WARS AND TREATIES by jessicanguyen

VIEWS: 339 PAGES: 7

									WARS AND TREATIES!
Chapter 9: (1300-1453):  The Hundred Year‘s War: (May 1337-October 1453), England vs. France, cause: English king Edward III claim to the French throne after death of French king Charles IV. Edward III vs. French first cousin of Charles IV Philip VI of Valois. and English claim to French territories. French bigger in population and wealth but weak in a united state, weak military, and bad leadership. (English Longbow) Three major stages: 1. Edward embargoed English wool to FlandersEdward defeat French in Bay of Sluys(1346)attack Normandy, seize port of Calais at Battle of Crecy,(1356)Poitiers won greatest English victory and captured French king John II the Good(May 9, 1360) Peace of Bretigny-Calaisreign of Richard II England faces revoltrecommence war under Henry V and struck hard in NormandyBurgundy joins with French until Burguny duke assasinated(1420)Treaty of TroyesJoan of Arc in (1429) brings sense of nationalism and defeas English at Orleans(1435)Burgundy + France back togethers to push English back(1453) war over & English only head coastal enclave of CalaisRESULTS: devestated France but awakened French nationalism & made it into a centralize state. Burgundy becomes major political power. England develops clothing industry and foreign markets.  Peace of Bretigny-Calais: (May 9, 1360) English forced this on the French after capturing the French king John II the Good. Declared an end to Edward‘s vassalage to the king of France and affirmed his sovereignty over English territories in France (Gasony, Guyenne, Poitou, and Calais). France also had to pay a ransom of 3 million gold crowns to win King John the Good‘s release. In return, Edward renounced his claim to the French throne.  Treaty of Troyes: (1420) imposed on France by Henry V after Burgundy‘s duke was assasinated. Dishinerited legitimate heir to the French throne and proclaimed Henry V the successor to Charles VI. Both die in 1422infant Henry VI of England proclaimed in Paris to be king of both countries. ―Charles VII‖ still seen as king by rejectors of treaty. Chapter 10: (1494-1527):  Treaty of Lodi: (1454-1455) brought Milan and Naples, long traditional enemies, into the aliance with Florence. The three stood against Venice who was allied with Papal states. When enemy threatened Italy, all five would stand as united front. The peace created by the treaty ended in 1494 when Naples, along with Florence and Pope Alexander VI, threatened Milan who then appealed to France for aid.  War of Roses: (1455-1485) between York and Lancaster (WHITE VS. RED) under king Richard II Edward IV YORK seize powertudor dynasty with Henry VII. etc. Chapter 11: (1517-1648):  Habsburgs-Valois War: Charles V (HRE+Spain) preoccupied with wars against Ottoman Turks and French(1521-1559) Habsburg Spain and Valois French fought four major wars over territory within Italy and along borders  Peasants‘ War/Revolt: (1524-1526)demanded abolition of manorialism (medieval feudalism)German peasants use force against landownedsLuther condemns them  Peace of Cappel: (Switzerland+1531) allowed each Swiss canton to determine its own religion (Zwingli)  Swiss Civil Wars: (1529-1531) Swiss cantons divide between Protestant and Catholic. battle at Kappel (June 1529 + October 1531) first, Protestant victory, second, Catholic victory.  Peace of Passau (below)  Peace of Passau: (August 1552) guaranteed Lutherans religious freedoms  Peace of Augsburg: (September 1555) recognized in law Cuius regio, eius religio, meaning the ruler of a land would determine its own relgion. Lutherans were permitted to retain all church lands forcibly seized before 1522. En acclesiastical reservation was added that was intended to prevent high Catholic prelates who converted to Protestantism from taking their lands, titles, and privileges. Chapter 12: (1517-1648)  French Wars of Religion: (1562-1598) (1562–98) conflicts in France between Protestants and Roman Catholics. The spread of French Calvinism persuaded the French ruler Catherine de Médicis to show more tolerance for the Huguenots, which angered the powerful Roman



 

   





 







