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Poverty Profile – Sri Lanka (DOC)

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					Basic MIMAP Poverty Profile: Sri Lanka




               August 2000
            Draft for comments




           Neranjana Gunetilleke
         Institute of Policy Studies
           Colombo, Sri Lanaka




                                         1
Abstract:


With the economy growing at an average of 5% over the last decade, Sri Lank a’s per
capita income reached USD 800 in 1997 thereby moving the economy into the lower-
middle income group as per World Bank classification. However, levels of opportunity,
capability and living standards enjoyed by the population is by the well beyond that
expected on the basis of its GNP. In terms of human development, Sri Lanka ranks 84
with a HDI of 0.733. Life expectancy at birth (74), adult literacy (91), infant mortality
(15 per 1,000 live births) and maternal mortality (2.3 per 10,000 live births) reflect the
levels of human development.


However, there is a definite down side to these achievements. Using a upper poverty line
of Rs. 1,032 per person per month, as much as 31.2 per cent of the population face
consumption poverty. 86 per cent of this poor live in the rural sector. Malnutrition,
especially among children, is a problem that Sri Lanka has not been able to address
successfully. Though mortality rates are relatively low approximately 90 per cent of the
bottom most quintile of income earners fall below the recommend calorie intake. The
access to safe water and sanitation is yet another area which causes concern. In 1997
approximately 27 per cent of the population did not have access to safe water, and 24
per cent does not have access to safe sanitation.


While these achievements and shortfalls prevail, an issue which is rapidly coming into
focus is one that is not easily reflected by the conventional statistical measures. Relative
deprivation as perceived by the vast majority of the population has increased rapidly
over the past decades. The basic standards of living achieved by the majority of the
population together with high awareness generated through education has created a
population that is intensely aware of the increased inequalities in the distribution of
wealth and opportunities. This is having a wide range of unfavorable consequences
within the Sri Lankan society and economy.




                                                                                               2
I. What is poverty as defined in Sri Lanka?


In developmental terms Sri Lanka is probably best known for its human development outcomes
which are more consistent with those of higher income economies rather than its lower-middle
income status. Considering Sri Lanka‟s policy structure, one factor that comes out clearly is that
Sri Lanka has always viewed poverty in a holistic manner i.e. not only in terms of income or
consumption but more importantly in terms of equity, welfare and human development.


However, any attempt to quantify poverty for measurement or comparative purposes, is
constrained by the lack of an official definition of poverty or a designated poverty line.
Considerable research effort has gone into conceptualizing and quantifying the poor in Sri Lanka
(See Bhalla 1985, Gunaratne 1985, Nanayakkara 1994, Datt and Gunewardena 1997,
Gunewardena 2000). Though all estimates rely on the Department of Census and Statistics as the
data source inter-temporal and comparative analysis is constrained due to different levels and
criteria used for poverty thresholds, different methodology and assumptions, different bench mark
years, etc.


Table I illustrates the wide variation in estimates of poverty as calculated by various studies using
different definitions of poverty and varying poverty lines. Household income/expenditure or
dietary energy intake is used most commonly to define the poverty line. The use of nominal
income or expenditure as a cut-off point creates problems in comparing estimates over time. This
is solved to an extent by the use of dietary energy to define the poverty line. However, the cut-off
points for dietary energy used also vary across studies (Tudawe 2000). The difference in poverty
lines used to identify the poor is reflected in the wide variation observed in the incidence of
poverty among the studies.


There is however, a body of literature which attempts to rationalise these estimates (See Alailima
1986, Hopkins and Jogratnam 1990, Lakshman 1997, 1998).                  These studies bring out
commonalties and differences in definitions and methodology and go along way toward
facilitating the use of these estimates.




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Table I: Varying Poverty lines and Esti mates of Poverty in Sri Lanka
  Year        Study         Sri      Urban Rural       Es tate                PO VERTY LINE                     Data
                          Lanka                                                                              Source
1969/70 Bhalla and         11.2       5.0     12.8      11.1     Per capita food expenditure Rs. 70 per    LFSS (DCS
         Glewwe (1985)                                           month at 1978/79 p rices                       1970)
         Visaria (1979)    52.0      58.3     52.3      38.5     2750 per cap ita per day calorie intake
1978/79 Anand and          12.3      14.3     12.8      3.6      Per capita food expenditure Rs. 60 per    CFS (CBSL
         Harris (1985)                                           month at 1978/79 p rices                       1983)
         Gunaratne         22.3      19.4     25.0      7.6      Per capita food expenditure Rs. 70 per
         (1985)                                                  month at 1978/79 p rices
1985/86 DCS (1987)         39.4      27.6     45.7      5.7      Av. household income per month                 LFSS
                                                                 needed to meet min. nutrition (2200 cal) (DCS1987)
                                                                 and basic needs: Urban Rs. 1920, Ru ral
                                                                 Rs 1610, Estate Rs. 1451.
         WB (1995)         40.6      26.78    45.48    30.85 Rs. 565.44 per person per month
1990/91 WB (1995)          35.3      28.4     30.05     27.5     Rs. 565.44 per person per month           HIES (DCS
                                                                                                                1994)
1995/96 DER (2000)            18.9     17.3     20.3      17.5 Rs. 860 per person per month                CFS (CBSL
                                                                                                           1999 )
Derived fro m Laksh man 1998, Gunawardene 2000, Tudawe 2000.
CBSL: central Bank of Sri Lanka
CFS: Consumer Finances and Soci-economic Survey
DCS: Dept. of Census and Statistics.
DER: Depart ment of External Resources
HIES: Household Income and Expenditure Survey
LFSS: Labour Force and Socio-economic Survey
WB: World Bank




In addition to these estimates, are the income based poverty lines used by the national poverty
alleviation programmes. These poverty lines appear to be selected on an ad hoc basis though
there is some affinity to the average estimates of poverty. Welfare benefits were provided under
the Janasaviya programme in 1989 to households receiving less than Rs. 700 per month. The
Samurdhi programme of 1994 cons idered households below a monthly income of Rs. 1500. At
present the Samurdhi Programme has selected nearly 50% of the households in the country as
being entitled to benefits, and thus, identified as below the poverty line (Tudawe 2000).




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2. Poverty in Aggregate Terms
2.1 Magnitude of Poverty
Though there does seem to be some confusion regarding the definition of poverty and poverty lines in Sri
Lanka, there is a certain consensus regarding the basics of poverty. Based on the Household Income and
Expenditure Survey for 1995/ 96 of the Depart ment of Census and Statistics, it is generally accepted that
approximately 25% of the population face conditions of income / consumption poverty ( Table 2A -2a).
However, very little ab ject poverty is seen in Sri Lanka, as starvation and destitution has been virtually
eliminated, except in the case of very specific pockets with in the population (see section 2.4).


A very important aspect of the magnitude and nature of poverty in Sri Lanka is the vulnerability of the non -
poor. There is a large cluster of non-poor concentrated just above the poverty line. This group is very
sensitive to fluctuations in the economy and natural conditions such as droughts and floods. The break in
the trend of decreasing poverty levels in 1990/91 is seen as a refection of the sensitivity of this group to
conditions created by severe drought. This clustering of non -poor just above the poverty line is also
reflected in the disproportionate rise in the incidence of poverty at higher poverty lin es (see Table I and
Table 2A-2)

2.2 Trends in Poverty
The decade of 1985 to 1996 saw a substantial decrease in the incidence, depth and severity of poverty in Sri
Lanka. Using a reference poverty line of Rs. 791.67 per person per month, the incidence of poverty fell
fro m 30.9% in 1985/ 86 to 25.2% in 1995/96. This overall reduction was despite an increase in poverty
between the period 1990/91 and 1995/ 96. However, estimates fro m the subsequent Consumer Finances
and Socio-economic Survey by the Central Bank of Sri Lanka point towards a return to the decreasing trend
(Tables 2A-2a i and 2A-2a ii). Significantly, when disaggregated in terms of occupational group, it was
the single subgroup of farmers and estate workers that experienced the greatest decreas e in poverty during
the 1985-91 period and then experienced the greatest raise in poverty in the 1991 - 1996 period
(Gunewardena 2000). Th is strongly reflects the extreme sensitivity of the population clustered around the
poverty line to fluctuations in the economy.


The reduction in aggregate poverty in the 1985- 1991 period was due to both growth in consumption
poverty (in all sectors) and favorable redistribution (mainly in the rural sector). In 1991 - 1996 period, the
retarding consumption growth was a definitely adverse contributory factor. However, the effect of
redistribution was more co mplex. In the case of the urban sector favorable redistribution succeeded in
offsetting the lack of consumption growth. In contrast, in the rural and estate sectors slow consumption
growth was compounded by adverse redistribution (Gunewardane 2000). The severe drought conditions
faced during the period has been identified as contributing substantially to the adverse outcomes. (World
Bank 2000)




                                                                                                                 5
2.3 Human Development
As has been frequently shown the quality of life enjoyed by the Sri Lankan population is higher than which
can be expected by the country‟s level of economic develop ment. Th is is reflected in the high life
expectancy, low infant, child and maternal mo rtality, high levels of basic education and efficient primary
school cycle, and evenly balanced gender outcomes in education and health. However, great many
problems remain both in the areas of higher ach ievement as well as in other areas of low achievement suc h
as nutrition, water and sanitation etc. A few critical issues are highlighted below.


2.3.1 Education
( Table 5`)
   When viewed in terms of provid ing a fundamental human right, the Sri Lankan educational system
    has succeeded: over 90% of its population is literate, there is near universal access to primary
    education, the gender gap is not significant. Further, the education system has succeeded in creating
    favourable externalities in terms of health, fert ility, political participation, awareness and access to
    informat ion, empowerment of potentially marginalised groups ( based on class/ caste, gender) etc.
   However, viewed in terms of human capital formation, increasing productivity of labour, external
    efficiency of education, Sri Lanka has failed rather badly. The external efficiency of the educational
    system i.e the link between education and the labor market is weak and has been a major constraint in
    the poorer segments of the population deriving full benefit fro m education. Studies have shown tha t
    students from poor families tend to enter school late, experience relatively h igh repetition and drop out
    rates, possess low learning, verbal and numerical skills, experience weak develop ment of cognitive and
    reasoning abilities, and do not develop disciplined work ethic (Aturupana 2000).
   Vocat ional and technical education, which should assist individuals to increase earning capacity and
    emerge out of poverty, suffer fro m gross under resourcing and weak links with the market. Access to
    vocational and technical education by the rural poor is very low, as such institutions are concentrated
    in urban areas.
   The duality of widespread accessibility to education and its weakness in increasing earnings is
    reflected in that the poor and non-poor in Sri Lanka have on average around the same years of
    schooling (8-9 years) (DER 1999).


2.3.2. Health and Nutrition
(Table 6 and 4)
   Though basic health indicators such as life expectancy, infant and maternal mortality reflect sound
    basic health standards, malnutrition, es pecially among children, is a serious issue which has resisted
    all attempts at control. Widespread under-nutrition is reflected in lo w birth weight, stunting and
    wasting. Other manifestations of low levels of nutrit ion is seen in high prevalence of iron deficiency
    anemia and micronutrient deficiency, especially in vitamin A and D (de Silva 1998).



                                                                                                                6
   Other areas of concern are respiratory d iseases (frequently caused by smoke and wood fires),
    mosquito-borne and water-born diseases. Low health awareness leading to poor sanitary practices,
    livelihood practices which are a health risk and deteriorat ion in preventive effo rts by the state (as in the
    case of the aborted malaria campaign) are identified as causes leading to the rise of these diseases.


2.3.3 Water and Sanitation
(Table 7)
   Access to safe water and sanitation is another basic area which has lagged behind in Sri Lanka. The
    steady increase in facilities have not been able to keep up with the increasing demands. 28% of the
    population does not have access to safe water while 24% does not have access to safe sanitation
    (Tables 7A-1 amd 7A-2).
   Drinking water is categorised according to source as, from main line (p ipe born), tube well, protected
    well (built up with wall around the water), unprotected well, river/ tank (both considered natural
    resources – a tank is a man made lake wh ich is generally part of a irrigation system). However, the
    quality of the water d iffers not just by type of source but within a specific type too. For examp le, a
    protected well may be a „drinking well‟ o r a „bathing well‟ depending on the quality of the water. Th is
    gives rise to problems when quantifying access to safe drinking water by type of source.
   In the case of sanitation the main categories are water seal, pour flush, an d pit.


2.4 Pockets of Very Poor
Despite the near elimination of starvation and abject destitution in Sri Lanka, there are a few niches of poor
who come close to this situation. Due to various reasons these groups have poor access means of
livelihood. Th is is compounded by lack of access to state provided services and benefits which are
generally accessible to the poor.
1. Displaced households
Extreme deprivation is seen among households and communities who are displaced fro m their o rig inal
residence. Displacement may be due to,
a) Conflict: This includes long term refugees, returning refugees, repeated and intermittent refugees of all
ethnic groups predominantly fro m the North, Eastern and North Central Provinces. The main causes of
poverty are the loss of sources of livelihood and asset base.
b) Irrigation settlement schemes (over the last 3 decades): These schemes predominate in the North -
Western, Uva and Eastern Prov inces. The main causes of poverty arise from the severing of social capital,
and break down of co mmunity and social networks which are vital in rural agricultural co mmunit ies and
issues of landlessness in subsequent generations.




