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ACHIEVEMENTS Cooper ative Research Centre for Coal in Sustainable by takemehome

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									ACHIEVEMENTS 2001 - 2008
Cooper ative Research Centre for Coal in Sustainable Development

                                           To optimise the contribution of COAL
                                           to a sustainable future.

                                                                                  •	 Sustainable	Development
 Mission                                                                          •	 Scientific	Integrity	and	Excellence
 Provide solutions and pathways for coal
                                                                                  •	 Solutions	Orientation
 in sustainable development through:
                                                                                  •	 Collaboration
 – collaborative and responsive
   research focusing on utilisation                                               •	 Innovation
   and by-products; together with
 – related synergistic research
   opportunities in other coal
   chain areas.

   CCSD is a research collaboration between:
Table of Contents

                    Chairman’s Message  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . 2

                    CEO’s Message  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . 5

                    Looking Back with Pride  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . 7

                    Valuing CCSD Research  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .10

                    Centre Research  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . 11

                                   INFORMING STRATEGIC DECISIONS .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .12

                                   IMPROVED ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .20

                                   UNDERSTANDING COAL PERFORMANCE  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .25

                                   EXPLORATORY STUDIES OF SIGNIFICANCE  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . 34

                    Education and Training  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .35

                    Industry Engagement  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .38

                    Science Capabilities and Services  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .39

                    Commercial Contracts  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .40

                    Industry Handbooks  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .41

                    Centre Reports  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . 42

                    Acronyms  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .45

                                                                1               CCSD ACHIEVEMENTS 2001–2008
Chairman’s Message

                                        With this catalogue of achievements CCSD is celebrating the work of its people over the
                                        past thirteen years. Together they have made a significant contribution to coal utilisation
                                        science and in doing so have laid the platform for the demonstration of clean coal
                                        technologies in Australia. To set the scene I will take a moment to reflect on the evolution
                                        of the strategic direction that guided CCSD from its beginning .
                                        With the establishment of the Black Coal CRC in 1995 the then Chairman, Mr Don
                                        Carruthers (deceased), acknowledged that the Centre was ‘the first venture in which a body
                                        of coal producers have come together voluntarily to engage in coal utilisation research. It was
                                        also the first time that the Australian black coal industry has worked so closely with the power
                                        generation industry on research issues.’ He went on to say that ‘Technology is the key to coal
                                        meeting the considerable environmental and economic challenges facing it.’

    Mr Russell Higgins AO               In 2000 the then Chairman Mr Ken Smith reported with pleasure the results of the Centre’s
    Chairman                            independent Fifth Year Review which concluded that “The Centre’s research results are now
                                        making a significant contribution to Australia’s coal export industry, Australia’s largest export dollar
                                        earner.” He also noted “the increasing recognition of the Centre as a world class research facility
                                        [and] the high level of research competency in the Centre and the management effort that has
                                        been put into developing collaborative arrangements with other international Centres, leading
                                        to research interchange and international interest in publications from the Centre.’ In parallel
                                        with the Fifth Year Review an industry team led by David Cain (Rio Tinto) successfully bid
                                        for the funding of a new coal utilisation research centre – the CRC for Coal in Sustainable
                                        Development (CCSD) – to begin operations in 2001 .
                                        CCSD was built around the concept of sustainable development and coal’s role in the
                                        transition to a sustainable society . The coal-producing and coal-using industries recognised
                                        the need for disciplined long-term research if the challenges of sustainability were to be met
                                        at a cost affordable to industry and society . Greenhouse gas emissions were acknowledged
                                        as the greatest threat to sustainability and that it was strongly in Australia’s interests that
                                        future investment decisions be taken with an understanding of the options for delivering
                                        environmental improvement through both improvements in coal-based systems and
                                        substitution of other energy sources .
                                        In 2003 Ken Smith reported that ‘the environment in which CCSD participants operate has changed
                                        significantly from that which prevailed at the time of the application to establish CCSD and the framing
                                        of the research agenda .... Significant influences have been the greater confidence in the science of
                                        climate change [and] the growing awareness by energy planners and governments that coal will
                                        be essential for future energy security.’ A review of the CCSD research programs in early 2003
                                        resulted in the Centre placing a greater emphasis on emerging technologies and their emissions
                                        from coal-fired power stations to realise “step-change” improvements in these technologies.

                            CCSD ACHIEVEMENTS 2001–2008        2
Chairman’s Message

          The public policy framework relevant to the deployment of clean coal technologies (CCTs)
          continued to change rapidly over the period 2003-2008 . Most recently this has included
          a commitment by the Australian Government to the development of a carbon trading
          regime for implementation in 2010 . In parallel the coal industry through COAL21 has
          established an agenda to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the electricity generation
          industry with the 2004 COAL21 Action Plan and more recently the $1billion COAL21
          Fund . State governments have also established funds and associated programs to support
          the deployment of CCTs .
          Over the last seven years CCSD has achieved a great deal . It has taken the lead in
          providing science-based information products to policy makers in industry and government
          from its economic social environment assessment and future scenarios and technologies
          programs . Examples of the quality products from these programs are the Techno-economic
          Assessment of Power Generation Options for Australia and Options for Electricity
          Generation in Australia to name but two . These reports have been highly regarded and
          sought after by policy practitioners. The Centre was also a significant contributor to the
          development of the 2004 COAL21 Action Plan .
          Research in coal performance and emissions has also produced many high quality products
          that provide the fundamental knowledge on which the demonstration of CCTs in Australia
          will be based. The extension of the Centre’s gasification research with the pilot testing of
          Australian coals in the Siemens’ Pilot Plant in Germany is a significant step towards the
          eventual deployment of gasification technology in Australia. Similarly the oxy-fuel research
          undertaken in CCSD has underpinned the $200million demonstration project currently
          in progress at Callide A power station under the management of CS Energy . One of the
          significant legacies of CCSD will be the user handbooks and technical reports that will
          continue to provide valuable guidance for technical and policy practitioners into the future .
          Coal research and development over the past thirteen years has provided a broad and
          solid platform for the future. Reflecting the achievements to date we are entering into a
          phase of development that will see the demonstration of the new, low-emission, coal-fired
          technologies. Our society and our planet stand to benefit greatly from this. It is important
          for the future that new arrangements for ongoing coal research and development are put
          in place to support the demonstration of CCTs and to develop new technologies .
          CCSD and its predecessor the Black Coal CRC have made a significant contribution to
          coal utilisation science, public policy and our readiness to meet the current and future
          environmental challenges associated with the use of coal . I take this opportunity to thank
          the CCSD Participants and their members on the CCSD Board of Management who have
          presided over this excellent research effort . I also wish to record my thanks to the CEO
          and Centre Management who have executed the Board’s strategy with enthusiasm and skill .
          All those involved in the Centre should be justifiably proud of their achievements.

                                3        CCSD ACHIEVEMENTS 2001–2008
Board of Management Members

Mr Ken Smith                    CCSD Chairman                                          2001-2004
Mr Russell Higgins AO           CCSD Chairman                                          2004-2008
Mr Frank van Schagen            CCSD CEO                                               2001-2008

Mr Ross McKinnon                ACARP                                                  2001-2004
Mr Mark Bennetts                ACARP                                                  2004-2008
Dr Peter Mayfield               BHP Billiton Innovation Pty Ltd                        2001-2002
Mr Ross Willims                 BHP Billiton Innovation Pty Ltd                        2002-2008
Mr Rod Hall                     CNA Resources Ltd                                      2001-2003
Dr Jon Davis                    CNA Resources Ltd                                      2003-2006
                                Rio Tinto Energy Pty Ltd                               2005-2006
Mr Kevin Creagh                 CNA Resources Ltd                                      2006-2007
                                Rio Tinto Energy Pty Ltd                               2006-2007
Dr Geoff Bongers                CNA Resources Ltd and Rio Tinto Energy Pty Ltd         2008
Dr Chris Spero                  CS Energy Ltd                                          2001-2008
Dr John Wright                  CSIRO Energy Technology                                2001-2002
Dr Adrian Williams              CSIRO Energy Technology                                2002-2003
Dr David Brockway               CSIRO Energy Technology                                2003-2008
Prof Barney Glover              Curtin University of Technology                        2001-2005
Prof Linda Kristjanson          Curtin University of Technology                        2005-2007
Mr Tony Tait                    Curtin University of Technology                        2008
Mr Steve Saladine               Delta Electricity                                      2001-2005
Mr Greg Everett                 Delta Electricity                                      2005-2008
Prof Peter Bergquist            Macquarie University                                   2001-2002
Prof Jim Piper                  Macquarie University                                   2002-2008
Mr Dave Mason                   Queensland Department of Natural Resources and Mines   2001-2002
Ms Mary Worthy                  Queensland Department of Natural Resources and Mines   2002-2003
Mr Bob Potter                   Queensland Department of Mines and Energy              2003-2008
Mr David Cain                   Rio Tinto Energy Pty Ltd                               2001-2005
Dr Paul Simshauser              Stanwell Corporation Ltd                               2004-2005
Mr Howard Morrison              Stanwell Corporation Ltd                               2005-2008
Mr Burt Beasley                 Tarong Energy Corporation Ltd                          2001-2005
Mr Dave Evans                   Tarong Energy Corporation Ltd                          2005-2008
Mr Barry Eldridge               The Griffin Coal Mining Co Pty Ltd                     2001-2002
Mr Jim Coleman                  The Griffin Coal Mining Co Pty Ltd                     2002-2007
Mr Charles Martelli             The Griffin Coal Mining Co Pty Ltd                     2008
Prof David Young                The University of New South Wales                      2001-2008
Prof Ron McDonald               The University of Newcastle                            2001-2002
Prof Adrian Page                The University of Newcastle                            2002-2005
Prof Barney Glover              The University of Newcastle                            2005-2008
Prof Don McKee                  The University of Queensland                           2001-2007
Prof John Mott                  The University of Queensland                           2008
Mr Ken Tushingham               Verve Energy (formerly Western Power)                  2005-2008
Mr Peter Ashton                 Wesfarmers Premier Coal Ltd                            2001-2006
Mr Murray Bailey                Wesfarmers Premier Coal Ltd                            2006-2007
Mr Patrick Warrand              Wesfarmers Premier Coal Ltd                            2007-2008
Mr Keith Kirby                  Western Power                                          2001-2005
Mr Barry Isherwood              Xstrata Coal Pty Ltd                                   2001-2008

                   CCSD ACHIEVEMENTS 2001–2008       4
CEO’s Message

                              CCSD is a special organisation that has provided the strong foundation of knowledge and
                              technical capability that will underpin the development and deployment of low-emission,
                              coal-fired technologies in Australia. It has brought together a diverse group of participants
                              through the need for a greater understanding of coal utilisation in existing and new
                              technologies and has undertaken projects that no single participant on their own would
                              have committed to doing . That is the truly remarkable value of collaboration – achieving
                              greater things together than we could alone .
                              This document presents, through the project leaders’ summaries, the progress made in their
                              particular area of coal utilisation science over the period 2001-2008 . CCSD’s contribution
                              as a scientific organisation can be characterised by the deep understanding of [Australian]
                              coal performance developed over thirteen years in existing and new power generation
                              and steel-making technologies . The deployment of these technologies will deliver the
    Mr Frank van Schagen
                              improved environmental performance required to address many of the environmental
    Chief Executive Officer   challenges facing us today . Additionally the knowledge and information developed by the
                              Centre has been highly regarded in informing strategic decisions by Australian industry and
                              governments as they take urgent action to address climate change .
                              The Centre has achieved much over the last seven years and can be proud it its
                              achievements against the following critical success factors:

                                        QUALITY RESEARCH                                TECHNOLOGY UPTAKE
                                 To deliver internationally recognised            To facilitate the use of CCSD outputs
                                outputs that can be used for informed                 in decision making by industry
                                  decision making and improvement                                participants

                                    EXTERNAL RELATIONSHIPS                                     EDUCATION
                                  To ensure that CCSD is a credible                     To provide quality education,
                                  contributor to solutions for coal in              information and training that builds
                                       sustainable development                      knowledge and skills within industry

                              For any research centre, scientific discovery, invention and progress are obvious products
                              and measures of effectiveness; however, Cooperative Research Centres are unique in that
                              they deliver a much deeper legacy in education, industry relationships and international
                              collaboration . The CRC for Coal in Sustainable Development can be proud of its education
                              and training program and the quality postgraduates, seminars and courses that it has
                              produced . It can also be proud of its national and international collaboration activities and
                              the important initiatives that it has led or been associated with such as its collaborative
                              relationships with CRIEPI and its role in COAL21 and the IEA Clean Coal Centre . I submit
                              that the achievements of the two CRCs over the last thirteen years can be summarised as:
                              •	 Building	strong	national	and	international	relationships	– these relationships led to
                                  the completion of the Oxy-Fuel Feasibility Study and the subsequent investment of

