Zimbabwe - Child friendly nation

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					     SOCIAL ACCOUNTABILITY STOCKTAKING EXERCISE
                    FOR AFRICA
    CHILD FRIENDLY NATIONAL BUDGET INITIATIVE PROJECT

              Specify whether (i)PB, (ii)IBA, (iii)BPET, or (iv) PPM can select more
Methodology
              than one option as some SA initiatives do not fit neatly into these
   Type
              categories)

              Name of              Child Friendly National Budget Initiative [CFNBI]
              Intervention
                                   National Association of Non Governmental Organizations
              Primary Agency        (NANGO)- Zimbabwe. The Child Friendly National Budget
                                    Initiative was first mooted in 1999 by a consortium of NGOs
              Running               under the auspices of the National Association of Non-
              Intervention          Governmental Organizations (NANGO) - which is the
   Basic                            implementing partner and secretariat for the Initiative.
Information   Location             Harare, Zimbabwe
              Sector or Level of   Multi-sectoral- Emphasis is however on social sectors such as
              Focus                 health, education, public assistance e.t.c
                                   Advocacy project targeted at policy and budget makers to lobby
              Type of                them to allocate more resources towards children’s issues and
              Engagement             also to ensure the efficient utilization of these resources. The
                                     process, which started in 2001, is ongoing.
                                   The National Association of Non Governmental Organizations
                                   (NANGO), through the Child Friendly National Budget
                                   Initiative (CFNBI), is convinced that the national budget is a key
                                   tool that can be used to effectively deal with the deteriorating
                                   situation of children confirmed by the research conducted by the
                                   institution in 2001 and augmented by yearly and district level
              What is the          consultative workshops.
              driving force
              behind the           It is how resources are mobilized; allocated and utilized that
              initiative?          could worsen or better the lives of all segments of the population
                                   particularly vulnerable groups such as children.

                                   It is only through government spending that the lives of poor
                                     people can be positively improved and economic growth
                                     realized.

                                   Goal of the project
                                      1. Child friendly public and private expenditure policies
                                            and patterns to reduce
                                            poverty.

Context and                        Specific objectives
  Scope                                1. To improve the understanding of the causes of child
              What are the                  poverty by policy makers and communities.
              main objectives          2. To influence national and international policies to
              and what key                  prioritize resources to children’s issues.
              accountability           3. To enhance child participation in the CFNBI and in
              problems does it              local and national budgeting processes
                                       4. To decentralize debate on the budgeting process in
              seek to address?              order to empower communities to participate in the
                                            budget making process.
                                       5. To track expenditure patterns on children’s issues with
                                            a view to promoting transparency and efficient
                                            utilization of national resources.


              Who is the target    The project seeks to benefit approximately six million children
              audience or           in Zimbabwe by engaging policy and budget makers. These
                                    include Ministries such as Education, Health, Social Welfare,
              demographic           Home Affairs and Finance as well as Parliamentarians
              focus?
              What is the          Constitutional democracy. Multi-party parliament. There is a
              political culture     certain level of polarization. There is local and central
                                    government.
              or environment?




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                       Research on type and effectiveness of specific programmes
                        such as Basic Education Assistance Programme

What specific SA       Analysis of budget statements and related policies such as
tools and               fiscal policies. The findings are discussed in pre and post
methodologies           budget meetings
are being used?
                        Public debate and lobby: - with politicians,
                         parliamentarians, officials and technocrats
                     Community mobilization: – workshops aimed at
                         empowering community groups – youths, women etc to
                         meaningfully participate in national budget debate.
                    Independent budget analysis usually start with a baseline survey
                      of the situation of children in the country in a given period.
                      Sometimes secondary information is obtained from
                      organizations such as UNICEF or Central Statistical Office.
                      The situation analysis generally point to the pertinent issues or
                      priority issues needing greater attention in the budget making
                      process. The situational analysis is augmented by district or
                      community level consultative workshops to confirm the issues
                      affecting children. The community, including children
                      themselves will then make budgetary recommendations on how
                      the specific problems should be dealt with through the
                      budgeting process. For instance communities may recommend
                      the establishment of victim/ child friendly courts, child support
                      grant or educational assistance programmes.

                    The initiative then advocates for the prioritization of the issues
                     raised by communities in the national budget. Submissions are
                     made to line ministries, parliamentarians and the Ministry of
                     Finance itself. After the announcement of the budget some
                     independent budget analysis is done to ascertain the following
Briefly describe        1. The extent of prioritization of the issues raised
                        2. How much has been allocated to children in relation to
the
                             other programmes and to the total budget
methodology(/ies)       3. Adequacy of the resources [Adequacy is based on
or tools used.               statistics on needy children obtained from the central
                             statistical office, UNCEF, or other reliable resources
                    The analysis is usually done in three` main ways
                        1. Independent analysis by project staff/ Consultant
                        2. Joint analysis at post budget analysis workshops with
                             other stakeholders and beneficiaries
                        3. During post Budget consultative workshops and
                             meetings with Parliamentary Portfolio Committees and
                             with line ministries

                    The tracking of expenditure is usually done through district level
                     workshops attended by government departments, Councilors
                     and other stakeholders. Project staff, using information
                     obtained from line ministries, though sometimes difficult to
                     get, will also analyze the flow of resources to intended
                     beneficiaries. This is usually augmented by researches on
                     utilization of specific funds or budgetary allocations such as
                     Basic Education Assistance Programme. The findings are
                     discussed with policy and budget makers in public meetings
                     and workshops and are also shared with the media.




