the photograph (third at right) will be visible when all the leaves (pencas) have been cleared. Piñas are hauled to the distillery where they are cut in half or chopped and put to roast. Starches turn to sugar as the piñas are roasted in furnaces called "hornos". Modern distilleries use huge steam ovens to increase output and save on energy. Roughly speaking, seven kilos (15 lb.) of agave piña are needed to produce one liter (one quart U.S.) of tequila. Different agaves and processes produce mezcal with different names throughout Mexico: stotol in Chihuanhua, mezcal in Oaxaca, and bacanora in Sonora. FERMENTATION The roasted piñas are then shredded, their juices pressed out and placed in fermenting tanks or vats. Some distilleries use the traditional method to produce tequila. In this method –artesian tequila– the cores are crushed with a stone wheel at a grinding mill called "tahona" and the fibers are dumped into the wooden vat to enhance fermentation and to provide extra flavor. Once the juices are in the vats yeast is added. Every distiller keeps its own yeast as a closely guarded secret. During fermenting, the yeast acts upon the sugars of the agave plant converting them into alcohol. DISTILLATION Juices ferment for 30 to 48 hours then they are distilled twice in traditional copper stills or more modern ones made of stainless steel or in continuous distillation towers. The first distillation produces a low-grade alcohol and the second a fiery colorless liquid that is later blended before being bottled. Alcohol content may be between 70 and 110 Proof. At this moment the liquor is no longer mezcal but tequila. All types of tequila start with this colorless distilled spirit. Each type will be called depending on its aging.

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TYPES OF TEQUILAS Tequila can only be produced in Mexico, in the Tequila Region, and must comply with strict Mexican government regulations. In order to satisfy an ever-growing demand and a multitude of consumer's preferences and tastes, tequila is produced in two general categories and four different types in three of those categories. The two categories are defined by the percentage of juices coming from the blue agave: Tequila 100% Agave. Must be made with 100% blue agave juices and must be bottled at the distillery in Mexico. It may be Blanco, Reposado, or Añejo. Tequila. Must be made with at least 51% blue agave juices. This tequila may be exported in bulk to be bottled in other countries following the NOM standard. It may be Blanco, Gold, Reposado, or Añejo The NOM standard defines four types of tequila: Blanco or Silver This is the traditional tequila that started it all. Clear and transparent, fresh from the still tequila is called Blanco (white or silver) and must be bottled immediately after the distillation process. It has the true bouquet and flavor of the blue agave. It is usually strong and is traditionally enjoyed in a "caballito" (2 oz small glass). Oro or Gold Is tequila Blanco mellowed by the addition of colorants and flavorings, caramel being the most common. It is the tequila of choice for frozen Margaritas. Reposado or Rested It is Blanco that has been kept (or rested) in white oak casks or vats called "pipones" for more than two months and up to one year. The oak barrels give Reposado a mellowed taste, pleasing bouquet, and its pale color. Reposado keeps the blue agave taste and is gentler to the palate. These tequilas have experienced exponential demand and high prices. Añejo or Aged It is Blanco tequila aged in white oak casks for more than a year. Maximum capacity of the casks should not exceed 600 liters (159 gallons). The amber color and woody flavor
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are picked up from the oak, and the oxidation that takes place through the porous wood develops the unique bouquet and taste. Reserva Although not a category in itself, it is a special Añejo that certain distillers keep in oak casks for up to 8 years. Reserva enters the big leagues of liquor both in taste and in price. TEQUILA COCKTAILS Tequila is a fine and complex liquor and as such it must be sipped slowly. It should be served at room temperature, although some like it ice cold. Traditionally most people serve it in a "caballito", a 2oz glass made exclusively for this purpose. Blanco and Reposado may be accompanied by "sangrita" made of tomato and orange juice with salt and chile. Añejo is preferably served in a snifter so that the aroma is fully appreciated. The tequila shot with lime and salt is Hollywood stuff and few people drink it that way. However, some people do put some lime juice in the tequila or bite the lime before sipping it. Life is, after all, a matter of taste. Choose the right tequila for your cocktail and enjoy it. Margarita The Margarita is a great cocktail, but you have to make it correctly. You should avoid using bottled lime-juice since it adds an overly sweet taste. Use fresh limes hand picked at the supermarket; the best ones should be a bit soft when you squeeze them since these might have the most juice. Mexican limes are small in size but they do have an incomparable taste. Classic Margarita 2 ounces tequila 1 ounce Triple Sec 1/2 ounce Mexican lime juice If you want a lighter Margarita: 1.5 ounces tequila 3/4 ounce Triple Sec
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1/2 to 1 ounce Mexican lime juice Combine the ingredients in a cocktail shaker with ice that might be in cubes, coarsely chopped, or finely crushed. You might strain the mixture or pour it into a salt-rimmed margarita or martini glass. To get the salt to stick to the glass pour fine salt on a plate, then run a lime wedge around the lip of a Margarita glass and lightly press it against the salt. You may use Cointreau, Grand Marnier, Mandarin Napoleon, or Midori instead of Triple Sec. If you want a strong agave flavor use a Blanco tequila. For a milder taste use Reposado. If you are giving a party use Gold: it's cheaper. Sangrita Chaser Sangrita is a typical spicy and refreshing non-alcoholic chaser made of fresh orange juice, grenadine and chile piquín or a mix of different chiles. Sangrita is the Spanish diminutive for “blood” and is served in a “caballito”. Commercially bottled brands are available in Mexico and in the United States, but they are artificially flavored. It is best to prepare your own Sangrita. 4 cups of freshly squeezed orange juice 1/4 to 1/2 cup of fresh lime juice 1 tablespoon of grenadine syrup tablespoon salt Chile piquín to taste: try first 1/4 tablespoon As with any recipe you may vary the quantities for each ingredient to suit your taste. Some people add fresh tomato juice to increase the red coloration of the Sangrita. You may try chile de arbol or Tabasco sauce. You may also add a bit of black ground pepper. Tequila Sunrise 2 measures of ice-cold tequila 4 measures of orange juice 1 measure of grenadine (or less if you prefer) Pour orange juice in a highball glass and then pour the ice-cold tequila slowly tilting the glass to get a layered effect. Trickle grenadine on top. You should get a perfect sunrise.
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Garnish stirrer, straw and cherry-orange. Instead of ice-cold tequila you may use ice cubes. Vampiro (Bloody Mary) 1-1/2 ounces tequila One glass of tomato juice Add salt, pepper, and Worcestershire sauce to taste Garnish with a celery stalk and lemon slice. Blanco 100% agave is great for a Vampiro. It is the drink of choice the morning after a hangover. You may try Clamato instead of tomato juice, or half-and-half. Some people squeeze half a lemon into the mix to add flavor. Petroleo 1-1/2 ounces tequila 1 ounce Mexican lime juice 1 serrano chile halved from top to bottom Pour the tequila and lime juice into a small glass. Add salt, pepper, Maggi sauce and Worcestershire sauce to taste. Mix ingredients. Add one half of the serrano chile and one or two ice cubes. Use Blanco or Reposado tequila. Dynamite 1 ounce Reposado tequila 1 ounce Blanco tequila 1 ounce Clamato juice Pour contents into glass. Add one-half teaspoon of Tabasco sauce and the juice of one half lime. Mix contents and add crushed ice, and salt to taste. Tequila Sour 1-1/2 onces tequila 2 ounces lemon juice 1 teaspoon sugar Blend ingredients with crushed ice and strain into sour glass. Garnish with a red cherry.
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Use Añejo for a better taste. GLOSSARY
• Agave. Plant with long spiny leaves of the lily family. There are more than 400 species,

