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									TWEAKING THE ELDER LAW
PRACTICE TO ACHIEVE THE
 HIGHEST PROFESSIONAL
      STANDARDS

  Clinical Professor Kate Mewhinney, CELA
    Wake Forest University School of Law
              February 27, 2009
These materials were part of a Continuing
 Legal Education program of the North




                                            Kate Mewhinney, CELA
Carolina Bar Association Foundation.
   They are reprinted with the express
  permission of the North Carolina Bar
   Association Foundation. All rights
                reserved.
     ASPIRATIONAL STANDARDS
   Adopted in 2005 by the National Academy of
    Elder Law Attorneys (NAELA).




                                                  Kate Mewhinney, CELA
   Drafting committee of experienced elder law
    attorneys, including A. Frank Johns of
    Greensboro, a former NAELA President.

   Non-binding recommendations.

   Reviewed from various perspectives in the
    NAELA Journal, Vol. II, No. 1 (2006).
     The NAELA Standards and other elder
law ethics resources, such as the ACTEC




                                                Kate Mewhinney, CELA
Commentaries and pertinent NC ethics rules
and opinions, are assembled on the website of
The Elder Law Clinic of Wake Forest
University School of Law in the Resources
Section.
           www.law.wfu.edu/eclinic
TOPICS COVERED BY NAELA
 ASPIRATIONAL STANDARDS

A - Client Identification
B - Potential Conflict of Interest




                                     Kate Mewhinney, CELA
C - Confidentiality
D - Competent Legal Representation
E - Client Capacity
F- Communication and Advocacy
G - Marketing
H - Ancillary Services
I - Public Service
       OUR PLAN FOR THE HOUR

 Review   the “Standards” – esp. A to E.




                                            Kate Mewhinney, CELA
 Reference   NC ethics rules/ opinions.

 Go   over a few hypotheticals.

         some practical steps to
 Consider
 implement these standards.
    STD. A – CLIENT IDENTIFICATION

   Gather all information and take all steps
    necessary to:




                                                Kate Mewhinney, CELA
       identify who the client is
       at the earliest possible stage and
       communicate that information to the
        persons immediately involved.
   Meet with the identified prospective or
    actual client in private at the earliest
    possible stage so that the client’s capacity
    and voice can be engaged unencumbered.




                                                            Kate Mewhinney, CELA
   If you determine that it is clearly not in
    the best interest of the client to meet
    privately with the client, you take other
    steps to ensure that the client’s wishes are
    identified and respected.



                           Std. A – Client Identification
   Oversee the execution of documents
    that directly affect the interests of an




                                                            Kate Mewhinney, CELA
    individual only after establishing a
    attorney-client relationship with the
    individual.




                           Std. A – Client Identification
             HYPO #1
Huey, Dewey, & Louie
make an appointment




                         Kate Mewhinney, CELA
with you to discuss
their Uncle Donald.
They share that he has
begun to show signs of
dementia and inquire
about a Durable Power
of Attorney.
     Q #1: WHO IS YOUR CLIENT?
A.   Nephews – they’re the ones in my office
     and to whom I’m giving advice.




                                                 Kate Mewhinney, CELA
B.   Uncle Donald – he’s the one we’re talking
     about and who will benefit from the
     advice.

C.   Grandpa Walt – he’s the one who is really
     in charge of Donald’s financial affairs.

D. No one – the nephews are all minors.
         Uncle Donald is the Client!

   A lawyer may not prepare a power of attorney for
    the benefit of the principal at the request of




                                                               Kate Mewhinney, CELA
    another individual or third-party payer without
    consulting with, exercising independent
    professional judgment on behalf of, and obtaining
    consent from the principal.


    [2003 FEO-7, available on the NC State Bar
    website or at http://tinyurl.com/8qwdo9]

                      N.C. Ethics Opinion relevant to Std. A
        THE   COMMENTS TO STD. A
   Determining who is the client and meeting
    privately isn’t always easy.




                                                         Kate Mewhinney, CELA
   It is necessary to identify the client so you know
    whose interests are being addressed.

   It clarifies to whom you owe a duty of
    competence, loyalty, and confidentiality.

   It clarifies what steps can and cannot be taken,
    if the client is not present at initial interview.
   Consider an intake form or staff training to
    first ask “For whom or for whose interests are
    legal services requested?”