                                                    5       CCSD ACHIEVEMENTS 2001–2008
                                                                    Mr Nigel Flett                Dr Lila Gurba              Dr Noel Simento

CEO’s Message

     approximately $200million in a first-of-kind demonstration of low-emission oxy-fuel          Centre Management
     combustion by a Japanese/Australian consortium that includes coal producers, electricity     Full-time
     generators, technology providers and research organisations;
                                                                                                  Mr Nigel Flett
•	   Enabling	low-emissions	power	generation	by initiating and maintaining Australia’s
                                                                                                  Business Manager (2001-2008)
     only integrated research program for power generation by Integrated Gasification
     Combined Cycle (IGCC) technology . The Centre established an Australian consortium           Dr	Lila	Gurba
     to fund Gasification Pilot Testing in Germany which has provided results and gasification    Research Manager (2001-2006)
     material samples that have and will continue to validate thirteen years of bench-scale
                                                                                                  Dr Noel Simento
     work conducted by the Centre using tools such as the PEFR (Pressurised Entrained-
                                                                                                  Manager Technology Transfer and
     Flow Reactor) and provide much of the scientific basis necessary for the demonstration
                                                                                                  Communication (2001-2008)
     of this technology in Australia;
•	   Informing	the	debate	on	energy	and related climate change and other environmental            Part-time
     issues through the publication of techno-economic assessments of technologies,               Dr	Allen	Lowe
     portfolio analysis and risk assessments, regional energy reviews, etc . The techno-          Chief Technology Consultant (2004-2008)
     economic information reproduced in the COAL21 Action Plan 2004 is an example
                                                                                                  Prof	Terry	Wall	AM
     of the Centre’s contribution;
                                                                                                  Deputy CEO (2001-2004)
•	   Delivering	world	class	research	products for industry through national and international
     collaborative research; and
•	   Growing	the	coal	utilisation	information	and	knowledge	base	and the research
     capability of the Centre’s research organisations to support the operation and
     deployment of existing and new technologies . The investment has been in excess
     of $110million over thirteen years .
I believe the Centre has made an exceptional contribution to science, government
and industry . In accordance with its objectives the Centre has:
• improved the understanding of the place of coal in the transition to sustainable
  development in a changing world, through responsive and collaborative research,
  interactive technology transfer and education;
• conducted scientific research to:
  – improve economic and environmental performance of current technologies
  – reduce the risk inherent in adopting emerging clean coal technologies; and
• identified appropriate transition paths and support development of policies for coal use.
In conclusion CCSD has been at the forefront of the energy debate over the last seven years
and has provided the scientific foundation to continue to develop, demonstrate and eventually
deploy new low-emission, coal-fired technologies in Australia. The quality and effectiveness
of the CCSD research has been underpinned by the Centre’s privileged access to world-
class scientists, combined with robust and enthusiastic industry engagement, and the drive
and professionalism of the Centre’s Management . The achievements of the Centre are a
testament to their collective creativity, innovation and collaboration . It has been my sincere
privilege to lead such a fine group of men and women in such an important endeavour.

                                   CCSD ACHIEVEMENTS 2001–2008        6
Looking Back with Pride

                                   I was first confronted by passionate opposition to coal when I appeared on an ABC “Sunday
                                   Conference” TV program about climate change. Aided by creative editing, the show went to
                                   air suggesting imminent climate disaster with the culprit being demon coal . Fortunately that
                                   disaster could be averted, as one child suggested on cue, by each of us planting a tree . We all
                                   had a lot to learn .
                                   In the early 1990s, the coal industry and the electricity generation industry were focused
                                   on near-term operational priorities . There was very little collaborative Australian research
                                   being conducted on coal use except for the Australian Coal Association Research Program
                                   (ACARP) market support program . Australia’s coal-related science and technology skill base
                                   was deteriorating and there was virtually no interaction between coal producers, electricity
    Mr David Cain                  generators and the research community . There was little thought for the future .
    Leader and Industry Champion   CRC for Black Coal Utilisation
    of CRC Bids 1994, 2000         Australia’s innovative Cooperative Research Centre (CRC) Programme presented an
    Board Member and Research      opportunity for change. In early 1994 Terry O’Reilly, then Pacific Coal’s CEO, asked me to
    Committee Chair 1998-2005      organise a CRC bid to support the Australian coal industry . It was a timely initiative . We
                                   beat the bushes and developed the bid for the CRC for Black Coal Utilisation in early
                                   1994, facing both enthusiasm and scepticism from researchers, coal suppliers and electricity
                                   generators . By mid-1994, 15 participants had committed and the strong, industry-led bid
                                   was successful, with a total budget of $40million over seven years .
                                   The Black Coal CRC commenced operation in mid-1995 with the late Don Carruthers as
                                   Chairman and the interim CEO, Peter Alfredson, soon to hand over to John Hart . The CRC
                                   began to anticipate change in the thermal coal market by researching the performance of
                                   Australian black coals in new and emerging utilisation technologies .
                                   Education, training and international collaboration were new activities and considerable
                                   effort was placed on effective transfer of results to stakeholders . The establishment of the
                                   $2 .5million PEFR (Pressurised Entrained-Flow Reactor) facility, based at CSIRO Queensland
                                   Centre for Advanced Technologies in 1998-99 signalled a new era of coal gasification research
                                   in Australia . A series of state-of-the-art reviews were well received by industry and in-kind
                                   research by participants flourished. The Centre’s mineral matter research was world-leading.
                                   By the time of its Fifth Year Review the Centre was described as delivering world-class
                                   results and being internationally visible . In late 1988 the late Don Carruthers retired and
                                   Ken Smith became Chairman .

                                   In 1999, when concern over climate change had intensified the Board considered bidding for
                                   an extension of the Centre’s term . A successful extension bid would need to have higher
                                   levels of commitment from a wider range of participants and avoid doing simply more of
                                   the same . More emphasis was needed on future technologies .

                                                           7       CCSD ACHIEVEMENTS 2001–2008
                                                        Looking Back with Pride

The Centre’s bold response was to              In 2004 Chairman Ken Smith stepped down         Our CRCs’ wide-ranging programs of largely
examine the industry’s performance in          and the Centre’s current Chairman Russell       pre-competitive research have helped
terms of sustainable development, propose      Higgins AO succeeded him . By 2005 about        to bring about this change in perception
and test solutions and prepare the path        two-thirds of the Centre’s research was         and have prepared the foundation for the
for substantive technological change .         on step-change technologies . CCSD had          next stages of pilot plant operation and
Participants were prepared to bare all in a    forged an international reputation that was     technology demonstration .
quest for a credible response to community     founded on the outstanding work of its
                                                                                               The CRCs have established capabilities
and government concern over the                participants and staff. Google “coal” and
                                                                                               and linkages, revealed technological
environmental issues faced by coal .           “sustainable development” and you will see
                                                                                               opportunities and defined future priorities.
                                               that CCSD tops the list .
With this powerful theme, new participants                                                     It is time to progress to larger-scale testing
from Western Australia and substantial         Success                                         and demonstration .
support from ACARP, the bid for the CRC        The two CRCs were products of their             Some pilot and demonstration plans are
for Coal in Sustainable Development was        time with different emphases . Clearly,         afoot . Australia will need a continuing R&D
established by mid-2000 and funding was        two broad and complex collaborative             effort after CCSD and I hope that this will
approved in January 2001 – to be met           efforts operating within the CRC Program        evolve to meet the needs of larger-scale
with public indignation by supporters of       could not be everything for every               activities, for the forecast major technological
renewable energy: we still had a long way      participant . They succeeded by focusing on     changes will not occur without it .
to go .                                        common priorities and made a significant
                                                                                               I never cease to marvel at the achievements
CCSD commenced operation in mid-2001           contribution to Australian and world coal
                                                                                               of (and the turmoil created by!) motivated
with a budget of $61million over seven         research . A comparison of the knowledge,
                                                                                               people working together towards an
years and 17 participants and was to grow      capabilities and collaboration that we now
                                                                                               agreed objective . The Black Coal CRC
to 19 participants and $63million by the       take for granted with the state of Australian
                                                                                               and CCSD have exemplified this. It has
end of its term . Ken Smith continued as       unpreparedness in 1994 confirms that
                                                                                               been a pleasure working with so many
Chairman and Frank van Schagen would           success . The foresight and determination of
                                                                                               competent professionals . I particularly
soon take over as CEO .                        the industry and research partners who set
                                                                                               wish to thank the members of the
                                               up CCSD and the Black Coal CRC deserve
CCSD matured and evolved over time .                                                           CCSD Research Committee for their
                                               great credit .
In 2003 a major strategic review led by                                                        tireless efforts in overseeing the research
Professor Chris Fell endorsed the CRC’s        Industry, governments, customers and many       activities of the Centre and for the fresh
research program but recommended               in the community now accept that coal           perspectives brought by the members of
a greater emphasis on step-change              has an important continuing role in world       the Sustainability Advisory Committee .
technologies rather than incremental           energy supply and the steps that need to be
improvements . This review set the direction   taken to make coal’s use compatible with
for the coming years, with CRC Program         sustainable development are understood .
and external reviewers praising the Centre’s
activities and operation .

                                 CCSD ACHIEVEMENTS 2001–2008        8
Research Committee Members
Mr David Cain (Chair 01-05)    Rio Tinto Energy                             2001-2005
Dr Chris Spero (Chair 05-08)   CS Energy                                    2001-2008
Mr Frank van Schagen           CCSD CEO                                     2001-2008
Mr Mike Baker                  Western Power Corporation                    2001-2003
Mr Burt Beasley                Tarong Energy                                2004-2005
Dr Geoff Bongers               Rio Tinto Energy                             2007-2008
Mr John Brooke                 Wesfarmers Premier Coal                      2001-2002
Mr Jim Coleman                 The Griffin Coal Mining Co                   2004-2008
Mr Peter Coombes               Delta Electricity                            2001-2008
Mr Jim Craigen                 ACARP                                        2001-2008
Mr Kevin Creagh                Rio Tinto Energy                             2006-2007
Dr Jon Davis                   Rio Tinto Energy                             2002-2006
Mr Barry Isherwood             Xstrata Coal Australia                       2001-2008
Dr John Mathieson              Bluescope Steel                              2001-2004
Mr Sid McGuire                 BHP Billiton Mitsubishi Alliance             2001-2004
Mr Malcolm McIntosh            CRC for Clean Power from Lignite             2001-2004
Prof Peter Nelson              Macquarie University                         2004-2008
Mr Andy Rigg                   CO2CRC                                       2004-2006
Mr Greg Smith                  ACIRL                                        2001-2002
Dr Jim Smitham                 CSIRO                                        2001-2008
Prof Terry Wall                The University of Newcastle                  2001-2004

Sustainability Advisory Committee Members
Ms Barbara Wildin              Fitzroy Basin Association                    2001-2005
Mr Frank van Schagen           CCSD CEO                                     2001-2008
Mr David Cain                  Rio Tinto                                    2001-2005
Ms Tricia Caswell              Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology      2001-2003
Dr John Cole                   Queensland EPA                               2001-2008
Dr Ronnie Harding              UNSW                                         2006-2008
Mr Neil Inall                  Consultant                                   2001-2008
Dr James Moody                 CSIRO                                        2004-2008
Dr Chris Spero                 CS Energy                                    2005-2008

                                                                  9      CCSD ACHIEVEMENTS 2001–2008
             “CCSD has helped to change the perceptions of Australian generators and many coal producers
                      regarding coal and sustainable development and the need to implement zero-emission
                   technologies.This is often overlooked and it should not be undervalued. When CCSD was
                  established it was an audacious venture as there was only an emerging interest in CCSD’s
                                                 mission and widespread scepticism about the future of coal”
                                                                                 CCSD Industry Participant