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all native to North America and mostly to Mexico. Tequila is made exclusively from the agave azul that grows in semiarid soils and takes from 8 to 12 years to mature. Pulque is made from the maguey that grows in the cooler highlands and has become a hallmark of the Mexican countryside. Other agave is used to produce henequen (sisal). Agave azul (Blue Agave). The specific variety of agave from which tequila is made. It grows in the Tequila Region. The correct name is Agave Azul Tequilana Weber. Aguamiel. The sugary sap from the maguey that ferments into pulque. Añejo. Tequila Blanco aged in oak barrels for more than a year. It has a golden amber color with a soft, smooth, complex flavor. Autoclave. A large steam pressure cooker used to cook the agave piñas. Barrica. Barrel mostly made of oak that previously held bourbon or whiskey. Blanco. Clear, fresh from the still tequila is called Blanco (white or silver). It has the true bouquet and flavor of the blue agave. Caballito. A two to three ounce glass 3 to 4 inches tall used in Mexico for tequila. The glass is slightly tapered making the mouth wider than the bottom, although it may be a perfect cylinder. Cabeza. The first portion of distillate (heads), highest in alcohol and aldehydes, which is usually discarded. See also Corazon and Colas. Cactus. Drought resistant spiny plants with succulent stems like the saguaro, peyote and nopal (opuntia). No liquor is produced with any cactus plant. Coa. A machete type tool used by the Jimador for harvesting agave. Colas. The final portion of distillate containing the lowest alcohol and soapy flavors, usually recycled into another distillation. Corazon. The “heart” of distillation containing the best flavors and aromas for tequila. CRT. Tequila Regulatory Council (Consejo Regulador del Tequila), a private non-profit organization responsible for the regulation, verification, and quality certification of tequila. Distillation. The process of purifying a liquid by successive evaporation and condensation. Tequila is made with double distillation, and some brands go through a third one to enhance purity. Fabrica. A tequila distillery.
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• Fermentation. The formation of alcohol from sugars by the action of enzymes. In the

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tequila process the sugars come from the roasted agave piñas, and the enzymes is the yeast added to the sap or “mosto”. The yeast acts upon the sugars of the agave plant converting them into alcohol. Gran Reposado. 100% Blue Agave tequila made in small batches and rested in wood barrels for twice as long as most Resposado. Hijuelos. Offsprings of the agave plant, which are replanted and develop into mature agave plants. It is the preferred form of propagation for most agave plants. Horno. The traditional oven used to cook agave piñas. Jimador. The laborer who harvests agave. The jimador's task is a crucial one, since he decides when the plant is ready, usually 8 to 12 years after it is planted. He has to cut off all the spiny leaves to obtain an almost perfect core or piña. Joven abocado. Joven or young is Tequila Blanco mellowed by the addition of colorings and flavorings, caramel being the most common. It is also known as Extra or Gold. Mostly used for Margaritas. Los Altos. One of the major growing regions for Blue Agave, a mountainous area with rich red volcanic soil east of Guadalajara. Madre. A mature or “Mother” agave plant from which hijuelos have been harvested. Maguey. A Carib word encompassing agaves that are mostly used for pulque. It has become a hallmark of the Mexican countryside. Mezcal (or mescal). All liquors distilled from any agave plant are mezcal, but only those made from the blue agave are branded as tequila. Tequila is mezcal produced in the Tequila Region. Mosto. The unfermented juice extracted from the roasted agave piñas. NOM. Norma Official Mexicana. The official Mexican standard or NOM defines tequila as the product of fermentation and distillation of the blue agave juices (mostos) obtained at the distillery from agave cores or piñas grown in the Tequila Region. It is assigned by the government to each tequila distillery, identifying which company made and bottled each brand of tequila. Nopal. Native to Mexico it is a member of the cactus family, and is commonly referred to as “prickly pear”. Nopal is a great source of vitamin C and extremely nutritious. Its fruit, known as “tuna”, is served with lime juice for breakfast or lunch. Ordinario. The first run distillate when making tequila. Piña. The pineapple-shaped heart of the agave plant. The average weight is 40 to 70 pounds, and can reach up to 200 pounds. Roughly speaking, seven kilos (15 lb.) of raw agave piñas are needed to produce one liter (one quart U.S.) of tequila. Piloncillo. Unrefined sugar made from dried sugarcane juice, used in production of
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tequila joven or abocado. Pipon. Tank, usually made of oak, used for storing tequila. Pulque. Fermented Mexican drink, made from the maguey or Century plant. The maguey is milked daily by a tlachiquero to obtain the aguamiel sap using a gourd or acocote. Pulque is slightly foamy and mildly alcoholic. Quiote. A once-in-a-lifetime stem that springs from all agave plants to produce seeds. It may reach 25 to 40 feet high so that the seeds grown at the top of the stem can scatter with the wind. Resposado. Reposado or rested is Tequila Blanco that has been kept in white oak casks or vats called pipones for more than two months and up to one year. The oak barrels give Reposado a mellowed taste, pleasing bouquet, and its pale color. Sangrita. A spicy and refreshing non-alcoholic chaser made of fresh orange juice, grenadine and chile piquín. Sangrita is the Spanish diminutive for “blood” and is served in a “caballito”. Tahona. The ancient traditional stone wheel used to crush and extract juice from cooked agave. It is still used to produce traditional tequila. Tequila. Both the region and the town that gave the spirit of tequila its name. Tepache. A Mexican drink made of the fermentation of pineapple juice. In some regions pulque is added. Tequila Region. The “Denomination of Origin” law has defined the area in which the blue agave is grown. It includes the state of Jalisco and some regions in the states of Guanajuato, Nayarit, Michoacán, and Tamaulipas. Tesgüino. Mild alcoholic beverage of Central and Northern Mexico produced by the fermentation of corn. It is similar to beer with bits of corn and it is the traditional drink of the Tarahumaras or Rarramuri Indians. Tuna. The fruit of the nopal. It is served chilled with lime juice. Yeast. Consists largely of cells of a tiny fungus. It causes fermentation in alcoholic beverages and is used as leaven in baking. It is added to the tequila mosto to induce fermentation. The yeast acts upon the sugars of the agave plant converting them into alcohol.

TEQUILA BRANDS - 100% AGAVE There are more than 600 brands of tequila. Just visit a liquor store in Guadalajara or Mexico City and you will see rows of beautiful hand-made bottles with exotic names on the labels. The following is just a sample of 100% Agave brands showing the brand, the region where it is produced and its alcohol content.
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Tequila Blanco Casa Noble. Tequila. 80 Proof. Chinaco. Tamaulipas. 80 Proof. Corralejo. Guanajuato. 76 Proof. Don Julio. Atotonilco. 76 Proof. El Viejito. Atotonilco. 80 Proof. Hacienda del Cristero. Amatitán. 80 Proof. Herradura. Amatitán. 92 Proof. Herradura Ligero. Amatitán. 80 Proof. Lapiz. Tequila. 80 Proof. Las Trancas. Capilla Guadalupe. 76 Proof. Mayor. Guadalajara. 76 Proof. Patron. Arandas. 80 Proof Pura Sangre. Tequila. 86 Proof. Real Hacienda. Tequila. 80 Proof. El Tesoro de Don Felipe. Arandas. 80 Proof. Tres Generaciones Plata. Tequila. 80 Proof. Tequila Reposado Alteño. Tequila. 80 Proof. Arette. Tequila. 80 Proof. Atalaje. Capilla de Guadalupe. 76 Proof. Bambarria. Guadalajara. 80 Proof. Caballo Negro. Tequila. 76 Proof.