                                                          Kate Mewhinney, CELA
   Consider sending a copy of the ABA’s
    “Understanding the Four C’s of Elder Law
    Ethics” to the person who made the
    appointment. Also have it in your lobby and on
    your website. A sample is in your materials.

   For copies, contact Bullockt@staff.abanet.org or
    print it from http://tinyurl.com/9asxq7.

                                     Comments to Std. A
   If it is clearly not in client’s best interest to meet
    privately with you:

       Explain benefits of a private meeting (e.g.,




                                                             Kate Mewhinney, CELA
        documents and decisions less likely to be the
        subject of a challenge).

       Note indications of discomfort by the client or
        influence by relatives.

       Note the content and tenor of comments, how
        supportive or dominating the relatives are.

                                        Comments to Std. A
   Note how consistent or inconsistent the client’s
    stated objectives are with prior wishes
    evidenced by estate planning documents or
    other expressions of intent.




                                                       Kate Mewhinney, CELA
   Nevertheless, should meet at least once
    with the client, alone, before the end of
    representation.

   [Learn the elements of an “undue influence”
    claim and consider the ramifications of your
    clients, you and your staff being subpoenaed in
    a future challenge to your client’s actions. KM]
                                  Comments to Std. A
    EVEN IN THE “CLOSEST” RELATIONSHIPS
       YOU MUST PROTECT THE CLIENT.
   Undue influence can exist in a loving, long-term
    marriage.




                                                                  Kate Mewhinney, CELA
   Undue influence doesn’t require bad motives
    and may be exerted by a person with the best of
    motives.

   See In re Will of Jones, 12/12/08, N.C. S.Ct.,
    where the wife and the testator had been married
    for 47 years. Ct. of App. is reversed; case sent
    back for trial on issue of wife’s undue influence.
    www.aoc.state.nc.us/www/public/sc/opinions/2008/pdf/037-08-
    1.pdf
STD A – CLIENT IDENTIFICATION AND
     JOINT REPRESENTATION




                                                  Kate Mewhinney, CELA
    When is “joint representation” appropriate
     and how should it be handled?

    NAELA Standards and criticisms of it
     follow….
     STD. A ON JOINT REPRESENTATION

   If joint representation is appropriate (see
    Rule 1.7 and Std. B), give the clients a letter or
    agreement providing for waiver of confidences.




                                                              Kate Mewhinney, CELA
    Clarify that:
      All information will be available to all joint
       clients.
      In the event of a conflict between joint clients,
       the attorney must resign.

   A joint representation letter is especially
    important if the clients have blended families.
                                         Comments to Std. A
NAELA APPROACH TO JT REP CRITICIZED

   Some attorneys favor a “family approach” or
    “communitarian approach” to elder law
    consultations.




                                                                              Kate Mewhinney, CELA
   The NAELA Stds A and B accept it quite broadly.

   Others criticize this as a “feel good” approach
    that works well for most cases but not for those
    that go awry.

      “An Estate Planner’s Perspective of the NAELA Aspirational Standards”
      by Jeffery N. Pennell, Esq., NAELA Jl., supra, at 95.
   “Blended family situations [are] when the
    train wreck is most likely to occur! This
    [NAELA Std. A3] deserves a careful,
    critical, and mostly cynical evaluation.”




                                                         Kate Mewhinney, CELA
   No real mention of the relative merits of
    the concurrent separate representation
    alternative.

   Clients won’t confide under a “share all
    secrets” arrangement.

                           Pennell, supra, at 101-102.
    CRITIQUE BY THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF
     TRUST AND ESTATE COUNSEL (ACTEC)

   Consider holding a separate interview with each




                                                                    Kate Mewhinney, CELA
    prospective client, which may allow the clients to
    be more candid and, perhaps, reveal conflicts of
    interest that would not otherwise be disclosed.


    [“What We Learned by Comparing the ACTEC Commentaries to
    NAELA’s Aspirational Standards,” Ottaway, C. and Bennett, C.,
    NAELA Jl, supra, at 114.]
                      COMPARE
   Std A: Engagement letter should provide for
    waiver of all confidences in joint representation.
    However, the Comment says the letter should
    also provide that in the event of a conflict




                                                             Kate Mewhinney, CELA
    between joint clients, the attorney must resign.


