CDA Capability Demo Presentation

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CDA Capability Demo Presentation Powered By Docstoc
					                                        Federal Aviation
 Aviation Environmental                 Administration
 Design Tool (AEDT)
 Continuous
 Descent Approach
 (CDA) Capability
 Demonstration

Presented to: CDA Workshop, NASA Ames

By: Eric Dinges, ATAC Corporation

Date: 7 June 2007
Motivation
 •    FAA/PARTNER Center of Excellence sponsors research in
      Continuous Descent Approach (CDA) Operational Studies:
       – Quantified environment effects in 2002 flight test
       – Air traffic control operational proofing in 2004 flight test
       – Demonstrations identified reduced noise, fuel burn, engine
         emission and time savings (Louisville CDA study: Report No.
         PARTNER-COE-2005-002, January 2006)

 •    Modeling CDA offers an alternative aircraft operational flight
      procedure for targeted environmental mitigation

 •    Establishing this capability in AEDT allows for:
       – Modeling real-world, wide-scale environmental benefits (gate-
         to-gate effects)
       – Projecting cost/benefits of future CDA implementation

CDA Capability Demonstration                         Federal Aviation   2   2
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CDA Demonstration Development
• Capability Demonstration is still underway:

                                                    Develop Initial
      Define Initial           Acquire Data for
                                                  Analysis Capability
      Methodology                One Airport
                                                   for One Airport



                                   Perform             Analyze
         Analyze
                                Coordinated           Trajectory
     Applicability at
                               Noise/Emissions       Output and
     Multiple Airports
                                   Analysis         Refine Method




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Current Analysis
 •    Terminal area only, 10,000 ft AFE and below
 •    Baseline operations and trajectories derived from 24 days of
      radar data
       – 2 days from each of 12 consecutive months (2005)
       – All available flight paths modeled
       – Airframe/engine combination assignments based on Bureau of
         Transportation Statistics (BTS) and BACK registration data
       – All operating configurations, both arrivals and departures
 •    CDA operations and trajectories derived from 14 days of radar
      data
       – 14 consecutive days (April 2006)
       – Both hypothetical and actual CDA implementation levels
       – Aircraft-type specific CDA trajectories modeled based on actual
         trajectories
 •    Future rounds of analyses will include expanded scope
       – CDAs from top of descent, gate-to-gate effects

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Typically Modeled vs. Actual Approach
Profiles
                            10000

                            9000
                                                                                 Short Downwind
                            8000                                                 Straight-In
                            7000                                                 Long Downwind
        Altitude (ft AFE)




                                                                                 3 Degree
                            6000

                            5000

                            4000

                            3000

                            2000

                            1000

                                0
                                    -20   -18   -16   -14   -12    -10   -8     -6     -4      -2    0
                                                      Distance from Touchdown (nmi)

CDA Capability Demonstration                                                            Federal Aviation   5   5
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Baseline Approach Profiles
• Radar is the best widely available data source for
  current baseline approach trajectories
• Requires derivation of thrust levels in order to be
  used for environmental modeling
     – No standardized method exists
     – Requires aircraft performance data that is missing from available
       databases for several important aircraft
• Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) A-21
  committee has recently formed a Project Working
  Team to address the issue
     – Current CDA Demonstration methodology to serve as the basis
       for guidance document development

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Approach Routes




                               West Flow Southern
                               West Flow Lower Downwind
                               West Flow Downwind Short
                               West Flow Downwind Mid
                               West Flow Downwind Long
                               East Flow Straight-In
                               East Flow Northern
                               West Flow Straight-In
                               East Flow Downwind




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                                 CDA Implementation Levels
                                 •     Six scenarios using hypothetical implementation levels
                                       ranging from current baseline to all-CDA operations
                                       using traffic flow thresholds
                                 •     Two scenarios using actual CDA implementation levels
                                 7
Number of Straight-In Arrivals