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Cabrito. Arandas. 76 Proof. Casa Noble. Tequila. 80 Proof. Cazadores. Arandas. 76 Proof. Centenario Cuervo. Tequila. 76 Proof. Centinela. Arandas. 76 Proof. Chamuco. Tequila. 76 Proof. Chinaco. Tamaulipas. 80 Proof. Conmemorativo 100 Años. Tequila. 76 Proof. Conquistador. Atotonilco. 76 Proof. Corralejo. Guanajuato. 76 Proof. Corralejo Triple. Guanajuato. 76 Proof. Cuervo Tradicional. Tequila. 76 Proof. Don Andrés. Tesistán. 76 Proof. Don Julio. Atotonilco. 76 Proof. Don Leoncio. Guanajuato. 76 Proof. Don Tacho. Arenal. 76 Proof. Dos Amigos. Arandas. 76 Proof. El Charro. Arandas. 80 Proof. El Tequileño Especial. Tequila. 80 Proof. El Viejito. Atotonilco. 80 Proof. Galardón. Tequila. 76 Proof. Herradura. Amatitán. 80 Proof. Herradura. Antiguo. Amatitán. 76 Proof. Honorable. La Laja. 76 Proof.
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Hornitos. Tequila. 76 Proof. La Cofradía. Tequila. 76 Proof. La Perseverancia. Tequila. 76 Proof. Las Trancas. Atotonilco. 80 Proof. Ley .925 Tequila. 80 Proof. Mayor. Guadalajara. 76 Proof. Milagro. Tepatitlán. 76 Proof. Oro Azul. Jesus María. 76 Proof. Patrón. Arandas. 80 Proof. Porfidio. Arenal. 80 Proof. Porfidio Single Barrel. Arenal. 80 Proof. Pura Sangre. Tequila. 76 Proof. Real Hacienda. Tequila. 80 Proof. Revolución. Antonio Escobedo. 76 Proof. Sauza 100 Años. Tequila. 76 Proof. Siete Leguas. Atotonilco. 76 Proof. Tequileño Especial. Tequila. 76 Proof. El Tesoro de Don Felipe. Arandas. 80 Proof. Zafarrancho. Jalisco. 76 Proof. 30-30. Capilla de Guadalupe. 76 Proof. Tequila Añejo Centenario 3 Años. Arandas. 76 Proof. Chinaco. Tamaulipas. 80 Proof. Conmemorativo. Tequila. 76 Proof.
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Cuervo 1800. Tequila. 76 Proof. Cuervo Reserva de la Familia. Tequila. 80 Proof. Don Julio. Atotonilco. 76 Proof. Gran Centenario. La Laja. 76 Proof. Herradura. Amatitán. 80 Proof. Herradura Selección Suprema. Amatitán. 80 Proof. El Tesoro de Don Felipe. Arandas. 80 Proof. Tres Generaciones. Tequila. 76 Proof. THE BEST TEQUILAS Like any distilled spirit, tequila doesn't age once bottled. Unlike other spirits, however, there are no vintage years because tequila is produced year-round from a plant that takes eight to 12 years to mature and its ripeness doesn't depend on the climate of one particular year. The best tequila is the one you enjoy the most, of course! There are so many different brands that you will surely find one that really pleases you. We list only those that are 100% blue agave.

The StarRatings © José-Pablo Fernández We rate only tequilas that are 100% agave. They are listed in alphabetical order followed by the region and alcohol content. Updated: September 2002 Excellent These brands have the unique taste and bouquet of the agave plant, "the real stuff". Go the extra mile to get a bottle. They are pricey but they are worth it. These brands are better enjoyed when sipped at room temperature, although some people keep the bottle in the freezer.

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Good Drink them only when you can't find other better brands, but keep a bottle for friends who are not too picky in their choice of tequila. Regular These brands will not make you very happy, but you may drink them if they are the only brands available. Use them in Margaritas and other cocktails. Tequila Blanco Casa Noble. Tequila. 80 Proof. Chinaco. Tamaulipas. 80 Proof. Corralejo. Guanajuato. 76 Proof. Don Julio. Atotonilco. 76 Proof. El Viejito. Atotonilco. 80 Proof. Hacienda del Cristero. Amatitán. 80 Proof. Herradura. Amatitán. 92 Proof. Herradura Ligero. Amatitán. 80 Proof. Lapiz. Tequila. 80 Proof. Las Trancas. Capilla Guadalupe. 76 Proof. Mayor. Guadalajara. 76 Proof. Patron. Arandas. 80 Proof. Pura Sangre. Tequila. 86 Proof. Real Hacienda. Tequila. 80 Proof. El Tesoro de Don Felipe. Arandas. 80 Proof. Tres Generaciones Plata. Tequila. 80 Proof.
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Tequila Reposado Alteño. Tequila. 80 Proof. Arette. Tequila. 80 Proof. Atalaje. Capilla de Guadalupe. 76 Proof. Bambarria. Guadalajara. 80 Proof. Caballo Negro. Tequila. 76 Proof. Cabrito. Arandas. 76 Proof. Casa Noble. Tequila. 80 Proof. Cazadores. Arandas. 76 Proof. Centenario Cuervo. Tequila. 76 Proof. Centinela. Arandas. 76 Proof. Chamuco. Tequila. 76 Proof. Chinaco. Tamaulipas. 80 Proof. Conmemorativo 100 Años. Tequila. 76 Proof. Conquistador. Atotonilco. 76 Proof. Corralejo. Guanajuato. 76 Proof. Corralejo Triple. Guanajuato. 76 Proof. Cuervo Tradicional. Tequila. 76 Proof. Don Andrés. Tesistán. 76 Proof. Don Julio. Atotonilco. 76 Proof. Don Leoncio. Guanajuato. 76 Proof.

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Don Tacho. Arenal. 76 Proof. Dos Amigos. Arandas. 76 Proof. El Charro. Arandas. 80 Proof. El Tequileño Especial. Tequila. 80 Proof. El Viejito. Atotonilco. 80 Proof. Galardón. Tequila. 76 Proof. Herradura. Amatitán. 80 Proof. Herradura. Antiguo. Amatitán. 76 Proof. Honorable. La Laja. 76 Proof. Hornitos. Tequila. 76 Proof. La Cofradía. Tequila. 76 Proof. La Perseverancia. Tequila. 76 Proof. Las Trancas. Atotonilco. 80 Proof. Ley .925 Tequila. 80 Proof. Mayor. Guadalajara. 76 Proof. Milagro. Tepatitlán. 76 Proof. Oro Azul. Jesus María. 76 Proof. Patrón. Arandas. 80 Proof. Porfidio. Arenal. 80 Proof. Porfidio Single Barrel. Arenal. 80 Proof. Pura Sangre. Tequila. 76 Proof.

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Real Hacienda. Tequila. 80 Proof. Revolución. Antonio Escobedo. 76 Proof. Sauza 100 Años. Tequila. 76 Proof. Siete Leguas. Atotonilco. 76 Proof. Tequileño Especial. Tequila. 76 Proof. El Tesoro de Don Felipe. Arandas. 80 Proof. Zafarrancho. Jalisco. 76 Proof. 30-30. Capilla de Guadalupe. 76 Proof. Tequila Añejo Centenario 3 Años. Arandas. 76 Proof. Chinaco. Tamaulipas. 80 Proof. Conmemorativo. Tequila. 76 Proof. Cuervo 1800. Tequila. 76 Proof. Cuervo Reserva de la Familia. Tequila. 80 Proof. Don Julio. Atotonilco. 76 Proof. Gran Centenario. La Laja. 76 Proof. Herradura. Amatitán. 80 Proof. Herradura Selección Suprema. Amatitán. 80 Proof. El Tesoro de Don Felipe. Arandas. 80 Proof. Tres Generaciones. Tequila. 76 Proof