                        Versus
   ACTEC Commentaries allow the attorney to:
       withhold information,

       share information, or

       withdraw, as the lawyer deems best under
       the circumstances.
                                         Ibid, at 111-112.
 A NORTH CAROLINA EXAMPLE:
THE ESTATE OF CHARLES KURALT




                               Kate Mewhinney, CELA
   Did the N.Y. attorneys malpractice when they drafted
    the burden-on-the-residue tax payment provision that
    bankrupted the probate estate with the tax generated
    by a specific bequest of out-of-state realty the lawyers




                                                                  Kate Mewhinney, CELA
    did not know existed, to a beneficiary who they also
    knew nothing about?

   No? Because the attorneys did not know about the
    paramour or about the Montana ranch?



           WHY DID THEY NOT KNOW?              [Pennell, ibid.]
Std A – Client Identification




                                Kate Mewhinney, CELA
    – and the Client With
    Diminished Capacity
NC RULES RELEVANT TO STANDARD A

   When a client's capacity to make adequately
    considered decisions in connection with a




                                                  Kate Mewhinney, CELA
    representation is diminished, … the lawyer
    shall, as far as reasonably possible,
    maintain a normal client-lawyer
    relationship with the client. Rule 1.14(a).

   See also Std. E – Client Capacity.
   Selected comments to N.C. Rule 1.14(a)


    [2] The fact that a client suffers a disability
    does not diminish the lawyer's obligation to




                                                           Kate Mewhinney, CELA
    treat the client with attention and respect.
    Even if the person has a legal representative,
    the lawyer should as far as possible accord the
    represented person the status of client,
    particularly in maintaining communication.

                               N.C. Rule 1.14 and Std. A
[3] The client may wish to have family
members or other persons participate in
discussions with the lawyer. ….




                                                        Kate Mewhinney, CELA
[T]he lawyer must keep the client's interests
foremost and, except for protective action
authorized under paragraph (b), must to look
to the client, and not family members, to make
decisions on the client's behalf.
                            N.C. Rule 1.14 and Std. A
THE FLIP SIDE OF WHO’S THE CLIENT:




                                                    Kate Mewhinney, CELA
     WHO’S NOT THE CLIENT?


   Once you’ve identified the client, then what?

   See N.C. Rules 4.3 and 1.18.
      DEALING WITH UNREPRESENTED
           PERSONS – RULE 4.3

   Do not state or imply that you are uninterested.
    When you know or reasonably should know that




                                                       Kate Mewhinney, CELA
    the unrepresented person misunderstands your
    role in the matter, you shall make reasonable
    efforts to correct the misunderstanding.


   Comment: Unrepresented people might assume
    that the lawyer is a “disinterested authority on
    the law.”
    DUTIES TO PROSPECTIVE CLIENT

   Issue: What if the older person’s relatives




                                                            Kate Mewhinney, CELA
    come to see you about that person, without
    bringing him/her, and it later turns out the
    family really isn’t in complete agreement?

   Of course, try to avoid this by having a
    policy of asking that the older person come in
    first!
                            N.C. Rules relevant to Std. A
“A lawyer may condition conversations with a
prospective client on the person’s informed
consent that no information disclosed during
the consultation will prohibit the lawyer from
representing a different client in the matter.




                                                 Kate Mewhinney, CELA
[….]

If the agreement expressly so provides, the
prospective client may also consent to the
lawyer’s subsequent use of information
received from the prospective client.”

   Comment 5 to N.C. Rule 1.18, “Duties to
    Prospective Client.”
NC ALLOWS FOR “MIRANDA WARNING”

   I, [Daughter], understand that Attorney does not
    represent me regarding issues that concern my
    mother. I understand that Attorney may be




                                                               Kate Mewhinney, CELA
    representing my mother after Attorney meets
    with her. I also understand that whatever I say
    to Attorney may be used against my
    interests by Attorney in her representation of
    my mother. I understand I could hire my own
    lawyer and I have chosen not to do so. I have
    read this document and understand its contents.