Valuing CCSD Research

             CCSD ACHIEVEMENTS 2001–2008   10
Centre Research

The CCSD research program was                   Commonwealth Low Emission Technology              The Centre validated thirteen years of
developed to focus on all elements of           Demonstration Fund to contribute                  IGCC	coal	gasification	and	oxy-fuel	
the coal utilisation process with specific      $50million to the $200million investment          combustion	research	with	studies	at	pilot	
emphasis on issues of sustainability .          that it would take to demonstrate the             scale. These activities required significant
Integrating science and engineering             technology in Australia .                         additional investment in the Centre, this
research with concurrent research initiatives                                                     investment by a consortium of Participants
                                                The Centre’s development of Portfolio
that explore social science, philosophy                                                           has already proven beneficial and will
                                                Options	for	Electricity	Generation	in	
and regulatory insight is not intuitive . It                                                      continue to deliver value as they are
                                                Australia provided early recognition that
does however, become easier when the                                                              interrogated in more detail .
                                                if large reductions in CO2 emissions were
outcomes and purpose of research are
                                                to meet proposed national targets, more           Commencing as an investigation of ash
defined and communicated in strategic
                                                than 80% of CO2 emissions from power              leaching behaviour and an assessment
terms . What follows therefore, can only
                                                generation in the medium term would               of the appropriateness of standard test
be ‘a selection’ of the many and varied
                                                require capture and storage . This was            methods; during the term of the Centre,
conversations that articulate, focus and
                                                followed by an examination of the Impact          these results were integrated into hydro-
finally achieve research objectives.
                                                of	Carbon	Price	Uncertainty	on	Investment	        geochemical models that delivered the
This collection of the Centre’s achievements    in	Selected	Power	Generation	Options –            capability to assess	the	behaviour	of	ash	
is arranged in themes that address the          a report that uses fresh research methods         in	mine	backfill	applications .
Centre’s targeted outcomes to:                  to articulate the risk and opportunities facing
                                                                                                  Finally, while a legacy of the Centre’s
                                                strategic business decisions .
Inform Strategic                                                                                  contribution to research lies in its scientists
Business Decisions                              CCSD’s Techno-economic	Assessment	of	             and is made available in all of the Centre’s
Improve Environmental                           Power	Generation	Options	for	Australia            reports, the CCSD	handbooks provide
Performance and                                 provided the Centre with a context to             easy access for industry application . The
Understand Coal                                 frame favourable options for step-change          CCSD Online Emissions Handbook, The
Performance in Use                              reductions in CO2 from coal-fired power           Coal-Biomass Co-firing Handbook, The
Of course some of the Centre’s                  generation . This work spawned continuing         Coal Combustion Products Handbook and
achievements have had larger and more           interest and research into oxy-fuel               the Coal Utilisation DVD document the
immediate impact than others .                  combustion, coal gasification in IGCC             knowledge created and delivered by the
                                                and the Centre’s early work in post-              Cooperative Research Centre for Coal in
The CCSD	Oxy-fuel	Feasibility	Study –           combustion capture technology . Industry          Sustainable Development .
a seven volume assessment – not only            recognised its value as the technical basis
covers a ‘first-of-type’ retrofit design        that underpinned the 2004 COAL21 plan
of the technology to a 30MW boiler              for action .
but also offers a reference design for
deploying new-build power plant . The           While the preceding paragraphs highlight
study was successful at several levels . It     research of immediate utility, the Centre has
drew on historical research and personal        also delivered scientific capability for the
relationships of the Centre scientists          longer term .
to assemble an international working
group . Completing the study provided
the basis for successful application to the

                                                                       11      CCSD ACHIEVEMENTS 2001–2008
Informing Strategic Decisions
                    CENTRE RESEARCH

       CCSD ACHIEVEMENTS 2001–2008   12
 Power Generation Portfolio Options & Risk Assessment
 Mr Peter Coombes and Mr Paul Graham                                                                      Mr Peter Coombes        Mr Paul Graham

             “In the absence of [CCSD]         Achievements
   information, there would have been          • Scenario modelling of carbon constrained national power generation portfolios;
      a higher risk associated with that       • Demonstrated improved methods for managing uncertainty in assessing asset
                                                 investment risk;
  decision… or we would have had to
                                               • Identified key sensitivities to scenario development for a low-emissions future in
   commission the work and meet the
                                                 Australia; and
    full cost ourselves. The information       • Reported on the effects of carbon price uncertainty on business investment decisions
  can be fed directly into our financial         for power generation .
models, so that we can assess the cost         This project on Portfolio Options and Risk Assessment focused on informing strategic
impacts of alternative approaches and          decisions of participants and policy options for regulators . It has examined the future
   optimise our technology selections.”        portfolio mix of electricity generating technology in Australia in response to the changing
                                               energy landscape . In doing so the project has provided investment scenarios from both the
              CCSD Industry Participant        national generation portfolio and individual technology perspectives .
                                               The Centre’s report on Options for Electricity Generation in Australia was the forerunner
Peter Coombes is currently Delta               for several subsequent studies by industry groups and was a stepping stone for development
Electricity’s Manager/Sustainability . He is   of CSIRO Energy Futures Forum. Its key findings included:
also a member of the CCSD Research             • There is no single technology solution – the portfolio approach appears most appropriate;
Committee and a member of the original         • Black and brown coal CO2 capture and sequestration is necessary to achieve deep
CCSD bid committee . Peter has a                 emission cuts if the current demand growth continues;
background in fossil fuel and renewable
                                               • CO2 capture efficiency must exceed 85% for deep cuts to be achieved; and,
power project development .
                                               • Renewables are likely to play an increasingly important role.
Paul Graham is Theme Leader for Energy
Futures in the Energy Transformed Flagship     In further development of this work the Centre has provided an analysis of investment
and was co-developer and Project Leader        decisions at the individual technology level in its report “Impact of Carbon Price Uncertainty
for the recent Energy Futures Forum . He       on Investment in Selected Electricity Generation Options”. This report uses real options
has considerable experience as an energy       analysis to investigate the likely timing of investment and ranking of several electricity
economist serving at the Australian Bureau     generating options in relation to uncertainty of future carbon prices . It highlighted the need
of Agricultural and Resource Economics         for greater policy certainty by demonstrating how uptake and timing of investments in
(ABARE) before joining CSIRO .                 various technologies is sensitive to an investor’s view of future carbon prices .
                                               The research also focuses on electricity and carbon prices as a function of the key
Research Team
                                               uncertainties such as the price of natural gas, particularly as demand for natural gas
Dr Luke Reedman, Mr Doug Vincent,
                                               increases; the availability of CO2 capture and sequestration technologies; the potential for
Dr Greg Duffy, Dr Tom Beer,
                                               lower growth in demand; the level of the greenhouse gas emission target in 2050; and the
Dr Willem Bouma
                                               initial rate of reduction towards the nominated 2050 target .

                                               08-Dec-06     Impact of Carbon Price Uncertainty of Investment in Selected Electricity
                                                             Generation Options
                                               23-Feb-05     Options for Electricity Generation in Australia (incl. 2004 supplement)
                                               07-Jul-04     Experience Curves – A tool for energy technology analysis
                                               14-Nov-03     Options for Electricity Generation in Australia (Superseded)
                                               05-Jan-03     Real Options Analysis – A Case Study

                                                                     13      CCSD ACHIEVEMENTS 2001–2008
Social Frameworks and Sustainability Review
Dr Ronnie Harding                                                                                                                         Dr Ronnie Harding

In CCSD Dr Ronnie Harding led the Centre’s          Achievements
Project on Broader Sustainability . Ronnie          • Used exploratory forums to engage with opinion leaders to provide participants with a
is an Assistant Commissioner in the NSW               sense of the social change necessary for the development of a sustainable energy system
Natural Resources Commission; Chair of the            for Australia;
NSW Council on Environmental Education;
                                                    • Explored the feasibility of the various stakeholders in Australia’s electricity sector
Trustee of the Australian Museum, Chair
                                                      cooperating to develop a sustainable energy system; and
of its Research and Collections Advisory
Committee; a member of the Wentworth                • Explored the concept of ‘Extended Producer Responsibility’ (EPR) with particular
Group of Concerned Scientists; a member of            emphasis on the Australian coal industry .
the Metropolitan Water Independent Review           Participants in CCSD recognised that if the Centre was to engage with principles of
Panel (NSW) and a member of the NSW                 sustainable development it was necessary to keep abreast of leading-edge thinking on
National Parks and Wildlife Advisory Council .      ‘sustainability’, in particular, the role of coal in moves to a sustainable energy future .
She retired from UNSW as Director of the
                                                    This project challenged the industry to engage with non-technical dimensions of the broader
Institute of Environmental Studies in late 2004 .
                                                    sustainability debate through examining ‘the role of coal in a sustainable energy future’ and
Research Team                                       concepts such as ‘extended producer responsibility’ with specific relevance to coal and
Dr Robert Passey, Ms Julie-Anne Lacko               energy . It ensured the Centre participants could be well informed through hosting ‘world-
                                                    leading thinkers’ in the area of sustainability and energy use and engaging in conversation
                                                    with Australia’s leading-edge thinkers in the sustainability and energy fields.
                                                    The discussions provided a unique opportunity for Centre participants to receive qualitative
                                                    advice on moving to a sustainable energy future for Australia and recognising the social
                                                    barriers to, and opportunities for, achieving this . These activities also captured changing
                                                    societal views and started at a time when such discussions were just entering the broader
                                                    energy and climate change debate .

                                                    16-May-07     Summary of the CCSD/CSIRO Sustainability Seminar July 2006
                                                    26-Apr-07     Social Changes for a Sustainable Energy Future
                                                    03-Jan-05     Exploring Alternative Perspectives on the Role for Coal and the Coal Industry
                                                                  in the Move to a Sustainable Energy System
                                                    09-Nov-04     Application of EPR to the Coal Fired Electricity Industry – A Pilot Study

                                     CCSD ACHIEVEMENTS 2001–2008        14
Power Systems Evaluation
Dr Emi Ikeda and A/Prof John Stubington                                                                  Dr Emi Ikeda           A/Prof John Stubington

“Work like the flow-sheeting studies…         Achievements
        if you had to pay for it yourself     • Benchmarked the efficiency and greenhouse performance of current and future coal-
     as an individual company you just          fired technologies;
                                              • Informed the review of the technical guidelines to generator efficiency standards
 couldn’t do it, but the leverage [of the
                                                undertaken by the Australian Greenhouse Office; and
 collaborative model] delivers our firm
                                              • Provided power generation performance modelling of process flow sheets using
   this value for a cost we can afford”         a common set of typical Australian conditions for low-emissions, coal-fired power
                                                generation technologies such as gasification and oxy-fuel combustion with carbon
              CCSD Industry Participant
                                                capture and storage .
                                              The project has undertaken the first comparative assessment of advanced systems for coal-
John Stubington is Associate Professor,
                                              fired power generation in typical Australian conditions. By undertaking more detailed heat
School of Chemical Engineering and
                                              and mass balances it provided at an engineering level of detail the consideration, integration
Industrial Chemistry, UNSW . Over the term
                                              and optimisation of power generation cycles in an Australian context . It builds on the more
of the CRC, he has led the Centre’s project
                                              general techno-economic studies undertaken elsewhere in the Centre .
on PFBC research . Assoc Prof Stubington
is a Fellow member of the Institution of      Close collaboration with industry participants delivered both the capability and validation
Chemical Engineers and the Australian         required for application of the results . The Centre was engaged by the Australian Greenhouse
Institute of Energy .                         Office as the contractor to service the review of the technical guidelines that underpin the
                                              Generator Efficiency Standards. Research in the project also provided initial assessments of
Dr Emi Ikeda is a Senior Research Fellow at
                                              the variation in plant performance that may be expected across the range of Australian coal
UNSW . Over the term of the CRC, she has
                                              quality measures .
undertaken all of the Centre’s research on
Power Systems Evaluation .                    Products
                                              13-Jun-07     Technical Performance of Electric Power Generation Systems (two volumes)
Research Team
                                              25-Aug-04     Technical Performance of Electric Power Generation Systems in
Dr Allen Lowe, Dr Chris Spero,                              Australian Conditions
Mr San Shwe Hla .

                                                                    15      CCSD ACHIEVEMENTS 2001–2008
Commercial Scale Oxy-Fuel Feasibility Study
Dr Chris Spero                                                                                                                    Dr Chris Spero

    “We see it [oxy-fuel] as a valuable         Achievements
        way of expanding the range of           • A detailed assessment of oxy-fuel technology more generally and the specific
    coal-based ZET alternatives with a            requirements and costs for a retrofit of a 30MWe PF boiler at Callide A;
                                                • A reference design for the Callide A oxy-fuel demonstration project;
     technology that can be applied to
                                                • A broader evaluation of the potential applications of oxy-fuel technology on a retrofit
  existing PF plant designs, and where
                                                  and purpose designed basis, in Australia, SE Asia and Japan; and
   the development costs are relatively         • The basis for $200million independent joint venture to demonstrate oxy-firing
       modest… even so, we could not              combustion as a first-of-type low-emissions technology at commercial scale.
pursue it without the leverage provided         Built from the prior industry, research and collaborative relationships developed and
                              by CCSD”          nurtured in the Centre, an oxy-fuel working group was established through the Australian
                                                Coal Association COAL21 program under a Memorandum of Understanding ratified in
              CCSD Industry Participant         September 2004 . Signatories to the MoU included CS Energy, Stanwell Corporation, Tarong
                                                Energy, Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries (IHI), IHI Engineering Australia , Cooperative
Dr Chris Spero is Manager Engineering           Research Centre for Coal in Sustainable Development, Center for Coal Utilisation, Japan
Technology with CS Energy – a CCSD              (CCUJ), Cooperative Research Centre for Greenhouse Gas Technologies, Xstrata Coal,
industry participant . He is also a CCSD        Australian Coal Association Research Program (ACARP), and The University of Newcastle .
Board Member, the current Chairman of the       The Japan-Australia working group carried out a two-year engineering feasibility study
Centre’s Research Committee and Project         on oxy-fuel technology . The overarching goals of the study were to provide a detailed
Leader for the Oxy-fuel Feasibility Study .     engineering assessment of the potential application of oxy-firing for electricity generation,
Dr Spero is a Fellow of the Institution of      and to develop an engineering capability in Australia and overseas to build oxy-fuel plants in
Engineers (Australia), Corporate Member         the future . CS Energy’s No . 4 (30MWe) Unit at Callide A Power Station located near Biloela
of the Institute of Engineers and has a         in Central Queensland (Australia) was selected as the basis of the study .
professional background in mechanical           The Oxy-fuel Feasibility Study consisted of fundamental and pilot-scale testwork, the techno-
and chemical engineering . He has worked        economics of oxygen production and CO2 capture, boiler retrofit design, the techno-
primarily in the areas of fuel technology and   economics of CO2 storage and a reference design for full scale oxy-fuel applications . This
power systems engineering with a particular     study was the basis for the successful application for project costs of around $200million to
emphasis on coal combustion, coal handling      the Commonwealth Low Emissions Technology Demonstration Fund (LETDF), the COAL21
and process design .                            fund and an independent joint venture consortium to demonstrate the technology at
Technology Team                                 commercial scale .