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S. OTHER SPIRITS ABSINTHE (Absinth) (IPA English: ['æbs?n?] IPA French: [ap.s?~t]) is a distilled, highly alcoholic, anise-flavored spirit derived from herbs including the flowers and leaves of the medicinal plant Artemisia absinthium, also called grand wormwood. Although it is sometimes incorrectly called a liqueur, absinthe is not bottled with added sugar and is therefore classified as a liquor or spirit. Absinthe is often referred to as la Fée Verte ('The Green Fairy') because of its coloring — typically pale or emerald green, but sometimes clear or in rare cases rose red. Due to its high proof and concentration of oils, absintheurs (absinthe drinkers) typically add three to five parts ice-cold water to a dose of absinthe, which causes the drink to turn cloudy (called 'louching'); often the water is used to dissolve added sugar to decrease bitterness. This preparation is considered an important part of the experience of drinking absinthe, so much so that it has become ritualized, complete with special slotted absinthe spoons and other accoutrements. Absinthe's flavor is similar to anise-flavored liqueurs, with a light bitterness and greater complexity imparted by multiple herbs. Absinthe originated in Switzerland as an elixir but is better known for its popularity in late 19th and early 20th century France, particularly among Parisian artists and writers whose romantic associations with the drink still linger in popular culture. In its heyday, the most popular brand of absinthe worldwide was Pernod Fils. At the height of this popularity, absinthe was portrayed as a dangerously addictive, psychoactive drug; the chemical thujone was blamed for most of its deleterious effects. By 1915, it was banned in a number of European countries and the United States. Even though it was vilified, no evidence shows it to be any more dangerous than ordinary alcohol.[2] A modern absinthe revival began in the 1990s, as countries in the European Union began to reauthorize its manufacture and sale. ETYMOLOGY Look up absinthe in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.The French word absinthe can refer either to the liquor or to the actual wormwood plant (grande absinthe being Artemisia absinthium, and petite absinthe being Artemisia pontica). The word derives from the Latin absinthium, which is in turn a stylization of the Greek a (apsinthion). Some claim that the word means 'undrinkable' in Greek, but it may instead be linked to the Persian root spand or aspand, or the variant esfand, which may have been, rather, Peganum harmala, a variety of rue, another famously bitter herb. That this particular plant was commonly burned as a protective offering may suggest that its origins lie in the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European root *spend, meaning 'to perform a ritual' or 'make an
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offering'. Whether the word was a borrowing from Persian into Greek, or rather from a common ancestor, is unclear. Absinth (without the 'e') is a spelling variation of absinthe often seen in central Europe. Because so many Bohemian-style products use it, many groups see it as synonymous with bohemian absinthe, even though that is not always the case. PRODUCTION Anise, one of the three main herbs used in production of absinthe Grande Wormwood, one of the three main herbs used in production of absintheThe main herbs used are grande wormwood, florence fennel and green anise, often called the 'holy trinity'. Many other herbs may be used as well, such as hyssop, melissa, star anise and petite wormwood (Artemisia pontica or Roman wormwood). Various recipes also include angelica root, Sweet Flag, dittany leaves, coriander, veronica, juniper, nutmeg, and various mountain herbs. The simple maceration of wormwood in alcohol without distillation produces an extremely bitter drink, due to the presence of the water-soluble absinthine, one of the most bitter substances known. Authentic recipes call for distillation after a primary maceration and before the secondary or 'coloring' maceration. The distillation of wormwood, anise, and Florence fennel first produces a colorless distillate that leaves the alembic at around 82% alcohol. It can be left clear, called a Blanche or la Bleue (used for bootleg Swiss absinthe), or the well-known green color of the beverage can be imparted either artificially or with chlorophyll by steeping petite wormwood, hyssop, and melissa in the liquid. After this process, the resulting product is reduced with water to the desired percentage of alcohol. Over time and exposure to light, the chlorophyll breaks down, changing the color from emerald green to yellow green to brown. Pre-ban and vintage absinthes are often of a distinct amber color as a result of this process. Non-traditional varieties are made by cold-mixing herbs, essences or oils in alcohol, with the distillation process omitted. Often called 'oil mixes', these types of absinthe are not necessarily bad, though they are generally considered to be of lower quality than properly distilled absinthe and often carry a distinct bitter aftertaste. Alcohol makes up the majority of the drink and its concentration is extremely high, between 45% and 89.9%,[4] though there is no historical evidence that any commercial vintage absinthe was higher than 74%. Given the high strength and low alcohol solubility of many of the herbal components, absinthe is usually not imbibed 'straight' but consumed after a fairly elaborate preparation ritual.
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Historically, there were five grades of absinthe: ordinaire, demi-fine, fine, supérieure and Suisse (which does not denote origin), in order of increasing alcoholic strength and production quality. While a supérieure and Suisse would always be naturally colored and distilled; ordinaire and demi-fine could be artificially colored and made from oil extracts. These were only naming guidelines and not an industry standard. Most absinthes contain between 60% and 75% alcohol. It is said to improve materially with storage. In the late 19th century, cheap brands of absinthe were occasionally adulterated by profiteers with copper, zinc, indigo plant, or other dyes to impart the green color, and with antimony trichloride to produce or enhance the louche effect (see below). It is also thought that the use of cheaper industrial alcohol and poor distillation technique by the manufacturers of cheaper brands resulted in contamination with methanol, fusel alcohol, and similar unwanted distillates. This addition of toxic chemicals is quite likely to have contributed to absinthe's reputation as a hallucination-inducing or otherwise harmful beverage. ABSINTHE KITS There are numerous recipes for homemade absinthe floating around on the Internet, many of which revolve around soaking or mixing a kit or store-bought herbs and wormwood extract with high-proof liquor such as vodka or Everclear. Even though these do-ityourself kits have gained in popularity, it is simply not possible to produce absinthe without distillation. Absinthe distillation, like the production of any fine liquor, is a science and an art in itself and requires expertise and care to properly manage. Besides being unpleasant to drink [6] and not authentic distilled absinthe, these homemade concoctions can sometimes be poisonous. Many of these recipes call for the usage of liberal amounts of wormwood extract or essence of wormwood in the hopes of increasing the believed psychoactive effects. Consuming essential oils will not only fail to produce a high, but can be very dangerous. Wormwood extract can cause renal failure and death due to excessive amounts of thujone, which in large quantities acts as a convulsive neurotoxin. Essential oil of wormwood should never be consumed straight. PREPARATION Preparing absinthe the traditional way. Traditionally, absinthe is poured into a glass over which a specially designed slotted spoon is placed. A sugar cube is then deposited in the bowl of the spoon. Ice-cold water is poured or dripped over the sugar until the drink is diluted 3:1 to 5:1. During this process, the components that are not soluble in water, mainly those from anise, fennel and star anise, come out of solution and cloud the drink; the resulting milky opalescence is called the louche (Fr. 'opaque' or 'shady', IPA [lu?]). The addition of water is important, causing the herbs to 'blossom' and bringing out many of the flavors originally overpowered by the anise. For most people, a good quality
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absinthe should not require sugar, but it is added according to taste and will also thicken the mouth-feel of the drink. HISTORY A vintage Pernod Fils absinthe advertisement.The precise origin of absinthe is unclear. The medical use of wormwood dates back to ancient Egypt and is mentioned in the Ebers Papyrus, circa 1550 BCE. Wormwood extracts and wine-soaked wormwood leaves were used as remedies by the ancient Greeks. [12] The first clear evidence of absinthe in the modern sense of a distilled spirit containing green anise and fennel, however, dates to the 18th century but may be older. According to popular legend, however, absinthe began as an all-purpose patent remedy created by Dr. Pierre Ordinaire, a French doctor living in Couvet, Switzerland, around 1792 (the exact date varies by account). Ordinaire's recipe was passed on to the Henriod sisters of Couvet, who sold absinthe as a medicinal elixir. In fact, by other accounts, the Henriod sisters may have already been making the elixir before Ordinaire's arrival. In either case, one Major Dubied in turn acquired the formula from the sisters and, in 1797, with his son Marcellin and son-in-law Henry-Louis Pernod, opened the first absinthe distillery, Dubied Père et Fils, in Couvet. In 1805 they built a second distillery in Pontarlier, France, under the new company name Maison Pernod Fils.[13] Absinthe's popularity grew steadily until the 1840s, when absinthe was given to French troops as a fever preventative. When the troops returned home, they brought their taste for absinthe with them, and it became popular at bars and bistros. By the 1860s, absinthe had become so popular that in most cafés and cabarets 5 p.m. signalled l’heure verte ('the green hour'). Still, it remained expensive and was favored mainly by the bourgeoisie and eccentric Bohemian artists. By the 1880s, however, the price had dropped significantly, the market expanded, and absinthe soon became the drink of France; by 1910 the French were consuming 36 million litres of absinthe per year.