                       Ethics Opinion 2003 FEO-7, Inquiry #4
                       (emphasis added)
         PRACTICE TIPS

1.   Identify the client –
        out loud,




                                            Kate Mewhinney, CELA
        in writing, and
        to all involved parties
2.   Meet alone with the client
3.   Don’t imply to relatives that you’re
     uninterested.
4.   Consider the “Miranda warning”
     when the older person’s relatives
     come in to see you first.
STD. B– POTENTIAL CONFLICT OF INTEREST

Analysis:




                                                      Kate Mewhinney, CELA
  1.   Review of basic NC rule on conflicts.

  2.   What do the NAELA Aspirational Standards
       recommend?

  3.   What do the NC Rules and NAELA Stds say
       about 3rd party payment of fees, if you even
       allow that practice?
 N.C. RULES RELEVANT TO STD. B
Rule 1.7 provides that




                                                   Kate Mewhinney, CELA
(a) A lawyer shall not represent a client if the
  representation of that client will be directly
  adverse to another client, unless:

  (1) the lawyer reasonably believes the
 representation will not adversely affect the
 relationship with the other client; and

  (2) each client consents after consultation.
 …cont’d…
(b) A lawyer shall not represent a client if the
  representation of that client may be materially
  limited by the lawyer’s responsibility to another
  client or to a third person, or by the lawyer’s own




                                                               Kate Mewhinney, CELA
  interests, unless:

      (1) the lawyer reasonably believes the
      representation will not be adversely affected;
      and

      (2) the client consents after consultation.


           N.C. Rules relevant to Std. B regarding Conflicts
    When representation of multiple
clients in a single matter is undertaken
the consultation shall include
explanation of:




                                                          Kate Mewhinney, CELA
   the implications of the common
   representation and
   the advantages and

   risks involved (including
   foreseeable conflicts of interest).


               Std. B – Potential Conflicts of Interest
     TRANSLATING THIS STUFF TO THE
    INTERGENERATIONAL CLIENT GROUP
 I have yet to find an example of this.
 How do you explain this – the pros and cons,




                                                          Kate Mewhinney, CELA
  implications and risks, predictions and potential
  costs?
 Is it realistic to say that an older client has fully
  understood and freely consented to joint
  representation, if it is difficult for us to explain
  these issues?
 What if the parent is at all impaired, depressed,
  or dependent on the relatives who brought them
  to you?
STD. B – POTENTIAL CONFLICTS OF
            INTEREST

   If representing multiple family members,




                                                Kate Mewhinney, CELA
    ensure that they understand who are the
    clients and whether the representation is
    Joint (i.e., confidences are shared) or
    Separate.

   These situations can easily produce
    misunderstandings among family members,
    so education is important.
   Treat family members who are not
    clients as unrepresented persons but




                                                         Kate Mewhinney, CELA
    accord them involvement in the client’s
    representation so long as it is:

       consistent with the client’s wishes
        and values, and

       the client consents to the involvement.

                       NAELA Std B regarding Conflicts
                                                          Kate Mewhinney, CELA
Accept payment of client fees
by a 3rd party only after….



       3rd party payment of fees. Rule 1.8(f), restated
       in NAELA Standard B.
   determining that this won’t influence
    your independent judgment on
    behalf of the client,




                                            Kate Mewhinney, CELA
   informing the client who consents to
    the payment by a third party, and

   ensuring that the parties understand
    and agree to the ethical ground rules
    for 3rd party payment, which are….
…..
• Non-interference by the payor,




                                                            Kate Mewhinney, CELA
• Independence of judgment by
the attorney, &
• Confidentiality.




  3rd party payment of fees, cont’d. Rule 1.8(f)/ Std. B.
Kate Mewhinney, CELA
NO!


                       Or, just say…..
                  HYPO #3
Zsa Zsa from Wysteria Lane
meets with you for estate
planning.




                                    Kate Mewhinney, CELA
She is currently in her fourth
marriage.

Her husband does not join in the
consultation, but she states that
he will come to the next
meeting.
Q #3: CAN YOU REPRESENT BOTH?
A. Yes; joint representation of married
   spouses is permitted, especially in estate
   planning.




                                                Kate Mewhinney, CELA
B. Maybe; provided both parties understand
   and consent.

C. No; this is unwise, especially in multiple
   marriage situation.

D. Never represent a housewife from Wysteria
   Lane.
     PRACTICE TIPS FOR WHEN JOINT
     REPRESENTATION IS AUTHORIZED




                                                     Kate Mewhinney, CELA
1.    Review the rule on conflicts of interest.