Prof Terry Wall, Prof Keiji Makino,             Products
Prof Raj Gupta, Mr Barry Waining,               18-Jul-07     Callide Oxy-fuel Project Feasibility Study
Mr Franco Montagner, Mr Alan Brake,             	             •	 Project	background	and	summary
Dr Louis Wibberley, Mr Doug Palfreyman,         	             •	 Fundamental	studies
Dr Katsuyoshi Ando, Dr Takashi Kiga,            	             •	 Techno-economics	of	oxygen-fired	power	generation	with	CO2 capture
Mr Yoshito Yoshimura, Mr Kiyotaka               	             •	 Report	on	pilot-scale	tests
Muramatsu, Mr Nohibiro Misawa,                  	             •	 Pilot-scale	advanced	analysis	and	modeling
Mr Toshihiko Yamada, Mr Jim Craigen,            	             •	 Retrofit	studies
Mr Barry Isherwood, Mr Frank van Schagen,       	             •	 Demonstration	conceptual	design
Dr Peter Cook, Mr Andy Rigg .

                                  CCSD ACHIEVEMENTS 2001–2008      16
Sustainability Dimensions and Impacts
Prof Cliff Hooker                                                                                                                    Prof Cliff Hooker

Cliff Hooker is Emeritus Professor of           Achievements
Philosophy at The University of Newcastle,      • A new conception of sustainability focused on adaptive resilience;
holding doctorates in each of Physics
                                                • An original theory of policy analysis involving back-casting scenario construction
and Philosophy . He is a Fellow of the
                                                  integrated with robust adaptive strategy analysis that systematically incorporates risk;
Academy of Humanities and the leader
of the Centre’s Project on Sustainability       • The systems analysis and assessment tools required both to formulate the preceding
Dimensions and Impacts . During his term in       concepts and to assess energy policy within its framework; and
the Centre, Professor Hooker co-directed        • The preparation of an initial exemplar adaptively resilient energy policy
the National Academies Forum Project              for Queensland .
on Integrated Sustainable Assessment . He       Sustainable policy making has until recently been marked by a focus on various simple
co-authored ‘Energy and the Quality of Life’,   sustainability concepts and measures, such as immediate environmental load reduction, the
1980, one of the first books on systematic      absence of a systematic consideration of risk, endemic to the domain, and the absence
energy policy development .                     of a whole-systems framework . The CCSD research has shown all these dimensions of
Research Team                                   sustainability may be integrated into the more general concept of adaptive resilience .
                                                Adaptive resilience is the capacity to continue functioning through change by adapting to it .
Dr Thomas Brinsmead
                                                It subsumes the simpler conceptions of sustainability as partial special cases and avoids their
                                                limitations, especially in the treatment of longer-term planning .
                                                For coal this research provides:
                                                • a principled framework for properly evaluating the potential role of coal and energy
                                                  flows generally in sustainable energy development;
                                                • the conditions under which coal may contribute to an adaptively resilient policy; and
                                                • the initial planning process to realise this in practice.

                                                05-Dec-07      Physical Constraints and Options in Energy Policy
                                                05-Dec-07      A Framework for Energy Policy Scenario Construction
                                                05-Dec-07      Discussion 9: Adaptive Analysis for Energy Policy
                                                10-Jul-07      Discussion 8: Adaptive Backcasting: The Method of Possibility and Design
                                                09-Mar-07      Discussion 7: Performance Indicators for Adaptiveness
                                                06-Oct-06      Discussion 6: Industrial Networks – A Tool for Sustainable Planning
                                                20-Apr-06      Discussion 5: Integration in Sustainability Assessment
                                                22-Jul-05      Sustainabilities: A Systematic Framework and Comparative Analysis
                                                01-Jul-05      Discussion 4: Three Concepts of Sustainability Systematically Framed
                                                10-Jun-05      Discussion 3: Understanding and Issues for Industry
                                                28-Jul-03      Discussion 2: Introducing Adaptive Sustainable Development
                                                04-May-03      Discussion 1: System Efficiency, Resiliency, Adaptability

                                                                       17      CCSD ACHIEVEMENTS 2001–2008
Coal in Sustainable Society
Dr Louis Wibberley                                                                                                               Dr Louis Wibberley

Dr Louis Wibberley is Principal Technologist   Achievements
with the CSIRO Division of Energy              • The first systems assessment for ‘low CO2 emissions’ from power generation
Technology . He leads projects on Coal in        for Australia;
Sustainable Society and the Longer Term
                                               • Techno-economic Assessment of Power Generation Options for Australia provided the
Sustainability of Coal for CCSD .
                                                 technical basis that underpinned the COAL21 Plan which established the $300million
During the term of CCSD Dr Wibberley             COAL21 Fund in Australia;
occupied roles as Manager of Sustainability    • Oxy-fuel identified as an option for low-emissions power generation leading to first-of-
Research at BHP Billiton and received the        type commercial demonstration in Australia; and
Coal Industry Advisory Board Award for
                                               • Techno-economic assessment for retrofitted post-combustion capture from power
services to the Coal Industry .
                                                 generation established pilot facilities in Australia .
Research Team                                  Recognising emerging evidence from climate science of links between CO2 emissions with
Mr Phil Brown, Mr Aaron Cottrell,              climate change, the Centre undertook the techno-economic study of coal-fired power
Mr Jason Nunn, Mr Doug Palfreyman,             generation options that would enable a low-emissions future . Building on prior in-house
Dr Peter Scaife, Dr Andre Urfer                studies of Coal in Sustainable Society, these studies were unique in that they sought to
                                               identify those technologies for power generation that offer the lowest carbon intensity in ‘life
                                               cycle’ terms. The initial studies were refined with greater detail added over time to provide
                                               useful technology comparisons – especially for those coal-fired options amenable to CO2
                                               capture and storage .
                                               This work delivered contracted services to COAL21, providing for the Commonwealth
                                               Department of Industry Science and Resources the technical basis justifying coal’s candidacy
                                               to prospective low-emission technology demonstration . Outcomes from this work are the
                                               origin, stimulus or driver for all of the pilot or demonstration options underway for oxy-fuel,
                                               gasification and post-combustion capture in Australia.

                                               18-Jul-07	    Techno-economics	of	Oxygen-fired	Power	Generation	with	CO2 Capture –
                                                             Callide Oxy-fuel Feasibility Study (Part 3)
                                               17-Jul-07     System Assessment of Hypercoal for Electricity Supply in Japan
                                               27-Mar-07     LCA of the Australian Electricity Grids
                                               27-Mar-07     LCA of the Queensland Electricity Grid (Year Ending 2004)
                                               03-Nov-06     A Life Cycle Assessment of the Victorian Electricity Grid (Year Ending 2003)
                                               03-Nov-06     A Life Cycle Assessment of the NSW Electricity Grid (Year Ending 2003)
                                               24-Apr-06     Techno-economic Assessment of Power Generation Options for Australia
                                               22-Dec-04     Preliminary Assessment of a Process for Post Combustion Capture of CO2
                                               07-Jul-04     Externalities – A Complementary Tool for Impact Assessment
                                               03-Jan-03     Systems Assessment of Electricity Generation Using Biomass and Coal in CFBC
                                               03-Jan-03     A Life Cycle Assessment of the NSW Electricity Grid (Year Ending 2001)
                                               03-Jan-03     A Life Cycle Assessment of the QLD Electricity Grid (Year Ending 2001)
                                               03-Jan-03     A Life Cycle Assessment of the Victorian Electricity Grid (Year Ending 2000)

                                 CCSD ACHIEVEMENTS 2001–2008       18
Long-term Sustainability of Coal
Dr Louis Wibberley                                                                                                         Dr Louis Wibberley

Research Team                            Achievements
Mr Phil Brown, Mr Aaron Cottrell,        • Regular country and regional energy assessments for coal market support
Mr Jason Nunn, Mr Doug Palfreyman,         and planning;
Dr Peter Scaife, Dr Andre Urfer,
                                         • Benchmarking life cycle assessments of emissions performance for the state electricity
Mr Matthew Searles, Mr Lawrence Leung,
                                           grids; and
Mr Ben Maddox, Mr Kyle Rollinson
                                         • Improved life cycle assessment capability including selected externalities.
                                         Australia continues to remain the largest exporter of coal to the world . The industry requires
                                         continued vigilance of the longer-term trends in demand . Faced with increasing motivation
                                         to limit greenhouse gas emissions, the industry has also had to recognise drivers for demand
                                         in both existing and developing markets . To inform their strategic interest, the Centre has
                                         provided regular updates of major energy changes and new market forces that are becoming
                                         evident, with particular emphasis on the larger developing nations, India and China .
                                         The Centre has also provided the first benchmarking assessments for greenhouse gas and
                                         other emissions from power generation in Australia . In doing so, these assessments take
                                         account of a wider range of externalities and may serve as the basis to monitor Australian
                                         effectiveness in emissions mitigation performance over the longer term .

                                         13-Nov-07     Energy Scenarios – China (Updated 2007)
                                         08-Jun-07     Energy Scenarios – South Korea May 2007
                                         03-Oct-06     Synergies with Renewables: Concentrating Solar Thermal
                                         21-Apr-06     Energy Scenarios – India
                                         22-Mar-06     An LCA of WA’s South West Interconnected Electricity Grid Year Ending 2002
                                         22-Mar-06     Western Australia Energy System
                                         17-Jan-06     Energy Scenarios – Europe
                                         24-Mar-05     Energy Scenarios – Japan (Updated 2004)
                                         07-Jul-04     Energy Scenarios – China
                                         07-Jul-04     Systems Assessment of Ultra Clean Coal for Potential Use in Distributed
                                                       Electricity Generation in Japan
                                         18-May-04     International Power Stations Review – Korea
                                         16-Feb-04     Energy Scenarios – South Korea
                                         13-Feb-04     Regional Energy Summary – SE Asia
                                         16-Dec-03     Systems Assessment of Future Electricity Generation Options for Australia
                                         09-Jul-03     Greenhouse Gas and Climate Change Issues
                                         03-Jan-03     Energy Scenarios – Japan
                                         30-Jan-02     Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) – Third Assessment Report
                                         06-Jan-02     Clean Development Mechanism – A Review

                                                                19      CCSD ACHIEVEMENTS 2001–2008
             CENTRE RESEARCH

CCSD ACHIEVEMENTS 2001–2008   20
Assessing Fly-Ash Use in Mine Backfill Applications
Prof Colin Ward                                                                                                                     Prof Colin Ward