Catholic Guise family. Its partisans massacred a Huguenot congregation at Vassy (1562), causing an uprising in the provinces. Many inconclusive skirmishes followed, and compromises were reached in 1563, 1568, and 1570. After the murder of the Huguenot leader Gaspard II de Coligny in the Massacre of Saint Bartholomew‘s Day (1572), the civil war resumed. A peace compromise in 1576 allowed the Huguenots freedom of worship. An uneasy peace existed until 1584, when the Huguenot leader Henry of Navarre (later Henry IV) became heir to the French throne. This led to the War of the Three Henrys and later brought Spain to the aid the Roman Catholics. The wars ended with Henry‘s embrace of Roman Catholicism and the religious toleration of the Huguenots guaranteed by the Edict of Nantes (1598). Peace of Saint-Germain-en-Laye: (1570) ended the third French war of religion. The crown acknowledged the power of the Protestant nobility, and granted the Huguenots religious freedoms within their own territories and the right to fortify their cities Peace of Beaulieu: (May 1576) granted Huguenots almost complete religious and civil freedom. but was later taken back in October 1577 limiting areas of Huguenot worship Edict of Nantes: (April 13, 1598) recognized minority religious rights withint Catholic country. gave Huguenots greedom of public worship, assembly, admission to public offices and universities, and permission to maintain towns. state within a state Treaty of Vervins: (May 2, 1598) ended hostilities bewtween France and Spain Treaty of Joinville: (December 1584): (Spanish Armada) Philip II signed secret treaty with Guises and sent army under Alexander Farnese into France in 1590. (Armada defeated) Treaty of Nonsuch: (1585) Elizabeth signed it, which provided English soldiers and calvary to the Netherlands Treaty of Edinburgh: (1560) Mary, Queen of Scots declared herself Queen of England in 1559. The next year French troops in Scotland try to assert the claim of Mary against Elizabeth, who the Catholics claim is illegitimate (Elizabeth was the daugther of Henry and Anne Boleyn whose marriage to Henry was consider null by the Catholics). The French troops were beseiged at Leith, and the French were forced to sign the treaty of Edinburgh ceasing their interferance in the affairs of Scotland. Mary ruled by divine and human right Peace of Prague: (1635) German Protestant States, led by Saxony, compromise with Ferdinand. France and Netherlands support Swedenrefuse to join agreementSwedishFrench war period *Treaty of Westphalia*: (1648) Peace of Augsburg reinstated (Cuius regio, eius religiou) and Calvinism accepted in Germany. Edict of Restitution revokedguarenteed possession of former Church states to Protestant holders. Switzerland and Holland were made independent states free of Hapsburg dominions. France, Sweden, and Brandenburg (Prussia) received territories. German princes were made sovereignrulers, limiting power of the HRE and influence of Austrian and Spanish Habsburgs. Treaty of Pyrenees: (1659) France becomes Europe‘s dominant power and Habsburg Spain never recovers Thirty Years‘ War: (1618-1648) between Catholics and Protestants. German princes sought autonomy from the HRE. France sought to limit Hapsburgs power who sought to extend their power to Germany. Sweden and Denmark hoped to strengthen hold on Baltic region Bohemian Phase: (1618-1625): The Czechs/Bohemians with the Slovaks were Calvinist but had a Catholic king, Matthias, who they feared would deny their reilgion. They overthrew him and put Frederick V from the Palatinate (Calvinist) as king. Matthius deathFerdinand II becomes HRE and King of Bohemia. Supported by Spanish Hapsburgs, defeated Bohemians at the Battle of White Mountain in 1620. gave away lands of Protestant nobles and enables the Spanish to consolidate power along Rhine River. Danish Phase: (1625-1630) Christian IV of Denmark (Lutheran, enter war to bolser weakened Protestant position and to annex German lands for his son. HRE Ferdinand II commisioned Albert of Wallenstein to raise armypillaged Germany and defeated Danes in 1626. (1629) HRE issued Edict of Restitution restoring Catholic landsWallenstein disapproved and was dismissed by Ferdinand Swedish Phase: (1625-1630) Cardinal Richelieu (RCatholic regent of France) worried about Hapsburg in Germanoffered subsidies to Swedish King Gustavus Adolphus to enter warhelps Protestant cause but Hapsburg gain decisive victories. Protestant states of