                                                                                                                 7
Displaced co mmunities are particularly vulnerab le to health issues such as:
a) The break down of prevention programs rise of the most virulent form of malaria, b) Poor quality
shelter, poor sanitary conditions have been a major factor in the rise of respiratory infections and water
borne diseases. c) Food shortages, low quality food, deterioration in health care has led to deterioration of
maternal and child health care and nutrition. d) Psychological trau ma – due to experience with violence,
disintegration of the family and community structure, loss of security.


2. Households in conflict areas including vulnerable villages
The last household survey which included this group was carried out in 1985. Therefore reliance has to be
placed on small amp le surveys and case studies for more recent trends. These communities suffer fro m the
deterioration of both physical and social infrastructure. Agriculture wh ich is the main means of livelihood
suffers as fields are mined and in the path of terrorist attacks, and can not be tended continuously, etc. In
terms of supporting infrastructure, irrigation systems are not maintained, there is either a total break down
of transport or the sruviving transport can be accesed only at a high cost. There is little investment and lack
of economic opportunities. In the case of the fisheries sector restrictions on fishing areas, horse power of
boats, etc. constrain production.


As in the case of displaced communit ies, the worst deprivation comes fro m loss of physical safety and
psychological trau ma caused by violence and the threat of violence, and break down of co mmunity.


The Government of Sri Lanka has consistently attempted to maintain the delivery of services; food,
med icine, medical staff, other essential commodities and services, education (most state schools – even
though at a lower standard - and all state run universities have continued to function) as well as
rehabilitation and reconstruction. „As a result, the civilian population in the area has been somewhat
protected‟ (World Bank 2000).


However, education and health has suffered as there are disruptions to formal education (break down of the
schooling system, forced recruit ment of children into by the LTTE), scarcity of med ical personnel and
teachers. The school drop out rates are substantially higher in these regions than in others.


3. Purana Villages (Ancient villages)
About 50% o f the 15,000 villages in Sri Lanka are categorized as „purana villages‟. However, all these are
not niches of acute deprivation. It is the purana villages where the primary feature is the geographic
isolation and remoteness that harbor pockets of acute poverty. Approximately 10% of the Purana villages
are extremely isolated and thus very vulnerable to acute deprivation.




                                                                                                                8
Isolation creates poor access to public services, economic opportunity, and these villages are worst served
in terms of transport, access to education, health care, etc. The most popular path out of deprivation is
migrat ion.


4. Unemployed estate workers.
Laobur on predominantly tea estates are to a large extent a social and economic unit separated from the
mainstream. The wellbeing of the commun ity is tied strongly to the estate at which they are emp loyed.
The pockets of acute deprivation is found predominantly as a „second generation‟ problem where parents
are employed in the estate economy. As married child ren do not form a separate household they frequently
do not qualify for separate benefits. The lack of skills, mob ility, language and social barriers make
unemployed estate labour ill equipped to take on economic activ ities outside the estate sector.
There is a scarcity of economic opportunities in the estate sector as the estate populations have grown faster
than the labour requirements. Th is has been aggravated by the fall in demand for labour as nonproductive
estates are closed down.


5. Marginalised social groups
The caste system in Sri Lanka is mild co mpared to that of other caste based societies, and by now has
marginal impact on the economic status and well being of co mmunit ies. However, there are „depressed
caste comminutes‟ which make up pockets of very poor. These groups, of which the Rodi caste is an
example, are a very small minority 1 and to a large extent have failed to be mainstreamed due to their
nomadic nature. These communit ies have failed to benefit fro m the universality of state service prov ision
and the nation wide poverty alleviation programs. To a large extent they remain outside the mainstream
society as well as the economy.


3. Disaggregating the Poverty Profile
National statistics can be disaggregated to a number of levels. The in itial disaggregation can be either in
terms of agro -climat ic Zones or socio-economic Sectors. Beyond this the administrative divisions of
Provinces, Districts, Div isional Secretariats, Asst. Govern ment Agent Divisions, Gramaseva Divisions.


This profile will be limited to Sectors, Provinces and Districts, and Households.


3.1 Urban, Rural and Estate Sectors
The first level of disaggregation is based on the socio-economic sectors: Urban, Ru ral and Estate.
In Sri Lan ka, the Estate sector is added to the general socio-economic d ivision of urban and rural. The sub-
division has been added as the estate sector unique economic and social sector. In economic terms the
entire sector is based on large – mainly tea – plantations. The welfare of the co mmunity was to a large

1
    The Rodi population is no more than 5000 persons.


                                                                                                               9
degree controlled by the plantations. Education, housing, health care, etc. was provided based on the
plantation structure. In social terms, the co mmunity is made up very predominantly of Indian Tamils who
migrated in during the Brit ish period for the specific purpose of providing estate labour. As a social group
they remained separated from the other ethnic groups within the country including the Sri Lankan Tamils.
The Depart ment of census and Statistics defines the sectors as:
Urban Sector: Areas governed by either Municipal or Urban Council. Previously areas governed by Town
Councils were also included.
Estate Sector: Plantation areas which have more than 20 acres and having more than 10 residential
laboureres with single ad ministration body.
Rural: Residential areas wh ich do not belong to urban or estate sectors.


In terms of incidence of poverty, in 1995/6 poverty was lowest in the urban sector (15%) wh ile the estate
(25%) and rural (26%) sectors had much higher incidence. However, poverty is mainly a rural
phenomenon with over 88% of the poor liv ing in the rural sector in 1995/ 96. In contrast, only 8% and 4%
of the poor live in the urban and estate sectors respectively (Gunewardene, 2000).


In terms of trends, the reducing trend in poverty is clearly evident in the urban sector. While an increasing
trend is seen mostly in the estate sector. Vulnerab ility to fluctuations is highest in the rural sector.


3.2 Provincial and District Level:
Sri Lanka is div ided into 9 provinces which is the first administrative level and thereafter into 24 districts
(see annexed map of Sri Lan ka).


Regional d isparities are a major issue which successive policy regimes have attempted to address.
However, regional disparities keep increasing as seen by 1990 / 91 to 1995/96 co mparisons (Tables 2A-2b
and 2A-2c). Despite and national increase in poverty during the period 1990/91 to 1995/96 a decline in
poverty occurred only in the Western Province, which already had the lowest incidence, depth and severity
of poverty in the country (Table 2A-2b). This position is not supprising given that the three most urbanized
and developed in terms of infrastructure and industrial and co mmercial act ivity and districts of Co lo mbo,
Gampha and Kalutara make up the Western Province.
During the 1990 / 91 to 1995/96 period all other provinces saw an increase in poverty. The Uva Province
which account for more than 10% o f the poor had the highest incidence of poverty with more than half the
population of the district of Moneragala within the province being poor.


Disparit ies in infrastructure within p rovinces reflect the basic issues facing the more impoverished regions.
1.   Electricity: Though the national access to electricity is 56%, only about 25% of the households in Uva
     and Sabaragamuva provinces have access to main grid (table 10A -1a). In an effo rt to overcome this




                                                                                                                  10
         problem, few co mmun ities have moved on to community / private access through micro hydro
         projects. This is seen predominately in the Sabaragamuva Province.
2.       Water and sanitation: Extremely h igh prevalence of diarroheal d isease in the Uva Province has been
         identified as being due to unsafe water and sanitation conditions, with both districts Badulla and
         Monaragala falling under the „extremely high risk‟ category. This is reflected in the fact that 20% of
         the households in Uva do not have access to toilets (7% mo re than the Sri Lankan average), and 13%
         use river / tank water, and 12 % „other‟ sources for drinking (Sri Lanka average is 4% for both
         categories). In contrast only 0.5 % of the households in the Western Province consume river /tank
         water fo r drinking while 30% have access to drinking water form the main lines. In terms of
         sanitation, almost 50% use water seal toilets while only 0.5% do not have access to to ilets (de Silva
         1998). In terms of districts, the difference between the best access to drinking water – 95% in
         Colo mbo – and the worst access – 35% in Polonnaruwa – is very great (UNDP 1998)
    3.   Road lin ks and transport: The disparities in road networks and transport is an issue which is
          aggravated by the very low intra-region and inter-region road networks. Once again Uva and
          Sabaragamuva are the provinces with the weakest rural-urban transport linkages, wh ile the Western
          province is higher than the national average ( Ku marage 1998).


3.3 Household Characteristics:
The Depart ment of Census and Statistics in its Household Income and Expenditure Su rvey 1995/96 defines
a household as:
A household can be : i) a none person household – where one persons lives and makes separate provision
for food (cooking or purchasing it), or ii) a mult i person household – a group of two or mo re persons who
live together and have a common arrangement for cooking and partaking food‟.


        If an households principal inco me earner was in the fo llo wing occupations the probability of the
         household being poor was very high; Small farmers and agricultural labour, casual labour (mining and
         quarrying, construction, agriculture, petty trades and informal sector), animal husbandry and fisheries,
         cottage and small industry.
        The unemployed status of the principal income earner is not a significant factor in a household being
         poor i.e. „the likelihood of being poor is not higher for individuals in households where the principal
         income earner was unemployed co mpared with households with an emp loyed principal inco me earner‟
         (Gunewardene 2000).
        Though a negative relationship prevails between poverty and schooling, and poverty and literacy, there
         is a high threshold as almost half the poor (45%) live in households where the principal inco me earner
         has some level of secondary schooling.
        A coping mechanism co mmonly seen among rural and poor households is the tendency to diversify
         income earning activ ities. Almost half the rural households receive income fro m wages as well as fro m



                                                                                                                   11
    self employ ment. Foreign remittances supplement the household income, but this source is most
    important in the urban sector and among the non poor. In the case of rural poor do mestic remittances
    are more significant.
   In terms of asset ownership, there does not seem to be a correlat ion between land ownership and
    poverty. The exception is in the case of ownership of paddy lands. Here, the quality and access to
    irrigation and type of land tenure has a fundamental bearing on the productivity and earning capacity
    of small-farming households. Type of land ownership and tenancy is tied to a large extent to the type
    of commun ity – i.e purana village, settlement colonies, etc. The problemat ic and impoverishing
    features of land tenure however, is co mmon to all types. A major issue is the lack of clear title wh ich
    constraints both mobility and investment. In purana villages land is either held by large landlords thus
    creating a problem of landless labour or repeated sub-divisions of own land creates ever decreasing
    and uneconomical small plots. In settlement colonies state restrictions on subdivision creates a problem
    of landless labor as early as in the second generation. (Parker and Silva 2000).
   In terms of cred it, borrowings fro m the formal banking sector is significant among the poor but over
    50% of the borrowing of the very poor co me fro m the informal sector (Table 11).
   Access to Organizations: There two fundamental types of organisations that low inco me households
    have access to; 1. organizat ions created by the community itself. These are most often related to the
    sharing of common resources or perform a social function. By far the most widespread is the
    „Maranadana Samithi‟ – Funeral Aid Societies‟. These organizat ions can be seen in any community –
    fro m urban slu ms to remote purana (ancient) villages. Though the primary function of this
    organization is to finance and arrange funeral ceremon ies, most have expanded their functions to
    include credit and other welfare services. Most other specific organization types depend on the type
    of commun ity / village and the sources of livelihood.        2. Organizations facilitated by external
    agencies – either state or non state. Since the 1990s state sponsored poverty alleviation pogrammes
    have had a community organizat ion component – either in relation to credit or develop ment of
    infrastructure. The extensive spread of the state programme mean that a large segments of the poor are
    connected in some manner to an organization. In addit ion are the numerous programmes facilitated by
    external NGOs. However, it is estimated that about 20% o f the poor are not reached by these
    progmrammes.


3.4 Female Headed Households
The „head of the household‟ is defined by the Depart ment o f Census and Statistics as the adult member,
male or female, who is primarily responsible for the maintaince, support and care of the household and is
regarded as the head by other members of the household.




                                                                                                                12
The number of female headed households have increased from 16% in 1981 to 21 % in 1994. As this
estimate excluds households in the Northern and Eastern provinces, which are in the conflict areas, the
probability is that it is an underestimation.


As in the case of aggregate indicators which show no significant gender inequality either in access to
health, education services or in economic welfare and income poverty levels, statistics do not reveal greater
deprivation among female headed households. The exception is the urban sector where the likelih ood of a
female headed household beign poor is greater than if headed by a male. In contrast, in the case of rural and
estate sector households female headed households are less likely to be poor (Table 2B -2b). The existence
of a strong social capital base, targeted benefits form state programs and non-state assistance contribute to
this situation.


However, within female headed households a disparity in economic welfare can be observed when
disaggregated by ethnicity. Unlike the Sinhalese wo men, Muslim an d to a lesser extent Sri Lankan Tamil
wo men, face socio-cultural constraints regarding working outside the home environ ment. Though these
constraints free these women fro m the crushing workload frequently borne by poor Sinhalese and estate
Tamil wo men, it creates greater impoverishment among female headed households of these communities
(Parker and Silva, 2000).