                                                                                                                            Percentage of Total
                                 6                                                                            Scenario
                                                                                                                            Arrivals Flying CDA's
                                      Threshold 5
                                 5
                                      Threshold 4                                                             Baseline               0.0%
                                 4                                                                           Threshold 1            16.3%
                                      Threshold 3                                                            Threshold 2            30.4%
                                 3
                                                                                                             Threshold 3            47.8%
                                 2    Threshold 2                                                            Threshold 4            63.3%
                                                                                                             Threshold 5            78.8%
                                 1    Threshold 1
                                                                                                               All CDA              100.0%
                                 0                                                                          Realistic CDA           17.3%
                                     1 5 9 13 17 21 25 29 33 37 41 45 49 53 57 61 65 69 73 77 81 85 89 93    Actual CDA             17.3%
                                             15-Min. Interval (0 =Midnight Local Time)

                                 CDA Capability Demonstration                                                         Federal Aviation       8   8
                                 7 June 2007                                                                          Administration
    Actual CDA Implementation
    Scenarios
•    “Realistic CDA” Scenario
     – Actual CDA arrival levels applied to 24-day pre-implementation
       radar data set
     – Operations normalized for consistency across time periods
       (Day, Evening, Night)
     – Identical fleet mix and non-CDA operations
•    “Actual CDA” Scenario
     – Based directly on the 14-day post-implementation radar data
       set
     – Fewer total flight trajectories (14 vs. 24 days worth)
     – Operations normalized for consistency across time periods
       (Day, Evening, Night)
     – Similar but not identical fleet mix
     – Accounts for all airspace changes


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CDA Profiles
•   Modeled CDA profiles based on actual observed profiles from
    post-implementation radar data set
•   Aircraft-type specific profiles, speed schedules based on
    operation-specific aircraft weight
                          12000.0                                                         300.0

                                                737-700 CDA Profile
                          10000.0                                                         250.0




                                                                                                  True Airspeed (knots)
                                 8000.0                                                   200.0
                 Altitude (ft)




                                 6000.0                                                   150.0


                                 4000.0                                                   100.0


                                 2000.0         Altitude (ft)                             50.0
                                                True Airspeed (knots)
                                    0.0                                                   0.0
                                    -219228.6       -164121.9   -103360.7   -42599.6
                                                     Distance From Touchdown (ft)


CDA Capability Demonstration                                                           Federal Aviation                   10   10
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 CDA Ground Tracks


KSDF




                                                          Radar track
                                                          Dispersed track
                                  Cluster boundary



            10 Nautical
               Miles            Runway

 CDA Capability Demonstration                        Federal Aviation   11   11
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Day-Night Average Noise Level
(DNL) Contour Impacts


                                                  55
                                     50                60
              DNL = 45 dB




                        0        5           10
                                                            Radar Baseline
                            nautical miles
                                                            All CDA



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   Contour Area Comparisons
                                        Arrivals Only
                                      % Change in Area Relative to Baseline
 DNL (dB) Threshold Threshold Threshold Threshold Threshold                     Realistic    Actual
                                                                     All CDA
                   1         2         3          4          5                    CDA        CDA*
     45         -8.0%    -14.1%    -19.7%     -20.0%     -20.0%       -20.2%      -0.2%      13.7%
     50         -4.3%     -6.6%     -9.0%      -9.5%      -9.7%       -10.0%      -0.5%       8.3%
     55         -2.8%     -4.3%     -5.9%      -6.6%      -6.9%        -7.4%      -0.6%       4.8%
     60         -1.7%     -2.6%     -3.7%      -4.4%      -4.6%        -5.0%      -0.7%       3.3%
     65         -0.7%     -1.2%     -1.9%      -2.2%      -2.4%        -2.6%      -0.3%       2.6%
     70         -0.8%     -1.5%     -2.2%      -2.6%      -2.9%        -3.5%      -0.5%       2.4%
     75          0.4%      0.0%      0.4%       0.4%       0.4%         0.4%       0.0%       3.7%
     80         -2.0%     -2.0%     -2.0%       0.0%       0.0%        -2.0%      -2.0%       3.9%
* Modeled increase influenced by unaccounted for non-standard aircraft configurations during baseline
  straight-in arrivals