Germany have separate peace with HRE. Peace of Prague revoked the revoke Edict of Restitution. Swedes defeated.  Swedish-French Phase: (1635-1648) France,Holland, and Savoy enter war in 1635 on Swedish side. Spain support Austrian Hapsburgs. Henri Turenne, French general, defeated Spanish at Rocroi and 1644. talks of peace in Westphalia. Chapter 13: (1600s-1700s)  English Civil War: (1642–1651), fighting that took place in the British Isles between supporters of the monarchy of Charles I (and his son and successor, Charles II) and opposing groups in each of Charles‘s kingdoms, including Parliamentarians in England, Covenanters in Scotland, and Confederates in Ireland. The civil wars are traditionally considered to have begun in England in August 1642, when Charles I raised an army against the wishes of Parliament, ostensibly to deal with a rebellion in Ireland. But the period of conflict actually began earlier in Scotland, with the Bishops‘ Wars of 1639–40, and in Ireland, with the Ulster rebellion of 1641. Throughout the 1640s, war between king and Parliament ravaged England, but it also struck all of the kingdoms held by the House of Stuart—and, in addition to war between the various British and Irish dominions, there was civil war within each of the Stuart states. For this reason the English Civil Wars might more properly be called the British Civil Wars or the Wars of the Three Kingdoms. The wars finally ended in 1651 with the flight of Charles II to France and, with him, the hopes of the British monarchy.  Glorious Revolution: (1688-1689) the events that resulted in the deposition of James II and the accession of his daughter Mary II and her husband William III. James's overt Roman Catholicism, his suspension of the legal rights of dissenters, and the prospect of a Catholic heir to the throne brought discontent to a head, which caused opposition leaders to invite the Protestant William of Orange to bring an army to redress the nation's grievances. The support remaining for James dwindled, and he fled to France. The Convention Parliament asked William and Mary to rule jointly and set out the Bill of Rights.  War of Devolution: (1667) France: Louis XIV supported the allgeged right of his wife, Marie Therese, to inherit the Spanish Netherlands. (1667) sent army to invade Flanders and Franche Comte. Repulsed by the Triple Alliance of England, Sweden, and the United Provinces Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle.  Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle: (1668) Louis XIV gained control of certain towns bordering the Spanish Netherlands.  Treaty of Dover: (1670) England and France formally allied against the Dutch (commercial competitor) Charles pledges to announce his conversion to Catholicism as soon as conditions in England permitted it to happen. In return, Louis XIV promised to pay Charles a substantial suibsidy.  Peace of Ninmwegen: (1678-1679) ended Louis‘ early wars. signed with different parties in successive years. France gained more territory. including the Franche-Comte.  Nine Years‘ War: (1689-1897) William of Orange accepted England's throne in 1688 in the hope that the nation's sea power and financial strength could be used against Louis XIV's ambitions in the Netherlands and Germany. The French king's support for the exiled James II made war inevitable, and in May 1689 William formed a Grand Alliance which included England, the Dutch, and the Holy Roman Emperor. In Ireland James's Franco-Irish army was soon defeated at the Boyne in July 1690 and the rebels finally suppressed in 1691. But England's naval mastery of the English Channel was initially weakened by the French fleet and several times invasion was threatened until in May 1692 the allies overwhelmed the French off La Hogue. The war ended in September 1697 when the exhausted protagonists signed the treaty of Ryswick.  Peace of Ryswick: (September 1697) ended Nine Years‘ War secured Holland‘s borders and thwarted Louis‘ expsansion into Germany  War of the Spanish Succession: (1702-1714) Louis XIV threatened to upset the Balance of Power in Europe by laying claim to the Spanish throne for his grandson. The Grand Alliance, which included major states of Western Europe, fought to prevent this union of the French and Spanish thrones.  Treaty of Utrecht: (July 1713) France made peace with England  Treaty of Rastadt: (March 1714) France made peace with Holland and the emperor. Hapsburg extended domains, receiving former Spanish Netherlands and Lombardy in N. Italy