Three significant problems faced by poor women ( most are relevant to non -poor as well but at a lo wer
intensity) are:
i. lower wage rates – casual non-plantation labour earns 50- 60% less than male counterparts.
ii. Constraints in achieving leadership and decision making positions.
iii. Physical insecurity – domestic vio lence and abuse, sexual harassment, intensified due to conflict and
general deterioration of law and order (DER 1999).




4. Of increasing concern: Relative deprivation and pe rceptions of poverty


An issue which has been gaining mo mentum and is now moving into central focus in Sri Lanka is the issue
of relative deprivation. Though barely reflected in the conventional statistical measures, relative
deprivation as perceived by the vast majority of the population has increased rapidly over the past decades.
The basic standards of liv ing achieved by the majo rity of the population toge ther with high awareness
generated through near universal education has created a population that is intensely aware of the
increasing inequalit ies in the distribution of wealth and opportunities. Aspirations of the population have
moved towards sustainable livelihoods at an comparable standard of liv ing.




                                                                                                               13
In this relation two issues predominate; a) Regional disparities wh ich are interwoven with access to
infrastructure, services and opportunities. b) The very weak links between education / skills and econ omic
opportunities and aspirations.


The awareness of regional disparities is very strong among the rural population and has frequently been
expressed in violent terms. The education mis match was well recognized in Sri Lanka as early as 1971. 2
But rather than waning the problem has intensified as the levels of education and awareness of
opportunities, and thus aspirations, have grown with each generation of Sri Lankan youth.




2
 The root cause of the 1971 youth insurrection was analyzed as a problem of unemp loyed educated youth
whose economic and social aspirations had been frustrated.


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Selected Bibliography


Alailima, P. J. (1986) A Survey of the Literature on Poverty, M imeo.

Aturupane, H,.(1998) Education and Poverty in Sri Lanka, Mimeo, Un iversity of Colo mbo, Co lo mbo.

Bhalla, S., and Paul Glewwe (1986) 'Growth and Equity in Developing Countries: A Reinterpretation of the
         Sri Lankan Experience', World Bank Econo mic Review, Vo l.1 No.1: 35 – 63.

Datt, Gaurav and Dileni Gunewardena (1997) So me Aspects of Poverty in Sri Lan ka: 1985-90, Policy
        Research Working Paper WPS 1738, World Bank, Washington D.C.

de Silva, A mala (1998) Health and Poverty, University of Co lo mbo, Colo mbo

DER, (2000) Framework for Poverty Reduction In Sri Lan ka, M imeo, January 2000

Gunaratne, L. (1985) Measurement of Poverty in Sri Lanka, A Paper Prepared for the World Bank-Central
        Bank, Sri Lanka Pro ject on "Evolution of Living Standards in Sri Lanka", M imeo.

Gunewardena, D., (2000) Consumption Poverty In Sri Lankan, 1985-1996: A Profile of Poverty Based on
       Household Survey Data, M imeio, April 2000

Hopkins, M.J.D. and T. Jogaratnam (1990) The Socio-economic Dimensions of Poverty in Sri Lan ka and
        Policy Imp licat ions, Development Alternatives, Inc., Washington, D.C.

Ku marage, A., (1998) Formulat ion of Po licy Framework for Poverty Alleviat ion: Transportation , Mimeo,
        University of Moratuwa

Lakshman, W.D. (1997), 'Inco me Distribution and Poverty', in W.D. Lakshman (ed.) Dilemmas of
       Develop ment: Fifty Years of Econo mic Change in Sri Lan ka, SLA E, Colo mbo.

Lakshman, W.D. (1998) Poverty in Sri Lanka: Measurement and Alleviat ion Exercises , SSP Working
       Paper, Intercooperation, Colo mbo.

Nanayakka, A.G.W., (1994) An Ananlysis of Poverty In Sri Lan ka, Sri Lan ka Journal of Social Sciences,
       vol. 17 no. 1&2, June/December 19994

Parket, B., and K.T Silva, (2000) Peoples‟ Perceptions of Poverty: Social Issues in Sri Lan kan Poverty ,
         Mimeo, May 2000

Tudawe, I ., (2000) Review of Poverty Related Data and Data Sources in Sri Lankan , MIMAP-Sri Lanka
        Series No.4, Institute of Po licy Studies, Colob mbo.

UNDP (1998) Nat ional Hu man Develop ment Report: Sri Lankan 1998, UNDP, Co lo mbo

World Ban k, (2000) Sri Lanka: Recapturing M is sed Opportunities, World Bank Country   Report




                                                                                                      15
Indicator Tables

Preliminary work along the lines suggested by the BMPP guidelines on constructing a
comparative BMPP, has generated the following information.


Fairly complete data is available in the main areas of income and expenditure,
employment, nutrition, education, health, water and sanitation, housing and services and
to a slightly lesser extent for assets.
In terms of ancillary areas: in the case of case of credit, much reliance has to be placed
on credit providing institutions and individual studies as data sources. Hence the data is
not always comparable. In the case of crisis and crisis coping , disaster related data is
available primarily in the form of quantifying disaster relief. The least amount of data is
available in the area of access to organizations.


With regard to the available levels of disaggregation; most data is disaggregated to the
initial levels of rural/urban/estate and in terms of regions – the administrative units of 9
provinces and 24 districts. However, disaggregation in terms of household type is less
easily accessible.


In terms of time frame; comparability varies substantially based on the source of data.
Surveys by the Department of Census and Statistics and the Central Bank of Sri Lanka
and other institutions which gather data at regular intervals follow a pattern. However,
data that is collected from other sample surveys do not necessarily follow a regular
pattern.




                                                                                             16
Table 1: DEMOGRAPHY

1A –1 HOUS EHOLD DISTRIB UTION ABSOLUTE NUMB ERS AND PERCENTAGES

1A-1a POPULATION OF SRI LANKA B Y PROVINCE AND DISTRICT( Excludi ng the Northern
and Eastern Provinces)
                       1981 (‟000 ) percentage 1994 („000) percentage

Sri Lanka                 14,846          100           15,021              100
Western                   3920.00         26.4          4,703               31.3
     Colombo                                            2,057
     Gampaha                                            1,707
     Kalutara                                           938
Central                   2009.2          13.5          2,315               15.4
     Kandy                                              1,221
     Matale                                             422
     NuwaraEliya                                        671
Southern                  1882.7          12.6          2,224               14.8
     Galle                                              954
     Matara                                             753
     Hambantota                                         515
Northern                  1109.4          7.47          -                   -
    Jaffna                                              -
    Mannar                                              -
    Vavuniya                                            -
    Mullativu                                           -
Eastern                   975.2           6.56          -                   -
    Batticaloa                                          -
  Ampara                                                -
   Trincomalee                                          -
North Western             1704.3          11.47         1,979               13.2
    Kurunagala                                          1,377
    Puttalam                                            601,103
North Central             849.5           5.72          1,007               6.7
  Anuradhapura                                          676,
  Polonnaruwa                                           331
Uva                       914.6           6.16          1,114               7.4
  Badulla                                               749
   Monaragala                                           364
Sabaragamuwa              1482            9.98          1,667               11.1
  Ratnapura                                             917
  Kegalle                                               759

Source: Demographic Su rvey 1994, Sri Lan ka, Depart ment of Census and Statistics




                                                                                     17
1A-1b i Population of Sri Lanka by Sectors, Provinces, and Districts (1981)
District                             Urban ( population in thousands)   Rural( population in thousands)
Sri Lanka                            3,192.5                            11,654.3
Western
     Co lo mbo                       1,264.5                            435.0
     Gampaha                         388.3                              1002.5
     Kalutara                        178.1                              651.6
Central
     Kandy                           145.1                              903.2
     Matale                          38.1                               319.2
     Nuwara Eliya                    37.3                               566.3
Southern
     Galle                           166.4                              648.2
     Matara                          71.2                               572.6
     Hambantota                      41.4                               382.9
Northern
    Jaffna                           270.6                              560.0
    Mannar                           13.9                               92.3
    Vavuniya                         18.5                               76.9
    Mullativu                        7.2                                70.0
Eastern
   Batticaloa                        79.4                               250.9
  A mpara                            53.3                               335.7
  Trincomalee                        82.7                               173.2
North Western
   Kurunagala                        43.5                               1,168.3
   Puttalam                          61.7                               430.8
North Central
  Anuradhapura                       41.4                               546.5
  Polonnaruwa                        20.5                               241.1
Uva
  Badulla                            51.6                               589.4
  Monaragala                         6.0                                267.6
Sabaragamuwa
  Ratnapura                          59.2                               737.9
  Kegalle                            52.8                               632.2
Source: Statistical Abstract 1999




1A-1b ii Households by Provinces and Districts of Sri Lanka
District                                              No. of Households
                                    1971                     1981                         1994
Western Province
  Colombo                 479,901                   309,765                     412,630
  Gampaha                  -                        289,652                     372,431
  Kalutara                141,194                   166,822                     203,094



                                                                                                      18
Central
    Kandy                 240,581                    188,203                 262,272
    Matale                61,151                     73,713                  93,401
    Nuwara Eliya          118,669                    136,602                 147,222
Southern
   Galle                  138,953                    154,531                 203,879
   Matara                 108,308                    129,544                 161,685
   Hambantota             60,880                     84,050                  109,806
Northern
   Jaffna                 143,180                    159,053                 -
   Killinochchi           -                          -                       -
   Mannar                 15,097                     20,770                  -
   Mullaitivu             -                          14,906                  -
Eastern
   Vavuniya               19,735                     19719                   -
   Batticaloa             53,589                     74,375                  -
   Ampara                 54,122                     84,407                  -
   Trincomalee            37,035                     51,836                  -
North Western
   Kurunagala             200,726                    275,718                 324,508
   Puttalam               80,684                     111,177                 135,235
North Central
   Anuradapura            72,893                     117,326                 155,258
   Polonnaruwa            28,609                     51,481                  75,076
Uva
   Badulla                127,359                    129,020                 166,294
   Moneragala             35,092                     53,911                  77,138
Sabaragamuwa
  Ratnapura               136,327                    169,277                 201,456
  Kegalle                 131,096                    147,658                 172,381
Sri Lanka                 2,485,175                  3,048,598               3,274,590
Source: Statistical Abstract, Depart ment of Census and Statistics, 1999.
NB: Districts in areas of conflict do not have recent data.



1B-1 POPULATION BY HOUSEHOLD TYPE

1B –1a Distribution of households by head of household
YEAR                    TOTAL NO.               WOMEN %                            MEN %
1992                    3,053,479               18.8                               81.2
1993                    3,121,214               20.3                               79.7
1994 - IST QUARTER 3,220,298                    21.4                               78.6
Primary Source: Sri Lan ka Labour Force Survey 1992- 1993, Dept. of Census and Statistics
Secondary source: Women and Men in Sri Lanka, Dept. of Census and Statistics
NB: Head of Household is defined as the head of the household is the adult member , male or female who
is primarily responsible for the maintenance support and care of the household, she/he may be an elder
member regarded as the head by the other members of the household




                                                                                                     19
Table 2: INCOME AND EXPENDITURE

12A-1 I/E PER CAPITA

12A-1 Per Capita Income, Rs (Curre nt Market Prices)
 Year             1988      1989      1990         1991     1992     1993     1994     1995       1996       1997
 Per capita GDP, 13,373    14,971    18,936       21,589   24,435   28,354   32,414   36,869     41,940     47,999
Source: Economic and Social Statistics of Sri Lanka, Central Bank, 1998.