     “This work will significantly benefit       Achievements
  operations with wet ash dams, which            • Identified and characterised the propensity of selected soil conditions to attenuate
       are facing responsibility for these         the mobility of trace elements from disposed ash leachates; and
                                                 • Provided capability to assess the longer-term effects of ash storage in mine
 areas for 100 years or more following
                                                   backfilling applications.
   their decommissioning.The work will
                                                 Backfill of mine excavations with ash and other coal combustion products (CCPs) is gaining
     also assist operations with dry ash         increased attention as a more beneficial process of ash disposal from the power and mining
repositories that have to manage risks           industries in both Australia and overseas . A series of workshops on different aspects of ash
   of groundwater leaching both during           in mine backfill has been held by the US Office of Surface Mining for several years, and the
                                                 US National Research Council has recently completed a study providing support for such
 the life of the repository and after the
                                                 activities . Considerable research has also taken place in South Africa . Much of the research
      repositories are decommissioned.”          to date, however, has been carried out on the use of alkaline ash as a basis for ameliorating
                                                 acid mine drainage; this is not necessarily an issue in Australian coal mines . Only limited
              CCSD Industry Participant
                                                 information is therefore available on assessment methods and protocols for assessing the
                                                 interactions between ash, rock and water in other situations (e .g . acid ashes and/or mines
Colin Ward retired as Professor of Geology       without acid mine drainage), as a basis for better managing the environmental risks, if any,
at the University of New South Wales in          associated with mine backfill operations.
July, 2006 . He leads the Centre’s research
                                                 The present study has shown that when coal mine rock materials, particularly shales and
project on the environmental assessment of
                                                 coal preparation refuse interact with leachates from emplaced ash, there is likely to be a
fly-ash for use in mine backfill applications.
                                                 reduction in the concentration of environmentally significant trace elements that might
He is currently Professorial Visiting Fellow
                                                 otherwise be released. This suggests that the concentration of many potentially significant
in the School of Biological, Earth and
                                                 trace elements released into percolating waters from a mine-site ash deposit may be
Environmental Sciences at UNSW and also
                                                 attenuated by contact of the ash leachate with the adjacent rock strata . The attenuation
a Visiting Scientist in the CSIRO Division of
                                                 properties appear to be related to the nature of the rock in question, probably through ion
Energy Technology . Prof Ward is editor and
                                                 exchange mechanisms, and provide a basis for more fully assessing the potential impacts of
co-author of two major books, ‘Coal Geology
                                                 specific ashes in relation to different rock strata for mine backfill applications.
and Coal Technology’ (1984) and ‘Geology of
Australian Coal Basins’ (1995), and is on the    Products
Editorial Board of the International Journal     12-Dec-06	    Laboratory	Assessment	of	Fly-Ash	Interactions	in	Mine	Backfill	Applications
of Coal Geology since 1990 . He is also a        18-Aug-06	    Use	of	Coal	Ash	in	Mine	Backfill	and	Related	Applications
member of the NSW Coal Compensation
                                                 31-Mar-04     Comparative Evaluation of Leachability Test Methods
Review Tribunal .
                                                 31-Dec-03     Characteristics of Australian Fly-Ashes
Research Team
Dr Jerzy Jankowski, Ms Maria Dubikova,
Dr Lila Gurba

                                                                       21      CCSD ACHIEVEMENTS 2001–2008
Emissions from Current Power Generation
Prof Peter Nelson                                                                                                                   Prof Peter Nelson

Peter Nelson is Professor of Environmental      Achievements
Studies and Head of the Graduate School         • Online CCSD Power Station Emissions Handbook;
of the Environment at Macquarie University .
                                                • The first Australian measurements of mercury deposition in rainwater;
Prof Nelson leads the Centre’s projects on
Emissions from Current Power Generation         • New mechanisms of incorporation of trace toxic metals in fine particles, and of
and Waste Management .                            interactions between elements such as arsenic and calcium;
                                                • Reported measurements of fine particle emissions from power stations, including:
During the term of CCSD, Professor Nelson
                                                  particle penetration through air pollution control devices; particle composition as
was also the 2006 Alexander von Humboldt
                                                  a function of particle size; and consequent environmental impacts;
Fellow in Physikalisch Chemisches Institut
Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg . He is   • New methods for the estimation and prediction of trace metal emissions from coal
the author of more than 90 peer-reviewed          combustion, including specific new insights into selenium in coals, and development
journal papers, 100 conference papers and         of new techniques for chromium speciation;
70 reports to government agencies and           • Field studies of fine particle concentrations and composition in mining areas; and
industry on aspects of fuel and atmospheric     • Demonstrated use of research methodologies (e.g. MCA) to investigate the interactions
chemistry and urban and industrial air            between policy and technological options for managing air pollutant emissions .
pollution measurement, assessment and
                                                This project is the only structured and integrated scientific program of research in Australia
control . He is an invited member on
                                                over thirteen years to understand environmental emissions from coal use in power
several international committees .
                                                generation . Commencing with an early focus on determining coal contribution to acid
Research Team                                   gas emissions from combustion, the program expanded to include both trace element
Dr John Carras, Mr Brendan Halliburton,         deportment and particulate emissions from coal utilisation .
Mr Anthony Morrison, Ms Amanda Keogh,           As a result of this project, the Australian black coal power generation industry now
Mr Ken Riley, Ms Hao Nguyen,                    has research capacity that can investigate and advise on all aspects of emissions from
Mr Hugh Malfroy, Dr David French,               coal utilisation .
Mr Howard Bridgman, Prof Terry Wall,
Prof Raj Gupta, Mr Les Dale,                    Products
                                                21-Jan-08     Assessing Pollutant Impact Mitigation Options
Dr Moetaz Attalla, Mr Christian Petersen,
Mr Stuart Morgan, Mr David Chase,               17-Jan-08     Analysis of Pollution Control Costs in Coal Based Electricity Generation
Dr Vladimir Strezov                             25-Jun-07     Trends in Pollutant Emission and CCP Policy and Legislation
                                                22-Mar-07     Guideline for Sampling and Analysis of Mercury in Atmospheric
PhD Students
                                                              and Source Samples
Dr Bart Buhre, Dr James Hinkley,
                                                06-Mar-07     Trace Element Deportment in Combustion Proceses
Dr Dong Chan Park, Ms Upma Dutt,
                                                06-Mar-07	    Indicators	and	Their	Place	in	Establishing	Sustainability	–	A	Briefing	Paper
Mr Pushan Shah
                                                10-Jan-07     Modes of Occurrence of Trace Elements in Australian Coals
                                                10-Nov-06     Fine Particle Emissions from Power Stations
                                                08-Nov-05     Background Information for Website on Trace Elements in Coal
                                                01-Nov-04     Hazardous Pollutants in Power Station Emissions
                                                07-Jul-04     Fine Particle Emissions from Power Stations
                                                07-Jul-04     Trace Element Deportment in Combustion Processes
                                                01-Apr-04     Quantifying Natural and Anthropogenic Sourced Mercury Emissions from
                                                              Australia in 2001

                                  CCSD ACHIEVEMENTS 2001–2008       22
Waste Management
Prof Peter Nelson                                                                                                             Prof Peter Nelson

Research Team                          Achievements
Mr Anthony Morrison, Ms Ros Taplin,    • Demonstrated multi-criteria assessment methods for more sustainable environmental outcomes;
Prof Colin Ward, Dr Jerzy Jankowski,   • The international benchmarking of Australian fly-ashes;
Ms Maria Dubikova, Mr Ken Riley,       • The capability to assess the longer-term mobility of trace elements in ash disposal systems; and
Dr David French
                                       • The first Australian characterisation of waste streams from gasification and oxy-fuel combustion.
                                       Coal ash is a major disposal cost and liability for the electricity generation industry . While some of
                                       it is used in other applications a majority is stored in ash dams constructed for the purpose . The
                                       efficient management and understanding issues of longer-term storage are the primary drivers
                                       for this research in CCSD .
                                       CCSD research has provided a significant advance in understanding the geochemical factors
                                       affecting the mobility of elements from coal ash, including a number of elements with potential
                                       environmental significance. Prior to the commencement of this project, assessment of element
                                       mobility was based on tests carried out under arbitrary and not necessarily natural conditions,
                                       such as the US-based TCLP routine . By combining advanced characterisation of ash mineralogy
                                       using Australian-sourced XRD techniques with leaching tests carried out under a variety of
                                       chemical conditions, CCSD has provided a better understanding of the factors affecting the
                                       mobility of key elements from different Australian ashes, as a basis for improved prediction of
                                       any impacts arising from ash storage installations .
                                       Another innovation has been the integration of field and laboratory studies of ash behaviour,
                                       including the identification of links between ash leaching and groundwater quality. Although some
                                       similar studies have been done in Europe and North America, these are not as comprehensive
                                       nor are they directly applicable to the Australian context . Indeed, ash characterisation and
                                       leaching studies in the USA and elsewhere are now following similar principles to those
                                       developed in this CCSD research .
                                       In what commenced as an investigation into the leaching behaviour of coal ash, this project has
                                       grown to be a unique and integrated scientific program of research in Australia. Most importantly,
                                       results and learning from this work have found practical application in a specific capability to
                                       assess the longer-term effects of ash storage in mine backfilling applications. Guidelines and
                                       protocols for such testing and assessment are delivered in the Centre’s Coal Combustion
                                       Products Handbook .
                                       The Centre’s research has also taken a more holistic approach to the risks and opportunities
                                       relevant to waste management including: development of sustainability indicators; development of
                                       techniques for predicting impacts of technological change on the extent and nature of waste; and
                                       consideration of the impacts of policy developments on waste management .

                                       17-May-07     Fly-Ash Characteristics and Feed Coal Properties
                                       28-Mar-07     Leaching Characteristics of Long-stored Fly-Ashes
                                       24-Jan-07     Benchmarking of Selected Australian and International Fly-Ashes
                                       10-Jan-07     A Preliminary Assessment of the Physical and Chemical Variation of Selected
                                                     Australian Fly-Ashes
                                       17-Mar-06     Modelling Element Mobility in Water/Fly-Ash Interactions
                                       31-May-05     Legislation Relevant to Ash Disposal
                                       07-Jul-04     Preliminary Assessment of Trace Element Mobilisation from Australian Fly-Ashes
                                       13-Feb-04     Waste Streams in Black Coal Mining and Coal-Fired Power Stations

                                                               23       CCSD ACHIEVEMENTS 2001–2008
By-products and Waste Utilisation
Prof Dong-ke Zhang                                                                                                                    Prof Dong-ke Zhang

Dong-ke Zhang is the Professor of                Achievements
Chemical Engineering and Director of the         • Viable chemistry for the production of low grade zeolites for agricultural applications; and
Centre for Fuels and Energy at Curtin
                                                 • Criteria to match Australian fly-ashes to aggregate manufacturing methods.
University of Technology . He leads the
Centre’s projects on Improvements in PF          Over 10 million tonnes of fly-ash is produced in Australia every year, of which only about
Operations and Utilisation of By-products        one-third is used and the remainder is accumulated in landfills and ash dams. The use of ash
from power generation . During his term          from power generation sources must target large tonnage options if it is to make a credible
in CCSD, he was awarded the John Curtin          contribution to the sustainable use of coal . In this regard, the Centre’s research has focused
Distinguished Professor by Curtin University     on the development of low grade zeolites for agricultural applications and assessing the
of Technology and the John Brodie Medal by       suitability of local ash to aggregate manufacturing methods .
Engineers Australia . He is presently a Fellow   Zeolite synthesised from fly-ash for agricultural application as a controlled release fertiliser
and Councillor the of Australian Academy         is a technology which offers considerable advantages in terms of economic, technical and
of Technological Sciences and Engineering        environmental performance . This fertiliser market is both high-value and high-volume, with
(ATSE) and is the Chief Scientist and            the potential to consume significant quantities of fly-ash. There are many processes that
Technical Advisor to Spitfire Oil Ltd.           produce zeolites from fly-ash. These processes form and optimise zeolite production on the
Research Team                                    surface of existing fly-ash particles and result in the majority of the product being mainly fly-
                                                 ash encapsulated in a crust of zeolite product . The products or processes are not optimised
Dr Hamzah Fansuri, Dr Hongwei Wu,
                                                 for the production of independent zeolite solids .
Dr Hongming Yan, Dr Jianning Zhu,
Mr Zhezi Zhang, Mr Angelina Rossiter,            CCSD research has discovered a means to enhance the productivity of independent
Mr Mohammad Haghighi, Ms Ling Ngee               zeolite solids from a feedstock of fly-ash. High conversion levels for turning coal fly-ash into
Ngu and Dr John Bromly                           low-grade zeolite have been achieved . The zeolite phases produced are Zeolite Na P-1
                                                 (Gismondine type of zeolite, Na6Al6Si10O32 .12H2O) and Analcime (Na16Al16Si32O96 .10H2O) .
PhD Students                                     While there are further steps necessary to develop the path to a commercial product,
Dr Alex Elliot                                   the Centre has generated sufficient zeolite to initiate studies for testing its effectiveness to
                                                 enhance plant growth .
                                                 The Centre has also undertaken a detailed study to match the characteristics of fly-ash
                                                 with specific production methods for aggregates. Aggregates are widely used in the building
                                                 industry in concrete products and present the opportunity to use tonnage quantities of fly-
                                                 ash . While there are several methods to produce aggregate, this work has tested participant
                                                 fly-ashes to recognise those that may be suited to the sintering, cementitious binding and
                                                 geopolymer processing routes .