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AKVAVIT A bottle and glass of Linie brand akvavit. Akvavit, also known as aquavit or akevitt, is a Scandinavian distilled beverage of typically about 40% alcohol by volume. Its name comes from aqua vitae, the Latin for "water of life". INGREDIENTS Like vodka, it is distilled from potato or grain. It is flavoured with herbs such as caraway seeds, anise, dill, fennel, coriander, and grains of paradise, among others. The recipe differs between the different brands, but typically caraway is the dominating flavour. Akvavit usually has a yellowish hue, but is available in many colours, from clear to light brown depending on how long it has been aged in oak casks. Normally, darker colour suggests higher age or the use of young casks, but this may also come from the use of artificial colour (caramel - E150). Clear akvavits called Taffel akvavits are typically matured in old casks which doesn't colour the finished product. ORIGIN AND TRADITIONAL VARIANTS The earliest known reference to Akvavit is found in a 1531 letter from the Danish Lord of Bergenshus castle, Eske Bille to Olav Engelbretsson, the last Archbishop of Norway. The letter, accompanying a package, offers the archbishop "some water which is called Aqua Vite and is a help for all sort of sickness which a man can have both internally and externally." While this claim for the medicinal properties of the drink may be rather inflated, it is a popular belief that akvavit will ease the digestion of rich foods. In Norway it is particularly drunk at celebrations, such as Christmas or May 17 (Norwegian Constitution Day). In Sweden it is a staple of the traditional midsummer celebrations dinner, usually drunk while singing one of many drinking songs. It is usually drunk as a snaps during meals, especially during the appetizer course— along with pickled herring, crayfish, lutefisk or smoked fish. In this regard it is popularly quipped that akvavit helps the fish swim down to the stomach. It is also a regular on the traditional Norwegian Christmas meals, including roasted rib of pork and stickmeat (Pinnekjøtt). It is said that the spices and the alcohol helps digest the meal which is very rich in fat.

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Among the most important brands are Gilde and Løiten from Norway, Aalborg from Denmark and Skåne and O.P Andersson from Sweden. . While the Danish and Swedish variants are normally very light in colour, most of the Norwegian brands are matured in oak casks for at least one year and for some brands even as long as 12 years. While members of all three nations can be found to claim that "their" style of Akvavit is the best as a matter of national pride, Norwegian Akevitt tend to have, if not the most distinctive character, then at least the most overpowering flavour and deepest colour due to the aging process. Particular to the Norwegian tratidion is the occurrence of Linie akvavits (such as "Løiten Linie" and "Lysholm Linie"). These have been carried in oak casks onboard ships crossing the equator ("Linie") twice before it is sold. While many experts claim that this tradition is little more than a gimmick, some argue that the moving seas and frequent temperature changes cause the spirit to extract more flavour from the casks. Norwegian akvavit distillers Arcus has carried out a scientific test where they tried to emulate the rocking of the casks aboard the "Linie" ships while the casks were subjected to the weather elements as they would aboard the same ship. The finished product was according to Arcus far from the taste that a proper "Linie" akvavit should have, thus the tradition of shipping the akvavit casks past the "Linie" and back continues.

AKVAVIT DRINKING CULTURE There are several methods of drinking akvavit. It is surprisingly often shot a glass at a time, and although this is usually attributed to tradition, it is suspected that it has something to do with the fact that some people have problems with the spirit's special taste. Akvavit connoisseurs, on the other hand, tend to treat akvavit like fine whisky, sipping slowly away and delving into flavours and aromas. Akvavit arguably complements beer better than many other spirits, and in a drinking situation, any quantity of akvavit is usually preceded (or succeeded) by a swig of beer. Enthusiasts generally lament this practice, claiming that the beer will ruin the delicately balanced flavour and aftertaste.

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ARRACK Arrack refers to the strong spirits distilled mainly in South and South East Asia from fermented fruits, grains, sugarcane, or the sap of coconuts or other palm trees. The word itself originated from the Arabic word 'araq', which means "juice". The name is said to signify, in the East, any spirituous liquor; but that which usually bears this name is toddy. Generally fermented from coconut sap today, it is then distilled to produce an alcoholic beverage that tastes somewhat like something between whiskey and rum. Originally from India, where it is distilled from Kallu, Arrack is mainly produced in Sri Lanka. It is generally distilled between 37% to 50% alcohol by volume (70 to 100 proof). Arrack is traditionally taken straight or with water. Contemporarily it also often taken with ginger ale or soda, or as a component of various cocktails. Batavia Arrack is used as a component in herb liqueurs, bitter liqueurs, in Swedish Punsch, but also used in the confectionery industry and the flavour industry. It is said that batavia arrack has a flavour enhancing application when used as a component in other products, as it's used in the herb and bitter liqueurs. RAKI Raki (Turkish raki IPA: [rak?]) is an anise-flavored apéritif that is produced by twice distilling either only suma or suma that has been mixed with ethyl alcohol in traditional copper alembics of 5000 lt volume or less with aniseed.[1] It is similar to several kinds of alcoholic beverages available in the Mediterranean and parts of the Balkans, including orujo, pastis, sambuca, ouzo, tsikoudia, tsipouro, and mastika. The general consensus is that all these liqueurs preceded arak, a similar arabic liqueur, but it remains a theory. In the Balkans, however, Raki refers to a drink made from distilled grapes or grape skins and pips, similar to Italian Grappa. Raki-water, the national drinking tradition, is called Aslan Sütü, meaning Lion's Milk in Turkish, milk because of its color, and, lion as it stands for courageous, strong, a true man's beverage.

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ETYMOLOGY The word Raki itself derives from the Arabic ??? [?araq], other variants being Araka, Araki, Ariki[3]. There are many theories behind this beloved beverage's name. Araq means sweat in Arabic[4], which could refer to "condensate"[4]. or to that which makes one sweat (If one drinks too much raki one does sweat and when raki is being distilled it falls drop by drop like sweat).[5] It has also been suggested that the word may derive from Iraq-i, which could be translated into of-from Iraq.[6]. But the origins of the word remain a mystery. History Raki has been established in Greek territory since Byzantine times. Early references to Raki are made in numerous Byzantine manuscripts, one particular manuscript the Mount Athos Manuel (469) which dates from the eighth century mentions raki (that is raqi or alcohol) which is distilled four or five times.[7] Until 19th century, meyhanes, mostly run by non-muslim Ottomans, would mainly serve wine along with meze. Although there were many Muslims among meyhane attendants, sharia authorities could, at times, persecute them. With the relatively liberal atmosphere of Tanzimat Turkey, meyhane attendance among Muslims rose considerably. However, believers would still approach wine with a certain suspicion. Raki, which at those times resembled arak, became a favourite among meyhane-goers. By the end of the century, raki took its current standard form and its consumption surpassed that of wine. During the days of the Ottoman Empire raki was produced by distillation of grape pomace (cibre) obtained during wine fermentation. When the amount of pomace was not sufficient, alcohol imported from Europe would be added. If anise was not added, it would take the name düz raki ("straight raki") or douziko (in Greek). Raki prepared with the addition of gum mastic was named sakiz rakisi or mastika, especially produced on the island of Tenedos.

Mustafa Kemal (later to have his surname Atatürk), the founder of the Turkish Republic, had a great appreciation for the liquor and consumed vast quantities of it. During the first years of the Republic, the grape alcohol (named suma) began to be directly distilled from grapes by the state-owned sprits monopoly, Tekel. With the increasing sugar beet
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production, Tekel also began to distill the alcohol from molasses. A new brand of raki with an amount of sugar beet alcohol was called Yeni Raki ("New Raki"). Molasses gave raki the famous bitter taste and helped it to become a table drink.

Types The standard raki is a grape product, though it may also be produced from various fruits. Raki produced from figs, particularly popular in southern provinces of Turkey, is called incir bogmasi, incir rakisi or, in Arabic, tini. Tekel ceased producing fig raki in 1947. However, to this day, it has been produced clandestinely.

