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									Child Well Being and Type of Care: Potential Implications Using the Survey of Income and Program Participation                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Presented at the Annual Meeting of the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         American Sociological Association
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         San Francisco, CA
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         August 8–11, 2009
Tallese Johnson & Lynda Laughlin, Fertility and Family Statistics Branch, U.S. Census Bureau

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Daily Interactions: Play, Praise and Eating                                                                                                                                                                                 Television Viewing & Academic Experience
                                                Introduction                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Figure 2. Percent of Children 0 to 4 Years Old Talked to                                                           Figure 3. Percent of Children 5 to 14 Years Old Talked
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Figure 10. Percent of Children 5 to 14 Years
      • As more and more parents place their children into                                                                                                Measures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   or Played with Designated Parent 5 Minutes or More by
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Child Care Arrangement: 2006
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      to or Played with Designated Parent 5 Minutes or More
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 by Child Care Arrangement: 2006                                                                                                                                                     Old with TV Rules by Child Care                                                                                                Summary: Daily Interaction
        the care of relatives and child care providers it is                                                                                                                                                                                  • Play                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Arrangement: 2006
        becoming increasingly important to understand the                                                                                      Child Care Arrangements Defined                                                                                                                                                                        Less than 3 times*       3 or more times per day                                                              Less than 3 times*            3 or more times per day
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Television Viewing                                                                                                                                                                            • Children 0 to 4 years old in organized care are
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    No rules        1 to 2 rules        All 3 rules
                                                                                                                                    • The primary child care arrangement is the                                                                 – Playing with a designated parent is more common                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                more likely to be praised or played with by a
        relationship between child care and the well-being                                                                                                                                                                                        among younger children, regardless of child care                    100                                                                                                              100
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       100
        of children.                                                                                                                  arrangement used most hours per week.                                                                                                                                                                     80                     80                          78                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            designated parent. For children 5 to 14 years old,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  arrangement.                                                                                                                                                                           80                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  75                78