2A-2 M ONEY METRIC POVERTY INDICATORS

2A-2a.i Poverty in Sri Lanka by Sector: 1985/86, 1990/91, and 1995/ 96
                1985/86                           1990/91                                    1995/96
         Incidence    Depth of      Severity of     Inciden   Depth     Severity   Inciden     Depth      Severity
         of poverty   poverty       poverty         ce of     of pov.   of pov.    ce of       of         of pov.
         (Head        (Poverty      ( Squared       pov.      (Povert   (Square    pov.        poverty    (
         count)       gap)          poverty         (Head     y gap)    d          (Head       (Povert    Squared
                                    gap)            count)              poverty    count)      y gap)     poverty
                                                                        gap)                              gap)
                  Reference poverty line : Rs. 791.67/person/month at 1995/96 prices
Urban    18.4         4.4        1.6           15.0    3.4     1.2       14.7     3.0                     0.9
Rural    35.6         8.9        3.2           22.0    4.5     1.4       27.0     5.8                     1.9
Estate   20.5         3.9        1.3           12.4    2.1     0.6       24.9     4.9                     1.6
Sri      30.9         7.6        2.8           19.9    4.1     1.3       25.2     5.4                     1.7
Lanka
                  Higher poverty line : Rs. 950/person/month at 1995/96 prices
Urban 28.1            7.5         2.9         24.5     6.1      2.2      24.95.8                          2.0
Rural 50.2            14.6        5.9         36.0     8.6      3.0      41.310.5                         3.8
Estate 20.5           3.9         1.3         12.4     2.1      0.6      24.910.1                         3.3
Sri      44.5         12.6        5.0         33.0     7.8      2.7      39.29.9                          3.5
lanka
Primary source: Department of Census and Statistics
Secondary source: Sri Lanka, Recapturing Missed Opportunities, World bank country
Report




                                                                                                     20
2A-2a.ii Consumption Poverty Levels 1996/97
Sector                     Head count                Poverty gap            Severity index          # of
                                                                                                    obser-
                                                                                                    vations
                           Fraction   contribution   Fraction    contributi Fraction    Contribut
                                                                 on                     ion
                         Reference poverty line: Rs. 1032 per person per month
URBA N
                           17.3       7.2            4.1        7.2         1.5         7.3         5163
RURA L
                           33.3       86.8           8.0        87.9        2.8         88.8        32,496
ESTATE
                           33.7       6.0            6.5        4.9         1.8         3.9         2,232
SRI LANKA
                          31.2      100.0           7.4         100.0       2.6         100.0       39,891
                        Reference poverty line Rs. 860 per person per month
URBAN                     10.9      7.5             2.2         7.2         0.7         7.5         5,163

RURA L
                           20.3       87.4           4.3        89.0        1.4         89.6        32,496
ESTATE
                           17.5       5.2            2.6        3.8         0.7         2.9         2,232
SRI LANKA
                          18.9       100.0          3.9         100.0        1.3       100.0        39,891
Primary Source: Consumer Finances & Socio-economic Su rvey 1996/97, Central Bank of Sri Lanka
Secondary source: Framework for Poverty Reduction in Sri Lanka, Draft Jan 2000, DER




                                                                                                    21
2a-2b Poverty in Sri Lanka by Province: 1985-96
Province    Poverty line= Rs. 791.67 per      Poverty line = Rs. 950.00 per per
            Person Per month                  person per month
            1985         19900        1995      1985         1990         1995
Western
Head count  19.49        15.23        13.61     30.04        25.92        23.35
Poverty gap 4.62         3.22         2.58      7.99         6.08         5.26
Squared     1.63         1.02         0.75      3.06         2.12         1.71
poverty gap
Central
Head count    30.11        23.49    27.89        45.64       37.88       42.9
Poverty gap   6.85         5.16     6.23         11.96       9.37        11.13
Squared       2.27         1.70     2.11         4.45        3.39        4.12
poverty gap
Southern
Head count    39.24        23.73    26.48        53.37       38.64       41.38
Poverty gap   10.79        5.07     5.64         16.72       9.38        10.37
Squared       4.24         1.65     1.87         7.16        3.34        3.75
poverty gap
North western
Head count  33.78          18.03    33.87        48.5        31.00       52.38
Poverty gap 7.73           3.36     6.95         13.26       6.88        13.05
Squared     2.69           0.98     2.16         5.08        2.23        4.55
poverty gap
North central
Head count  33.05          18.16    31.16        50.76       34.12       46.67
Poverty gap 7.27           2.88     6.25         13.09       6.72        11.82
Squared     2.39           0.74     1.84         4.77        1.96        4.04
poverty gap
Uva
Head count    40.45        23.71    37.04        55.56       39.81       55.17
Poverty gap   11.54        4.85     9.47         17.55       9.31        15.49
Squared       4.54         1.45     3.49         7.61        3.16        6.24
poverty gap
Sabaragamuwa
Head count  40.96          23.07    31.59        54.74       35.65       46.77
Poverty gap 10.09          4.92     6.78         16.38       8.99        12.21
Squared     3.68           1.67     2.13         6.63        3.29        4.39
poverty gap
Source: Gunewardena 2000




                                                                                  22
2A-2c Poverty in Sri Lanka by District
District    Poverty line = Rs. 791.67 per      Poverty line = Rs. 950.00 per per
            Person Per month                  person per month
            1985         1990         1995      1985         1990         1995
Colombo
Head count  12.2         12.86        10.33    20.4          21.24        18.71
Poverty gap 2.79         2.94         1.77     5.00          5.26         3.95
Squared     1.00         0.98         0.46     1.88          1.93         1.19
poverty gap
Gampaha
Head count    25.81      12.18       10.89     38.87         23.72        20.91
Poverty gap   6.35       2.26        1.80      10.76         4.87         4.13
Squared       2.25       0.63        0.47      4.18          1.51         1.22
poverty gap
Kalutara
Head count    24.09      25.14       25.65     35.34         39.28        37.73
Poverty gap   5.50       5.33        5.78      9.56          9.77         10.13
Squared       1.92       1.72        1.86      3.65          3.50         3.72
poverty gap
Kandy
Head count    34.83      28.65       29.87     51.90         44.22        42.03
Poverty gap   8.32       6.16        7.04      14.05         11.16        11.85
Squared       2.84       2.00        2.47      5.39          4.03         4.61
poverty gap
Matale
Head count    33.65      23.47       34.67     50.16         38.11        51.04
Poverty gap   7.07       5.54        8.53      12.87         9.68         14.31
Squared       2.18       1.85        3.07      4.56          3.60         5.62
poverty gap
Nuwara Eliya
Head count  16.49        11.46       20.86     27.68         22.94        39.67
Poverty gap 3.29         2.55        3.61      6.41          4.95         8.14
Squared     1.01         0.88        1.00      2.17          1.74         2.46
poverty gap
Galle
Head count    40.34      22.85       24.74     55.16         38.30        38.67
Poverty gap   10.60      4.92        5.62      16.71         9.08         9.89
Squared       4.00       1.63        1.99      6.97          3.26         3.75
poverty gap
Matara
Head count    31.25      24.06       28.14     45.92         38.12        43.73
Poverty gap   8.07       5.09        5.84      13.25         9.45         10.95
Squared       3.13       1.60        1.90      5.44          3.32         3.89
poverty gap
Hambantota
Head count    49.25      24.82       27.18     61.25         40.04        42.82
Poverty gap   15.26      5.32        5.40      21.95         9.80         10.39


                                                                                   23
Squared       6.35          1.76    1.62    10.13   3.52    3.53
poverty gap
Kurunegala
Head count    35.16         17.73   34.19   50.24   30.70   52.81
Poverty gap   8.24          3.16    7.06    13.94   6.72    13.20
Squared       2.94          0.88    2.18    5.44    2.11    4.61
poverty gap
Puttalam
Head count    3.90          3.81    5.20    3.95    3.87    5.18
Poverty gap   3.38          3.77    4.93    3.65    3.77    5.09
Squared       2.98          3.73    4.79    3.33    3.75    4.96
poverty gap
Anuradhapura
Head count  5.76            4.88    5.50    5.96    5.43    5.36
Poverty gap 5.26            3.63    4.81    5.61    4.52    5.18
Squared     4.78            2.85    4.09    5.21    3.73    4.73
poverty gap
Polonnaruwa
Head count  1.61            1.51    2.23    1.90    1.80    2.08
Poverty gap 1.33            1.28    2.46    1.55    1.51    2.30
Squared     1.20            1.15    2.56    1.35    1.33    2.43
poverty gap
Badulla
Head count    5.98          5.57    5.33    5.82    5.84    5.57
Poverty gap   6.98          5.38    5.41    6.40    5.57    5.34
Squared       7.63          4.95    5.25    7.00    5.31    5.32
poverty gap
Moneragala
Head count    3.35          3.06    5.30    3.08    2.87    4.59
Poverty gap   3.83          3.17    7.33    3.52    3.06    5.99
Squared       4.10          3.12    9.30    3.82    3.11    7.45
poverty gap
Ratnapura
Head count    9.21          6.20    8.90    8.26    6.36    8.07
Poverty gap   9.77          5.67    9.34    9.25    6.06    8.81
Squared       10.26         5.52    9.12    9.78    5.79    9.07
poverty gap
Kegalle
Head count   6.03           7.12    5.31    5.88    6.03    5.44
Poverty gap  5.47           8.11    4.98    5.68    7.17    5.21
Squared      5.09           9.27    4.86    5.41    8.13    5.03
poverty gap
Source: Gunewardena, 2000




                                                                    24
2B-2A Poverty in Sri Lanka by household type
Poverty line = Rs. 791.67 per    Poverty line = Rs.950.00 per
               Person per month                   person per month
               1985        1990      1995        1985        1990                1995
Male
Headcount      30.69       19.58     25.51       44.4        33.13               39.42
Poverty gap 7.49           3.98      5.41        12.48       7.68                9.94
Squared        2.69        1.25      1.72        4.93        2.64                3.54
poverty gap
Female
Headcount      32.11       21.18     23.65       45.33       32.69               38.47
Poverty gap 8.25           4.61      5.17        13.31       8.31                9.55
Squared        3.09        1.49      1.76        5.45        3.01                3.46
poverty gap
Source: Gunewardena ,2000




2B-2B POVERTY BY HOUS EHOLD TYPE AND S ECTOR.

2B-2BPOVERTY AMONG M ALE AND FEMALE H EADED HOUSEHOLDS , SRI LANKA AND
SECTORAL , 1995/1996
                   Incidence of Poverty        Depth of Poverty        Severity of Poverty
                        %                            %                        %
                  Poverty line = 791.67 rupees per person per month
                              SRI LA NKA
Male headed         25.51                   5.41                    1.72
households
Female headed       23.65                   5.17                     1.76
households
                              URBAN SECTOR
Male headed         13.67               2.61                         0.78
households
Female headed       18.11                   4.07                     1.35
households
                              RURAL SECTOR
Male headed         27.36               5.86                         1.88
households
Female headed       25.03                   5.49                     1.89
households
                              ESTATE SECTOR
Male headed         26.09               5.21                         1.69
households
Female headed       18.69                   2.97                     0.71
households
                 Poverty line = 950.00 rupees per person per month
                               SRI LA NKA
Male headed         39.42                    9.94                    3.54
households
Female headed       38.47                   9.55                     3.46
households
                              URBAN SECTOR1.73


                                                                                             25
   Male headed          23.37                    5.26                     1.73
   households
   Female headed        30.58                    7.61                     2.71
   households
                                 RURAL SECTOR
   Male headed          41.66              10.66                          3.83
   households
   Female headed        39.99                    10.02                    3.67
   households
                                 ESTATE SECTOR
   Male headed          45.96              10.44                          3.54
   households
   Female headed        43.84                    8.16                     2.15
   households
   Source: Gunewardena, 2000




   2A-3 GINI COEFFICIENT I/E

   2A-3ai Population shares, mean consumption and Ginis: 1985-86 and 1990-91
                                   1985-86                                           1990-91
               Population       Mean               Gin i         Population      Mean                 Gin i
               share            consumption        coefficient   share           consumption          coefficient
               (%)              (Rs./person/mo     (%)           (%)             (Rs./person/mo       (%)
                                nth)*                                            nth)*
Rural          72.46            708.29             29.87         72.50           743.64               27.57
               (2919)                                            (2769)
Urban          20.81            1038.47            35.68         20.86           990.10               35.39
               (1604)                                            (1573)
Estate         6.73             763.69             24.49         6.64            749.93               20.17
               (324)                                             (308)
Sri Lanka      100              780.73             32.04         100             795.48               29.66
               (4847)                                            (4650)
   Source: Sri Lanka Poverty Assessment (1995), World Bank
   Note: * at 1990-91 Sri Lanka prices. The number of sample households is given in
   parentheses.