Suma is generally produced from raisins but raki factories around established wine producing areas (Tekirdag, Nevsehir, Izmir) may also prefer to use fresh grapes additionally, which help to obtain a better quality. Recently, the types of raki produced from fresh grapes, called yas üzüm rakisi, have become quite popular. A recent brand, Efe Raki, was the first company to produce raki exclusively of fresh grape suma, called Efe Yas Üzüm Rakisi (Efe Fresh Grape Raki). Tekirdag Altin Seri (Tekirdag Golden Series) followed the trend and many others have been produced by other companies. Dip Rakisi ("bottom raki") is the raki that is concentrated in the bottom layer of tanks during the standard production process. Bottom layer is the layer that is thought to capture the dense aroma and flavour of raki. It is named özel raki ("special raki") and it is not presented to general consumption but kept at raki factories as a prestigious gift. BRANDS The most well known brands are Yeni Raki and Tekirdag Rakisi from the region of Tekirdag, which is famous for its characteristic flavour. The secret of this flavour is the artesian water from Çorlu, used in the production. While Yeni Raki has an alcohol content of 45% and 1.5 grams of anise per litre, Tekirdag Rakisi has 0.2 grams more anise per litre. There are also two top-quality brands called Kulüp Rakisi and Altinbas with 50% alcohol. Yeni Raki contains about 20% sugar beet alcohol, the other brands of Tekel are produced only from suma. Today with the privatisation of the state-owned sprit industry different producers and brands emerged. There are currently a considerable number of different brands and types of raki available, including Efe Raki, Mercan Raki,
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Fasil Raki, Burgaz Raki. Sari Zeybek Rakisi, another recent brand, is kept in oaken aging barrels, which give the raki a distinctive golden colour. Raki is served with white cheese, melon and meze.

CALVADOS (SPIRIT) A bottle of calvados Pays D'AugeCalvados is an apple brandy from the French région of Lower Normandy. HISTORY Apple orchards and brewers are mentioned as far back as the 8th century by Charlemagne. The first known Norman distillation was carried out by ‘Lord’ de Gouberville in 1554, and the guild for cider distillation was created about 50 years later in 1606. In the 17th century the traditional ciderfarms expanded but taxation and prohibition of cider brandies were enforced elsewhere than Brittany, Maine and Normandy. The area called ‘Calvados’ was created after the French Revolution, but ‘Eau de vie de cidre’ was already called ‘calvados’ in common usage. In the 19th century output increased with industrial distillation and the working class fashion for ‘Cafécalva’. When a phylloxera outbreak devastated vineyards calvados experienced a ‘golden age’. During World War 1 cider brandy was made for armaments. The appellation contrôlée regulations officially gave calvados a protected name in 1942. After the war many cider-houses and distilleries were reconstructed, mainly in the Pays d'Auge. Many of the traditional farmhouse structures were replaced by modern agriculture with high output. The calvados appellation system was revised in 1984 and 1996. Pommeau got its recognition in 1991; in 1997 an appellation for Domfront with 30% pears was created.

PROCESS OF FABRICATION The fruit is picked and pressed into a juice that is fermented into a dry cider. It is then distilled into eau de vie. After two years aged in oak casks, it can be sold as Calvados. The longer it is aged, the smoother the drink becomes. Usually the maturation goes on for several years. A half-bottle of twenty-year-old Calvados can easily command the same price as a normal-sized bottle of ten-year-old Calvados.
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Double and single distillation A calvados pot stillThe appellation of AOC calvados authorizes double distillation for all calvados but it is required for the AOC calvados Pays d’Auge. Double distillation is carried out in traditional alembic pot-still ‘l'alambic à repasse’ or ‘charentais’. Gives complex, delicate and rich fruity aromas with potential for longer aging. Single continuous distillation in a column still. Gives a fresh and clean apple flavour but less complex flavour to evolve with longer aging. Tasting Calvados is the basis of the tradition of le trou Normand, or "the Norman hole". This is a small drink of Calvados taken between courses in a very long meal, sometimes with apple sorbet, supposed to re-awaken the appetite. Calvados can be served as aperitif, blended in drinks, between meals, as digestive or with coffee. Well-made calvados should naturally be reminiscent of apples and pears, balanced with flavours of ageing. You will notice that the less aged calvados distinguishes itself with its fresh apple and pear aromas. The longer the calvados is under the influence of oak, the more the taste resembles that of any other aged brandy. Older calvados get the colour of gold, darker brown with orange elements and red mahogany. The nose and palate is delicate with concentration of aged apples and dried apricots balanced with butterscotch, nut and chocolate aromas.

Producers • Père Magloire • Christian Drouin Coeur de Lion • Comte Louis de Lauriston • Lecompte • Manoir d'Apreval • Huet • Charles de Granville • Calvados Roger Groult
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• Chateau du Breuil • Coquerel • Boulard • Dupont • Ferme du Ponctey

Calvados in popular culture In the 1963 novel On Her Majesty's Secret Service by Ian Fleming, James Bond drinks a glass of ten-year-old Calvados. Calvados is the main characters' favourite drink in Erich Maria Remarque's novel Arch of Triumph. Calvados is often referred to in the writings of mystic George Gurdjieff. Cornelius Bear is known to have a stash of several well-aged bottles of calvados in the webcomic Achewood.

FENNY Fenny is an Indian liquor made from either coconut or the juice of the cashew apple. Fenny (also feni) originated in Goa, and the Goan fenny is generally considered superior, with the best brand being "Big Boss" (available both in coconut and (slightly more expensive) cashew versions). The other popular brands of Fenny are 'Cashyo' (the makers of which spell it as feni) and 'Reals' (pronounced as Reaals). Feni made from the cashew apple is known as Kaju feni (cashew feni). In the traditional method of making cashew feni, the cashew apples are manually crushed in a coimbi, a rock on the hill which is carved or shaped like a basin with an outlet for the juice. The juice is collected in a huge earthen pot called Kodem, which is buried in the ground. The juice is then distilled in earthen or copper pots.

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When the cashew apples are crushed, the pulp is arranged in the shape of a cake in the coimbi and tied with a string. A huge boulder is then placed on top of it. The final quota of juice which trickles out in a clean form is called Neero. Many people like to drink Neero since it helps bowel movement and provides relief from constipation. The traditional method of distilling cashew feni on the hill is very interesting to watch. The cashew juice is put in a big pot called Bhann. The Bhann serves as a closed boiler. It is connected to a smaller pot called Launni by means of a conduit. The Launni serves as a receiver or collector. The juice in the big pot is then boiled by burning firewood under it. As the process of vaporisation and distillation goes on and the concentrated liquid collects in the smaller pot, the pressure in the receiver is kept in check by pouring cold water on it, typically with a wooden ladle. The first stage of processing may be done on big fire but the later stage of distillation has to be done on slow fire to keep the pressure and heat under control. The process of distilling feni with such apparatus takes about 8 hours and is locally called Bhatti. One can tell from a distance that feni is being distilled since the surrounding area is filled with its aroma. And this aroma attracts many feni consumers, who halts in their tracks when their nostrils receive the smell.

