Motivating

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					Management Fundamentals
Concepts, Applications, Skills Development

Motivating
12 A

Self-Fulfilling Prophecy
–Employees will live up to or down to their own expectations.
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Performance Formula
Ability x motivation x resources = Performance

12-2

Major Motivation Theories
Classification of Motivation
Theories 1. Content of motivation theories a. Hierarchy of needs theory b. ERG theory c. Two-factor theory d. Acquired needs theory a. Equity theory b. Goal-setting theory c. Expectancy theory

Specific Motivation Theory

2. Process motivation theories

3. Reinforcement theory

Type of Reinforcement
a. Positive b. Avoidance c. Extinction d. Punishment

12-3

Hierarchy of Needs Theory
SelfActualization Esteem

Social Safety Physiological
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Acquired Needs Theory
Power Affiliation Achievement

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A Comparison of Four Content Motivation Theories
Hierarchy of Needs (Maslow) Self-Actualization Esteem Social Safety Physiological ERG Theory (Alderfer) Growth Growth Relatedness Existence Existence Two-Factor Theory (Herzberg) Motivators Motivators Maintenance Maintenance Maintenance Acquired Needs Theory (McClelland)

Achievement and
Powe r Achievement and Power Affiliation Not classified Not classified Motivating needs are developed through experience.

Needs must be met in a hierarchy order.

Unmet needs can be at any level simultaneously.

Maintenance factors will not motivate employees.

12-6

Equity Theory
Our inputs (contributions)

= =

Others’ input (contributions) Others’ outcomes (rewards)
12-7

Our outcomes (rewards)

Expectancy Theory
• Proposes that employees are motivated when they believe they can accomplish the task and the rewards for doing so are worth the effort.
12-8

Expectancy Theory
Expectancy X Valence = Motivation
12-9

4 Conditions for Expectancy Theory

Clear objectives

Performance tied to rewards

Rewards have value

Employees believe you

12-10

Reinforcement Theory
•Through the consequences for behavior, employees will be motivated to behave in predetermined ways.
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4

Types of
Reinforcement

Positive Avoidance

Punishment

Extinction
12-12

Giving Praise
Planning
Leading

1. Tell the employee exactly what was done correctly.

2. Tell the employee why the behavior is important.

3. Stop for a moment of silence.

4. Encourage repeat performance

Organizing

Controlling

12-13

The Motivation Process with the Motivation Theories
1. Need
(Unmet need or want to be satisfied at work)

Content Motivation Theories
Hierarchy of Needs Theory
ERG Theory Two-Factor Theory Acquired Needs Theory

2. Motive
(Selecting behavior to satisfy need)

Process Motivation Theories
Equity Theory
Goal-Setting Theory Expectancy Theory
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(continued)

3. Behavior
(Employee action to satisfy need)

(Manager behavior and/or natural outcome of employee action)

4. Consequence
Reinforcement Theory

(The degree to which the need is met and for how long before dissatisfaction reoccurs, creating an unmet need)
12-15

5. Satisfaction or Dissatisfaction


				
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posted:4/18/2009
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