Real Time Hardware

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					Real-Time Hardware
               Computer Architecture
                       Sensors


                         DAQ



         Comm        Computer                   Actuator    Actuators
                                                 Driver
                      Software



September 17, 2001   Real-Time Systems: Computer Hardware
                     Processors
!PIC  – CMOS 8-bit microcontroller
!BasicStamp – Uses a PIC chip
!MIPS
!ARM
!Intel x86
!Motorola (68k, PowerPC, etc.)



September 17, 2001   Real-Time Systems: Computer Hardware
                          Memory
!Volatile
      !RAM

!Non-Volatile
      !ROM

      !EEPROM

      !Flash




September 17, 2001   Real-Time Systems: Computer Hardware
 Hardware Component Interfaces
!Serial         (RS-232, RS-485)
      !115.2         Kbps
!Parallel
!USB
      !Provides Power
      !12 Mbps, 1.5 Mbps
      !5-meter maximum length

!Wireless

September 17, 2001          Real-Time Systems: Computer Hardware
                       Bus & Form Factors
! PCB  – Printed Circuit Board
! ISA – Industry Standard Architecture (later EISA)
      ! 8-bit,   8-Mhz
! PCI
      ! Time Multiplexed
      ! 33/66 MHz

! PC-104         (plus)
      ! Same         as ISA bus (includes PCI bus)
! SBC       – Single Board Computer

September 17, 2001            Real-Time Systems: Computer Hardware
                               Desktop PCI        Passive           PMC         CompactPCI       Small-PCI     PC/104-Plus
                                                 Backplane
                                                    PCI
Dimensions (in.)               Long: 12.3 x      12.3 x 3.9       5.9 x 2.9       6.3 x 3.9      3.4 x 2.1       3.8 x 3.6
                               3.9
                               Short: 6.9 x
Area (sq. in.)                 3.9 48
                               Long:                 48              17                25            7              13
                               Short: 24

Bus Connector                   Edge-Card        Edge-Card      Pin & Socket    Pin & Socket    Pin & Socket   Pin & Socket


Includes ISA bus                    No              Yes              No                No           No             Yes


Installation Plane             Perpendicular    Perpendicular      Parallel     Perpendicular     Parallel       Parallel


Expands Without                     No               No              No                No           No             Yes
Additional Slots (Self-
Stacking)
Positive retention                  No               No             Yes                Yes          No             Yes


Standards Body                    PCI-SIG          PICMG            IEEE              PICMG       PCI-SIG        PC/104
                                                                                                               Consortium

Primary                           Desktop:       Industrial:     Industrial:     Industrial:      Laptop:      Embedded:
Application                     motherboard      backplane         VME           backplane        factory         SBC
Area                             expansion       expansion       mezzanine       expansion        options      expansion



          September 17, 2001                   Real-Time Systems: Computer Hardware
                                       PC/104
! Began Manufacture in 1987, Formal Spec in 1992
! IEEE P996.1 Standard for Compact Embedded-PC Modules
! Compact form-factor
       ! Size    reduces to 3.6 by 3.8 inches.
!   Unique self-stacking bus
       ! Eliminates      the cost and bulk of backplanes and card cages.
!   Pin-and-socket connectors
       ! Rugged   and reliable 64- and 40-contact male/female headers
         replace the standard PC's edgecard connectors
!   Relaxed bus drive (6 mA)
       ! Lowers power consumption (to 1-2 Watts per module) and
         minimizes component count


    September 17, 2001          Real-Time Systems: Computer Hardware
           PC/104 Mechanical Specs




September 17, 2001   Real-Time Systems: Computer Hardware
                     PC/104 Components
!Computer
!Power Conditioning
!A/D & D/A Converters
!Image Processing
!GPS
!Add-on ports
!Etc.

September 17, 2001      Real-Time Systems: Computer Hardware

				
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