The liquor produced from cashew is of three grades: Urrac, Cazulo and Feni. The Urrac is the product of first distillation. It is light and can be consumed neat. Its strength ranges between 14 and 16 grao. However, when consumed in excess, Urrac intoxicates the mind like any other hard liquor. The Urrac is said to go well with orange or lemon. The Cazulo is the product of second distillation. It is moderately strong. The Cazulo can be consumed either neat or in a diluted form depending upon the lining and resistance of one’s alimentary tract. However it is not seen in the market today. The product, which we get after the process of third distillation is called feni. Its strength ranges between 20 and 24 grao. It has a long shelf life. Now that the Cazulo is not made, feni is produced after second distillation itself. The second or third-hand feni is a product
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par excellence. High-grade feni is 42% alcohol by volume. There are known to exist about 4,000 such traditional mini-distilleries or stills in Goa that manufacture cashew feni and about 2,200 manufacturing coconut feni. About 75% of stills making cashew feni are in north Goa and the rest are in south Goa. As far as the stills making coconut feni are concerned, south Goa has about 65% of them and the rest are in north Goa. This is an indication that north Goa abounds in cashew trees while south Goa has more coconut trees. Fenny is often used in cocktails. Two common mixers are tonic water and lemonade, but it can also be enjoyed on its own, on the rocks, or perhaps with a slice of lime. FRAMBOISE A bottle of Lindeman's Framboise Lambic.Framboise (from the French word for raspberry) or Frambozenbier (Dutch) is a Belgian lambic beer that is fermented using raspberries. It is one of many modern fruitbeer types that have been inspired by the more traditional kriek beer, made using sour cherries. Widely available in bars and pubs, these unique beers are usually served in a small glass that resembles a champagne class, only shorter. It has a sweet taste, with an aftertaste of "weak beer". This style is gradually becoming more common outside of Belgium; in many "posh" bars in Britain, you can now find raspberry and cherry flavoured-beer available in bottles, and occasionally even on tap. Some Belgian restaurants in North American and Europe also serve this beer. It can also be commonly found in supermarkets located in England, such as Sainsbury, ASDA, or Oddbins. FRAMBOISE Rasberry syrup, all natural No additives 2 sizes available Imported from France Many flavors available

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Product Description All natural strawberry syrup in an old-fashioned glass bottle (very decorative when empty, use for something else). Use this syrup in drinks, as a dessert topping, add to soda water for a refreshing lemonade, and of course use to make flavored ices. Manufactured in Morteau in the purest tradition, these syrups are made with natural extracts of fruits and plants. Their conservation is ensured thanks to the quantity of dissolved sugar of 800 grams per Liter. GRAPPA Grappa is a fragrant grape-based pomace brandy of between 40% and 60% alcohol by volume (80 to 120 proof), of Italian origin. Literally a word for "grape stalk", grappa is made by distilling pomace, grape residue (primarily the skins, but also stems and seeds) left over from winemaking after pressing. It was originally made to prevent wastage by using leftovers at the end of the wine season. It quickly became commercialised, massproduced, and sold worldwide. The flavour of grappa, like that of wine, depends on the type and quality of the grape used as well the specifics of the distillation process. In Italy, grappa is primarily served as a "digestivo" or after dinner drink. Its purpose is to aid in the digestion of the heavy Italian meals. Grappa may also be added to espresso coffee to create a caffè corretto. Another variation of this is the "amazza caffè" (literally, "coffee-killer"): the espresso is drunk first, followed by a few ounces of grappa served in its own glass. Among the most well-known producers of grappa are Nonino, Sibona, Nardini and Jacopo Poli. While these grappas are produced in significant quantities and exported, there are many thousands of smaller local and regional grappas, all with distinct character. Most grappa is clear, indicating that it is an un-aged distillate, though some may retain very faint pigments from their original fruit pomace. Lately, aged grappas have become more common, and these take on a yellow, or red-brown hue from the barrels in which they are serve.

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KIRSCH kirsch is a kind of brandy — distilled from wine or fermented fruit juice MEZCAL Mezcal is a Mexican distilled spirit made from the agave plant. There are many different types of agaves, and each produces a slightly different mezcal. Agave is part of the Agavaceae family, also called maguey. While Tequila is a mezcal made only from the blue agave plant in the region around Tequila, Jalisco, spirits labeled "Mezcal" are often made using other agave plants. Mezcal is made from the agave plant. After the agave matures (6-8 years) it is harvested by jimadores (field workers) and the leaves are chopped off using a long-handled knife known as a coa or coa de jima, leaving only the large hearts, or piñas (Spanish for "pineapple"). The piña is cooked and then crushed, producing a mash.

Baking and mashing A distillery oven loaded with agave "pineapples", the first step in the production of tequila. Traditionally, the piñas were baked in palenques: large (8-12 ft diameter) rocklined conical pits in the ground. The pits were lined with hot rocks, then agave leaves, petate (palm fiber mats), and earth. The piñas are allowed to cook in the pit for three to five days. This lets them absorb flavors from the earth and wood smoke. After the cooking, the piñas are rested for a week, and then placed in a ring of stone or concrete of about 12 ft diameter, where a large stone wheel attached to a post in the middle is rolled around, crushing the piñas. Modern makers usually cook the piñas in huge stainless steel ovens and then crush them with mechanical crushers. Fermentation The mash (tepache) is then placed in large, 300-500 gallon wooden vats and 5%–10% water is added to the mix. The government requires that only 51% of this mix be from agave. Cane and corn sugars, as well as some chemical yeasts, may also be added. It is
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then placed in large stainless steel vats, covered with petate and left to naturally ferment for four to thirty days. Distillation and aging After the fermentation stage is done, the mash is double-distilled. The first distillation yields ordinary low-grade alcohol. After the first distillation, the fibers are removed from the still and the resulting alcohol from the first distillation added back into the still. This mixture is distilled once again. Sometimes, water is then added to the mix to reduce the proof down to 80. At this point the mezcal may be bottled or aged. Mezcal ages quite rapidly in comparison to other spirits. It is aged in large wooden barrels for between two months to seven years. During this time the mezcal acquires a golden color, and its flavor is influenced by the wooden barrels. The longer it is aged, the darker the color and more noticeable the flavor. OUZO The history of ouzo is somewhat murky, but some claim it may date back in one form or another to ancient times. Its precursor is tsipouro (or as it is known by Easterners as raki), a drink distilled throughout the Byzantine [1] and later Ottoman Empires, often in those days of quality approaching moonshine (similar liquors in Turkey and many Arab countries still go by that name). Modern ouzo distillation largely took off in the 19th century following Greek independence, with much production centered on the island of Lesbos, which claims to be the originator of the drink and remains a major producer. In 1932, ouzo producers developed the method of distillation using copper stills, which is now considered the canonically proper method of production. One of the largest producers of ouzo today is Varvayiannis (?a?ßa???????), located in the town of Plomari in the southeast portion of the island. While another producer on the mainland of Greece is Ch. Pavlides Brothers. (Older people in Lesbos, still refer to ouzo as "raki") Commonly, but not at all traditional in the western world, ouzo is served with cola either in premixed cans or bottles or simply mixed to the desired taste. On October 25, 2006 Greece won the right to label ouzo as an exclusively Greek product.
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The European Union now recognizes ouzo, as well as the Greek drinks of tsipouro and tsikoudia, as 'geographically protected' products . The 'geographically protected' designation prohibits makers from outside of Greece to label their products with this name. Now, makers outside of Greece will need to use names like "Greek-style ouzo" instead of simply calling the product ouzo. This type of labeling can already be seen in other 'geographically protected' products like Feta cheese. If the Feta cheese is produced outside of Greece, it's labeled as "Greek-style feta".

PASTIS A glass of diluted pastis French Pastis: Pastis is an anise-flavored liqueur and apéritif from France, typically containing 40-45% alcohol by volume, although there exist alcohol-free varieties. When absinthe was banned in France in 1915, the major absinthe producers (then Pernod and Ricard, who have since merged as Pernod Ricard) reformulated their drink without the banned wormwood component, a heavier focus on the aniseed flavor using more star anise, sugar and a lower alcohol content creating pastis, which remains popular in France today. Pastis has changed considerably since its first creation based on market preference. Pastis is normally diluted with water before drinking (generally 5 volumes of water for 1 volume of pastis). The resulting decrease in alcohol percentage causes some of the constituents to become insoluble, which changes the liqueur's appearance from dark transparent yellow to milky soft yellow. The drink is consumed cold, with ice, and is considered a refreshment for hot days. Ice cubes can be added after the water to avoid crystallization of the anethol in the pastis. However, many pastis drinkers refuse to add ice, preferring to drink the beverage with cool spring water. Although it is consumed throughout France, especially in the summer, pastis is generally associated with southeastern France, especially with the city of Marseille, and with the clichés of the Provençal lifestyle, like pétanque.