   2A-3 a ii Gini Co-efficient for household income by sector
   Year                                              Sector
                       All Island          Urban               Rural                  Estate
   1995/96             0.48                0.46                0.48                   0.44
   1990/91             0.47                0.62                0.42                   0.25
   1985/86             0.46                0.48                0.43                   0.31
   1980/81             0.43                0.44                0.38                   0.27
   Source: Household Income And Expenditure Survey –1995/96, Depart ment of Census   and Statistics




                                                                                                          26
2A-4 HOUSEHOLD EXPENDITURE PATTERN

2A-4A S HARE OF FOOD ITEMS IN TOTAL EXPENDITURE BY PERCENTAGE OF THE
REFERENCE POVERTY LINE, 1990/91:
% of poverty    Rice       Other     Pulses     Coco     Fruits and   Meat       Milk ,      Other      All
line                       Cereals              -nut     vegetables   and fish   diary       food       food
                                                                                 products
0-50             28.8      7.1        3.8       5.5      7.6          4.7        1.5         21.7       80.7
50-80            27.1      5.6        3.1       4.7      7.1          4.2        2.8         25.4       80
80-100           24.4      5.7        2.9       4        7.1          4.9        3.4         26.4       78.9
100-120          21.6      6          3.2       3.7      6.8          6          4.4         25         76.8
120-150          19.6      5.5        3         3.4      6.9          6.4        4.7         26.2       75.8
150-200          16.7      5          3.1       3.1      6.9          7.4        5.3         26.2       73.6
200-250          13.2      4.7        3.1       2.6      7            8.7        5.6         23.5       68.4
250-300          11        4.9        2.9       2.3      6.3          9.3        6.2         21.7       64.6
300-400          10.1      3.8        2.9       2.2      6.7          9.1        5.6         20.3       60.8
>400             4.7       2.7        1.7       1.2      4.2          7.5        4.5         13.9       40.4
0-100            25.5      5.8        3         4.3      7.1          4.7        3.1         25.9       79.4
(ultra poor)
0-120            23.7      5.9        3.1       4        7            5.3        3.7         25.5       78.2
(poor)
>120             13.5      4.6        2.8       2.6      6.4          7.9        5.2         22.8       65.9
All              15.4      4.8        2.9       2.9      6.5          7.4        5           23.3       68.2
Source: Sri Lanka Poverty Assessment Jan 1995



2A-4b Expenditure for one month per person ( at current prices)
ITEM                EXPENDITURE                       PERCENTAGE SHARE
                        1981/82 1986/87             1996/97     1981/82    1986/87    1996/97
1. FOOD                  179.70    279.08              974.53        56.5       52.2       48.4
2. Non-durables          116.38    222.93              860.26        36.6       41.7       42.8
housing                   18.81     41.89              217.05          5.9        7.8      10.8
clothing & apparel        24.57     40.38              126.27          7.7        7.6        6.3
medical                    5.12     11.84               47.55          1.6        2.2        2.4
education                  4.90     11.30               46.14          1.5        2.1        2.3
transport & comm.         12.26     26.34              106.70          3.9        4.9        5.3
fuel & light              16.20     24.39               77.83          5.1        4.6        3.9
social expenses            9.82     20.57               87.66          3.1        3.8        4.4
personal exp.              7.21     12.43               47.51          2.3        2.3        2.4
recreation                 3.69     10.61               28.76          1.2        2.0        1.4
other                     13.80     23.18               74.78          4.3        4.3        3.7
3. CONSUMER               20.52     27.51              134.54          6.4        5.1        6.7
D URABLES
4. INTEREST ON              1.55         4.77           42.95           0.5            0.9             2.1
DEBT
total                    318.15           534         2012.28         100.0        100.0             100.0
Source: Report on Consumer Finances and Socio-economic Survey, 1996/97, CBSL




                                                                                                       27
2B-4 HOUSEHOLD EXPENDITURE PATTERN BY HOUS EHOLD TYPE

2B-4a Average Household Consumption Expenditures Per Capita - 1996
                                 Female headed          Male headed
                                 households             households
                                 Poor       Non-poor    Poor       Non-poor
                                 Rs.        Rs          Rs.        Rs.
Total Monthly expenditures       495.31     1466.72     493.11     1541.59
monthly expenditures on
selected Items
Rice, Flour, Grains              176.15     303.33      179.16      273.04
Bread, buns                      40.91      96.95       38.29       94.74
Meat, eggs, fish                 51.63      149.08      55.12       137.75
milk products                    39.36      118.03      38.10       119.75
Liquor, Tobacco etc              13.25      23.41       22.36       31.94
Fuel and light                   35.34      68.76       27.32       78.31
Travel & co mmunication          29.23      96.57       34.86       103.69

Annual Expenditures on
Selected Co mmodities
clothing and garments            363.02    813.54     421.36       813.94
health and personal Care         216.10    540.57     195.38       417.40
Education expenses               134.71    338.47     202.80       554.74
recreation                       82.40     215.27     70.04        288.72
other                            402.83    601.50     432.48       450.90
Primary source: Sample Survey
Secondary source: Poverty Among Female Headed Households in Sri Lan ka, 1997




                                                                               28
          2A-5 SOURCES OF HOUS EHOLD I NCOME

          2A-5A SOURCES OF ONE MONTH INCOME RECEIVERS - ALL S ECTORS
          1996/97(PERCENTAGES )
          Source of income                                                       1996/97
                                                     cash             kind                       total
          occupation                                 75.5             7.7                        63.3
          main occupation                            68.6             6.6                        57.4
          1st subsidiary occupation                  5.9              1.0                        5.0
          2nd subsidiary occupation                  0.8              0.1                        0.7
          other subsidiary occupation                0.2              0.0                        0.2
          property                                   6.0              76.5                       18.7
          rent -immovable property                   1.8              0.3                        1.6
          imputed rent- owned dwellings              0.0              53.7                       9.7
          rent- movable property                     0.8              0.3                        0.7
          income from other property                 0.9              0.5                        0.9
          interest                                   0.7              0.0                        0.5
          dividends                                  0.2              0.0                        0.1
          imputed value of firewood                  0.0              7.0                        1.3
          imputed value from garden                  1.6              14.7                       3.9
          produce
          windfall income                            0.2              0.1                        0.2
          income from gambling                       0.1              0.1                        0.1
          lotteries                                  0.1              0.0                        0.1
          transfers                                  18.0             15.5                       17.5
          pensions                                   4.1              0.0                        3.4
          food stamps, Janasaviya/                   2.1              0.0                        1.7
          Samurdhi
          other government transfers                 0.1              0.8                        0.2
          relatives( within the country              5.4              9.1                        6.1
          friends and relatives                      5.3              3.6                        5.0
          other                                      1.1              2.0                        1.1
          other income                               0.3              0.2                        0.3
          total                                      100.0            100.0                      100.0
          Source : Consumer Finances and Socio-economic survey 1996/97, CBSL 1999

          2B-5b Ave rage real household income
INCOME                     VERY POOR a              POOR EXCLUDING VERY                       POORc               NON POORd
SOURCE                                              POORb
                       %         Avg.        %         %     Avg.      %            %          Avg.       %          %         Avg.        %
                    receivinge   Incomef   shareg   receivin Incomef shareg      receivinge    Incomef   shareg   receivinge   Incomef   shareg
                                                     e
                                                    g
Wage income         69.0         1771.64   45.77    68.0     2062.77 43.31       68.0          1883.93   44.82    66.0         3415.12   43.96
(Main occupation)
Wage income         8.0          94.76     3.05     6.0      88.51       2.37    7.0           92.35     2.79     3.0          52.53     1.00
(secondary
occupation)
Wages in kind       14.0         45.22     1.23     15.0     51.89       1.24    14.0          47.79     1.24     15.0         93.73     1.19
Nonfarm self        14.0         273.44    6.50     18.0     459.95      11.74   15.0          345.38    8.52     22.0         1384.18   12.22
employment
Income
Agri income I       32.0         223.06    7.57     33.0     273.45      7.90    33.0         242.50     7.70     25.0         225.56    4.97



                                                                                                                         29
Agri income II        56.0      335.85    9.76    53.0     382.46    9.87      55.0      353.83     9.80     45.0        561.52    7.73
Rents and dividends   1.0       5.93      0.24    3.0      12.12     0.32      2.0       8.32       0.27     7.0         100.47    0.99
Other cash and in-    27.0      161.99    5.56    28.0     190.26    5.71      28.0      172.89     5.62     27.0        296.10    5.78
kind
Receipts24.22
Domestic              3.0       21.13     0.67    3.0      29.13     0.65      3.0        24.22     0.66     4.0          65.11   1.18
remittances
Foreign remittances   3.0       42.11     0.92    3.0      52.93     1.02      3.0        46.28     0.96     6.0          208.8   2.63
                                                                                                                          7
Pensions              7.0       46.86     1.28    7.0      73.77     1.48      7.0        57.24     1.36     12.0         310.9   3.78
                                                                                                                          7
Food stamps           1.0       3.57      0.14    1.0      2.55      0.12      1.0        3.18      0.13     0.0          1.57    0.06
Janasaviya/           67.0      286.75    11.23   54.0     225.35    7.64      62.0       263.06    9.85     27.0         100.5   3.27
samurdhi                                                                                                                  3
Imputed rents         89.0      180.75    6.08    87.0     258.14    6.61      88.0       210.60    6.28     85.0         854.5   11.24
                                                                                                                          3
Total                 100.0     3493.06   100.0   100.0    4163.28   100.0     100.0      3751.57   100.0    100.00       7670.   100.0
                                          0                                                                               81
           Source: Gunewardena, 2000

           Note: values are spatially deflated and given in Rs. And cts
           a
             “Very poor” refers to those who fall belo w the reference poverty line
           b
              Refers to those whose per capita consumption is greater than or equal to the reference poverty line and
           less than the higher poverty line
           c
             “Poor” refers to all who fall belo w the higher poverty line which is twenty per cent higher than the
           reference poverty line.
           d
              Refers to those whose per capita consumption is greater than or equal to the higher poverty line
           e
              Percentage of households receiving any income fro m this source
           f
             Average income( spatially deflated rupees and cents) received fro m each source by the average household
           g
             Income co mposition ( % share of each source in total income) of the average household.




           2B Sources of Household Income by household type – not available




                                                                                                                    30
Table 3: EMPLOYM ENT

3A-1 S ECTORAL DISTRIB UTION OF EMPLOYMENT B Y SEX

3A-1a Sectoral Distribution of employment: Male (percentage)
Year           Major Industrial groups
               Total            Agriculture              Manufacturing            Personal Services     Others
1993           100              40                       9.2                      15.8                  35.1
1994           100              37.3                     10.8                     16.9                  35
1995           100              35.8                     10.3                     15.4                  38.5
1996           100              35.3                     11.1                     16.8                  36.8
1997           100              34.6                     11.8                     15.9                  37.7
1998           100              37.7                     12.4                     15.8                  34.1
Source: Sri Lanka Labor forces survey, Depart ment of Census and Statistics (1998)

3A-1B S ECTORAL D ISTRIBUTION OF EMPLOYMENT: FEMALE (PERCENTAGE)
                     Total            Agriculture           Manufacturing           Personal Services   Others
1993                 100              45                    22.1                    21.5                11.4
1994                 100              44.6                  22.3                    20.7                12.4
1995                 100              38.7                  24.7                    21.6                14.9
1996                 100              42.4                  22.5                    21.4                13.6
1997                 100              39.8                  26.6                    20.2                13.4
1998                 100              48.8                  20.8                    19.1                11.3
Source: Sri Lanka Labor forces survey, Depart ment of Census and Statistics (199 8)




3A-2 LABOUR FORCE PARTICIPATION RATE B Y S EX

3A-2: Labour force participation rate by sex
Item         1991          1992          1993        1994            1995          1996          1997
                                                  URBAN

Male         63.3          63.1          63.5          64.8          64.4          63.8          64.7
Female       27.6          26.6          25.0          25.1          26.6          26.3          25.9
All          45.2          44.7          44.0          44.3          45.4          44.4          44.6

                                                  RURAL

  Male           65.2      65.7          65.8           65.5         64.4          66.3          65.5
 Female          36.7      32.3          35.3           33.9         33.1          32.6          32.8
  Total          50.7      49.1          50.6           49.8         48.8          49.4          49.1
                                                 All Island

Male
Female      64.8          65.2            65.3         65.4          64.4          65.9          65.4
Total       35.0          31.1            33.2         32.0          31.7          31.7          31.7
            49.8          48.2            49.1         48.7          47.9          48.7          48.4
Source: Econo mic and Social Statistics of Sri Lanka, Central Bank of Sri Lanka (1998)



                                                                                                        31
3A-3 UNEMPLOYMENT BY S EX

3A-3a : Unemployme nt by Sex and Sector
Item           1991       1992        1993           1994             1995         1996    1997
                                                  URBAN

Male           13.0       14.8        12.7              10.8          12.1         9.5     7.9
Female         26.7       23.6        24.6              23.9          20.9         18.8    19.5
Total          17.3       17.4        16.1              14.7          14.8         12.3    11.3
                                                  RURAL

Male           9.5        9.7         9.0               9.4           8.3          8.3     7.5
Female         22.3       22.7        21.2              19.3          18.3         17.9    16.0
Total          14.1       13.9        13.3              12.8          11.7         11.5    10.3
                                               ALL ISLAND

Male           10.2     10.7           9.7              9.8           8.8           8.5    7.6
Female         23.0     22.9           21.7             17.0          18.8          16.2   16.2
Total          14.7     14.6           13.8             12.1          12.2          11.1   10.4
Source: Econo mic and Social Statistics of Sri Lanka,   Central Bank of Sri Lanka (1998)




3A-3B UNEMPLOYMENT B Y S EX B Y D ISTRICT

THE G ENDER D ISTRIB UTION OF UNEMPLOYMENT : R EGIONAL PATTERNS 1992
District                           Male Unemp loyment Rate            Female Unemp loyment Rate
Colo mbo                           14.60                              20.30
Gampaha                            12.60                              18.90
Kalutara                           12.40                              25.30
Kandy                              9.50                               26.70
Matale                             7.50                               21.60
Nuwara Eliya                       8.70                               14.40
Galle                              13.40                              27.60
Matara                             16.20                              32.50
Hambantota                         8.20                               26.00
Kurunegala                         7.80                               19.10
Puttalam                           8.90                               17.00
Anuradhapura                       5.20                               15.00
Polonnaruwa                        3.70                               25.40
Badulla                            8.20                               16.00
Monaragala                         7.30                               22.60
Ratnapura                          7.90                               25.50
Kegalle                            14.10                              28.90
Sri Lanka                          10.70                              22.20
Primary Source: Depart ment of Census and Statistics
Secondary Source: Nat ional Hu man Develop ment Report , Sri Lanka 1998