   CDA Capability Demonstration                                          Federal Aviation    13   13
   7 June 2007                                                           Administration
Straight-In Arrivals Post CDA
Implementation




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  Contour Area Comparisons
                                 Arrivals and Departures
                                 % Change in Area Relative to Baseline
DNL (dB) Threshold Threshold Threshold Threshold Threshold                 Realistic   Actual
                                                                All CDA
              1         2         3         4           5                   CDA        CDA
  45       -1.4%     -2.7%     -3.9%     -4.0%       -4.0%       -4.0%       0.0%      -8.1%
  50       -0.8%     -1.3%     -1.7%     -1.8%       -1.9%       -2.0%      -0.1%      -5.0%
  55       -0.7%     -1.0%     -1.3%     -1.4%       -1.5%       -1.6%      -0.1%      -4.3%
  60       -0.4%     -0.7%     -0.9%     -1.0%       -1.1%       -1.2%      -0.1%      -4.7%
  65       -0.2%     -0.4%     -0.5%     -0.6%       -0.6%       -0.7%      -0.1%      -5.0%
  70       -0.2%     -0.3%     -0.4%     -0.5%       -0.6%       -0.7%      -0.1%      -3.9%
  75        0.0%      0.0%      0.0%      0.0%        0.0%        0.0%       0.0%      -5.7%
  80       -0.1%     -0.3%     -0.1%     -0.2%       -0.1%        0.0%      -0.2%      -8.2%




  CDA Capability Demonstration                                     Federal Aviation    15   15
  7 June 2007                                                      Administration
A-Weighted Sound Exposure Level
(SEL) Grid Points
• Grid points can help determine noise impacts of
  both vertical profile and horizontal track differences
  per approach route




                                     CDA Tracks

                                     Grid Point



                          0    5NM




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           SEL Comparisons
                                     5
                                                                              Mid Downwind Under Track
Delta dB (SEL, CDA minus Baseline)



                                     4                                        Mid Downwind 4 nmi Offset
                                                                              Straight-In Under Track
                                     3                                        Straight-In 4 nmi Offset


                                     2

                                     1

                                     0

                                     -1

                                     -2

                                     -3

                                     -4

                                     -5
                                          -20   -15                -10                   -5                   0
                                                      Distance From Touchdown (nmi)

        CDA Capability Demonstration                                                       Federal Aviation   17   17
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   Fuel Burn and Emissions
                            10,000 ft AFE to Touchdown
                                  Arrivals and Departures
                                             Percent Change from Baseline
Scenario           CO        THC    NMHC       VOC       NOX       SOX       PM10       PM25    FUEL
Baseline          0.0%       0.0%    0.0%     0.0%       0.0%      0.0%       0.0%      0.0%    0.0%
Threshold 1      -4.5%      -0.1%    -0.1%    -0.1%     -0.8%     -1.7%      -0.6%      -0.6%   -1.7%
Threshold 2      -6.4%      -0.2%    -0.2%    -0.2%     -1.2%     -2.7%      -1.0%      -1.0%   -2.7%
Threshold 3      -7.4%      -0.2%    -0.2%    -0.2%     -1.7%     -3.6%      -1.3%      -1.3%   -3.6%
Threshold 4      -5.0%      0.0%     0.0%     0.0%      -1.7%     -3.7%      -1.3%      -1.3%   -3.7%
Threshold 5      -2.5%      0.2%     0.2%     0.2%      -1.8%     -3.7%      -1.3%      -1.3%   -3.7%
All CDA           0.8%       0.5%    0.5%     0.5%      -1.9%     -3.7%      -1.4%      -1.4%   -3.7%
Realistic CDA     2.3%       0.1%    0.1%     0.1%      -0.1%     -0.1%      -0.1%      -0.1%   -0.1%
Actual CDA       10.2%     -11.7%   -11.7%   -11.7%     -6.9%     -4.1%      -2.6%      -2.6%   -4.1%