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                                   The Initiative employs a multi-pronged strategy in the campaign
                                   and lobby for child responsive budgeting namely:-
                                    Community mobilisation: – workshops aimed at
                                       empowering community groups – youths, women etc to
                                       meaningfully participate in national budget debate. These
                                       workshops are also attended by policy and budget makers
                                       at that level.

              What advocacy           Public debate and lobby: - with                  politicians,
                                       parliamentarians, officials and technocrats.
              and media
              activities support      Engagement of budget and policy makers- workshops,
              the initiative?          meetings with government officials, Parliamentarians, local
                                       authorities, community leaders, on resource mobilisation
                                       for children.

                                      Documentation and material development: - lobby material
                                       such as brochure, pamphlets, banners etc produced and
                                       disseminated,

                                    Media work: - News bulletins, editorials, TV shows etc
                                   The initiative seeks to involve all stakeholders from different
              How inclusive          parts of Zimbabwe- rural and urban. The Children’s clubs as
                                     well as the District workshops involve children from all walks
              was the                of life including children with disabilities. MPs, Chiefs,
              intervention?          Councilors and Governors participate in these meetings and
                                     workshops.
                                   It remains critical to monitor budget performance, especially the
                                   utilization of funds supposed to benefit children, in addition to
                                   advocating for more resources to be allocated towards
                                   children’s issues. Enabling policy and legal frameworks are
              Other Important      also critical and therefore form part of the key advocacy issues.
                                   Efforts are being made to decentralize debate on how budgets
              Information or       could be used to reduce poverty.
              Comments
                                   Advocating for child responsive budgets will not come to an end
                                    until, such development indicators as, school drop out rate,
                                    infant mortality rate and malnutrition levels reach low levels.

                                   As a result of intense lobbying and advocacy by NANGO,
                                   increases in budgetary allocations to specific programmes to
                                   benefit children have been recorded. For example, government
                                   made a round about turn on birth registration and embarked on
                                   mobile birth and death registration.

                                   The Ministry of Education, Sports and Culture received the
                                   largest vote in the 2004 budget statement. Actually, based on
              What (if any) has    distribution by vote the percentage allocated to the ministry
              been the impact      increased from 17.5% to 26.5% in 2003 and 2004 respectively.
Results and
              of the initiative?   In the 2004 budget statement allocations to Basic Education
  Impact
              What have been       Assistance, children in difficult circumstances and nutritional
              the incentives?      programmes, among other issues, increased. In a recent fiscal
                                   policy review statement [July 2004], by the Minister of Finance
                                   and Economic Development, the tax free bracket was more than
                                   trebled in order to leave workers with more disposable income.

                                   The initiative will result in approximately six million children
                                   are benefiting from the budgetary allocations.




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                                    The CFNBI has over the years become a major stakeholder in
             Is the                  the national budgeting process. Apart from being accorded a
                                     consultative status by Government and Parliament of
             methodology or
                                     Zimbabwe it is hailed by many child focused NGOs as a
             initiative              unique intervention.
             institutionalized?
             Are there any      Networks and strategic alliances have been developed with the
             institutional       Child Budget Unit of IDASA, Save the Children Alliance in
                                 different parts of the World as well as with other organizations
             linkages and
                                 involved in budget advocacy work such as the Poverty
             partnerships been   Reduction Forum
             established with
             the government,    Recently, the Parliament of Zimbabwe, invited NANGO to come
             parliaments,        and share experiences with MPs from Zambia on the
                                 Zimbabwean budgeting process. This is clear testimony of the
             media, NGOs,
                                 confidence they have in the initiative.
             communities etc.?
             Describe.          Relationships have been developed with Rural District Councils
                                      in Tsholotsho, Beitbridge, UMP and Chimanimani.
                                    NANGO looks into the future to consolidate the decentralisation
                                    thrust of budget making dialogue, that makes the process
                                    broadly participatory and responsive to people’s needs and to
             (If applicable)        empowering of communities, in particular children to engage in
             Has the initiative     meaningful debate.
             been scaled up?
             Repeated?              Over the years the number of children, local authorities and
                                    town councils involved in the advocacy process are increasing.


                                    Not functional at the moment
             Web sources
                                        1.   2002, 2003, 2004 Child Friendly National Budget
                                             Initiative lobby reports
                                        2.   Child Friendly National Budget Initiative flyer
                                        3.   Child Friendly National Budget Initiative- Lessons,
             Documents and
                                             Challenges and Achievements
             Reports                    4.   NANGO December 2002 Newsletters
 Further
References

                                    Bob Muchabaiwa and Josphat Mathe
                                    1ST Floor Mass Media House, 19 Selous Avenue, Harare
             Resource               TEL 263-4 708761/ 732612
             Persons/Contacts       FAX 263- 4-794973
                                    Email info@nango.org.zw




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