Fundamentals of Mobile Computing CE00375-2

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					   Fundamentals of Mobile
        Computing
            CE00375-2

      Introduction to the Module
           jjc1@staffs.ac.uk
Ext 3292, Room C203, Beacon Building
            Mobile Computing
   Content
    • What is Mobile Computing ?
    • Module Staff
    • Teaching Schedule
       Lectures
       Tutorials

    • Assessment
       Assignment
       Examination
                          Mobile Computing
   Biggest problem with Mobile communications
    like the Internet is too many acronyms
WSP/B PDC POS CCIR BW UPT BSS MCC FHSS HIPERLAN IFS FIB SNDCP S-SAP WWW MSISD N LAI PDA ATIM CW DVB-T
ICMP PSN TTL HEC GIF LAPD CSCW ISO ITU LED CCH CDMA PA ITU-R PDN IEEE IrDA AIDCS CAC HTML CC NDC CCA
SNACK IMF JPEG HDTP DPCH HDB HO GWL CC XOR TD-CDMA JDC ISI RTT CTS BCA GTP SIM MMF CEPT SCPAS-TP SFD
UBR DPCCH SDM PTP-CLNS RL URI PHS TLLI MOT ARP CU UIM PPP AIB MNC WRC IMT-MC WSP WAP ATM-CL LBR PMA
TCH/F M-PNNI HCSAP EMAS EIRP CATV DNS V+D FW CSMA DCE DSL FSK PLL AESA CSMA/CD VC DH HDLC TI RAS MN
SDP DVTR CORBA GEO EDTV HMQoS TCH/FS HEO PAD HO-HMPDU SAP SDMA WML EHF HIB FEC FIC TC-HMPDU VDB
AID ACT FR PRACH AFS CIF LI PACS RIP Loc AGCH ASA IWF BLIR TR-SAP UDP SCF IMT-FT Cnf ISDN HTTP BPSK TFO ESS
RTT TMN MSRN SN PDO GMSC SIG CN HDTV AUS TUSSD CT SMS DFWMAC DHCP BSC KID ROM ETSI ISM QPSK UTRA
GRE TM Req DVB-S FPLMTS CCCH ISL MUL DC COFDMOSI AM DVB RTR SEQN COMS RSS PS PM TOS PC DAB PCS LS
RSA RRM CN TE IS XML LF SS7 M-NNI HI T-SAP COA RFID VCC PTP DTE CS PTM WMLScript MTSA BLIRCS RR IMSI DAMA
RAND MIB GMM PCH RA NSS LIR SH SDT BSSAP SAAL MATM WTLS TIM FT JCT PDTCH GFSK D-AMPS CDM PCM CSD SW
UMTS IV PSK ZIGBEE STA RIB EMAS-E MSDU TA RFC CLMS IR NMT RLP ACID NFC TINA DQPSK TFI GPRS PACS-UB VHF
PT ABR NSA WCAC NTSC EY- PMA TMSI TDT WDP CPU HMPDU SDU PLW DVB-C HAD CSMA/CA ACL MOC MACA Disassoc
TDM LAN DPDCH PLMN DLC QAM EIR AuC HID RM DA PLCP CM SNAP LOS CAC VNDC UHF WCMP L2CAP ARIB MSK ECDH
TETRA PHY DSDV HA TCH/H ASCII SRES WTA GSN CRC W3C PAL BRAN PSTN MEO MCM CKSN CVSD I-TCP SUMR HSCSD
LC RT POTS 3G HDACS TTC ASK FDMA T-TCP VBR-rt LRU BER DIFS BSS PPG HDML EDGE PRMA MSC NA-TDMA BFSK
SDTV TCP GMSK MS VPN NAT AMA SCO IMT-DS HF HCPDU USIM TCH/HS DS GPS CGI PLI WIM SDCCH NMAS MCI IMT-
TCCPM OFDM TIB ANSI BCCH ASP NFS ITU-T SFN TFTS WMT FRAD MHEG ATM NIB RLC WAN SGSN DECT PMD WTAI
FCCH FM CAMEL FA COS QoS UE PI TDD SCDMA LMP ARQN DCS VLR SATM VBR-nrt HM ACK SwMI FACCH DCCH LAPDm
AK-HCPDU DT-HCPDU WLAN SHF VAD SIFS WLL RA MSC PSF W-CTRL GP FDD UWC BSSGP BCH MT ID SMRIB UTRAN NNI
PIFS GGSN HCSDU IMT OMC AAL WTP DCF SCH FCA PDU IN IMT-SC SA PSPDN GERAN GSM EDGE RAN M-UNI DSR TCH
MAC RNS BMP OSS W-CDMA SCPS AMES IP WATM SC Auth SEC-SAP MF MS CBR NRL DSMA DBPSK 3GPP HC TDMA ML
MTC NAV AP M-TCP MBS PTP- ONS SC UD TSF PDF GSM ADSL UNI LEO MSAP PIN FDM PCF SSL BTSM ISMA VLF OTA ADA
SACCH DSSS RACH PUK PPM SAMA MM LAPC IOT PAD RTS Res ICO DTIM HBR CD TLS VBR DVD MSIN HCQoS LA DDIB SS
PNNI CIDR DTMF MSC EIT IMEI Codec UP ARQ UN ILR WAE IETF CDV Assoc HP DCA MH CDPD GAP LLC BTS LM B-ISDN
HLR M-QoS TPC TV WPAN SI RAL GR WP-CDMA AMPS NIT BLI MPEG VHE PCS CCF NET DAB HSDPA
                Mobile Computing
   What is Mobile Computing
    • Network computing on the move
    • No need for wires to connect the computer
         A number of hardware technologies have
          become available allowing this
           • Battery life has improved
           • Screen Technology allows smaller, high resolution low
             power
           • Radio modulation techniques are now more battery
             efficient
           • Processors and memory are cheaper and draw less
             power
           • Improved input methods- Virtual keyboard
                Mobile Computing
   As the hardware though has developed
    • So have the software and uses
         Non laptop devices have user updatable operating
          systems installed
           • These are specifically written for the hardware and its
             needs
                Windows CE and the variations