Great Northern War: (1700-1721) Peter the Great began a drive to the west against Swedish (Charless XII) territory to gain foothold on the BalticGNWAR.-->defeat Russians at Battle of Narva. but eventual Russian win when Charles died and ends w/ Peace of Nystad  Peace of Nystad: (1721) confirmed the Russian conquest of Estonia, Livonia, and part of Finland. Russia possessed ice free ports and permanent influence in Euro affairs. Chapter 14: (1500s-1600s)  PGS. 454-479 Chapter 15: (1700s)  PGS. 482-512 Chapter 16: (1700s)  War of Jenkins‘ Ear: (1739-1741) part of the struggle between Spain and England that led to the War of the Austrian Succession. Robert Jenkins, master of the ship Rebecca, had his ear cut off by Spanish coast guards. Jenkins showed his carefully preserved ear in the British House of Commons in 1738, and England, already resentful at its exclusion from the Spanish colonial trade, declared war  War of Austrian Succession: (1740-1748) Prussian King Frederick II seizes Austri‘s Silesia in East Germany. a conglomeration of related wars, two of which developed directly from the death of Charles VI, Holy Roman emperor and head of the Austrian branch of the house of Habsburg, on Oct. 20, 1740.  Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle: (1748) ended the War of Austrian Succession with a stalemate. Prussia retained Silesia and Spain renewed Britains‘ privilige from treaty of Utrechty to import slave into Spanish colonies  Seven Years‘ War: (1756-1763) worldwide series of conflicts fought from 1756 to 1763 for the control of Germany and for supremacy in colonial North America and India. It involved most of the major powers of Europe, in particular Prussia, Great Britain, and Hannover on one side and Austria, Saxony, France, Russia, Sweden, and Spain on the other. The North American segment, known as the French and Indian War, involved Great Britain and its American colonies against the French and their Algonquian allies. The Indian phase established British domination in India.  Treaty of Hubertusburg: (1763) treaty between Prussia and Austria ending the Seven Years‘ War in Germany. Signed five days after the Treaty of Paris, it guaranteed that Frederick II the Great maintained his possession of Silesia and confirmed Prussia‘s stature as a major European power.  Treaty of Paris: (1763) Treaty concluding the Seven Years' War (including the French and Indian War). It was signed by Britain and Hanover on one side and France and Spain on the other. France renounced to Britain the mainland of North America east of the Mississippi, its conquests in India since 1749, and four West Indian islands. Britain restored to France four other West Indian islands and the West African colony of Gorée (Senegal). In return for recovering Havana and Manila, Spain ceded Florida to Britain and received Louisiana from the French.  Treaty of Paris: (1783) The Treaty of Paris was signed by U.S. and British Representatives on September 3, 1783, ending the War of the American Revolution. Based on a1782 preliminary treaty, the agreement recognized U.S. independence and granted the U.S. significant western territory. The 1783 Treaty was one of a series of treaties signed at Paris in 1783 that also established peace between Great Britain and the allied nations of France, Spain, and the Netherlands.  American Revolution: (1775–1783), conflict between 13 British colonies on the eastern seaboard of North America and their parent country, Great Britain. France later intervened as an ally of the independent states, and the war resulted in the colonies becoming a separate nation, the United States of America. It is also known as the American War of Independence. Chapter 17: (1700s)  Treaty of Kuchuk-Kainardji: (1774) gave Russia a dicrect outlet on the Black Sea, free navigation rights in its waters, and free access through the Bosporus Chapter 18: (1789-1799~)  *French Revolution*: (1789-1799) a period of political and social upheaval and radical change in the history of France, during which the French governmental structure, previously