      • Little is known if selected social and educational                                                                          • Child care arrangements are broadly classified into                                                       – Of children ages 0 to 4, 80 percent of children in
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        80                                                                                                 69
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            55                 56
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  65
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        56                           • The majority of children in any child care                        80                          69                                                                 68
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          58
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 those in other non-relative care are more likely to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         60                                                                                                 53
                                                                                                                                      the following categories:                                                                                                                                                         60                                                                                                                           46                  44                                    45                    48
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       arrangement had all 3 TV rules.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         60                                                                                                                                      be praised.
        outcomes vary by child care arrangement.                                                                                                                                                                                                  relative care, or organized care were played with 3 or
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         40                                                 35
                                                                                                                                          – Relative care (mothers, fathers, grandparents, siblings,                                              more times a week were, 78 percent in other non-                      40                                                                                    31
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         40                                                                                                          28                        • Younger children are more likely to have
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     • Of children in Other Non-Relative care 78
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                22                  22                                          22
      • This poster is an exploratory analysis of the                                                                                                                                                                                             relative care, and 69 percent in school/activities.                                 20                                                 23                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               16                                   14
                                                                                                                                            or some other relatives)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               20                                                                        20                                                                                                                                                                              20            9
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                3                    7                   10
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 breakfast with a parent if in relative care compared
        relationship between various child care arrangements                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       percent had all 3 TV rules compared to 69
                                                                                                                                          – Organized facilities (day care or child care centers,                                               – Older children in non-relative care are more likely to                                                                                                                                   0                                                                                                                                                                                0                                                                                                                                    to other arrangements. Older children are less
        and selected measures of child well-being.                                                                                                                                                                                                play with their designated parent (65 percent) compared                 0                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Relative Care              Organized            Other Non-              School              Self Care
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       percent in relative care, 68 percent in school                                                                                                                                                            likely to have breakfast with a parent if in self care
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Relative Care    Organized Care        Other Non        School/Activities        Self Care
                                                                                                                                            nursery school, preschools, and Head Start)                                                                                                                                              Relative Care          Organized Care       Other Non Relative        School/Activities                                                                Relative                                                                                                                                                             Care                Relative             /Activities
                                                                                                                                          – Other Non Relative (other non-relative, family day                                                    to other types of care.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        compared to children in an organized type of
                                                         Data                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          or activities, and 58 percent in self care.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               *Includes never to once a week, a few times per week, and once or twice per day.                                 *Includes never to once a week, a few times per week, and once or twice per day.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Note: Self care is excluded from child care arrangements because of small number of cases identified.                                                                                                                                                                                                     Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Survey of Income and Program Participation, 2004 Panel, Wave 8.
                                                                                                                                            care, babysitters, etc.)                                                                                                                                           Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Survey of Income and Program Participation, 2004 Panel, Wave 8.                      Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Survey of Income and Program Participation, 2004 Panel, Wave 8.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 arrangement.
      • The Survey of Income and Program Participation                                                                                    – School/Activities (Kindergarten/grade school,sports,
        (SIPP) provides detailed, national level data, on                                                                                   lessons, clubs, after-and-before school program)                                                  • Eating                                                            Figure 4. Percent of Children 0 to 4 Years Old                                                                 Figure 5. Percent of Children 5 to 14 Years Old                                                                                                                                            Figure 11. Percent of Times Per Week Family
        child care arrangements and child well-being.                                                                                     – Self care (child cares for him or herself)                                                          – Regardless of child care type or age, children are more        Who Had Breakfast with a Designated Parent in                                                                   Who Had Breakfast with a Designated Parent in a                                                                               Academic Experience:                                          Members Read to Children 1 to 5 Years Old                                                                                                      Television Viewing
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  likely to eat dinner than breakfast with a designated
      • The data in this poster were collected from June                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         a Typical Week by Child Care Arrangement: 2006                                                                  Typical Week by Child Care Arrangement: 2006                                                                                                                                                    by Child Care Arrangement: 2006
        though September 2006 in the 8th Wave of the                                                                                      Child Well-Being Outcomes Defined                                                                       parent.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                – Among children ages 0 to 4 in organized care, 82
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Less than 7 days         Everyday
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Reading                                                                          Never           1 to 6 times          7 or more times
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               • The majority of grade school aged children
        2004 SIPP Panel. Due to regional variations in the                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Less than 7 days         Everyday                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (5 to 14 years old) across child care
                                                                                                                                    • Reading- (children 1 to 5 years old)                                                                        percent had dinner with a designated parent everyday,                                                                                                                                100                                                                                                           • Of children placed in school/activities, 11 percent had not   100
        length of the school year there is some overlap                                                                                                                                                                                           followed by 80 percent in school/activities, 77 percent
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     100
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        80           69                                   66
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 75
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       been read to in the past week compared to 1 percent in                                                                                                                                                    arrangements had all 3 TV rules.
                                                                                                                                          – Times per week family members have read to their child.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   66                                                                                                                                               80
        between the school year and summer months in                                                                                                                                                                                              in relative care, and 75 percent in other non-relative               80                                                                                                                                                                                     63
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       organized care, and 5 percent in relative care.
        the month of June. Data in June asks about the                                                                              • Eating Together (children 0 to 14 years old)                                                                care.                                                                60                   58               54                     53
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            48
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      52
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        60
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       60
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          59                        59                             58
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     47
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               • Grade school aged children in other non-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    37
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              47                                                                              34                                                                     • Of children in relative care, 59 percent had been read to 7                                                                                                                             43
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 relative care had the highest percentage of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     43                             46                                                                  40                 31                                    34
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              40
        previous month, May.                                                                                                              – Days designated parent has eaten breakfast or dinner with child.                                    – Children ages 5 to 14 are less likely to have breakfast              40                                                                                                                                                                                                              25
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       or more times per week compared to 43 percent in                40                       37                                                      34
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        20
      • Wave 8 represents about 36,000 households and                                                                               • Daily Interaction (Play and Praise) (children 0 to                                                          than dinner with a designated parent everyday. Of older              20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       school/activities.                                              20                                                                                                                                        those with 3 TV rules compared to children
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  children in self-care, 75 percent have breakfast less than                                                                                                                              0                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         8                         11

        5,695 children 0 to 14 years old.                                                                                             14 years old)                                                                                               7 days with a parent, followed by 69 percent in relative
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Relative Care        Organized Care           Other Non-                 School
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Relative Care        Organized          Other Non-            School             Self Care            • It is possible that children in school/activities programs       0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       5                                 1
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 in self care with the lowest percentage (78
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Care              Relative           /Activities
                                                                                                                                          – Play: Times (within a day or week) designated parent has talked or                                    care, 66 percent in other non-relative, 66 percent in                                                                           Relative                /Activities                                                                                                                                  were read to by their care providers, thus lowering the                        Relative Care                 Organized Care             Other Non-Relative            School/Activities
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 percent compared to 58 percent).
                            Unique Data Source                                                                                              played with child for 5 minutes or more, just for fun.
                                                                                                                                          – Praise: Times (within a day or week) designated parent has praised
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  organized care, and 63 percent in school/activities.               Note: Self care is excluded from child care arrangements because of small number of cases identified.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Survey of Income and Program Participation, 2004 Panel, Wave 8.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Survey of Income and Program Participation, 2004 Panel, Wave 8.                     perceived parental need for additionally reading to their
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       children when at home.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Note: Self care is excluded from child care arrangements because of small number of cases identified.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Survey of Income and Program Participation, 2004 Panel, Wave 8.