                Symbian

                Apple I-Phone OS – Cut down OSx

         “Standard” software installed allowing improving
          productivity
         Software specifically written for the devices giving
          profitability
           • Mobile TV – video clips
                    Mobile Computing
   When is Mobile computing useful
     • Depending on the scenario different technology is required.
           Wireless is not always the best solution even today wired
            communications will be better in a lot of scenarios
     • Consider a business person with a laptop trying to use email to
       stop in touch



                            Wireless           Mobile             Fixed

        Office                   Yes              No               Yes

        Hotel                    Yes             Yes               Yes

       Home                      Yes             No                Yes
    On the move                  No              Yes               No
                  Mobile Computing
   Benefits of Commercial Mobile Computing can be
    • Increase in profitability
          Reduced costs in terms of communications, and increased
           work due to the fact that you can respond quickly
    • Improvement in Performance
          Instant access can allow you to adapt even though you are
           away from the office
            • Simple example would be a parcel company while out getting
              information to pick up a parcel and a route to the location
    • Cost Savings
          Cheap easily available communications, messaging, email
    • A connected workforce
          Allowing instant access to data files from work for example for
           the worker who is on the road
    • Improved competitiveness
          The improvements given can then allow to either stay ahead of
           the competition, or increasingly today, just to match the
           competition
                   Mobile Computing
   Definitions
     • Satellite
            Very limited throughput
            Available on a global basis
            Extremely expensive per Mb
     • Wireless
            Data communications over a wireless interface
            No/limited roaming support
            Common example is IEEE 802.11b (Wi-Fi)
            Throughput from 1Mb to 200Mb + (in theory)
            Susceptible to interference
            Medium cost, free at home, payment required when away from home
     • Mobile
            Data communications with large area roaming
               • Can have a high error rate in transmissions when moving
            Examples would be GSM, GPRS, UMTS, HSDPA
            Throughput from 9.6 Kbps to 2 Mbps, 7.2Mbps (in theory)
            Expensive per Mb, a typical 59p per Mb
     • Fixed
            Wired Infrastructure, with no roaming
            Common Example is Ethernet
            Throughput from 10Mb to 2Gbps
            High reliability/availability
            Cheap per Mb
                          Mobile Computing
   What is a wireless/mobile device
                                                   Mobile phone                          Palmtop
                                                   - Voice, text, data                   - Compact keyboards
                 Sensors,                          - Limited displays                    - Good graphics
                 Embedded controllers              - Limited interface                   - Faster processing
                                                   - Limited expansion                   - Reasonable Storage