an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on Enlightenment principles of citizenship and inalienable rights. [THREE STAGES]  1. Moderate Stage: (1789-1792) June 13, 1789: Third Estate becomes National Assembly. June 20, 1789 signing of the Tennis Court Oath. July 14, 1789: storming of the Bastille. August 26, 1789. Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen passed. August 17891790 : Great Fear. September 1789: National AssemblyConstituent Assembly. October 1789: March to Versailles to force king out of Paris. 1790: Civil Constitution of the Clergy. 1791. Legislative Assembly elected. June 21, 1791: Flight to Varennes by royal family. August 1791: Declaration of Pillnitz  Declaration of Pillnitz: (August 1791) by the king of Austria threatening military action to restore order in France and encouraged overthrowing of the monarchy.  2. Radical Stage: (1792-1795) April 20, 1792: Legislative Assembly declars war on Austria because of ultimatum. September 21, 1792: France proclaimed a republic. 1793. First Coalition organized to combat French advance. + Jacobins vs. Girondists. (Robespierre) Summer 1793. Committee of Public Safety executed 40,000 people. Republic of Virtue  3. Thermidorian Reaction: (1795-1799) (Thermidor=August 18-16) returned moderate bourgeois reformers to power. DIRECTORY established to run government.  Treatises of Basel: (March and June 1795) French Convention conlcluded peace with Prussia and Spain. Chapter 19: (1799-1804~)  Treaty of Luneville: (1801) took Austria out of the warBritain aloneAmiens.  Treaty of Amiens: (1802) Britain out of warpeafce to Europe  Treaty of Pressburg: (1805) won major concession from Austria. The Austrians withdrew from Italy and left Napoleon in crontol of everything north of Rome and recognized as king of Italy  Treaty of Tilsit: (July 7, 1807) between Russian Tsar Alexander I and Napoleon + king of Prussia (on shore). confirmed French‘s gains. Prussia lost half of its territory. Prussia openly and Russia secretly became allies with Napoleon.  Peace of Schonbrunn: (1809~) result of French victory at Batlle of Wagram over Austria. Peace deprived Austria of much territory and 3.5 million subjects.  Treaty of Chaumont: (March 9, 1814) provided for restoration of Bourbons to the French throne and the contraction of France to its frontiers of 1792. Britain, Austria, France, and Prussia agreed to form the Quadruple Alliance for twenty years. Chapter 20: (1815-1832)  Treaty of London: (1827) Britiain, France, and Russia demanded Turkish recognition of Greek independence and sent a join fleet to support Greek revolt. Turks would allow Britain, France, and Russia to decide fate of Greece.  Treaty of Adrianople: (1829) 1828. Russia sent troops into Ottoman holdings. with this treaty, they gained territory in Ottoman holdings  Treaty of London: (1830) declared Greece and independent kingdom (1832) Otto I was chosen to be first king of new Greek kingdom Chapter 21: (1830-1850)  Revolutions of 1848: series of republican revolts against European monarchies. The revolutions began in Sicily and spread to France, the German and Italian states, and the Austrian Empire. In France the revolution established the Second Republic, and in central Europe liberal political reform and national unification appeared likely. However, the armies loyal to the monarchies soon reestablished their power and rescinded most of the promised reforms. The revolts eventually ended in failure and repression, and they were followed by widespread disillusionment among liberals. Chapter 22: (1853-1880)  Crimean War: (1853-1856) caused by Russian desire to extend its influence over the Ottoman Empire. Russia occupies areas thereOttoman declare war on Russia. Ottomans backed by France and Britain. Austria and Prussia remain neutral. September 1855. Russian Sevastapol fell to French and Britishend of war.