                                                 24-Jul-07     Aggregate Manufacture From Coal Fly-Ash by High Temperature
                                                               Sintering Method
                                                 30-Mar-05     Part A: Manufacturing Aggregates from Coal Ash
                                                               Part B: A Strategy for Producing Lightweight Aggregates from Fly-Ash
                                                 16-Dec-03     Ash Utilisation in Australia – A Market Study

                                  CCSD ACHIEVEMENTS 2001–2008        24
Understanding Coal Performance

                 25   CCSD ACHIEVEMENTS 2001–2008
Oxy-Fuel Science and Technology
Prof Terry Wall AM                                                                                                                       Prof Terry Wall AM

Prof Terry Wall has a founding relationship        Achievements
with the CRCs . During the term of the             • Initiated the collaborative relationships and provided the science underpinning the first-
Centre, he occupied the roles of Deputy              of-type low emissions oxy-fuel technology demonstration at commercial scale;
Executive Director and Program Manager for
                                                   • Improved models to predict the relevant gas radiation properties in oxyfuel conditions
both International Collaboration and Mineral
                                                     for deployment in CFD simulations;
Matter Reaction in the Black Coal CRC . In
CCSD, Professor Wall also led the Program          • Laboratory experiments providing the first direct comparison of coal burn-out between
on Education and Training, and projects              air and oxy-firing conditions and implications for retrofitted pf combustion operations;
on PF Development and Coal Quality                 • Established that ignition differs in air and oxy-flames, necessitating burner design changes
Assessment . He relinquished leadership of           and direct oxygen injection at the burner mouth; and
these responsibilities in 2004 to focus on         • Undertook and delivered pilot-scale experiments for three Australian coals relevant to
and lead the Centre’s project on science             the Centre’s Oxy-fuel Feasibility Study. This work confirmed reductions in SOX and NOX
and technology of oxy-fuel combustion .              when an air-fired furnace is retrofitted to oxy-fuel, and delivered the first data set on
His research contribution and international          trace element emissions in oxy-fuel conditions .
collaborative relationships with IHI, Vattenfall
                                                   Oxy-fuel combustion uses oxygen for combustion instead of air . This technology is one of
and Chalmers University in particular have led
                                                   three first-generation clean coal technologies with demonstration plants in development,
to collaborations of benefit to Australian and
                                                   in Australia and overseas, and has advantages due to its simplicity in the capture of CO2
CCSD research . These have also been pivotal
                                                   emissions . The CCSD Oxyfuel technology project was established in 2003 and at this time
in the Centre’s Oxy-fuel Feasibility Study and
                                                   little was known about the science underpinning the technology . From literature it clearly
the resulting first-of-type demonstration of
                                                   emerged that the radiative heat transfer and coal combustibility aspects needed research,
this low-emissions technology at commercial
                                                   and that pilot-scale experiments were desirable in these areas as well as the emissions –
scale in Australia .
                                                   SOX, NOX, ash, Hg and other trace elements . This review was subsequently published and
Prof Wall is Member of the Order of                is the first in an international journal. It is now commonly cited in papers on succeeding
Australia awarded for ‘service to the coal         research on oxyfuel .
industry as a researcher in the coal sciences,
                                                   The project has been enhanced by several international collaborative arrangements,
particularly in the technical areas related
                                                   including those with IHI in the Centre’s feasibility and pilot-scale studies . This work has also
to combustion, and to education’ . He is
                                                   provided contracted advice to Vattenfall on radiative transfer and coal reactivity for their
also a Fellow of the Australian Academy
                                                   30MWt furnace to commence operation in mid-2008 . Vattenfall is the EU generator driving
of Technological Sciences and Engineering
                                                   oxyfuel R&D in Europe .
and a member of the editorial board of the
international journals – Combustion Science        The value of industry relevance and the role of international research collaboration cannot
and Technology as well as FUEL and the             be understated in terms of value delivered from the concept of the Cooperative Research
IFRF Online Combustion Journal .                   Centre Program . This project is one prime example of the energy necessary to pursue
                                                   these outcomes, the incubation necessary to build and strengthen relationships and the
Research Team                                      value returned in terms of industry investment and application of research results . Absent
Prof Raj Gupta, Dr Bart Buhre, Dr Liza Elliot,     the historical relationships developed over many years of research, industry would not have
Dr Chris Spero, Mr Changdong Sheng                 had the confidence to commit the hundreds of millions of dollars necessary to demonstrate
                                                   this low emissions technology .
PhD Students
Mr Sameer Khare, Mr Renu Rathnam                   Products
                                                   22-May-07     Radiative Transfer in Oxy-Fired Furnaces and Impact of Coal Properties
                                                   13-Apr-07     Chemical Looping Combustion and CO2 Capture
                                                   28-Feb-07     Pilot Scale Advanced Analysis and Modelling –
                                                                 Callide Oxyfuel Feasibility Study (Part 4)
                                                   30-Jun-06     Fundamental Studies – Callide Oxyfuel Feasibility Study (Part 2)
                                                   01-May-02     PF Super Critical Boilers – Operational Issues and Coal Quality Impacts

                                    CCSD ACHIEVEMENTS 2001–2008        26
Entrained-Flow Gasification
Dr David Harris                                                                                                                       Dr David Harris

Dr David Harris is a Senior Principal          Achievements
Research Scientist and Research Program        • The Centre’s Pressurised Entrained-Flow Reactor is the only facility in Australia that can
Leader (Low Emission Fossil Fuels) with          gasify coal in conditions similar to various commercial gasifiers;
CSIRO Energy Technology . Dr Harris leads
                                               • Slag viscosity testing facilities and services to differentiate coals for gasification on the
the Centre’s project on entrained flow
                                                 basis of their slagging performance;
gasification with particular application to
                                               • Coal value-in-use model for gasification in IGCC;
advanced power generation systems .
                                               • Services to differentiate coal performance in gasification on the basis of reactivity; and
Dr Harris sits on the International Syngas
and Coal Technology Advisory Board of          • Pilot-scale tests of coal gasification performance to validate Centre research.
Sasol (South Africa) and is an Executive       At the inception of the CRC for Black Coal Utilisation, coal gasification science in Australia
Committee Member of the International          was still deeply embedded in its scientific roots; namely, that of coal and char combustion
Energy Agency’s Clean Coal Science             and coke consumption in blast furnaces. The details of the coal gasification process, in
initiative . He was also the Program Manager   particular how gasification conditions would affect coal performance in industrial gasification
for the Coal Matter Reactions Program in       systems, were unclear . What was the impact of high pressure on the coal pyrolysis and char
the CRC for Black Coal Utilisation .           gasification reactions? How could we begin to understand the behaviour of different coals
Dr Harris has published over 140 research      in emerging IGCC systems with very few data at our disposal? At the beginning of the CRC
reports and papers on high-temperature         program, there were no adequate experimental facilities in Australia to begin to provide the
combustion and gasification reactions with     data that could be used to work towards an understanding of these issues .
applications in the power generation and
                                               The research programs of the CRC for Black Coal Utilisation and its successor, the CRC for
metallurgical industries .
                                               Coal in Sustainable Development, were explicitly designed to provide foundation facilities,
Research Team                                  expertise and knowledge to address these issues . The CRCs, with industry support, established
Dr Daniel Roberts, Dr Nikolai Kinaev,          gasification research facilities enabling interrogation of the gasification process at a fundamental
Dr Alex Illyushkin, Mr San Shwe Hla,           level, and integration and application of this science to realistic gasification conditions.
Dr Greg Duffy, Dr Thong Do,                    It is now known that high pressure has a significant impact on all aspects of coal conversion
Mr Daniel Henderson, Dr Alfredo                to syngas. Pressure significantly affects the kinetics of char gasification, but not in a manner
Quintanar, Dr John Patterson, Dr Harry         consistent with kinetic models previously used to describe the reactions at atmospheric
Hurst, Mr Jade Tinney                          pressure. The impact of the rates of coal gasification reactions are known to be significant,
                                               even at the high temperatures found in entrained-flow gasifiers.
PhD Students
Ms Elizabeth Hodge                             The CRC has delivered techniques and facilities to make laboratory-scale measurements of
                                               gasification performance criteria and relate them, through reaction and process models, to
                                               gasification behaviour under realistic conditions. Most recently, Australian coals have been
                                               tested under pilot-scale gasification conditions, allowing these data, models and tools to be
                                               assessed using ‘real’ gasification performance data, providing a significant and timely milestone
                                               to mark the achievements of the gasification research program of CCSD.

                                               29-Jan-08	     Gasification	Conversion	Model	–	PEFR
                                               13-Apr-07      Slag Viscosity – Effects of Potassium and Phase Composition
                                               10-Jan-07	     Gasification	Behaviour	of	Australian	Coal	at	High	Temperatures
                                               20-Jun-06	     Gaseous	Nitrogen	and	Sulphur	Emissions	from	Coal	Gasification
                                               17-Mar-06	     A	Review	of	Mineral	Matter	Issues	in	Coal	Gasification
                                               07-Jul-04      Survey of the Suitability of Export Thermal Coals for IGCC Use
                                               13-Feb-04	     Gasification	Behaviour	of	Australian	Coals
                                               01-Nov-03      IGCC Technology Update – 2003
                                               01-Jan-02      Reactivity Characterisation of Australian Coals for use in Advanced Technologies
                                               08-Jan-01      Char Reactivity and the Effect of Pyrolysis Pressure

                                                                      27       CCSD ACHIEVEMENTS 2001–2008
Pressurised Fluidised Bed Combustion
A/Prof John Stubington                                                                                                          A/Prof John Stubington

John Stubington is Associate Professor,      Achievements
School of Chemical Engineering and           • The capability to predict the pressurised fluidised bed combustion efficiency for
Industrial Chemistry, University of NSW .      Australian black coals and validated by industrial-scale application; and
Over the term of the CRC, he has led
                                             • Differentiation in coal performance based on coal ash character in pressurised fluidised
the Centre’s project on PFBC research .
                                               bed combustion (PFBC) .
Assoc Prof Stubington is a Fellow member
of Institution of Chemical Engineers and     During CCSD research into PFBC between 2001 and 2005, the science of both coal
the Australian Institute of Energy .         matter conversion and ash behaviour was advanced to understand and differentiate
                                             coal performance .
Research Team
                                             Coal conversion research undertaken in the Black Coal CRC identified processes such as
Dr Alan Wang, Dr Emi Ikeda
                                             char attrition, elutriation and reactivity as major contributors to a coal’s overall performance
PhD Students                                 in PFBC . A purpose-built, pilot-scale reaction facility was constructed, which usefully
Mr Jiangang Xu                               established correlations with raw coal properties and delivered the capability to predict
                                             coal performance in PFBC from more detailed modelling . In CCSD the fate of coal ash
                                             in PFBC was studied for the first time, to measure the deportment of both ash and ash
                                             components between bed ash and fly-ash. A performance index was developed to measure
                                             the propensity for bed agglomeration for the different coals studied and was found to be
                                             consistent with the reported behaviour of these coals in commercial-scale PFBC plants .
                                             This research improved the understanding of Australian black coal performance in
                                             PFBC, assisted with the solution of practical problems found in commercial PFBC plant
                                             firing Australian coals and allowed better selection of Australian coals for combustion in
                                             commercial PFBC plant .

                                              25-Jul-05    Predicting PFBC Efficiency for Australian Black Coals
                                              22-Aug-03    Coal Selection Criteria for Industrial PFBC Firing

                                 CCSD ACHIEVEMENTS 2001–2008     28
Coal Quality Assessment
Prof Raj Gupta                                                                                                                      Prof Raj Gupta

Raj Gupta is Professor in the Chemical           Achievements
and Materials Engineering Department at          • Services for assessment and comparison of coal performance for PF combustion
the University of Alberta in Canada . He           technologies;
led the Centre’s Project on Coal Quality
                                                 • Predicting ash effects in PF boilers using advanced analytical techniques e.g. QEMScan;
Assessment and a number of projects on
coal characterisation, ash formation, fine       • Improved species identification protocols for QEMScan; and
particulate matter and oxy-firing. He has        • Correlation of coal char structure evolution with parent coal reflectance.
over 50 publications in international journals   Bulk coal analyses do not necessarily reflect a coal’s performance in a PF boiler. This is
and has supervised several doctoral theses .     because overall coal performance is an integrated function of combustion conditions specific
During his term in the Centre, Prof Gupta        to each coal particle .
also maintained strong international links
with industry clients such as IHI, Idemitsu      While science had developed highly sophisticated instrumentation (e .g . electron microscopy)
Kosan Company, Chubu Electric Company            to look in finer detail at coal as a material, there was very little knowledge of how this
and a number of research organisations           may be applied to the use of coal . The Centre’s research was able to translate this rich
such as CRIEPI, Japan and EPRI, USA and          information into products and services of industrial relevance . It provided the tools that took
Universities such as Abo Akdemi, Sweden .        the understanding of coal performance from weak, anecdotal and empirical correlations with
                                                 “bulk properties (e.g. ash content)” to a mechanistic and fundamental understanding of coal
Research Team                                    performance based on the behaviour of each individual coal particle .
Prof Terry Wall, Dr Alan Butcher,                To describe the rapidity and extent of ‘burn-out’ for each coal particle, Centre research also
Dr Paul Gottlieb, Dr Liza Elliot,                made progress in relating the development of char structure from coal combustion to the
Mr Atul Sharma, Dr Greg Browning                 reflectance distribution of the parent coal particles. The work also discovered that these char
PhD Students                                     properties strongly influence fine ash formation in the boilers. From such an understanding
                                                 of ash formation, a coal’s propensity for ash deposition, slag formation and erosion in the
Dr Yinghui Liu, Dr Liangguang Tang
                                                 boiler was better understood and is now frequently used to service the needs of both the
                                                 power generation and coal supply industries .

