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           Diversified Nutri-Agri Technologies Inc.

A Systems Approach to Egg Shell Quality Assurance
   WHAT IS Ovum Plus
A nutrient supplement for stressed and/or older laying hens of
all types including light and heavy breeder hens.

A unique combination of organic minerals, vitamins, cultured material
and other technologies that make Ovum Plus a great investment .

A nutritional supplement that provides the extra nutrients that
stressed and/or older hens need for egg shell formation.

OVUM - PLUS’s success story is it gets the trace
minerals, organic minerals, vitamins and other
important nutrients to the hen and helps her with
shell formation.
           Ovum Plus is not just another Calcium source

Even though Ovum Plus contains between 19-21% Calcium, it is not
technically deigned to function as a direct source of Calcium.
Ovum Plus works in both a direct and indirect mode of action.

The increase of Calcium and /or Phosphorous levels alone will not
have an impact in improving egg shell quality (Kashavarz and
Nakajima, 1993).

This available Calcium in Ovum Plus is nonetheless a valuable
component given that we know Calcium makes up between 38%-40%
of the eggshell by weight, (Between 2.2-2.4 grams per egg).

An absolute Calcium value by itself is not enough.

Extensive studies have been conducted to determine optimal Calcium
levels for the formation of egg shells (Keshavarz, 1995).

Physiological changes in the hen should be the main criteria for
varying Calcium levels from one type of formulation, for example
grower, to another type say layer.

Consideration must be given to adequate residence time in the
digestive system of the adequate Calcium levels.

 The conclusion is that a Calcium level of 3.75-4.00 grams is required
 daily for optimal egg shell formation.
After the secretion of the shell membrane, the shell is formed in the
shell gland.

This process requires anywhere from between 19-20 hours, (Austic and
Nesheim, 1990).

We have technically positioned Ovum Plus to perform in a higher
realm of both direct and indirect physiological activity.
One of the most important technical contributions of Ovum Plus is
based on its unique combination of proteinated minerals.

These proteinated minerals can be absorbed at much higher levels that
the inorganic counterparts.

This facilitates the Calcium transport system from the digestive
system to the skeletal system and from the skeletal system to the shell
forming gland.
This improvement in Ca transport is accomplished in several

1. At higher absorption levels less minerals are needed and
therefore less competition for adsorption sites of the various
competing minerals.

2. Some inorganic minerals, for example Zinc, are not readily
absorbed by the hen and therefore can result in reduced,
impaired or no enzymatic activity for the related co-dependant

3. Minerals that are enabled in the hens physiology are then
able to activate codependent chemical processes, (enzymatic
                        Zinc Proteinate

Example of one of the functionalities of Ovum Plus via one of many
organic minerals Zinc Proteinate.

This is a brief discussion of one of the functionalities of Ovum Plus.
We will not discuss all of them here for proprietary reasons.

In addition to Calcium ions, the shell gland requires the presence of
Carbonate ions in the glandular fluid in sufficient quantities so that
the required egg shell component, Calcium Carbonate can be formed.

As we know, Calcium Carbonate is an important component of the
egg shell, (Autic and Nesheim, 1990).
                          How can Ovum Plus help in this situation?

Calcium Carbonate deficiencies are one of the main culprits in
relationship to the problems associated with egg shell quality, (Balnave,

One of the most critical sources for Carbonate ions for egg shell
formation is the carbon dioxide produced during normal cellular
metabolism in the shell forming gland or from the blood of the hen.

The enzyme Carbonic anhydrase plays a significant role in egg shell
formation, ( Belnave, 1192 and 1996).

This enzyme is responsible for catalyzing the formation of
bicarbonate ions from carbon dioxide and water.
This enzyme is responsible for catalyzing the formation of bicarbonate
ions from carbon dioxide and water.
The activity or lack thereof of this enzyme will therefore affect egg shell

The above gives us an understanding of the important role played by
Carbonic anhydrase in egg shell formation.

The fact that Zinc is a co-dependant factor for this enzyme gives an an
idea of the importance of the bio-availability of this mineral for this crucial
Calcium will compete for absorption sites with Zinc, Copper and
Manganese. This is why formulas that are excessively high in Calcium
can indirectly inhibit the Carbonic anhydrase enzyme due to their
competition for absorption sites with Zinc.

To further aggravate this problem, it has been demonstrated that
inorganic Zinc is not absorbed very well by the hen whereas good
quality organic, (proteinated) Zinc is (Lowe, 1990).
Lowe, demonstrated that Zinc obtained from inorganic sources has an
antagonistic effect to the effect of Calcium which ultimately interferes
with Zinc absorption itself, (Lowe, 1996).

Proteinated Zinc is absorbed at a much higher level than inorganic Zinc
sources even in the presence of high levels of Calcium (Lowe, 1996).
Studies show an improvement in egg shell quality as measured in
terms of egg shell strength, specific gravity and shell thickness in
conjunction with the use of specific high quality forms of proteinated
Zinc at the correct ratio.