2.    Obtain informed consent of both/all parties.

3.    Execute a joint representation agreement, or
      confirm the agreement in writing, if
      appropriate.
      STD. C - CONFIDENTIALITY
   Carefully explain the obligation of
    confidentiality to the client and involved




                                                 Kate Mewhinney, CELA
    parties as early as possible in the
    representation to avoid misunderstanding,
    and to ascertain and respect the client’s
    wishes regarding the disclosure of
    confidential information.
   The release of confidentiality should be
    placed in writing.
N.C. RULES RELEVANT TO STD. C -
   DUTY OF CONFIDENTIALITY

    A lawyer shall not reveal information




                                                         Kate Mewhinney, CELA
acquired during the professional relationship
with a client unless the client gives informed
consent, the disclosure is impliedly authorized in
order to carry out the representation or the
disclosure is permitted by paragraph (b).

                            N.C. Rule 1.6(a) - excerpt
     PRACTICE TIP ON CONFIDENTIALITY
   Consider including this is engagement letters or
    retainer agreements:




                                                            Kate Mewhinney, CELA
       You indicated that this office could release any
        information you provided me to [state name and
        relationship of person(s); ex.: your daughter,
        D.D. Jones], if I determine that this would be in
        your best interests.

   Reminds you to be explicit about disclosure issues.
           STD. D –
COMPETENT LEGAL REPRESENTATION




                                                     Kate Mewhinney, CELA
   Recognize the special range of client needs
    and professional skills unique to the practice
    of elder law and hold yourself out as an
    “Elder Law Attorney” only after ensuring
    your professional competence in handling
    elder law and disability related matters.
 Approach client matters in a holistic
  manner, recognizing that legal
  representation of clients often is enhanced
  by involvement of other professionals,
  support groups, and aging network




                                                         Kate Mewhinney, CELA
  resources.
 Practice tips:

    Establish formal or informal
     relationships with social workers,
     psychologists and other elder care
     professionals to best serve the client’s
     legal needs.

               Std. D – Competent Legal Representation
        STD. E – CLIENT CAPACITY

   Respect the client’s autonomy and right to
    confidentiality even with the onset of




                                                    Kate Mewhinney, CELA
    diminished capacity.

   Develop and utilize appropriate skills and
    processes for making and documenting
    preliminary assessments of client capacity to
    undertake the specific legal matters at hand.
   Adapt the interview environment, timing of
    meetings, communications and decision-making
    processes to maximize the client’s capacity.




                                                             Kate Mewhinney, CELA
   Take appropriate measures to protect the client
    when you reasonably believe that the client has
    diminished capacity, is at risk of substantial
    physical, financial or other harm unless action is
    taken, and cannot adequately act in the client’s
    own interest.
                          Std. E cont’d. – Client Capacity
See earlier slides on N.C. Rule 1.14




                                       Kate Mewhinney, CELA
on representing the impaired client,
 in section on Standard A- Client
           Identification.
   When taking appropriate measures to protect
    the client:
      Be guided by the wishes and values of the
       client and the client’s best interests;
      Seek to minimize the intrusion into the




                                                          Kate Mewhinney, CELA
       client’s decision-making autonomy and
       maximize the client’s capacity;
      Respect the client’s family and social
       connections; and
      Consider a range of actions other than court
       proceedings and adult protective services.


                       Std. E cont’d. – Client Capacity
PRACTICE TIP – TELL CLIENTS WHAT YOU
WILL DO IF THEY BECOME INCAPACITATED.


     Consider informing clients of your policy, in
      an engagement letter or retainer agreement.




                                                       Kate Mewhinney, CELA
      For example:

         On occasion, our clients become ill while
          we are representing them. I am enclosing
          a page that explains how we would handle
          such a situation, if that was to happen to
          you. Please let me know if you have
          questions about it.
       WHAT IF YOU BECOME MENTALLY UNABLE
             TO MANAGE YOUR AFFAIRS?


      This page explains our policy if we have serious
concerns about your mental capacity.
      If we are still representing you, we will continue to do




                                                                      Kate Mewhinney, CELA
so. We will take steps to protect your interests. We will
follow legal standards of practice and ethics rules. N.C.
ethics rules provide that, when a client cannot act in his
own interest, the lawyer may take appropriate action in
assessing the client’s capacity and considering protective
action. This could include seeking appointment of a
guardian.
      I would only take actions that I reasonably believe to
be in your best interests and consistent with your
previously expressed wishes.

