Blank Form for a Resume by dpg11761

VIEWS: 27 PAGES: 49

More Info
									Selection
Selection
• Overview
• Reliability & validity
• Initial screening
• Interview
• Employment testing
• Other selection tools


 Page 2               MGMT 412 | Selection   Fall 2008
The Importance of Selection

• The first high-performance work
  practice
• The economic value of better
  employees
    • Job skills (job match)
    • Attitudes (organization match)
• The selection process as a ritual of
  passage
 Page 3               MGMT 412 | Selection   Fall 2008
Overview: The Selection Process
• Determining if a match exists
  • Person-job match
  • Person-organization match
• Multiple hurdle approach
• Precise steps depend on organization
   • Begin with the less expensive steps
   • More expensive or more lengthy screens when
     applicant pool is smaller


 Page 4              MGMT 412 | Selection      Fall 2008
Back to Reliability & Validity
 • Remember that under Uniform Guidelines, any selection
   procedure counts as a “test,” for purposes of requiring validity
   evidence
 • Will we ever see a perfect correlation between test scores and
   subsequent job behavior / performance?
        • No
        • But, tests, interviews, etc. are the best we’ve got.
        • Look for .50 as the gold standard of validity (lower than .20 to be
              avoided)
 •    Another measurement issue….
        • Whatever you use needs to distinguish among individuals; if
              everyone gets the same score, what’s the point?


     Page 5                          MGMT 412 | Selection               Fall 2008
Reliability
 • Selection procedures need to be both reliable and valid
 • Called for under Uniform Guidelines, but a standard
   psychometric concept
 • Reliability
        • Does a procedure (test, interview) provide consistent results?

                                Interviewer A             Interviewer B
              Candidate 1           90%                       87%
              Candidate 2            45%                       51%
              Candidate 3            71%                       75%
              Candidate 4            85%                       90%
              Candidate 5            18%                       18%

     Page 6                        MGMT 412 | Selection                    Fall 2008
Validity
      • Does the procedure measure what it is
           designed to measure?
      • Called for under Uniform Guidelines, but,
           again, a standard psychometric concept
100                                         100
 95                                          95
 90                                          90
 85                                          85
 80                                          80
 75                                          75
 70                                          70
 65                                          65
 60                                          60
 55                                          55
 50                                          50
      0            1   2   3   4        5         0       1   2   3   4               5




          Page 7                   MGMT 412 | Selection                   Fall 2008
Consequences of Error

                                Loss of       Appropriate
  Test Results Positive
                          No




                                 Talent         Reject




                                 Good                Bad
                          Yes




                                 Hire                Hire


                                  Yes                  No

                                Applicant Truly Qualified
 Page 8                                       MGMT 412 | Selection   Fall 2008
Initial Screening
• Realistic job preview
• Employment applications
• Resumes
• Screening interviews
• Applicant tracking systems




 Page 9           MGMT 412 | Selection   Fall 2008
Realistic Job Preview
• Lets the applicant know what the job
  involves -- the good and the bad
• Idea is to self-select out individuals
• Also, employees later see this as fair
  treatment
• Can be combined with recruiting / sales


 Page 10         MGMT 412 | Selection   Fall 2008
Application Forms
•    Paper or electronic
•    Identifying information
•    Education
•    Past experience
•    Other skills
       • License or certification if appropriate
•    Applicant signature
       • Permission to conduct background check
       • Termination for false or misleading information
       • Have applicants complete form even if resume provided
•    Weighted Application Blank


    Page 11                        MGMT 412 | Selection          Fall 2008
Resumes
• Little known about resumes
• Standards of quality on a steady rise
• People do lie on resumes - what can
  you do to detect this?
    • Verify information
    • Ask questions
    • Look for what isn’t included, gaps and
           contradictions