                                                                                                  32
3A-4 UNDEREMPLOYMENT B Y S EX

Underemployment by sex – not available

3A-4 UNDEREMPLOYMENT R ATE B Y S ECTOR (PERCENTAGES )
Sector                        1981/82                1986/87                  1996/97
Urban                         12.8                   14.7                     11.8
Rural                         20.6                   24.0                     18.1
Estate                        26.3                   19.4                     19.4
All sectors                   19.6                   21.7                     17.5
Source: Consumer finance and Socio-Econo mic Survey, Central Bank of Sri Lanka 1996/97

3A-5 AVERAGE AGRI./ NON-AGRI. WAGE B Y SEX

Not Available

3A-5a Index of minimum wages               Base: 1978 =100
class of workers            1994         1995          1996          1997        1998
workers in agriculture      821.5        830.9         907.9         971.8       1097.7
workers in industry and 555.8            651.9         682.8         710.7       807.7
commerce
workers in services         431.4        456.7         487.2         487.2       506.3
all co mbined               712.5        740.3         801.8         849.1       953.3
Primary source: Dept. of labour
Secondary source:, Statistical Pocket Book of Sri Lanka. 1999, DCS

3A-5B AVERAGE WAGE RATES IN AGRICULTURE AND B UILDING CONSTRUCTION 1986-
1997
primary source: , Central Bank of Sri Lanka,country wide data collection system
secondary source: statistics dept. , central bank of Ceylon, economic and social statistics
of sri lanka 1998
pp. 57


3A-6 D EPENDENCY RATIO

3A-6 CHILD AND OLD AGE DEP ENDENCY RATIO (1963- 1996/97)
Year          sampled child    sampled      sampled         child           old age        total
              population       elderly      potentially     dependency      dependency     dependency
                               population   emp loyable     ratio (%)       ratio(%)       ratio (%)
1963         11,622            2100         14,946          77.7            14.0           91.7
1973         10,971            2400         15,261          72.1            15.8           87.9
1978/79      14,224            3681         23,659          60.1            15.6           75.7
1981/82      14,081            3701         23,669          59.5            15.6           75.1
1986/87      11,105            4002         20,906          53.1            19.1           72.2
1996/97      10,046            5304         24,578          40.9            21.6           62.5
source: , Central Bank, Report on consumer finances and socio economic survey sri lanka1996/97


3B-1 TO 5 - not available


                                                                                                   33
  3B-6 Dependency Ratio by Household type

  3B-6 Dependency Ratio -1996
  Secondary income                     Female    Headed                                   Male Headed
  earners                 Poor households         Non-poor households      Poor households       Non- poor households
                          No.       %             No.        %            No.         %          No.        %
  one member              293       20.85         385        35.68        99          13.92      132        24.40
  two members             387       27.54         329        30.49        148         20.82      160        29.57
  three members           314       22.35         195        18.07        181         25.46      136        25.14
  four or more            411       29.26         170        15.76        283         39.80      83         20.89
  total                   1405      100           1079       100          711         100        541        100
  source: sample survey,
  secondary source: poverty among female headed households in Sri Lanka, 1997




  Table 4: NUTRITION

  4A- 1 CALORIE INTAKE PER CAPITA PER DAY

  4A-1Per Capita Calorie Intake by Sector
Year            1981/82                    1986/87                                    1996/97
Sector          Urban     Rural     Estate Urban Rural                      Estate    Urban Rural           Estate
Energy Intake   2,095     2,240     2,879 2,094    2,194                    2,554     2,195   2,336         2,674
(Calorie)
  Source: Consumer finance and Socio Econo mic Survey, Central Bank of Sri Lanka, 1996/ 97.




  4A-2 M ALNUTRITION PREVALENCE BY S EX
  (age gorup 6-60 months)

  4A-2a Nutrition status of children, 1993
  Child's age in months                 Height          Weight for height             Weight for age
  03-05                                    4.9                        3.1                        5.8
  06-11                                  11.8                         6.8                       17.9
  12-23                                  25.7                        18.2                       36.3
  24-35                                  23.8                        15.1                       42.4
  36-47                                  27.5                        18.2                       46.7
  48-59                                  28.7                        17.6                       43.0
  Source: Consumer finance and Socio Econo mic Survey, Central Bank of Sri Lanka, 1996/ 97.




                                                                                                       34
4A-2b Child Malnutrition by province
Province                   Anaemia A mong              Low Birth weight            Vitamin A Deficiency
                           Children under 6 years      (%)                            (%)
                           (%)
Western                    47                          17.2                        24.3
Central                    36                          17.8                        42.5
Southern                   48                          19.7                        22.3
North Western              57                          18.6                        46.3
North Central              55                          15.8                        57.3
Uva                        36                          15.8                        35.6
Sabaragamu wa              43                          17.8                        51.3
Sri Lanka                  45                          17.5                        36.3
Primary source: Tudawe, I and T Wikramanayake, (1998), Rep ort on Anaemia and its control in Sri Lanka,
Mimeo, Nutrit ion and health status of children 1993, Nutrition and Poverty Policy Div ision, Min istry of
Policy Planning and Implementation, Medical research Institute.
Secondary Source: Framewo rk for Poverty Reduction in Sri Lanka , Jan 2000




                                                                                                        35
Table 5: EDUCATION

5A- 1 ADULT LITERACY RATES BY S EX

5A-1a Adult literacy rates by sex
year                        total    male     female
1953                        65.4     75.9     53.6
1963                        77.1     85.8     67.5
1971                        78.5     85.6     70.9
1981                        87.2     91.1     83.2
1994                        90.1     92.5     87.9
Source: Annual Heath Bulletin, Ministry of Health of Sri Lanka, 1998.

5A- 1b Adult Literacy by District – 1994
District                 Female Adult Literacy Male Adult Literacy
                         Rate                      rate
Colo mbo                 96.11                     98.09
Gampaha                  96.25                     97.70
Kalutara                 90.48                     93.62
Kandy                    90.19                     97.15
Matale                   90.54                     96.22
Nuwara Eliya             80.67                     92.53
Galle                    93.23                     97.82
Matara                   89.13                     95.47
Hambantota               88.92                     95.29
Kurunegala               93.57                     97.00
Puttalam                 94.46                     96.25
Anuradhapura             92.79                     96.45
Polonnaruwa              94.57                     98.46
Badulla                  89.58                     95.70
Monaragala               87.41                     96.27
Ratnapura                84.20                     94.11
Kegalle                  88.24                     96.17
Sri Lanka                90.10                     94.14
Primary source: Demographic survey 1994, Dept. of Census and statistics



5A-2 AND 3 PRIMARY AND S ECONDARY SCHOOL ENROLLMENT RATES

5A-2 &3 Primary and Secondary School Enrolme nt Rates
item                  total     male     female
below primary         25.20     25.76    24.65
grade 5 to 9          40.23     42.83    37.75
GCE (O/L)             14.85     15.21    14.52
grade 11              2.26      2.26     2.26
GCE (A/L)             5.92      6.14     5.70
degree /post graduate 1.92      2.38     1.47
Primary source: Demographic Survey 1994
Secondary Source: M inistry of health, Sri Lanka, Annual Health Bu llet in 1997



                                                                                  36
5A- 4 PRIMARY SCHOOL DROP OUT RATES BY S EX

5A-4 Primary School Drop Out rates
Year            total           girls          Boys
1985            2.95            2.69           3.19
1987            2.72            2.50           2.92
1990            3.25            3.03           3.45
1991            2.54            2.46           2.81
1992            2.44            2.28           2.59
primary source: Ministry of Education and Higher Education
secondary source: Women and Men in Sri Lanka,DCS

5A- 5 S ECONDARY SCHOOL D ROP OUT RATES BY S EX

5A-5a Secondary School Drop Out Rates
Year            total           girls          boys
1985            5.50            4.63           6.37
1987            6.17            5.19           7.12
1990            6.27            5.30           7.20
1991            6.22            5.12           7.30
1992            5.46            4.51           6.39
primary source: Ministry of Education and Higher Education
secondary source: Women and Men in Sri Lan ka, DCS


5A-5b Dropouts and dropout rates up to year 9 in government schools by sex and province,
1991/1992.
Province               Male                     Female                        Total
                       No.           Rate       No.              Rate         No.            Rate
Western                8,307         2.5        8,335            2.7          16,642         2.6
Central                8,547         4.2        6,090            3.2          14,637         3.7
Southern               6,742         3.5        3,824            2.0          10,566         2.8
Northern               13,284        12.2       10,267           9.7          23,551         11.0
Eastern                5,815         4.8        5,513            4.8          11,328         4.8
North Western          8,529         4.6        6,012            3.4          14,541         4.0
North central          4,847         4.5        6,012            3.4          14,541         4.0
Uva                    3,900         3.7        2,282            2.3          6,182          3.0
Sabaragamu wa          6,279         4.2        4,155            2.9          10,434         3.5
Sri Lanka              66,250        4.4        49,902           3.5          116,152        3.9
Source: Statistical Abstract, Depart ment of Census and Statistics, 1997

Also available: 1999 Statistical Abstract too only has the values for 91/92 . They have however
disaggregated the data district wise .( pp. 261 statistical abstract '99)




                                                                                                    37
5A-6 PRIMARY SCHOOL COHORT S URVIVAL RATE B Y S EX
5A-7 S ECONDARY SCHOOL COHORT S URVIVAL RATE BY S EX

Proxy tables:

5A-6,7a Attainment of Education (As a percentage of Population 5years and above)
Level of Education         1981/82               1986/87                 1996/97
Primary and above          84.9                  88.2                    91.4
Secondary and above        42.0                  47.1                    56.2
Post Secondary             12.8                  15.0                    20.7
Source: Consume finances   and Socio Economic   Survey, Central bank,1996/ 97

5A-6, 7b Attainment of Education by sector (As a percentage of Population 5years and
above)
Sector                   Urban                  Rural                   Estate      All
Primary and above        94.1                   92.1                    76.1        91.4
Secondary and above      66.7                   56.9                    20.2        56.2
Post Secondary           29.6                   20.5                    2.1         20.7
Source: Consume Finances and Socio-Economic     Survey, Central Ban k,1996/97


5A-6 and 7c Attainment of Education by sex (As a percentage of Population 5yrs and
above)
Level of Education       1986/87                              1996/97
                         Male            Female               Male               Female
Primary and above        91.7            84.8                 93.9               89.0
Secondary and above      47.8            46.3                 56.1               56.1
Post Secondary           14.4            15.5                 19.5               21.7
Source: Consume finances and Socio Economic Survey, Central bank,1996/ 97


5A-8 ACCESS TO PRIMARY SCHOOLS .

Pro xy : nu mber of government schools by grade and district 1994-1998,
(Statistical abstract 1999. Pp257)


5B BY HOUS EHOLD TYPE
Not available




                                                                                           38
Table 6: HEALTH

6A-1 LIFE EXPECTANCY AT B IRTH B Y S EX

6A-1 life expectancy rates by sex
year           male              female
1946           43.9              41.6
1953           58.8              57.5
1963           61.9              61.4
1967           64.8              66.9
1971           64.2              67.1
1981           67.8              71.7
1991           69.5              74.2
Source:Annual health bulletin 1998, Min istry of Health


6A-2 MORTALITY RATES BY CAUS E
Annual Health Bu llet in 1998 has 55 causes, 1995 and 1996, pp 92, table 30, M inistry of Health


6A-3 INFANT MORTALITY RATE B Y SEX

6A-3 Infant mortality Rate by sex
Year             1965                   1975                 1985                1991                 1996
Sex              male       female      male       female    male       female   male        female   male       female
Infant           17.3       16.2        15.0       14.0      6.9        6.5      4.0         3.3      4.8        3.9
Mortality rate
source: Annual Health Bu llet in 1998, M inistry of Health