                                                 14-Jun-07     A Review on Mineralogy Analysis of Pulverised Coal by QEMScan
                                                 26-Apr-07     A Comparison of CCSEM and QEMScan Analysis of Pulverised Coal
                                                 22-Aug-02     Computer-Controlled Scanning Electron Microscopy (CCSEM) and Image
                                                               Analysis of Coal

                                                                       29       CCSD ACHIEVEMENTS 2001–2008
Improvements in PF Operations
Prof Dong-ke Zhang                                                                                                                   Prof Dong-ke Zhang

Dong-ke Zhang is the Professor of                Achievements
Chemical Engineering and Director of the         • Conceptual designs for removing recirculating mineral matter from pulverising mills;
Centre for Fuels and Energy at Curtin
                                                 • Prototype design for mill de-sanding equipment; and
University of Technology . He leads the
Centre’s projects on Improvements in PF          • Operations advice to reduce slagging and fouling in PF combustion boilers.
Operations and Utilisation of By-products        CCSD commenced operation with a history of background knowledge on coal
from power generation . During his term          performance in combustion systems . With the inclusion of Western Australian interests in
in CCSD, he was awarded the John Curtin          the Centre, this project was crafted as one that would apply the Centre’s prior knowledge
Distinguished Professor by Curtin University     to Western Australian coals and thereby improve the performance of local power
of Technology and the John Brodie Medal by       generation facilities . Notwithstanding its focus on combustion of lower-rank coal from
Engineers Australia . He is presently a Fellow   Western Australia, the project has delivered significant value to its industry partners through
and Councillor of the Australian Academy         its technology transfer activity on de-sanding pulverised fuel mills .
of Technological Sciences and Engineering
                                                 Researchers from the project working closely with industry-based engineers undertook
(ATSE) and is the Chief Scientist and
                                                 detailed assessment of the power generation facilities to prioritise those issues that most
Technical Advisor to Spitfire Oil Ltd.
                                                 affected operations. They identified that coal mineral-rich particles were both building
Research Team                                    up and recirculating in the pulverised mills causing rapid roller wear and erosion of the
Dr Hongwei Wu, Dr Jianning Zhu,                  boiler tubes during combustion . Centre researchers and site engineering staff worked
Ms Angelina Rossiter, Ms Ling Ngee Ngu           collaboratively to conceptualise and design equipment that would preferentially remove the
and Dr John Bromly                               excess mineral loading from the mills . The design was tested at pilot scale before a full-scale
                                                 trial was commissioned on one mill .
PhD Students
                                                 The engineering modifications were highly successful, reducing roller wear rates by more
Esther Ng, Hui Ling Wee, Kong Vui Yip,
                                                 than 75% estimated. Additional benefits included reductions in both greenhouse gas and
Ferry Rustandi
                                                 acid gas emissions. The design was also assessed to have a sufficient basis for IP protection
                                                 and is the subject of licensing negotiations by Centre participants .

                                                 18-May-07     The Effect of Pyrolysis Conditions on Collie Coal

                                  CCSD ACHIEVEMENTS 2001–2008        30
Development of PF Operations
Prof Behdad Moghtaderi                                                                                                                Prof Behdad Moghtaderi

Behdad Moghtaderi is a Professor of Chemical       Achievements
Engineering and the Co-Director of the             • Characterisation of combustion behaviour of coal-biomass blends
Priority Research Centre for Energy at The
                                                   • Pilot-scale assessment and validation of transport and combustion properties for
University of Newcastle . He leads the CCSD
                                                     biomass co-firing
Project on Development of PF Operations .
He is a Fellow of the Institution of Engineers     • CCSD Coal-Biomass Co-firing Handbook – An industry resource for biomass co-firing
Australia and the Honorary Secretary of the          in Australia
Combustion Institute – Australia and New           As early as the 1990s the Centre’s Research Advisory Committee had identified that power
Zealand Section . Prof Moghtaderi holds three      generation from fossil fuels such as coal would need to significantly reduce its greenhouse
patents and has published in excess of 160         gas intensity . Australian federal and state governments were introducing incentives to
scholarly articles in international journals and   reduce greenhouse gas emissions with mandatory renewable energy targets . In recognition
conferences .                                      of these issues the Centre commenced its research for co-firing biomass with coal.
Research Team                                      The Centre’s research dealt with all of the issues associated with co-firing of coal and
Prof Terry Wall, Prof Raj Gupta,                   biomass . This science provided detailed fundamental information on the fuel handling and
Dr Chris Spero, Dr Jim Ness, Dr Emre               fuel reaction – i .e . particle size, pulverisation, pyrolysis, ignition and combustion – of common
Cetin, Mr Brett Corderoy, Mr Don                   biomass fuels under conditions relevant to the actual combustion systems . Through a series of
Holcombe                                           comprehensive experimental and theoretical analysis the research established that in general
                                                   there are no synergistic effects between coal and biomass particles when they are co-fired in
PhD Students                                       a PF boiler . Importantly, through pilot-scale studies, the work also established that there is the
Dr Ahmed Rushdi, Dr Hadi Zulfiqar                  likelihood of disruption in milling performance at quantities greater than 10% biomass . This
                                                   has significant practical implications in utility boilers co-firing coal-biomass blends.
                                                   To place this research in context, assist engineering and ensure widespread dissemination
                                                   of this knowledge the Centre produced the CCSD Coal-Biomass Co-firing Handbook. This
                                                   handbook deals not only with issues of co-combustion, but also provides guidelines for the
                                                   sampling and analysis of biomass feedstock and information for commercial and regulatory
                                                   consideration in Australia .

                                                   16-Aug-06	     Co-firing	of	Coal	and	Biomass	in	150kW	Pilot-scale	Boiler	Simulation	Furnace
                                                   22-Mar-06      Co-Milling of Coal and Biomass in a Pilot-scale Vertical Spindle Mill
                                                   16-Dec-03      Combustion Characteristics of Coal and Softwood Blends

                                                                          31       CCSD ACHIEVEMENTS 2001–2008
Advanced Thermodynamic Modelling
Prof Peter Hayes                                                                                                                 Prof Peter Hayes

Peter Hayes is Xstrata Professor of            Achievements
Metallurgical Engineering, University          • Commercially available thermodynamic databases for eight component coal
of Queensland . Professor Hayes also             slag compositions;
leads the Centre’s project on Advanced
                                               • Thermodynamic models developed in conjunction with commercial FactSage software; and
Thermodynamic Modelling . He is
founding Director of PYROSEARCH, the           • Slag viscosity models that take account of solid and liquid phases.
Pyrometallurgy Research Centre, School of      The basis for useful application of CCSD research is the improved understanding of coal
Engineering, University of Queensland . Prof   performance . This project’s objective was to provide accurate and robust thermodynamic
Hayes is the author of over 150 research       and slag viscosity models that can be used to assist the selection and marketing of coals
publications in international journals and     and coal blends .
conference proceedings . He is also key
                                               The research delivered thermodynamic and slag viscosity models developed in conjunction
reader and reviewer for a number of
                                               with commercial FactSage thermodynamic software all sub-systems, in Al2O3-CaO-FeO-
international research journals and granting
                                               K2O-MgO-Na2O-SiO2 at metallic iron saturation . These fundamentally based, state-of-the-art
bodies . During the term of the Centre,
                                               tools provide, for the first time, accurate descriptions of these properties over the complete
Prof Hayes was co-recipient with Assoc
                                               range of compositions encountered in black coal ashes . From a practical point of view they
Prof Evgueni Jak of the American TMS
                                               are significant because they describe slag behaviour in the conditions encountered in coal
Science Award, Extraction and Processing
                                               entrained-flow gasification technologies. The models make it possible to predict:
Division, 2004 .
                                               • Coal compositions suitable for entrained flow gasification technologies; and
Research Team
                                               • The extent of build-up of slag deposits within the gasifier as a function of gas composition
Assoc Prof Evgueni Jak                           and operating temperature .
PhD Students                                   Prior to this work this information was either not comprehensively available or existed as
Mr Alex Kontradiev, Mr Dmitry Saulov           fragments of thermodynamic information related to coal ash compositions distributed over
                                               thousands of research papers, often contradictory and confined to very constrained and
                                               specific experimental domains. Most importantly, this research has developed and assembled
                                               this knowledge in a commercially available product or service so that industry can access the
                                               high-temperature behaviour of coal ash usefully .

                                               03-Feb-06     Slag Viscosity Prediction and Characterisation Al2O3-CaO-’FeO’-SiO2 and
                                                             Al2O3-CaO-’FeO’-MgO-SiO2 Systems
                                               25-Jul-05     Prediction of Ash Phase Equilibria using FACT Models

                                  CCSD ACHIEVEMENTS 2001–2008     32
Coal Use in Blast Furnace Ironmaking
Prof Veena Sahajwalla                                                                                                                    Prof Veena Sahajwalla

Professor Veena Sahajwalla is the Director      Achievements
of Sustainable Materials Processing Program,    • Provided a basis for the scope to reduce the carbon fuel rate in blast furnace (BF)
School of Materials Science and Engineering,      ironmaking;
The University of New South Wales, Sydney .
                                                • Delivered laboratory and pilot-scale reaction effects for supplementing BF coal fuel with
She leads the Centre’s project on coal in
                                                  waste plastics;
blast furnace ironmaking . Prof Sahajwalla
is also the Chair of the Association of Iron    • Delivered the characterisation dataset of an international suite of industrial coke samples;
and Steel Technology’s Australian Section       • Improved understanding of the effects of mineral matter forms on coke reactivity; and
and a member of the Board of Review of          • Identified the effects of carbon structure on reactions relevant for lower BF fuel rates
Metallurgical and Materials Transactions
                                                Metallurgical coal production is over 50% of the total coal supplied from Australian black
B and a judge on the ABC TV show, “The
                                                coal and earns over $20billion in export earnings . It is the raw material from which coke is
New Inventors”.
                                                prepared and used as a fuel for blast furnace ironmaking to eventually produce steel . This
Her research is focused on sustainability of    project is the only one in CCSD that addresses the use of metallurgical coals .
materials and processes, including innovative
                                                From its inception the project objectives focused on energy sustainability . Early analyses of the
recycling of waste materials, adding value
                                                scope to reduce the carbon fuel rate in a blast furnace recognised that the best approach lay
to waste resources, lowering of energy
                                                in understanding the properties of coke reactivity at lower temperatures than those studied
and emissions in materials technologies,
                                                previously . The opportunity to recycle plastic waste as a source of fuel was also studied .
environmentally sustainable materials and
processes, ferro-alloys, non-ferrous metals     The Centre’s research has successfully demonstrated that forms of mineral matter and its
processing, associated chemical reactions       distribution in coke are equally as important in determining coke reactivity in blast furnaces as
and interfacial phenomena .                     any of the traditional factors such as maceral composition of the coal, ash yield and ash basicity .

Research Team                                   The use of SIROQUANT in estimating forms of mineral matter has shown for the first time that:
Dr Richard Sakurovs, Dr Sushil Gupta,           • the amount of catalytically active minerals in coke is a better predictor of coke reactivity
Dr Haiping Sun, Dr Harold Rogers,                 than total elemental composition of the ash;
Mr Brian England, Mr Mark Mason,                • the contribution of catalytically active minerals to reactivity changes with burnout and
Mr Narendra Saha-Chaudhary,                       this affects reactivity as well; and
Dr David French                                 • mineral matter forms in coke are strongly affected by the method used to make
PhD Students                                      the coke .
Dr Mihaela Grigore, Dr Tsuey Cham,              The research further demonstrated that coke performance in an operating blast furnace is
Ms Kelli Kazuberns                              strongly influenced by high temperature graphitization, recirculating alkalis showing how and
                                                why existing coke quality tests including CSR and CRI may not provide true ranking of their
                                                performance in an operating blast furnace .
                                                In close collaboration with BHP Billiton, the research also successfully conducted laboratory
                                                and pilot-scale tests to demonstrate the efficacy of waste plastic injection into a blast
                                                furnace . The studies showed that a small percentage of non-chlorinated plastic waste can be
                                                used as supplementary fuel without any adverse impact on combustion performance and
                                                without significant modification of existing PCI injection technology.