 Page 12                    MGMT 412 | Selection   Fall 2008
The Screening Interview
• Brief
• Based on job description and
  resume/application
• Purpose:
    • Making the initial cut
    • Public relations
• New technology
  • Video
  • Telephone


 Page 13                 MGMT 412 | Selection   Fall 2008
Applicant Tracking Systems
• Computerized data bases of applicant
  information
• Implication for job seekers:
    • Resumes need to be in a standard format
           and type font
    • Some even add “key words”




 Page 14                   MGMT 412 | Selection   Fall 2008
The Employment Interview:
Overview

• Why use the interview?
• Types of interviews
• Problems with the interview




 Page 15         MGMT 412 | Selection   Fall 2008
Types of Interviews
• Screening interview (already covered)
• “Free-form” interview
• Structured interview
• Panel interview
• Non-directive interview
• Stress interview


 Page 16             MGMT 412 | Selection   Fall 2008
“Free Form” Interview
• Unplanned and unprepared
• Not based on KSAOs required for job
• Questions often casual:
       • “Tell me about yourself”
•    May involve interviewer “pet questions”:
       • “What is your greatest strength?”
       • “What is your greatest weakness”
•    Speculative questions:
       • “What would you like to be doing ten years from now?”
•    Quick decision made (often in first few minutes)



    Page 17                         MGMT 412 | Selection         Fall 2008
Structured Interviews: What
• Two basic types:
   • Situational (“What would you do?”)
   • Experience-based (What did you do?)
• Responses can be handled in several ways
   • Interviewer can rate applicant based on responses
   • Responses can actually be scored




 Page 18              MGMT 412 | Selection       Fall 2008
Structured Interviews: Why
• Far greater validity than unstructured or free-
  form interviews
    • r = .44
    • That is, about 19% in variance explained by
      interview
    • Equal to any other predictor (such as tests)
• Based on relevant KSAOs and job tasks
   • Job analysis essential
   • Critical incident approach to job analysis



 Page 19                MGMT 412 | Selection         Fall 2008
The Situational Interview
• Based on behaviors, rather than traits
    • Best predictor of future behavior is past
           behavior
• Harder to fake
• Validity about .50




 Page 20              MGMT 412 | Selection    Fall 2008
A Situational Question: Job
Duties

    Suppose you find yourself in an
    argument with several co-workers
    about who should perform a very
    disagreeable, but routine task.
    Which of the following would likely
    be the most effective way to resolve
    this situation?


  Page 21           MGMT 412 | Selection   Fall 2008
Some Possible Responses:
           Have your supervisor decide, because this
          would avoid any personal bias
           Arrange for a rotating               schedule       so
          everyone shares the chore
           Let the workers who show up earliest
          choose on a first-come, first-serve basis
           Randomly assign a person to perform the
          task and don’t change the assignment

 Page 22                 MGMT 412 | Selection              Fall 2008
A Situational Question: Organization
Behavior

 • You have an emergency at home
   (plumbing, family illness, whatever). It’s
   two hours before your shift starts.
   What do you do?




  Page 23          MGMT 412 | Selection   Fall 2008
Experience-Based Questions
• What is the correct procedure for
  determining the appropriate oven
  temperature when running a new batch
  of steel?
• How do you set up files to perform a
  mail merge?
• What are several ways of prospecting
  for sales leads?

 Page 24         MGMT 412 | Selection   Fall 2008
A Rating Scale
 "Describe a time when you explained technical
 features of a project to someone who had a limited
 background in the field"

   1       Low      Does not describe such an
                    experience

   3       Medium   Provides a general description, but
                    few details

   5       High     Describes a situation in detail,
                    including questions asked and
                    appropriate information provided


 Page 25                   MGMT 412 | Selection           Fall 2008
Panel Interviews
• Can be free-form or structured
• May be used in team environment or
  public sector




 Page 26          MGMT 412 | Selection   Fall 2008
Non-Directive Interviews
• Conducted by a trained psychologist
• Not unplanned or random, but general
  rather than job-specific
• Found in assessment setting, where it is
  combined with other selection tools