6A - 4 CHILD MORTALITY RATE B Y S EX

6A - 4 Child mortality rate by sex
          1965                  1975                 1985                 1991                 1996
age       male        female    male       female    male      female     male      female     male     female
5-9       2.2         2.3       2.0        2.0       0.9       0.8        0.6       0.6        0.6      0.4
10-14     1.1         1.0       1.3        1.0       0.7       0.5        0.7       0.5        0.5      0.4

source: Annual Health Bu llet in 1998, M inistry of Health




                                                                                                        39
6A-5 M ATERNAL M ORTALITY RATE

6.5 maternal and infant mortality rates
year             maternal mortality rates (per 10,000 live births)   infant mortality rate (per 1,000 live births)
1970                                   14.5                                              47.5
1975                                   10.2                                              45.1
1980                                   6.4                                               34.4
1985                                   5.1                                               24.2
1988                                   3.9                                               20.2
1989                                   3.5                                               18.4
1990                                  ……                                                 19.5
1991                                   4.2                                               17.7
1992                                   2.7                                               17.9
1993                                   2.5                                               16.3
1994                                   2.1                                               16.9
1995                                   2.4                                               16.5
1996                                   2.3                                               17.3
1997                                  ……                                                 15.9

source: Annual Health Bu llet in 1998, M inistry of Health




                                                                                                           40
   6A- 6 ACCESS TO PRIMARY H EALTH CENTRE

   6A-6 Proxy: Distribution of Gove rnment Medical Institutions and Beds by Districts,
   December 1998.
               Teaching       Provincial   Base         District        Rural          Total hospital      Beds
District       hospital       hospital     Hospitals    hospitals       hospital                           per
                                                                                                           1,000
                                                                                                           Pop.
               Ins.   Bed     In   Bed     In   Bed     Ins.   Bed      Ins.   Bed     Ins.   Bed
                              s.           s.
Colo mbo       7      6,476   -    -       2    568     4      310      1              26     10,500       4.8
Gampaha        1      1,145   -    -       3    1,192   6      805      5      22      32     4,690        2.9
Kalutara       -      -       1    657     2    692     7      616      6      127     21     2,326        2.3
Kandy          2      2,302   -    -       2    585     12     841      27     161     53     4,900        3.6
Matale         -      -       -    -       2    676     3      219      8      752     18     1,223        2.7
N‟Eliya        -      -       -    -       1    224     13     1047     6      127     25     1,527        2.7
Galle          2      1,595   -    -       -    -       9      970      4      144     29     3,044        3.0
Matara         -      -       1    897     -    -       5      552      10     95      23     1,956        2.3
Hambantota     -      -       -    -       1    278     4      455      5      276     21     1,305        2.3
Jaffna         1      836     -    -       1    264     5      392      3      171     24     1,842        2.0
Kilinochchi    -      -       -    -       -    -       1      125      -      69      4      231          1.9
Mannar         -      -       -    -       1    181     2      102      1      -       6      344          2.4
Vavuniya       -      -       -    -       1    197     -      -        1      18      3      257          2.0
Mullative      -      -       -    -       -    -       1      110      -      -48     4      273          2.5
Batticaloa     1      618     -    -       -    -       6      376      1      36      10     1,082        2.3
Ampara         -      -       -    -       4    732     8      476      2      45      24     1,440        2.6
Trinco malee   1      1,122   -    -       2    337     3      229      2      61      11     824          2.4
Kurunagala     -      -       -    -       2    494     15     1427     7      162     40     3,814        2.5
Puttalam       -      -       -    -       -    673     4      453      6      136     21     1,507        2.3
Anuradapura    -      -       -    -       1    -       4      422      23     642     38     2,618        3.3
Polonnaruwa    -      -       -    -       2    386     2      244      4      190     13     1,049        3.0
Badulla        -      -       -    -       2    252     10     715      9      214     28     2,203        2.8
Moneragala     -      -       -    -       1    186     9      674      7      169     19     1,051        2.7
Ratnapura      -      -       -    -       3    505     9      682      5      80      26     2,474        2.4
Kegalle        -      -       -    -       1    625     8      916      5      154     20     1,785        2.4
Total          15    14,094 5         4,345 33 9,047 150       13,161   148    3,899   538    54,265       2.9
   Source: Annual Health Bu lletin 1998, Min istry of Health

   6 B – BY HOUS EHOLD TYPE
           Not relevant




                                                                                                      41
Table 7: WATER & SANITATION

7A-1 ACCESS TO PORTABLE WATER

7A-1a Water s upply (% of households)
Items            1953        1963      1973        1978/79       981/82        1986/87     1996/97
Pipe Borne       11.3        5.0       21.0        21.8          18.4          22.         31.0
Water
Source: Consumer finance and Socio Econo mic Survey, Central Bank of Sri Lanka 1996/97


7A-1b Distribution of housing units by source of drinking water -1994
Province / District      Pop.        Fro m       Tube       Protected     Unprotected      River/        Other
                         without     main        Well       Well          Well             Tank
                         access to   Line
                         safe
                         water
Sri Lanka                27.91       19.4        5.1        43.9          22.9             4.1           4.7
Western Province         18.19       29.4        1.8        52.9          14.3             0.5           1.0
     Colo mbo            4.89        55.3        0.8        38.4          4.3              0.2           0.9
     Gampaha             18.6        12.1        2.9        66.3          17.9             0.0           0.7
     Kalutara            31.09       9.3         1.8        57.3          27.9             2.1           1.7
Central province         26.08       28.7        10.2       23.6          18.6             6.0           12.9
     Kandy               25.73       29.3        11.8       27.7          20.5             4.4           6.3
     Matale              27.27       20.1        19.7       29.5          19.6             4.7           6.4
     Nu wara Eliya       25.25       33.0        1.2        12.9          14.6             9.8           28.5
Southern province        34.95       16.1        2.7        43.3          33.5             1.8           2.6
     Galle               9.5         11.1        1.3        47.3          37.5             1.5           1.3
     Matara              10.75       15.8        0.7        42.8          33.8             1.9           5.0
     Hambantota          11.0        26.0        8.0        36.7          25.7             2.1           1.4
North western            34.59       3.2         5.5        66.2          22.9             0.8           1.4
     Kurunagala          27.47       1.4         3.8        66.7          26.2             0.9           1.0
     Puttalam            28.32       7.5         9.6        65.0          15.2             0.3           2.4
North Central            47.99       6.0         19.5       43.6          27.2             2.9           0.8
     Anuradhapura         35.66      5.7       18.0          47.7          26.0            1.6           0.9
     Polonnaruwa          63.72      6.4       22.6          35.3          29.6            5.6           0.5
Uva                       44.6       20.5      3.8           23.0          27.6            13.1          12.1
    Badulla               54.36      26.1      2.2           20.4          23.5            11.2          16.7
    Moneragala            47.33      8.6       7.1           28.5          36.3            17.1          2.4
Sabaragamuwa              32.11      12.7      1.4           33.4          32.0            12.5          8.0
    Ratnapura             44.16      14.7      1.8           28.2          28.6            17.1          9.6
    Kegalle               52.18      10.3      0.9           39.5          35.9            7.1           6.2
Primary Source: Demographic Survey 1994. Extracted fro m the Annual Health Bulletin 1996
Secondary Source: de Silva, 1998; UNDP 1998




                                                                                                    42
7B-1 ACCESS TO PORTABLE WATER

7B-1 Proxy: Sources of drinking water by Household Type (Percentage) –1996
   type of water           female headed households                  male headed households
                           poor            non-poor                poor                non-poor
piped water                     16.99               34.04                  15.10               37.38
private well                    20.75               26.18                  23.96               27.74
common well                     25.89               15.09                  22.79               10.30
common tap                      21.76               17.37                  23.70               14.12
pond                             7.90                2.28                   8.98                3.99
tube well                        3.70                2.44                   2.21                2.66
other                            3.01                2.60                   3.26                3.49
total                          100.00             100.00                  100.00             100.00
source: sample survey, Poverty among Female Headed Households in Sri Lanka, 1997


7A-2 SANITATION

7A-2a Sanitation (% of households)
Items            1953        1963      1973        1978/79       981/82        1986/87    1996/97
Separate Toilets 53.8        37.6      58.7        56.5          60.5          76.5       88.3
Co mmon          27.7        30.5      58.7        14.9          9.6           6.6        5.2
Toilets
Without Toilets 18.5         31.9      41.3        28.6          29.9          16.9       6.5
Source: Consumer finance and Socio Econo mic Survey, Central Bank of Sri Lanka 1996/97




                                                                                                43
7A-2b Distribution of Housing Units by type of Toilets - 1994
Province / District        Pop. without     Water Seal     Pour Flush     Pit               Other        Toilets not
                           access to safe                                                                available
                           sanitation
Sri Lanka                  23.84            37.8           25.6           22.2              0.9          13.5
Western Province           11.19            48.8           32.8           11.7              0.5          6.2
     Colo mbo              5.19             54.4           35.1           7.6               0.4          2.5
     Gampaha               12.81            44.3           31.5           16.5              0.7          7.1
     Kalutara              15.56            46.2           30.6           10.8              0.6          11.7
Central province           24.4             30.7           28.8           25.4              0.8          14.4
     Kandy                 16.82            36.3           30.3           24.1              0.7          8.5
     Matale                21.00            23.8           29.5           37.8              0.6          8.2
     Nu wara Eliya         35.38            25.1           25.8           19.6              1.0          28.5
Southern province          20.25            42.8           20.7           24.3              0.6          11.5
     Galle                 20.56            39.5           29.1           15.7              0.5          15.2
     Matara                15.65            55.2           15.5           19.5              0.9          8.8
     Hambantota            24.53            31.1           12.4           47.5              0.5          8.5
North western              30.34            38.1           20.1           16.5              0.9          24.3
     Kurunagala            29.84            35.2           20.4           21.2              0.6          22.6
     Puttalam              30.84            45.1           19.5           5.2               1.7          28.6
North central              31.69            18.2           25.9           32.5              1.0          22.4
     Anuradhapura          37.23            16.8           24.2           31.5              1.1          26.4
     Polonnaruwa           26.15            21.1           29.2           34.6              0.7          14.4
Uva province               34.11            23.2           19.4           35.1              2.6          19.8
     Badulla               29.2             26.4           22.2           31.2              2.2          18.1
     Moneragala            39.01            16.3           13.5           43.4              3.4          23.4
Sabaragamuwa               22.72            33.0           19.8           35.4              1.0          10.8
     Ratnapura             25.29            35.6           14.6           35.3              1.4          13.1
     Kegalle               20.15            30.1           25.7           35.6              0.5          8.1
Primary Source: Demographic Survey 1994. Ext racted fro m the Annual Health Bulletin 1996
Secondary Source: Desilva, A mala , Health and Poverty (1998)




7B-2 SANITATION

7B- 2 Sanitation by Household Type (percentage) - 1996
available to ilet           female headed household             male headed household
                            poor            non-poor             poor             non-poor
household toilet                 69.27              82.94              77.43            85.83
common toilet                    15.81              11.08              11.15             9.17
no toilet                        14.92               5.97              11.42             5.00
total                            100.0              100.0              100.0            100.0
source: sample survey, Poverty Among Female Headed Households in Sri Lan ka, 1997




                                                                                                    44
Table 8: HOUSING


8A- 1 ROOFING M ATERIAL OF M AIN HOUS E

8A-1 Housing Condition (% of households)
Items           1953       1963       1973         1978/79      1981/82         1986/87       1996/97
Thatched Roof 56.7         49.3       35.1         31.7         36.3            25.0          10.5
Tiled Roof      27.6       36.6       33.6         42.9         39.1            45.4          58.3
Source: Consumer Finance and Socio Econo mic Survey 1996/ 97, Central Bank of   Sri Lanka, 1999


8B- 1 ROOFING M ATERIAL OF M AIN HOUS E B Y HOUS EHOLD TYPE

8B- 1 Ceiling of dwelling places (percentage) - 1996
type of ceiling            female headed households                male headed households
                            poor            non-poor               poor             non-poor
tile                             44.54              48.39                  38.98           46.09
asbestos                         14.43              24.39                  16.17           30.95
tin sheets                       27.23              17.70                  34.16           15.81
matting/ straw                   10.54               4.41                    9.00           2.83
concrete                          1.88               4.17                    1.17           3.16
other                             1.38               0.94                    0.52           1.16
total                            100.0              100.0                  100.0           100.0
source: sample survey, Poverty among female headed households in sri lanka, 1997


8A- 2 WALL M ATERIAL OF M AIN HOUS E

8A-2 Housing Condition (% of households)
Items             1953        1963        1973     1978/79      1981/82       1986/87        1996/97
Wattle and        59.5        54.9        44.2     38.9         43.4          39.7           23.3
Daub Walls
Brick Walls       28.9        34.3        25.0     25.2         26.2          35.0           54.0
Clay Floors       50.7        40.3        44.9     45.4         41.9          39.3           25.9
Cemented          24.7        38.6        45.0     54.4         52.5          58.5           73.2
Floors
Source: Consumer finance and Socio Econo mic Survey, Central Bank of Sri Lanka, 1996/ 97, published by
the central bank of sri lanka in january 1999.