Austic, R.E. and M.C. Nesheim. 1990. In: Poultry Production. 13th Edition. Lea &
Febiger. Philadelphia, London. Pp 47-55.
Balnave, D. 1996. Carbonate limitation as a cause of poor egg shell quality. In:
Arkansas Nutrition Conference Proceedings of the Meeting. September 10-12.
Balnave, D., N. Usayyran El-Khatib and D. Zhang. 1992. Poultry Sci. 71:2035-
2040 (as cited by Balnave, 1996).
Keshavarz, K. 1995. An overview of calcium and phosphorous nutrition of
growing pullets and laying hens. In: Proceedings of the Cornell Nutrition
Conference for Feed manufacturers. October 24-26, Rochester N.Y. pp. 161-
Klecker, D., L. Zeman and J. Gomez-Basauri. 1997. Influence of trace mineral
proteinate supplementation on eggshell quality. Presented at Southern Poultry
Science, January 20, Atlanta, GA.
Lowe, J.A. 1996. An investigation into the metabolism of supplemental
protected zinc with reference to the use of isotopes.
 Thin, weak, rough, & poor textured shells cause a great economic loss.

 The percentage of cracked eggs at the grading stations for most
operations will range between 5-8%.

 This problem is further exacerbated by the fact that during
the washing and grading processes more eggs are broken.

 This 5-8% cracked eggs as the result of poor eggshell quality and
faulty handling by the producer, will have a projected annual loss
of at least US$25,000 for every 100,000 hens in production.
⊳ Shell quality problems usually occur during times of
stress and/or as the hen becomes older. It is thought that
stressed and/or older hens do not absorb the nutrients
needed for shell formation as well as younger hens.

⊳ Hence, older hens respond to supplemental feeding of
nutrients to improve shell quality.

⊳ OVUM - PLUS can be mixed in the feed to help
reduce losses from undergrades and cracked eggs.
                                  CAUSES OF CRACKED EGGS
 Some genetic strains of birds have the ability to produce eggs with better
 shells. However, as strains are bred and selected for better egg
 production, there is a tendency toward a reduction in eggshell quality.
Position of Egg Within a Clutch
The first eggs of a clutch possess better shell quality than those laid later
in clutch.
As high producing hens must have longer clutches, the correlation
between clutch length and poorer shell quality is obvious.
This problem cannot be addressed through normal nutritional practices as
doing so would entail gearing formulas for the weaker eggs which would be

Ovum Plus can be helpful for a top-laying hen during peak production.
                                          WHY EGGS CRACK
Length of Lay
The longer the period of egg production, the poorer the shell quality becomes. This
has to do with the hens inability to transport the needed nutrients for eggshell
formation as she gets older.

The higher the environmental temperature, the poorer the quality of the eggshells.
When high temperatures occur at the end of the laying period, both factors work to
decrease shell quality. At these particular instances, it is of foremost importance to
give the older stressed hen as much help as possible.
Respiratory diseases such as bronchitis & Newcastle have a marked effect on shell

Eggshell Breaking Strength
Good shell quality requires from 6 to 8 lbs. of pressure to break the eggs. Poor shell
quality only 5 lbs. Normally, eggs laid at the end of the laying period will break with
5 lbs. or less of pressure.
                                 How to Reduce Egg Breakage

Reducing the number of cracked and lost eggs should be a real important
project for all poultry farms. The first step is to determine what the present
breakage is, and then start a campaign to reduce it. Keeping detailed records
and plotting the progress on graph paper is a very helpful and needed tool.
Let’s list some of the methods we can use in order to reduce the incidence of
cracked and lost eggs[1]:

[1] North, Mack O. 1972. “Commercial Chicken Production Manual”, The Avi Publishing Company, INC., pgs. 277-278.
                           HOW TO REDUCE EGG BREAKAGE
Some strains of egg-type layers produce a higher percentage of
cracked eggs. Make a judicious choice when selecting the genetic

Egg Handling
Handle eggs more carefully at the end of the laying period.

Employee Education Program
Start an employee-education program to stress the economic
importance of how to reduce egg breakage. Candle eggs gathered by
different personnel, and compare results for further feedback.
                             HOW TO REDUCE EGG BREAKAGE

Cushion Bumpers
Provide a cushion bumper at the front of the egg collection area.

Egg Collection
Collect eggs from cages more often. Eggs rolling down to the floor have a
greater chance of creating breakage if there are eggs in the receiving
area. It is estimated that at least one-half of the breakage is due to this.

Birds per Cage
Try some cages with fewer birds. Crowding increases egg breakage. It
may be that an excessive number of cracked eggs are canceling the
additional income from more birds per cage.
                            HOW TO REDUCE EGG BREAKAGE
Change of Ration
Consider changing the ration or adding Ovum Plus if poor shell quality is a
continuous problem.

Egg Collection
Collect eggs on flats to avoid an extra handling. If baskets must be
used, do not fill them over half full.

Stress Reduction
Reduce every stress possible; stresses lower shell quality in most cases
and therefore increase egg breakage. Supplement your ration during
these times with Ovum Plus.
                             HOW TO REDUCE EGG BREAKAGE
Prevent cannibalism. It often causes birds to pick at freshly laid eggs.
Check on the light intensity. Higher than needed intensity can incite

Reduce Bird Fright
Reduce bird fright. Sporadic movements and jumping of birds in the
cages can only create more eggs that are cracked.