 Page 27         MGMT 412 | Selection   Fall 2008
Stress Interviews
• This type of interview supposedly
  assesses the applicant’s ability to cope
  with stress
• Developed for use by OSS in WW II
• Not particularly valid
• VERY negative applicant reactions


 Page 28          MGMT 412 | Selection   Fall 2008
What Should the Interviewer Do?
• Begin with light conversation to set the stage
• Talk 10% of the time
    • Keep interview on course
    • Follow-up for complete information
    • Probe for additional information
• Keep to original plan
• Take notes
    • What the candidate says
    • What the candidate doesn’t say
    • How the candidate answers the questions
• Avoid answering “Do I get the job?”

 Page 29                   MGMT 412 | Selection    Fall 2008
Contrast Error
First and Last Impressions
Halo Effect
Stereotyping
“Similar-to-Me Effect”
Central Tendency Error
Negative and Positive Leniency
Landmines to Avoid
    BAD    "Do you have any physical disabilities?"

           "The job requires lifting up to 50 pounds. Can you perform this
 BETTER    activity?"

    BAD    "Do you own your own home? Rent?"

 BETTER    There is no better way to ask this question; it has nothing to do with
           performing a job.

    BAD    "Do you have children? Do you plan to have children? Who takes
           care of your children?"

 BETTER    "This job requires shift work / overtime / travel. Will this be a
           problem for you?

    BAD    "When did you graduate from high school?"

 BETTER    If the high school education is job-related, ask "Did you graduate
           from high school?"

 Page 31                         MGMT 412 | Selection                           Fall 2008
Employment Testing
• Overview
• Computerized testing
• Skill testing
• Personality testing




 Page 32          MGMT 412 | Selection   Fall 2008
Testing Overview
• General issues in testing
  • Access to tests and confidentiality
           • Applicants entitled to confidentiality
           • Validity goes out the window if test security
             compromised
    • Establishing validity
    • Computerized testing
• Types of tests
   • General ability
   • Job skill
   • Personality
 Page 33                       MGMT 412 | Selection          Fall 2008
Computerized Testing
• Has become extremely popular, Internet-based
  testing especially
• Definitely an advantage for distant applicants,
  geographically dispersed organizations
• Questions and concerns
    • Not much is known about the significance of transferring
      tests from paper-and-pencil format to computer
    • Security issues
    • Do applicants need computer skills? If not, computer
      testing introduces irrelevancies


 Page 34                   MGMT 412 | Selection              Fall 2008
General Ability Testing
• Content or criterion validity model
• General mental ability (current area of controversy)
• Specific types of intelligence
    •      Verbal
    •      Mathematical
    •      Mechanical
    •      Social
• Physical abilities
    • Psychomotor (coordination)
    • Physical strength
    • Sensory / perceptual abilities


 Page 35                    MGMT 412 | Selection   Fall 2008
Job Skill Testing
• Content or criterion validity model
• Some examples
    • Typing tests
    • In-baskets
    • Supervisory skills
    • Arithmetic skills



 Page 36                  MGMT 412 | Selection   Fall 2008
Basic Issues in Personality
Testing
 • Construct validity model
 • Types of personality tests
   • Paper-and-pencil
   • Interview
   • Projection
 • Validity good, if properly selected and
   interpreted
 • Normally requires professional expertise

  Page 37          MGMT 412 | Selection   Fall 2008
Caution!
•    Polygraph is generally illegal, unless:
       • Security services
       • Manufacturers or distributors of controlled substances
       • Government
•    Honesty / reliability tests (Reid Report, Stanton Survey, etc.)
       •      Designed to detect individuals who may be dishonest
       •      What is integrity?
       •      Tests are relatively easy to fake
       •      Do they predict? Some evidence that they do
       •      Other ways to maintain employee honesty
•    Tests not appropriate for selection
       • MMPI (designed for clinical settings)
       • MBTI (validity questionable for selection, suitable for teambuilding
              activities)