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Some well known cocktails use pastis and syrups: • The perroquet (parrot) with green mint syrup • The tomate (tomato) with grenadine syrup • The mauresque (moorish) with orgeat syrup

POIRE WILLIAMS Type: Brandy, unaged Also known as Pear brandy Description:Generic for French pear eau de vie, distilled from Williams pears, and of some fame. Strong, and strongly-flavored. Often produced in a signature style whereby a live pear is grown in its bottle and filled with the distillate thereafter. Flavor:pear Availability Generally available. Produced and sold in France. Known to be distributed in England, Europe and United States and parts of United Kingdom, Europe and North America. Regional. Available for on-line ordering in some markets. Substitute other pear brandy

POTEEN Poteen is a kind of Irish, Irish whiskey, Irish whisky — made in Ireland chiefly from barley PULQUE Pulque, or octli, is an alcoholic beverage made from the fermented juice of the maguey, and is a traditional native beverage of Mesoamerica.

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A Six pack of Agave Pulque.The maguey plant is not a cactus (as has sometimes been mistakenly suggested) but an agave, elsewhere called the "century plant". The plant was one of the most sacred plants in Mexico and had a prominent place in mythology, religious rituals, and Meso-American industry. Pulque is depicted in Native American stone carvings from as early as 200 AD. The origin of pulque is unknown, but because it has a major position in religion, many folk tales explain its origins. According to pre-Columbian history, during the reign of Tecpancaltzin, a Toltec noble named Papantzin found out how to extract aguamiel from the maguey plant. Prior to the Spanish conquest, the Aztecs consumed it at religious ceremonies. Pulque is made in the following fashion: When the plant's flower stem shoots up, it is hollowed in the centre, normally 8 to 10 years are required for the plant to mature to the point where this can be done. The juice, aguamiel, that should have supplied the flowers is taken from it daily, for a period of about two months. The aguamiel is then fermented, (usually in large barrels inside in a building known as a tinacal which is specially reserved for pulque fermentation) after which it is immediately fit for drinking. Pulque is usually sold directly in bulk from the tinacal or by the serving a version of a cantina known as a pulqueria. Traditionally in pulquerias, pulque is served a glass known as a tornillo (screw, for its shape) or a bowl known as a jicara. Pulque is still made and drunk in limited quantities in parts of Mexico today. However, because it cannot easily be stored or preserved (its character and flavor change over a short period of storage time, as little as a day), it is not well known outside the country. A process for preserving and canning pulque has been developed, and now canned pulque is being exported to the US in limited quantities (see photo), the alcohol content of the canned product is 5%. Aficionados of pulque usually consider canned inferior to the fresh product. Often pulque is mixed with fruit juices such as mango and pineapple to render it palatable to those who do not appreciate its unusual flavor.

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  April  2009 

MEZCAL (or mescal) is the name given to a double-distilled spirit which comes from the maguey plant. Today there are well defined and regulated regions (A.O.C.) for both mezcal and Tequila in Mexico. Tequila is the name of a mezcal from the region of western Mexico around the town of Tequila, Jalisco. Aguamiel (from which pulque is made) is the natural juice of the maguey plant, whereas mezcal is the clear spirit made out of the heart of the plant itself. The flavor is either bitter or sweet, depending on how you like it. If you like it strong then you drink it neat, and if not you put in a bit of honey. In the Aztec pantheon of deities, pulque production was represented by the god of pulque, Tepoztecatl, and the gods of drunkenness, such as Macuil-Tochtli or Five Rabbit and Ometotchtli or Two Rabbit, both part of the pantheon of Centzon Totchtli, the four hundred rabbit gods of drunkenness. The Aztecs rated pulque intoxication on a scale of one to 400 rabbits. A tradition in pulquerias is for drinkers to slop a small amount of the pulque in their glass on the floor as a sacrifice to Two Rabbit. SAKE Sake barrels at Itsukushima ShrineSake (Japanese: ; pronounced IPA: [s?.k?] Listen?) is a Japanese word meaning "alcoholic beverage", which in English has come to refer to a specific alcoholic beverage brewed mainly from rice, and known in Japan as nihonshu (??? "Japanese alcohol"). This article uses the word "sake" as it is used in English. Sake is widely referred to in English as "rice wine". However, this designation is not entirely accurate. The production of alcoholic beverages by multiple fermentation of grain has more in common with beer than wine. Also, there are other beverages known as "rice wine" that are significantly different than nihonshu. SCHNAPPS Schnapps is a type of distilled beverage. The word Schnapps is derived from the German word Schnaps. There are two different types of Schnapps. The first one is the traditional German kind. In Germany itself, as well as in Austria and the German-speaking part of Switzerland, the spelling Schnapps is virtually unknown and Schnaps, as a purely colloquial term, can refer to any kind of unsweetened distilled beverage. Outside of German-speaking countries, German Schnapps refers to usually clear alcoholic beverages distilled from fermented cereals, roots or fruits, including cherries, apples, pears, peaches, plums and apricots. Often, the base material for making schnapps is the pulp that is a by-product in
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Bali Hospitality Professional Services     BEVERAGE KNOWLEDGE
 

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juice production. True Schnapps has no sugar or flavoring added. Traditional German Schnapps is similar in flavor and consistency to vodka, with light fruit flavors, depending on the base material. The alcohol content is usually around 40% by volume or 80 proof. The second type of Schnapps is of American origin. These distilled beverages are liqueurs, such as peach schnapps and butterscotch schnapps. They can be the result of differing processes that do not involve direct fermentation. Some of these use a primary alcohol, such as schnapps, vodka or rum, to extract flavors out of fruit. Often, additional ingredients are added, most commonly sugar. The alcohol level of these schnapps may be only half that of the German kind, usually around 20% by volume or 40 proof. Because of the wide variety of Schnapps (or Schnapps-imitative) flavours available, it has been spoofed in several ways. In an episode of the program South Park, a fictional flavor called "S'more Schnapps" is released; and in the film Little Nicky one of the characters shows a penchant for Peppermint Schnapps. The 1984 snap election in New Zealand was dubbed the 'schnapps election' by Tom Scott, in reference to Prime Minister Robert Muldoon calling the aforementioned election while he was drunk. It's also mentioned a lot of times on the sitcom Seinfeld, being the key to open Elaine's "vault". SLIVOVITZ This is one of our best selling Slivovitz. Made from fine plums from Croatia, produced by means of traditional method of distililng fresh and ripe plums. This fresh plum distillate is then aged in wooden casks made of Slavonian Oak. The result of lovingly and carefully tended vineyards, of knowledge and great experience in distillation and strong tradition of supreme brandy production. This superb brandy lends itself well after a fine meal and good conversation. Flores Zuta Oza Slivovitz The leading product of the company was released under the name "Zuta Osa" -Yellow Wasp, a natural plum brandy with 45% alcohol, packed in original, brown glass bottles of 0.75 liters. In spite of all events in the past ten years, it is sold with a reputation of the best plum brandy in the international market. In all leading exhibitions and fairs throughout the world, it won 13 gold medals. Yellow Wasp is a premium brand of plum brandy, prepared and aged according to traditional distilling recipes passed from father to son in "master distiller" families of Southeastern Europe over hundreds of years.

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Jelinek Slivovitz The history of brandy distillation goes back some 400 years in Vizovice. At the beginning of the 18th century some people came to realize that plums too are suitable for making quality brandies. The overproduction of plums had motivated local farmers to establish in 1894 the distillery in Vizovice called Rolnick? akciov? z?od ovocn?sk?- RAZOV. In 1934 has been bought this company by Mr. Rudolf Jel?ek. This year, therefore, originated the Rudolf Jel?ek brand. In the present offers the company RUDOLF JEL?NEK a.s. the complete series of branded fruit distilleries, which are produced by the traditional progressions. The association of friends the Jel?ek's brandy was festive established on 25th of August 2000 in the new opened Jel?ek's room in the area of Vala?k? ?nk in Vizovice. The founder of The association is the company RUDOLF JEL?NEK a.s. Vizovice, which is also its organizer. The member of The association of friends the Jel?ek's brandy could be everybody, who profess the quality Jel?ek's brandy and who endorses with.

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