Treaty of Paris: (March 1856) after Crimean War, required Russia to surender territory near mouth of the Danube River, to recognize neutrality of the Black Sea, and to renounce its claims to protect Orthodox Christians in the Otoman Empire.  Danish War: (1864) Smaller states of German Confederation propose all German war to halt Denmark incorporating both Schleswig and Holstein. Bismarck wanted only Prussia or Prussia and Austria to do it. Prussia and Austria defeat Denmark in 1864 together.  Austro-Prussian War/Seven Weeks‘ War: (1866) Bismarck ordered Prussian forces to be horrible to Austria.  June 1, 1866: Austria appeal to German Confederation to intervene. Bismarck says this violates alliancedecisive defeat of Austria at Koniggratz in Bohemia  Treaty of Prague: ends the conlfit on August 23. Austria cedes only Venetia to Napolian III who gives Venetia to Ital. Also permanently excluded Austrian Hapsburgs from German affairs and Prussia established itself as power in Germany.  Franco-Prussian War: (1870-1871) The Franco-Prussian War, was a war in 1870-1871 lost by France to the German states under the leadership of Prussia. The underlying causes of the conflict were the determination of the Prussian statesman Prince Otto Edward Leopold von Bismarck to unify Germany under Prussian control and, as a step toward this goal, to eliminate French influence over Germany. On the other hand, Napoleon III, emperor of France from 1852 to 1870, sought to regain both in France and abroad the prestige lost as a result of numerous diplomatic reverses, particularly those suffered at the hands of Prussia in the Austro-Prussian War of 1866. In addition, the military strength of Prussia, as revealed in the war with Austria, constituted a threat to French dominance on the continent of Europe.  Treaty of Frankfurt: (May 23, 1871) An agreement that ended the FRANCO-PRUSSIAN WAR. By it France surrendered Strasburg, Alsace and part of Lorraine, together with the great fortresses of Metz to BISMARCK's Germany. An indemnity of five billion gold francs was imposed by Germany on France, and a German army of occupation was to remain until the indemnity had been paid. Bismarck's aim in this treaty was to ensure that France would be entirely cut off from the Rhine. Chapter 23: (Late 1800s)  PGS. 762-791 Chapter 24: (1900s)  PGS. 796-823 Chapter 25: (1890-1917) WORLD WAR I  Spanish-American War: A war between Spain and the United States in 1898, as a result of which Spain ceded Puerto Rico, the Philippine Islands, and Guam to the United States and abandoned all claim to Cuba, which became independent in 1902.  Russo-Turkish War: (1877) series of wars between Russia and the Ottoman Empire in the 17th–19th century. The wars reflected the decline of the Ottoman Empire and resulted in the gradual southward extension of Russia‘s frontier and influence into Ottoman territory. The wars took place in 1676–81, 1687, 1689, 1695–96, 1710–12 (part of the Great Northern War), 1735–39, 1768–74, 1787–91, 1806–12, 1828–29, 1853–56 (part of the Crimean War), and 1877–78. As a result of these wars, Russia was able to extend its European frontiers southward to the Black Sea, southwestward to the Prut River, and south of the Caucasus Mountains in Asia.  Treaty of San Stefano: (March 1878) Russian triumph. Slavic states in the Balkans were freed of Ottomon rule and Russia obtained territory and a large monetary indemnity.  Boer War: A war fought from 1899 to 1902 between an alliance of the Boer governments of the Transvaal and the Orange Free State on the one hand and Great Britain on the other, over the sovereignty and commercial rights in these lands. The war ended with British victory.  Russo-Japanese War: (1904-1905) armed conflict between Russia and Japan in 1904–5. The cause of the war was that Russian expansion in eastern Asia ran counter to Japanese plans for gaining a foothold on the Asian mainland. In 1898 Russia leased Port Arthur from China, with the intention of making it a great Asiatic port and the headquarters of Russian naval power in the Pacific. Russia had poured troops into Manchuria during the Boxer Rebellion in 1900 but, faced with the Anglo-Japanese alliance of 1902, promised to leave Chinese territory. The promise was not kept, however, and in June 1903 Japan proposed an