Automatic Egg Gathering Equipment
Be sure any automatic egg-gathering equipment does not produce an
increase in egg breakage. Check the belt material, the speed of the belts,
and any angling or corner devices
Use Ovum Plus
Whenever there is any kind of unusual stress
supplement your feed ration with at least 2 lbs, (1
kg) to not more than 8 lbs, (4 kg) of Ovum Plus per
ton, (metric ton) of feed.
even calcium.
If the hens are consuming between 3.5 and 4.5 grams
calcium per day, OVUM PLUS can be added to the rations
without formulation changes.

OVUM PLUS is a non-medicated product.
OVUM PLUS is a convenience package. It lets you add
extra nutrients, without reformulation, to help stressed
and/or older hens with shell formation.
       What Results Can You Expect?
The proof of any product is in its field performance.

OVUM PLUS has proven itself around the world.

Producers tell us you can expect better shells, save
more “lost eggs”, & reduce mortality up to 4%.

Give OVUM PLUS a chance to help you with your
shell quality problems. You will be glad you did. It is
convenient and simple.
Add 1 kg, (2lbs.) Of OVUM PLUS per ton to your
complete feed when new pullets are housed (18 - 21
weeks of age) and continue for 5 weeks.

Then at 46 weeks of age, add 1 kg, (2 lbs) of OVUM PLUS
per ton until the end of lay.

This early OVUM PLUS program helps pullets come into
production with extra nutrients.

Prior to an anticipated eggshell problem, or when the
hens have reached 4 to 5 months of lay, add I kg ( 2
lbs.) of OVUM PLUS per ton of complete ration, and
feed to end of lay.

Just add OVUM PLUS, no other ration changes are

When a shell problem has developed, add 4 kg (8 lbs.)
of OVUM PLUS per ton for one week,

 then 2 kg, (4 lbs.) per ton for one week,

 then 1 kg, (2 lbs.) per ton until end of lay.
When birds have reached 50% production,
add 1 kg, (2 lbs.) OVUM PLUS per ton of complete ration,

and continue feeding until end of lay.
        Economic analysis for using Ovum Plus

                                          The price differential in the
                                          U.S.A. between cracked
      72 Week Lifespan of Egg
                                          eggs and intact eggs is
          Producing Hen
                                              > $.75/dozen
                                              or $1.50 per hen.


Eggs layed, whole   Cracked or Broken Shell
Reductions in shell breakage and egg loss of 2% would be
equivalent to approximately ½ dozen per hen per year,
equivalent to +35¢ per hen.
Based on research conducted by Castaldo (1994)
giving a summary on animal populations and feed use
there are over 20 million laying hens in the states.
Therefore an improvement in shell quality of 2% would
be equivalent to $7 million per year in the US alone.
Reductions in egg shell damage would not only improve
returns to the producer it would increase the egg
handling efficiency.
                   DOES IT PAY?

One ton of OVUM PLUS will feed 62,500 birds for
approximately five months, at 1 KG, ( 2 lbs.) per ton

If OVUM PLUS gets an extra egg in 5 months lay, it pays.

OVUM PLUS can be used on stressed and older hens of
any species. OVUM PLUS will benefit broiler breeders,
turkey breeders, pheasants, and quail. Four more hatching
eggs per Broiler Breeder hen have been reported.
With 1 kilogram of Ovum Plus you can feed approximately
20 hens during the entire production cycle.

If 20 hens can recoup $1.85 each or $37.00 total, then the
return on investment for Ovum Plus will be from 12:1 to
at least 6:1.
Experience the extra profits in
your own operation by using
Ovum Plus in your current or
next egg laying production

Note: Ovum Plus can be added after the 46th week of lay to
insure that older hens will be able to lay eggs with better
shells and less cracks.

Add Ovum Plus during peak lay and periods of stress like
vaccination, disease, mycotoxicosis challenges, extra
heat etc. for better egg shells & more total eggs per hen.
           Guaranteed Analysis

       Item     Minimum %   Maximum%
Calcium(Ca)      19.00        21.50
Salt             01.24       01.26
Sodium(Na)       00.99       01.02
Zinc(Zn)         Not less than 1.0 %
Magnesium(Mg) Not less than 0.9 %
               Ingredient List

Ascorbic Acid, Vitamin A, Vitamin D-3, Niacin,
Vitamin B-12,    Vitamin E, Riboflavin, lysine
Ferrous Carbonate, Iron Proteinate, Calcium
Proteinate, Zinc Proteinate, Cobalt Proteinate,
Ethoxiquin (preservative), Calcium Carbonate,
Magnesium Oxide, Sodium Bicarbonate, Salt,
Manganous Oxide, Copper Sulfate, EDDI,
Magnesium Proteinate, Manganese Proteinate,
Copper Proteinate dried yeast culture and
Mineral oil.
              … for now …
We at DINATEC INC,. want to thank you for taking
   time to view this Ovum Plus presentation