                                                                                                        45
8B- 2 WALL M ATERIAL OF M AIN HOUS E B Y HOUS EHOLD TYPE

8B-2 wall material of main house (percentage) - 1996
type of ceiling            female headed households                   male headed households
                            poor             non-poor                poor               non-poor
brick                            57.33              76.10                    51.82             75.42
clay                             23.62              10.14                    21.74               8.64
matting                           1.32                0.55                    0.91               0.17
wood                              2.94                3.77                    3.52               2.33
tin                               0.25                0.16                    0.13               0.17
mud                               2.38                0.86                    1.17               0.83
kabok                             3.07                2.36                    4.43               3.49
cement                            5.01                4.01                    7.03               5.48
other                             4.07                2.04                    9.24               3.49
total                            100.0              100.0                  100.00              100.0
 source: sample survey, Poverty among female headed households in Sri Lanka, 1997



8A-3 N UMB ER OF PERSONS PER ROOM

8A- 3 Occupied private housing units by sector
                                                Average Nu mber of Persons per Roo m
         Sector                  Census 1963               Census 1971                 Census 1981
Urban                     2.8                        2.8                         2.2
Rural                     2.6                        2.5                         2.0
Estate                    -                          3.4                         2.6
TOTA L                    2.6                        2.4                         2.1
Primary source: Depart ment of Census and Statistics
Secondary source: Depart ment o f Census and Statistics , Ministry of Finance and Planning, Statistical
Pocket Book of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka 1999


8B-3 NUMB ER OF PERSONS PER ROOM
Not available




                                                                                                          46
Table 9: ASSETS

9A-1 LAND D ISTRIB UTION BY S IZE CLASS

9A-1 POVERTY BY SIZE O F LAND HOLDING , RURAL AND ESTATE SEC TO R 1995
              INCIDENCE OF POVERTY         DEPTH OF POVERT Y              SEVERIT Y OF POVERTY
LAND           INDEX           CONT RIBUTION INDEX            CONT RIBUTION INDEX              CONT RIBUTION
HOLDING SIZE
                              POVERT Y LINE = RS.791.67
LANDLESS         29.33             16.03             6.60            16.85            2.32                18.27
0-< 1/8 ACRES    23.42             14.22             4.90            13.88            1.51                13.22
1/ 8 – ¼ ACRES   20.78             8.35              4.79            8.99             1.67                9.69
¼ -1/2 ACRES     28.44             13.30             5.94            12.97            1.85                12.47
½ -< 1 ACRES     30.82             17.27             6.75            17.66            2.24                18.14
1-<2 ACRES       28.31             14.43             5.76            13.70            1.72                12.68
2-<3 ACRES       31.04             8.15              6.36            7.80             1.96                7.42
3-<4 ACRES       28.51             4.36              6.45            4.60             2.14                4.71
4-<5 ACRES       20.35             1.53              3.25            1.14             0.77                0.84
5-<10 ACRES      15.83             1.49              3.21            1.41             0.97                1.32
10-<20 ACRES     16.91             0.38              4.68            0.49             2.17                0.70
>20 ACRES        21.73             0.49              4.90            0.52             1.56                0.51
                              POVERT Y LINE = RS. 950.00
LANDLESS        45.98              16.27             11.77           16.42            4.41                17.15
0-< 1/8 ACRES   36.10              14.18             9.10            14.09            3.18                13.74
1/ 8 – ¼ ACRES 33.25               8.65              8.50            8.72             3.19                9.11
¼ -1/2 ACRES    43.58              13.19             10.99           13.12            3.87                12.87
½ -< 1 ACRES    46.76              16.96             12.14           17.37            4.44                17.70
1-<2 ACRES      44.82              14.78             10.90           14.17            3.74                13.53
2-<3 ACRES      45.50              7.74              11.73           7.87             4.13                7.72
3-<4 ACRES      41.12              4.07              11.17           4.36             4.18                4.54
4-<5 ACRES      33.32              1.62              7.13            1.37             2.12                1.13
5-<10 ACRES     27.35              1.67              6.39            1.54             2.13                1.43
10-<20 ACRES    32.48              0.47              8.57            0.49             3.52                0.56
>20 ACRES       28.59              0.42              8.44            0.49             3.14                0.50
Source: Gunewardena, , 2000

9A-2 LAND D ISTRIB UTION BY TENANCY TYPE

9A-2a Land Ownership in Sri Lanka 1991
Total land area                                    000s Ha                       % of total
1. total land area                                             6570
2. private land                                                1166                             17.7
  - freehold                                                   1065                             16.2
  - land grants                                                  101                             1.5
3. state land                                                  5404                             82.3
  - alienated under various schemes                        818-1 000                     12.5 - 15.2
  - vested in land reform co mmissioner                          406                             6.2
Primary source: Sample Survey in W ijetunga 1991Land for the Landless, Bu ild ing Self-reliance in Land
and Land use in Sri Lanka, Logos, 29,3 &4, 26- 36 Co lo mbo.
Secondary source: D.L Dent and L.K.P.A Goonewardena, Resource Ass essment and Land Use Planning in
Sri Lanka: A Case Study.




                                                                                                     47
9A-2b Houses by type of ownership
Type of ownership               Urban          Rural          Estate          All sectors
Self owned                                84.5          95.5           10.2               89.5
Govt. or employer owned                    1.9           0.4          74..7                4.6
Lease or rent                              9.1           1.6            1.2                2.5
Rent free                                  3.6           2.1           13.2                2.9
Other                                      0.9           0.4            0.7                0.5
Source: Central Bank of Sri Lanka, Report on Consumer Finances and Socio -economic Survey, 1996/1997


9A-3 OWNERSHIP OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIVE ASSETS
9A-4 OWNERSHIP OF NON- AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIVE ASSETS
9A-5 PERCENTAGE OF LANDLESS HOUSEHOLDS
9B BY HOUS EHOLD TYPE



Table 10: SERVICES


10A- 1 ACCESS TO ELECTRICITY

10A-1a Population without access to electricity 1994, by Province and Districts
                                       Population WITHOUT access to electricity (%)
Western Province                                              35.26
    Colo mbo                                                  23.40
    Gampaha                                                   33.66
    Kalutara                                                  48.73
Central Prov ince                                             65.01
    Kandy                                                     47.71
    Matale                                                    72.76
    Nuwara Eliya                                              74.57
Southern Province                                             59.23
    Galle                                                     52.39
    Matara                                                    50.92
    Hambantota                                                74.37
North Western Province                                        68.71
    Kurunegala                                                76.62
    Puttalam                                                  60.80
North Central Province                                        72.23
    Anuradhapura                                              67.40
    Polonnaruwa                                               77.05
Uva Province                                                  73.47
    Badulla                                                   63.70
    Moneragala                                                83.23
Sabaragamu wa Province                                        74.44
    Ratnapura                                                 75.33
    Kegalle                                                   73.54
Sri Lanka                                                     56.23
Source: National Hu man Develop ment Report, Sri Lan ka 1998, UNDP




                                                                                                  48
10A-1b Per capita Energy consumption by sectors – 1986/87
period               All sectors          urban                 rural               Estate
1969/70              2,264                2,161                 2,268               2,459
1973                 1,936                1,957                 1,837               2,345
1978/79              2,283                2,240                 2,230               2,763
1980/81              2,239                2,001                 2,210               2,122
1981/82              2,271                2,229                 2,246               2,639
1986/87              2,205                2,094                 2,194               2,554
Primary Source: a) consumer finance and socio-economic survey - 1986/87, b) J.D. Gaven & I. S.
Chandrasekera, The impact of public Food grain Distribution on Food Consumption & welfare in Sri
Lanka, IFPRI, Washington DC , USA
Secondary source: Central Bank of Sri Lanka, Economic Progress of Independent Sri Lan ka



ANCILLARY TABLES :

Table 11: CREDIT

11.1 Differences in “Partici pation depth”
                                         Extreme poor       Moderate Poor          Vu lnerable non-
                                         HH                 HH                     poor HH‟s
Cu mulat ive amount borrowed (%)         0.99               2.4                    1.8
Average loan size (SLR)                  9353.85            14110.58               14949.49
Average number of loans taken            1.21               1.17                   1.11
Cu mulat ive amount saved                10.03              6.42                   3.49
Average value of savings (SLR)           156.31             94.22                  47.57
Primary Source: SLIS, 1999-2000
Secondary Source: World Bank, Meeting Poor People‟s Financial Needs: the Case of Sri Lan ka (2000)


11.2 Differences in Loan Utilization (%)
                              Extreme poor             Moderate Poor             Vu lnerable non-poor
                              HH                       HH                        HH‟s

Raw Materials                 4.76                     7.14                      3.92
Equip ment                    2.38                     4.29                      3.92
Land                          0.00                     0.00                      0.00
Animal                        0.00                     2.86                      3.92
Building improvements         0.00                     4.29                      5.88
Other business/farm use       7.14                     12.86                     11.76
Pay workers                   0.00                     0.00                      0.00

HH consumption                40.48                   27.14                      23.33
Purchase/improvement of       23.81                   27.14                      41.18
dwelling
Marriage /family event        2.38                    0.00                       1.96
Consumer durables             0.00                    1.43                       0.00
Other personal use            16.67                   10.00                      3.92
To settle another loan        2.38                    2.86                       0.00
Primary source: SLIS, 1999-2000
Secondary Source: World Bank, Meeting Poor People‟s Financial Needs: the Case   of Sri Lan ka (2000)




                                                                                                       49
    11.3 Sources of loans (%)
                                     Extreme poor              Moderate Poor              Vu lnerable non-poor
                                     HH                        HH                         HH‟s
    Relatives                        3.23                      6.63                       1.30
    Friends                          5.68                      7.15                       4.81
    Landlord                         -                         0.17                       -
    Emp loyer                        2.18                      2.99                       -
    Shopkeeper                       1.81                      1.51                       0.36
    Money lender                     0.49                      7.45                       1.12
    Pawn-bro ker                     -                         0.08                       4.47
    Total Informal Sources           13.39                     25.98                      12.06

    NGOs                          -                        12.33                    1.12
    IRDP                          -                        0.58                     -
    Samurdhi                      8.28                     3.83                     1.59
    SANASA                        20.12                    6.24                     9.67
    Co mmunity Bank               7.88                     11.24                    6.61
    Co mmercial Bank              32.44                    17.38                    47.28
    Other institution             13.60                    4.73                     14.93
    Other                         4.29                     17.69                    6.74
    Total formal Sources          86.61                    74.02                    87.94
    Primary source: SLIS –1999/ 2000
    Secondary source: Secondary Source: World Bank, Meet ing Poor People‟s Financial Needs: the Case of Sri
    Lanka (2000)


    Table 12: COPING STRATEGIES

    Occurrence of Natural disasters and allocated funds for relief and rehabilitation activities: 1996 -1998
Type of              1996                           1997                            1998                            1999
disaster
              # of         Expenditure       # of         Expenditure       # of          Expenditure        # of        Expenditure
              affected     for Relief        affected     for Relief        affected      for Relief         affected    for Relief
              families     (Rs.)             families     (Rs.)             families      (Rs.)              families    (Rs.)


Flood               8,238   12,224,897        29,948      16,746,908        34,746       31,236,159        94,352
Landslides            75        52,400        626         1,576,942         50           410,953           404
Sea erosion    -            -                 154         363,980           188                            303         254,000
Cyclone          8,360      14,870,185        650         2,537,735         3,018        3,990,025         168         551,130
Drought        199,535      424,855,387       434,775     296,863,722       -            70,600,562        -           100,981,957
Drinking        22,807        568,000         -           1,778,200         -            646,110           -           1,000,000
water
Elephant       -            -                 -           -                 -            -                 -           47,655,122
damages
Accidents/b    84           1,165,130         -           980,065           31           340,000           -           -
omb blasts
Causal         -            -                 -           -                 -            411,365           49          370,550
relief
total          239,099      453,735,999       466,153     320,847,552       38033        108,063,254       95,276      194,678,916

    Source: National Disaster Management Center , M inistry of Social Serv ices




                                                                                                                 50
                                                                      Table of Contents



   A BST RACT :.................................................................................................................................................................... 2
   I. W HAT IS POVERT Y AS DEFINED IN SRI LANKA?................................................................................................... 3
   2. POVERTY IN A GGREGATE TERMS.......................................................................................................................... 5
      2.1 Magnitude of Poverty ...................................................................................................................................... 5
      2.2 Trends in Poverty ............................................................................................................................................. 5
      2.3 Human Development ....................................................................................................................................... 6
      2.4 Pockets of Very Poor ...................................................................................................................................... 7
   3. DI SAGGREGAT ING THE POVERTY PROFILE .......................................................................................................... 9
      3.1 Urban, Rural and Estate Sectors................................................................................................................... 9
      3.2 Provincial and District Level:...................................................................................................................... 10
      3.3 Household Characteristics:.......................................................................................................................... 11
      3.4 Female Headed Households......................................................................................................................... 12
   4. OF INCREASING CONCERN: RELATIVE DEPRIVATION AND PERCEPTIONS OF POVERT Y............................... 13
   SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY........................................................................................................................................ 15
INDICATOR TABLES ............................................................................................................................................... 16
 TABLE 1: DEMOGRA PHY………… ………………………………………………………………… .17
 TABLE 2: INCOM E AND EXPENDITURE………………………………………………………….. 20
 TABLE 3: EMPLOYM ENT .................................................................................................................................317
 TABLE 4: NUTRITION ............................................................................................................................................. 34
 TABLE 5: EDUCATION ........................................................................................................................................... 36
 TABLE 6: HEALTH ................................................................................................................................................... 39
 TABLE 7: WATER & SANITATION..................................................................................................................... 42
 TABLE 8: HOUSING ................................................................................................................................................. 45
 TABLE 9: ASSETS ..................................................................................................................................................... 47
 TABLE 10: SERVICES .............................................................................................................................................. 48
 TABLE 11: CREDIT................................................................................................................................................... 49
 TABLE 12: COPING STRATEGIES....................................................................................................................... 50
Map of Sri Lanka………………… ………………………………………………………………………51




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