      • For the first time the child care and child well-
        being topical modules were administered during
                                                                                                                                            or complimented child by saying something like, “Good for you!”
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Figure 6. Percent of Children 0 to 4 Years Old                                                                   Figure 7. Percent of Children 5 to 14 Years Old                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Academic Experience
                                                                                                                                            or “What a nice thing you did!”                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Figure 12. Percent of Children 5 to 14 Years
        the same time period, providing a unique                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Who Had Dinner with a Designated Parent in a                                                                      Who Had Dinner with a Designated Parent in a                                                                                                                                             Old in Gifted Classes by Child Care                                                                                            • Over half of young children in relative care were
        opportunity to look directly at the relationship
                                                                                                                                    • Television rules (children 5 to 14 years old)                                                                                                                                 Typical Week by Child Care Arrangement: 2006                                                                      Typical Week by Child Care Arrangement: 2006                                                                             Academic Experience:                                                     Arrangement: 2006
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 read to by a family member 7 or more times per
                                                                                                                                          – Number of TV rules for children: the type of program                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 week.
        between child care and selected measures of child
        well-being.                                                                                                                         children could watch, the time of day (early or late), and                                                                                                                                                            Less than 7 days        Everyday                                                                         Less than 7 days              Everyday
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Gifted Classes                                                                                    Not in Gifted Class             In Gifted Class
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               • Enrollment in gifted classes for grade school aged
                                                                                                                                            the number of hours watched.                                                                                                                                                     100                                                                                                100                                                                                                                                                                                    100
      • Limitations/cautions about results:                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      77
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          82
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    75
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           80
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     • Of children in self care, 21 percent are in a
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           84                   87
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      82                     83                     79                           children ranged from 13 percent for children in
            – Causality should not be inferred between child care                                                                   • Gifted Classes (children 5 to 14 years old)                                                                                                                                             80                                                                                                80
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      64
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           69                                            71                                                                                              80
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 organized care to 21 percent for children in self
              and child well-being.                                                                                                       – In an advanced or special class for gifted students
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              60                                                                                                60
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 60
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       45
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                55     gifted class compared to 16 percent in                            60
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 care.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          40
            – SIPP does not measure the quality of child care                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 40                                                                                                40
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               36
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    31                                                                                 relative care and 13 percent in organized                         40
              arrangements.                                                                                                         • Academically On-Track (children 6 to 14 years old)                                                                                                                                                   24
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          25
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  20                                                                                               29
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 16                                           18                     18                   21                   • Grade schooled aged children in organized and
            – Because the modules were conducted in the summer, they may                                                                  – Enrolled in school at or above the modal grade level for
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                20                                                                                                                     care.                                                             20                                              13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 relative care were more likely to be academically
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               0
              not represent arrangements or activities captured during the                                                                  their age.                                                                                                                                                                                Relative Care         Organized Care            Other Non-                   School
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0                                                                                                                                                                                         0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Relative Care              Organized            Other Non-              School              Self Care
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 on-track.
              typical school year.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Relative                  /Activities
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Relative Care         Organized Care          Other Non-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Relative
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 School
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               /Activities
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Self Care
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Care                Relative             /Activities
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Note: Self care is excluded from child care arrangements because of small number of cases identified.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Survey of Income and Program Participation, 2004 Panel, Wave 8.                       Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Survey of Income and Program Participation, 2004 Panel, Wave 8.                                                                                           Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Survey of Income and Program Participation, 2004 Panel, Wave 8.