                 Suggested policy to share with clients – pg 1 of 2
Unless you direct me otherwise in writing, you
authorize me:
 (1) to communicate with your family, your
   physicians and your other advisors and to give
   them confidential (private) information that I




                                                                  Kate Mewhinney, CELA
   think is appropriate under the circumstances,
   and
 (2) to represent one or more members of your
   family or other advisors acting in a fiduciary
   relationship (which means a “trusted”
   relationship) for you or your property.
   However, I would not represent them in any
   proceeding involving determination of your
   capacity.
             Suggested policy to share with clients- pg 2 of 2.
               HYPO #2
    Huey, Dewey, and Louie
meet with you to discuss
their Uncle Donald. They




                              Kate Mewhinney, CELA
present to you a validly-
executed DPOA, naming
Huey as principal agent for
Donald.

    The nephews share with
you that Donald has mid-
stage Alzheimer’s, and they
need advice about his long-
term care options.
Q #2: WHO IS YOUR CLIENT?

 A.   Nephews




                            Kate Mewhinney, CELA
 B.   Donald

 C.   Huey

 D. Donald and Huey
   In representing a fiduciary for a person with
    diminished capacity:

       Be guided by the known wishes and best interests
        of the person with diminished capacity, and




                                                               Kate Mewhinney, CELA
       Disclose otherwise confidential information, in the
        event a conflict arises between the fiduciary and
        the person with diminished capacity, if necessary
        to avoid substantial harm to the interests of the
        person with diminished capacity.

                            Std. E cont’d. – Client Capacity
STD. F – COMMUNICATION AND ADVOCACY

   Work to minimize barriers to effective
    communication with and representation of older




                                                        Kate Mewhinney, CELA
    persons or persons with disabilities.

   Maintain direct communication with the client,
    even when the client chooses to involve others in
    the process, and especially when significant
    decisions are to be made.
              STD. G - MARKETING
   Consider marketing to educate public and
    promote profession of elder law.




                                                           Kate Mewhinney, CELA
   Only market truthful communications.

   No false or misleading communication at
    presentations or seminars. (e.g., no message that
    “one size fits all” or exaggeration of benefits of a
    course of action)
   Reasonable basis required to suggest superiority
    over other attorneys.
   Use organizational endorsement only if truthfully




                                                                 Kate Mewhinney, CELA
    reflects collective judgment of the organization and
    disclose any relationship with the organization that
    might materially affect the weight or credibility of
    the endorsement.
   No uninvited or phone solicitation of prospective
    clients who may be vulnerable to undue influence.


                                   Std. G – Marketing. Cont’d.
       N.C. RULES & DEVELOPMENTS
            RELATED TO STD. G

   Board of Legal Specialization of N.C. State Bar has
    authorized a certification in the field of elder law. See




                                                                 Kate Mewhinney, CELA
    www.nclawspecialists.gov/

   Held in conjunction with the National Elder Law
    Foundation, www.nelf.org.

   An attorney who has been certified as a specialist by that
    Board may so indicate in an advertisement in any way
    that is not false, deceptive or misleading. RPC 43 – July
    15, 1988.
            TOP 10 PRACTICAL TIPS

1.   Identify your client at outset of representation.

     Meet with the identified prospective or actual




                                                         Kate Mewhinney, CELA
2.

     elder client in private.

3.   Provide client with written engagement
     contract.

4.   Explain obligation of confidentiality to client
     and involved parties as early as possible.

5.   Approach client matters in a holistic manner.
6.    Ensure adequate training and supervision of legal
      and non-legal staff.

7.    Develop and use skills/processes for making and
      documenting preliminary assessments of client




                                                              Kate Mewhinney, CELA
      capacity to undertake specific legal matters at hand.

8.    Advocate within the law courses of action chosen by
      the client.

9.    No misleading or materially false information is
      communicated in connection with seminars, etc.

10.   Ensure that ancillary services are licensed and meet
      the client’s needs.
      Thank you for your attention and
for striving to meet the highest ethical
 standards for older clients and their
                families.




                                           Kate Mewhinney, CELA
Clinical Professor Kate Mewhinney

								
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