   CDA Capability Demonstration                                             Federal Aviation    18   18
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Current Limitations
• Using only standard aircraft configuration schedule
   – Radar does not provide aircraft configuration
   – Modeling capability is there but need information from
     outside sources
• Limited aircraft performance data
   – EUROCONTROL currently working with Airbus to
     supply necessary data for entire Airbus fleet, FAA
     working on additional Boeing data
• Limited use of wind data
   – Need to balance accuracy requirements vs. publicly
     available wind data sources



CDA Capability Demonstration                Federal Aviation   19   19
7 June 2007                                 Administration
Summary
• New modeling methods being developed and
  applied
     – Use of actual trajectories enables determination of
       real-world CDA benefits
     – Methods still being refined and require validation
     – Working in conjunction with technical groups such as
       SAE A-21
• Limited scope analysis completed
     – Terminal area only, no use of additional flight
       procedure information
• Analysis scope will be increased and
  repeated at multiple airports
CDA Capability Demonstration                   Federal Aviation   20   20
7 June 2007                                    Administration
Next Steps
• Obtain and incorporate additional aircraft
  performance data
• Support development of and incorporate
  standardized methodology for deriving thrust from
  aircraft position data
• Develop guidance on appropriate vertical dispersion
  techniques
• Evaluate CDA Demonstration methodology at a
  number of airports
• Develop method for concurrent display of noise and
  emissions results
• Perform significant validation work on any new
  computational methods developed

CDA Capability Demonstration           Federal Aviation   21   21
7 June 2007                            Administration
                      ??? Questions ???


                          FAA Environmental Tools web site:
      http://www.faa.gov/about/office_org/headquarters_offices/aep/models/




CDA Capability Demonstration                              Federal Aviation   22   22
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Verification and Validation
• Modeling simplifications such as vertical
  dispersion need to be validated against
  results using all data at several airports
• Methods for calculating thrust from RADAR
  data can be enhanced and validated using
  Flight Data Recorder (FDR) information,
  preliminary efforts have already been
  completed
     – Comprehensive FDR data sets are being obtained
     – SAE A-21 PWT efforts will directly support this

CDA Capability Demonstration               Federal Aviation   23   23
7 June 2007                                Administration
   Fuel Burn and Emissions
                            10,000 ft AFE to Touchdown
                                    Arrivals Only
                                           Percent Change from Baseline
Scenario           CO       THC    NMHC      VOC       NOX        SOX      PM10        PM25     FUEL
Baseline          0.0%     0.0%     0.0%    0.0%      0.0%        0.0%     0.0%         0.0%     0.0%
Threshold 1      -6.0%     -2.0%   -2.0%    -2.0%    -11.9%     -11.2%     -8.8%       -8.8%   -11.2%
Threshold 2      -8.4%     -3.0%   -3.0%    -3.0%    -19.4%     -17.7%    -14.0%      -14.0%   -17.7%
Threshold 3      -9.7%     -3.1%   -3.1%    -3.1%    -26.2%     -23.5%    -18.3%      -18.3%   -23.5%
Threshold 4      -6.6%     -0.7%   -0.7%    -0.7%    -27.4%     -23.8%    -18.8%      -18.8%   -23.8%
Threshold 5      -3.3%      2.8%    2.8%     2.8%    -28.3%     -23.9%    -19.1%      -19.1%   -23.9%
All CDA           1.0%      8.5%    8.5%     8.5%    -30.0%     -24.2%    -19.8%      -19.8%   -24.2%
Post CDA         16.8%     10.9%   10.9%   10.9%      10.1%      11.0%     11.9%       11.9%    11.0%
Actual CDA        3.1%      2.4%    2.4%    2.4%      -1.2%      -0.3%     -0.5%       -0.5%    -0.3%




   CDA Capability Demonstration                                           Federal Aviation     24   24
   7 June 2007                                                            Administration

				
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