    Page 38                          MGMT 412 | Selection               Fall 2008
Other Selection Tools
• Reference checking
• License verification
• Physical exams
• Drug screening
• Handwriting analysis
• Assessment centers and individual
  assessment

 Page 39           MGMT 412 | Selection   Fall 2008
Reference Checking
• Why?
• Approaches
• What are you likely to find out?
• Legal issues in providing references




 Page 40          MGMT 412 | Selection   Fall 2008
Why Check References?
• Remember, estimated 1/3 of resumes contain
  inaccurate information
• Legal issue: negligent hiring
• Here, charges are placed by a third party
    • An injury must be caused by employee
    • Employee must be unfit for job
    • Injury must be foreseeable result of hiring
      employee
    • Injury is reasonable and probable outcome of
      what employer did /did not do in hiring employee

 Page 41                MGMT 412 | Selection        Fall 2008
Approaches and Methods
• Who
  • Former employers
  • School
  • Public records
• How
  • Telephone
  • Mail
  • Letters of reference
  • In-person

 Page 42               MGMT 412 | Selection   Fall 2008
Reference Checking: What Former
Employers Will Tell
 •    Dates of employment (96%)
 •    Eligibility for rehire (65%)
 •    Job qualifications (56%)
 •    Overall impression (49%)
 •    Salary history (45%)
 •    Driving record (42%)
 •    Work habits (41%)
 •    Human relations skills (37%)
 •    Credit history (25%)
 •    Personality traits (24%)


     Page 43                  MGMT 412 | Selection   Fall 2008
Providing References: Legal
Issues
• Adverse impact
• Defamation of character
   • Written or oral statement must be given
   • False statement of fact (knowingly)
   • Injury must have occurred
• “Passing the trash”
• Providing favorable reference for one
  employee sets a precedent
• Relief in sight?

 Page 44              MGMT 412 | Selection     Fall 2008
Reference Checking: What to Do
• Ask applicant for additional references if
  others cannot be obtained
• Check everything on resume or application
• Look for information on job-related issues;
  don’t use one general form for all applicants
• Monitor for adverse impact and adverse
  treatment
• Look for objective, not subjective information

 Page 45             MGMT 412 | Selection      Fall 2008
Reference Checking: More
Suggestions
• Get written permission from applicants
• Train telephone checkers
• Record everything in writing
• Be careful in using negative information
   • Could be a personal conflict or atypical behavior
   • Verify from an alternate source




 Page 46                MGMT 412 | Selection        Fall 2008
Physical Exams and Drug
Screening
• The last step before hiring
• Why?
    • Cost factor
    • Only after contingent offer of employment
• Physical exams
    • Can the person perform the job?
    • Pre-existing conditions (later workers’ comp claims)
• Drug screens
    • Urine or hair
    • Mandated for some industries (utilities, transportation)


 Page 47                    MGMT 412 | Selection                 Fall 2008
Handwriting Analysis
• There is some legitimate psychological research in
  this area
    • Primarily European and Israeli
    • Based on Freudian / Jungian theory (gestalt graphology)
• Often used in Europe; a handwritten letter of
  application is the norm in France
• Validity very questionable
    • US research does not support validity
    • When validity found, often contamination from the content
           of the written text


 Page 48                         MGMT 412 | Selection      Fall 2008
Assessment Centers
• The origin: OSS selection during WWII
• Where do we see ACs?
       • Used primarily for management jobs, possibly for supervisory and
         professional jobs
       • Private and public sector
• Multiple methods of assessment
• The purpose of ACs:
       • Selection from outside
       • Promotion to an open position
       • Succession planning
       • Individual career development
•    Reports prepared for manager and/or candidate

    Page 49                       MGMT 412 | Selection              Fall 2008

								
To top