agreement with Russia recognizing Japan‘s interests in Korea and Russia‘s in Manchuria, and insuring the integrity of China and Korea. Russia refused. On the night of Feb. 8, 1904, the Japanese navy launched a surprise attack on Port Arthur and then blockaded the damaged Russian fleet.  Reinsurance Treaty of 1887: (1887) Bismarck negotiated with between Germany and Russia in which both powers promised to remain neutral if either was attacked  Treaty of Brest-Litovsk: (March 1918) Russia yielded Poland, Finland, the Baltic states, and Ukraine. Some territory in the Transcaucasus region went to Turkey. The Bolsheviks also agrred to pay a heavy war indemnity.  WORLD WAR I: (1914-1918) caused by the assasination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand (Austrian) at the hands of Serbia. ALLIES (Britain, France, Russia, (Triple Entente) and Italy). VS. CENTRAL POWERS. (Germany, Austria-Hungary (Triple Alliance) with Italy, Turkey, and Bulgaria). Key Terms: Shlieffen Plan, trench warfare, German‘s Hindenburg., total war, unrestricted submarine warfare, Zimmreman note, etc. ends with ALLIED WIN.  Treaty of Versailles: (1919-1920) The Treaty of Versailles ended World War I between Germany and the Allied nations. On 6 October 1918, Prince Max von Baden, the Reich Chancellor, appealed to President Woodrow Wilson to take steps leading to an armistice based on Wilson's Fourteen Points. The Allies had never endorsed this progressive peace program; they acceded to most of it, however, because in the armistice negotiations Wilson had managed the confiscation or internment of virtually all Germany's machines of war. Chapter 26: (1920s)  PGS. 878-904 Chapter 27: (1930s)  PGS. 908-933 Chapter 28: (1933-1945) WORLD WAR II  Spanish Civil War: (1936-1939), conflict precipitated by a failed military coup d'état in July 1936, itself provoked by violent social and anticlerical disorders following the election of a Popular Front government. It became a protracted struggle between two uneasy alliances of traditionalist and fascist ‗Nationalists‘ and the socialists, communists, Trotskyites, anarchists, and separatists known as ‗Republicans‘.  WORLD WAR II: initially caused by Hitler invading Poland despite saying he didn‘t want more territory. AXIS (Germany, Italy, Japan) VS. ALLIES (Britain, USSR, US) YOU KNOW WWII  Anti-Comintern Pact: (1937) bewteen Germany, Italy, and Japan against the Axis powers.  Nonaggression Pact: (1939) between Germany and Russia (Stalin)cleared the way for Hitler‘s invasin of Poland Chapter 29: (Late 1900s) COLD WAR  Vietnam War: protracted military conflict (1954–1975) between the Communist forces of North Vietnam supported by China and the Soviet Union and the non-Communist forces of South Vietnam supported by the United States. etc.  Persian Gulf War: A war fought in 1991 in which a coalition of countries led by the United States destroyed much of the military capability of Iraq and drove the Iraqi army out of Kuwait.  Cold War: (1945-1991) between East (Soviet Communism) and West (US democracy) key terms: NATO, Warsaw Pact, Truman Doctrine, Marshall Plan, Brezhnev Doctrine, Gorbachev, Perestroika, Glasnost, democratization  Treaty of Brussels: (March 1948) Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, France, and Britain signed the treaty providing for cooperation in economic and military matters. Chapter 30: (2000s)  Treaty of Rome: (1957) six members of the Coal and Steel Community formed a new organization: the European Economic Community [EEC]. or COMMON MARKET. sought to achieve eventual elimination of tariffs, a free flow of capital and labor, and similar wage and social benefits int heir countries. (France, West Germany, Italy, Belgium, Netherlands, and Luxembourg)


								
To top