                                        Performance and size
Pagers                          PDA                                      Notebook
- text only                     - Limited browsing                       - Fully functional
- receive only                  - Reasonable graphics                    - OS not specifically
                                - Character recognition                    designed for mobile use
                                - May contain mobile /
                                  wireless hardware
                                - Stylus based interface
                                - Reasonable expansion
                                - Often Infrared enabled
                  Mobile Computing
   Mobile Computing
    • The number of devices is growing
         Mobile phones
         Laptops
         Small Cheap Computers (SCC)/Mini laptops
         PDA’s
         Communicators ! (not the Star Trek kind)
         Headphones
         Computer peripherals
         Cars
         Portable Games consoles
         Electric/GAS Meters
         Number of devices is increasing all the time
                         Mobile Computing
   Mobile Computing
    • Locations where people can gain access is also on the
      increase popular Wi-Fi hot spots are
          Virgin Trains
          Railway Stations
          McDonalds
          Public Libraries
          TheCloud
          Star Bucks Coffee Shops
          Hilton Hotels
             • This list will keep growing
          Staffordshire University 
    • Network access anywhere using mobile phone technology
          Wide scale use
             •   2G –   GSM
             •   2.5G   – GPRS, EDGE
             •   3G –   UMTS
             •   3.5G   HSDPA
                   Mobile Computing
   One Solution for all ????
    • No one solution is suitable for all situations
          Devices need to change
          Air interface technology
            • A wireless technology is designed for a task
    • Design Considerations
          The design of these devices is different from a desktop
            •   Reduced battery power
            •   Reduced processing power
            •   Slower network communications (mostly)
            •   Reduced screen size
            •   Reduced input capabilities
            •   Increased risk of losing the device and data !
            •   Reduced control over the usage
                      Mobile Computing
   Who is Driving this technology
    • Military usage
          What they are using will become available to us at a later stage
          They are using wireless communications
            •   Real-time feedback for the battlefield
            •   Movement of intelligence
            •   Satellite photographs provided to the commanders in the field
            •   Intelligent Autonomous Devices
                   LANDriod (http://www.darpa.mil/ipto/solicitations/open/07-46_PIP.pdf)
                   Allows communications within a battlefield situation, where it
                     would normally be hard
                   The intention is for these to move until the generate a
                     communications MESH using ADHOC technology
          Real-time status of personnel and the requesting of medical
           evacuation
                  Mobile Computing
   Who is Driving this technology
    • What we are now looking at for 3G technology
          The military have been using for 30 years
             • The communications were secure if the sequence was not known
             • Difficult to jam the entire signal
             • Is not effected by limited signal degradation
    • New uses of the technologies are being developed
          Large numbers of Supermarkets are using Radio Frequency
           Identification (RFID), to improve stock taking
          Airports are trialling the same technology for airport baggage
          Ambulance services are developing live feedback of data to
           hospitals
          Police vehicles that have a live feed to the national computer
    • As of the Quarter 2 2008
          There are currently 3.6 Billion cellular users
             • (http://www.gsmworld.com/news/statistics/pdf/gsma_stats_
               q2_08.pdf)
             • This is a very large possible market place
                  Mobile Computing
   The big growth areas
    • For Mobile communications are
          China
          India
          Pakistan
          Africa
             • http://www.alpha-2.info/Wireless-Providers-See-Growth-Potential-
               In-The-Last-Frontier_a3049.html
    • These communications allow flexibility and relatively cheap
      installation of communications technology
          It is not financially worth installing a cable to each house in a
           sparsely populated area
          You can though install one transmitter which will allow
           communications for all of these people
          All of the benefits then of telecommunications are available to
           these areas such as Internet connections with all of the benefits
Fundamentals of Mobile Computing




    The Course
Fundamentals of Mobile Computing
   Teaching Staff
    • Kelvin Hilton
         Lectures and Tutorials
    • Justin Champion
         Lectures and Tutorials
Fundamentals of Mobile Computing
   Your expectation
    • You are expected to
       Attend 2 lectures per week of 1 hour each
       Attend a 1 hour tutorial slot

       Allocate private study time of about 9½
        hours per week
    • All of the material will be put onto the
      website
       Both tutorial and lectures
       Useful links will be put on the website

    • www.fcet.staffs.ac.uk/jjc1
    Fundamentals of Mobile Computing
   Lectures
    • These will be split between myself and
      Kelvin
    • They will discuss the theory and standards
      behind various mobile data aware
      technologies
       1G to 3G mobile phones
       Wireless PANS

       Wireless LANS

       Wireless MANS

       The technologies and infrastructure which keep
        these running
    Fundamentals of Mobile Computing
   Tutorials
    • These will look at the development of a
      application for a mobile device.
    • Please attend the tutorial slot which is
      convenient to you
         We MAY have to force people though to attend
          different slots, depending on how the numbers
          work out
    • Application
         Will be developed in Microsoft Visual Basic 2008
          Compact Framework (VB.NET CF)
           • The Pocket PC SDK5 will be used in the labs as well
         Each week a work sheet will be made available
          on the website, working towards the assignment
    Fundamentals of Mobile Computing
   Assessment
    • One piece of course work
    • One examination
         This will be taken in the normal examination period
           • Broken into two parts
                Multiple Choice

                Open Questions


    • Assignment (Course Work)
         Develop an application for a mobile device with a real-world
          scenario using VB 2008 CF
           • This will build upon the material in the tutorials and will some
             of your own private studies
           • A report will be submitted for the infrastructure you would
             recommend to run this application
    Fundamentals of Mobile Computing
   The Important Stuff
    • In this course we want students to do WELL
          If there is a problem please let us know
          It is quite normal in this course for confusion
            • There are so many terms which are used
            • Particular of interest is when the same thing is called different
              items when differing technology is attached
          If you are struggling then please do ask either Myself or
           Kelvin
          It is a very large subject area
            • A lot of technology is covered by the general title of Mobile
              Computing!
            • It is difficult to follow all of the developments and we intend to
              discuss only the ones which you will at the moment regular see
              / employers will expect you to know about
                Conclusion
   What we have discussed today
    • Introduction to some concepts
    • Teaching Team
    • Assessment
       Examination (50%)
       In course assessment (50%)