                 Figure 1. Primary Child Care Arrangements:                                                                                                                                                                                   • Praise                                                               Figure 8. Percent of Children 0 to 4 Years Old
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Academic Experience:                                                                                                                                                                                               Future Research
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Figure 9. Percent of Children 5 to 14 Years Old Praised                                                                                                                                Figure 13. Percent of Children 6 to 14 Years
                                Summer 2006                                                                                                                                         Overview                                                    – Receiving praise is more common among younger
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  children, except for younger children in
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Praised or Complimented by Child Care                                                                          or Complimented by Child Care Arrangement: 2006                                                                              On-Track                                                Old who are Academically On-Track by Child                                                                                         • The relationship between child care and child
                                                                                                 Ages 5 to 14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  school/activities compared to older children in other
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Arrangement: 2006                                                                                                                    Less than 3 times*              3 or more times per day                                                                                                        Care Arrangement: 2006                                                                                                     well-being is not entirely clear. Future research will
                     Ages 0 to 4
                                                          Relative Care
                                                                                                                                    In general, few associations were found between child care arrangements
                                                                                                                                    and child well being measures.                                                                                non-relative care.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Less than 3 times*            3 or more times per day                                                                                                                                           • Of children in organized care 89 percent are
                                                          Organized Care                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              100                                                                                                             100
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       on-track compared to 83 percent in relative.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Not On-Track           On-Track
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 take into account family characteristics, child care
                                                                                                             12 2                                                           Play              Eat Breakfast         Praise      TV Rules        – Of children ages 0 to 4, 84 percent were praised 3 or                                                                  85                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              100
                                      24                  Non Relative Care
                                                                                                                   2                Arrangement Type                                                                                              more times a week if they were in organized care,                     80
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                79                                                 77
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           68
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        80
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  61
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        54                                                                                                  80
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     83
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             89
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               82                    85                   83                     characteristics (i.e. hours in care, number of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 arrangements), home environment, and other
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        60                                    57
               50
                                                          School/Actitivies               42                                        0 to 4 year olds                                                                                              followed by 79 percent in relative care, 77 percent in                60
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     46    54
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         43                                   46                    51 49
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            39                                                                                                                              60
                                           10             Self Care                                                                    Relative Care                           -                More likely            -             -            other non-relative care, and 68 percent in                                                                                                                                            40
                                      6                   No Regular                                              40
                                                                                                                                       Organized Care                          -                         -        More likely        -            school/activities.                                                    40                                                                                       32                                                                                                                                                                                                         40                                                                                                                                   social and economic factors.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      21                                                 23                                             20
                             0.3 8                        Arrangement*                            3                                    School                           Less likely                      -             -             -                                                                                                                         15                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           17                                           18                   15                    17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                – Older children in non-relative care are more likely to be             20                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  20                                      11
                                                                                                                                    5 to 14 year olds                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     0
                                                                                                                                       Other Non-Relative               Less likely                      -             -             -
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  praised by their designated parent (61 percent),                                                                                                                                               Relative Care      Organized Care        Other Non        School/Activities        Self Care                                                                                   0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  compared to older child in relative care (54 percent).                  0                                                                                                                                                                Relative                                                                                                                                   Relative Care             Organized           Other Non-                 School              Self Care
      Note: Distributions were proportionately redistributed to account for tied responses for the primary arrangement (including
                                                                                                                                       Self Care                               -                    Less likely        -        Less likely                                                                                          Relative Care          Organized Care       Other Non Relative         School/Activities
      responses to no regular arrangement.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Care               Relative                /Activities
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 *Includes never to once a week, a few times per week, and once or twice per day.
      *Some parents may not be able to specify an arrangement that is used on a regular basis at least once a week and may reply
                                                                                                                                    Note: Only statistically significant associations are listed.                                                                                                               *Includes never to once a week, a few times per week, and once or twice per day.
      as having no regular arrangement.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Survey of Income and Program Participation, 2004 Panel, Wave 8.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Note: Self care is excluded from child care arrangements because of small number of cases identified.                                                                                                                                                                                                               Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Survey of Income and Program Participation, 2004 Panel, Wave 8.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Survey of Income and Program Participation, 2004 Panel, Wave 8.




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             This poster is released to inform interested parties of research and to encourage discussion. The views
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             expressed on statistical, methodological, technical, operational and any other issues are those of the authors
USCENSUSBUREAU                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               and not necessarily those of the U.S. Census Bureau.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Data in this presentation are from a sample, and therefore are subject to sampling and nonsampling error.
Helping You Make Informed Decisions                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          For more information about the source and accuracy of the data go to http://www.census.gov/sipp/source.html.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             All comparative statements have undergone statistical testing and are all significant at the 90-percent
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             confidence level unless otherwise noted.

								
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