                                                18-May-07      Coke Reactivity with Slag in Blast Furnace
                                                30-Nov-05      Pilot-scale Evaluation of the Co-injection of Pulverised Coal and
                                                               Non-chlorinated Plastic Waste
                                                26-Aug-05      Extended Characterisation of World Cokes
                                                30-Jan-03      Review of Integrated Steelworks – PCI and Coke Usage

                                                                        33       CCSD ACHIEVEMENTS 2001–2008
                                                                 CENTRE RESEARCH

     Exploratory Studies of Significance

     During	the	term	of	the	Centre	               Greenhouse Gas Reduction Options
     opportunities	were	taken	to	provide	         Dr Greg Duffy, Dr Narendra Dave, Dr Thong Do
     a	‘watching	brief’	on	emergent	              The project delivered the IGCC Coal Value-in-Use model . It also carried out simulations of
     technologies,	review	the	status	of	          the most prospective capture processes to develop simplified performance models that can
     emerging science and encourage               be incorporated into the studies of power systems evaluation .
     the	development	of	novel	ideas	that	
     would	enhance	the	understanding	of	          Distribution of Major and Trace Elements
     coal	performance	in	low-emissions	           in Biomass
     technology.	While	these	remained	            Dr David Cohen
     in	the	nature	of	scoping	studies,	the	       The study completed the geochemical analysis of around 40 samples, representing a range
     following	delivered	noteworthy	utility	      of potential biomass feeds for co-fired power stations. Metal concentrations were reported
     that	informed	the	Centre’s	direction	        in both raw biomass and equivalent material . Sampling and analytical guidelines were
     and	research.				                            developed and provided to the CCSD Coal-Biomass Co-firing Handbook.

                                                  World Coke Study
                                                  Dr Richard Sakurovs
                                                  A study of twelve coals and their cokes, obtained from international sources, were subjected
                                                  to extended and detailed characterisation using advanced analytical techniques . The research
                                                  showed that while there was no direct relationship between reactivity of the world cokes and
                                                  the amount of any (or all) of iron, calcium, sodium or potassium in a coke, it identified a need
                                                  for future research on mineral matter composition to better understand coke reactivity . It also
                                                  showed that cokes successfully used in blast furnaces have been made from a wide variety
                                                  of blends of coals (mean maximum vitrinite reflectance ranging from 1.09 to 1.41%) and the
                                                  reactivity of the cokes used around the world varied significantly.
Dr Greg Duffy           Dr David Cohen            Hydrogen and Membrane Reactors for Water-Gas
                                                  Shift Reactions
                                                  A/Prof Joe da Costa, Dr Andrew Dicks, Dr Brian Mclennan
                                                  PhD Student: Mr Scott Battersby
                                                  The project reported on all facets of the hydrogen life cycle, from production, through
                                                  transmission, distribution and storage, to utilisation in an Australian context . It examined
                                                  current available resources for hydrogen production, current and emerging processes and
Dr Richard Sakurovs     A/Prof Joe da Costa       technologies for the production of hydrogen and fuel cell and other hydrogen utilisation
                                                  technologies for the production of electricity . A thesis study to optimally couple a gas
                                                  separation membrane with a low-temperature, water-gas shift reaction is nearing completion .

                                                  Cleaner Production and Eco-Efficiency
                                                  Prof Rene van Berkel, Dr Robert Pagan
                                                  Early in the term of the Centre several studies explored the potential for application
                                                  of cleaner production and eco-efficiency to the coal utilisation industry. These included
                        Prof Rene van Berkel
                                                  eviews on cleaner production opportunities and concepts for coal processing and utilisation .
                                                  While the results canvassed further research and development, the Centre’s resources
                                                  and priorities were insufficient to undertake more detailed investigations in this area.

                                      CCSD ACHIEVEMENTS 2001–2008     34
                                                                     Prof Peter Nelson            Prof Terry Wall AM
                                                                     Program Leader               Program Leader
                                                                     Education and Training       Education and Training
                                                                     (2004-2008)                  (2001-2004)

Education and Training

                   CCSD researchers are leaders in their respective fields and through their research these
                   scientists have fulfilled an outstanding role as teachers in the Centre. Through them the
                   Centre has delivered an education program not only for general informative purposes, but
                   to meet the strong demands and training needs of Australian academia and industry . Over
                   the term of the Centre, and across five universities and the CSIRO, the Centre has provided
                   education and training through industry short courses, doctoral research programs and a
                   particularly vibrant eminent visitor program .
                   Graduate education was delivered across a wide range of disciplines and faculties within
                   the five participant universities that include Curtin University of Technology, Macquarie
                   University, The University of New South Wales, The University of Newcastle and The
                   University of Queensland. The CRC supported (at 50%), five full-time equivalent academic
                   positions at these institutions . These ‘CCSD lecturers’ provided both undergraduate and
                   postgraduate student support .
                   The Centre’s education program offered courses to both students and industry that covered
                   areas such as life cycle analysis, environmental legislation, new and emerging technologies and
                   process efficiency as well as the broader environmental implications of coal extraction and
                   utilisation and the integration of sustainable development themes into industry .
                   CCSD is proud to have been able to provide the financial support, quality supervision
                   and excellent training opportunities required to provide its PhD students with a superior
                   educational experience . Our students are very much an enduring legacy of CCSD that will
                   continue to benefit Australian industry and science for decades to come.

                                         35       CCSD ACHIEVEMENTS 2001–2008
                                                          Education and Training

Postgraduate Students

Student                  Institution            Title                                              Academic                Year
                                                                                                   Supervisor(s)           Graduated
Ahmed Abdulraheem        The University         AFTs for Coal Blends                               Prof Raj Gupta          2005/2006
                         of Newcastle
Awni Al-Otoom 1          The University         Ash Issues in PFBC                                 Prof Terry Wall         2001/2002
                         of Newcastle
Scott Battersby          The University         Membrane Reactor for the Water Gas Shift           Dr Joe da Costa         In progress
                         of Queensland          (WGS)	Reaction		in	Gasification	Processes          Dr Mikel Duke
                                                                                                   Prof Victor Rudolph
Kathy Benfell 1          The University         Unburnt Carbon in Combustion                       Dr Judith Bailey        2001/2002
                         of Newcastle           and	Gasification
Greg Browning 1          The University         Characterising Flux Needs of Coals                 Dr John Lucas           2002/2003
                         of Newcastle           for	IGCC	Gasifiers
Bart Buhre               The University         Fine Particle Emissions                            Prof Terry Wall         2004/2005
                         of Newcastle                                                              Prof Raj Gupta
Tsuey Cham               The University         Blast Furnace Ironmaking                           Prof Veena Sahajwalla   2006/2007
                         of New South Wales                                                        Dr Haiping Sun
Yongbin Cui 1            The University         In-bed Char Combustion of Australian Coals         A/Prof John Stubington 2001/2002
                         of New South Wales     in PFBC
Glenn Devir              The University         Slagging at Power Stations                                                 In progress
                         of Queensland
Upma Dutt                Macquarie University   Deposition of Heavy Metals                         Prof Peter Nelson       In progress
Alex Elliot              Curtin University      Value Added Utilisation of Fly-Ash from            Prof Dong-ke Zhang      2006/2007
                         of Technology          Coal-	fired	Power	Utilities
Mihaela Grigore          The University         Coal Consumption in Blast Furnaces                 Prof Veena Sahajwalla   2006/2007
                         of New South Wales                                                        Dr Haiping Sun
Mohammed	Hadi	Zulfiqar   The University         Coal	Biomass	Co-firing                             Prof Behdad Moghtaderi 2006/2007
                         of Newcastle                                                              Prof Raj Gupta
James Hinkley            The University         Emissions from Current Power Generations           Prof Terry Wall         2004/2005
                         of Newcastle
Liz Hodge                The University         Coal	Char	Gasification	at	High	Temperature	        A/Prof John Stubington In progress
                         of New South Wales     and Pressure
Kelli Kazuburns          The University         New Coke Development for Innovative                Prof Veena Sahajwalla   In progress
                         of New South Wales     Blast Furnace
Sameer Khare             The University         Options	for	Oxy-firing	in	PF	Boilers               Prof Raj Gupta          In progress
                         of Newcastle
Byong-Chul Kim           The University         Effect	of	Iron-bearing	Minerals	on	Gasification	   Prof Veena Sahajwalla   In progress
                         of New South Wales     Behaviour of Coke

                             CCSD ACHIEVEMENTS 2001–2008      36
    Student                   Institution            Title                                              Academic                Year
                                                                                                        Supervisor(s)           Graduated
    Yinghui Liu               The University         QEMSCAN Technique                                  Prof Raj Gupta          2007/2007
                              of Newcastle / CSIRO
    Liming Lu 1               The University         Coal Char Structure Evaluation by XRD              Prof Veena Sahajwalla   2001/2002
                              of New South Wales     and TEM
    Fiona McCarthy            The University         Char Consumption into Blast Furnace Hot            Prof Veena Sahajwalla   2004/2005
                              of New South Wales     Metal during Pulverised Coal Injection
    Chatpol Meesri            The University         Co-combustion of Biomass and Coal                  Prof Behdad Moghtaderi 2003/2004
                              of Newcastle
    Esther Ng                 Curtin University      Investigation of Char Reactivity of Collie Coals   Prof Dong-ke Zhang      2006/2007
                              of Technology                                                             Dr Hongwei Wu
    Patricia Nicholls 1       The University         NOX from Coal Char                                 Prof Terry Wall         2001/2002
                              of Newcastle
    Dongchan Park             The University         Emissions	from	Coal-fired	IGCC	System              Prof Terry Wall         2004/2005
                              of Newcastle
    Renu Rathnam              The University         Char	Reactivity	in	Oxy-firing                      Prof Terry Wall         In progress
                              of Newcastle
    Daniel Roberts 1          The University         Reactivity of Coal to O2, CO2 and H2O              Prof Terry Wall         2001/2002
                              of Newcastle           at Elevated Pressures
    Dmitry Saulov             The University         Development of FACT                                Prof Peter Hayes        In progress
                              of Queensland          Thermodynamic Database                             Dr Eugene Jak
    Pushan Shah               Macquarie University   Trace Element Speciation                           Dr Vlad Strezov         In progress
    Liangguang Tang           The University         PF Char Morphology Distribution                    Prof Raj Gupta          2005/2006
                              of Newcastle           Relationships with Coal Reflectance
    Hui Ling Wee              Curtin University      Collie Ash Deposition and Slagging and their  Prof Dong-ke Zhang           2006/2007
                              of Technology          Relations to Boiler Operation and Performance Dr Hongwei Wu
    Anthony Williams 1        The University         NOX Predictor for Pulverised Coal                  Dr Brian Stanmore       2002/2003
                              of Queensland
    Jiangang Xu               The University         Bed Agglomeration in PFBC                          A/Prof John Stubington 2006/2007
                              of New South Wales
    Kong Vui Yip              Curtin University      Coal Pyrolysis and Coal Matter Reactions           Prof Dong-ke Zhang      In progress
                              of Technology
    Jianglong Yu 1            The University         Char Formation & Devolitisation at Pressure        Dr John Lucas           2002/2003
                              of Newcastle
    Students continuing from Black Coal CRC

                                                                      37       CCSD ACHIEVEMENTS 2001–2008
Industry Engagement

The	value	of	participation	and	               Industry Contributors
engagement	of	industry	in	a	CRC	              Mr Ian Bridge            Stanwell Corporation
cannot	be	understated.	It	not	only	           Dr Alan Butcher          Intellection Pty Ltd
brings	context	and	relevance	to	the	
                                              Mr Harvey Cabrera        Tarong Energy Corporation Limited
research	but	–	in	CCSD	–	many	
                                              Mr Brett Corderoy        Delta Electricity
individuals	have	also	given	willingly	
of	their	time	to	serve	as	a	source	of	        Mr Gordon Deans          Delta Electricity
review	and	critique	to	sustain	the	           Mr Trevor Gleeson        Stanwell Corporation Limited
quality	and	relevance	of	the	Centre’s	        Mr Peter Heeley          Heeleys Consulting Pty Ltd
science.	CCSD	records	its	appreciation	       Mr Craig Heidrich        Ash Development Association of Australia Inc (ADAA)
to	all	persons	who	have	served	in	
                                              Mr Frank Hodgkinson      Tarong Energy Corporation Limited
such	capacity.	These	include	several	of	
                                              Dr Bruce Kennedy         NEPM
those	individuals	already	recognised	in	
earlier	memberships	of	the	Board	of	          Dr John Mathieson        Bluescope Steel Limited
Management and various Committees             Mr Sid McGuire           BHP Billiton Mitsubishi Alliance
and	include	(though	not	limited	to)	the	      Mr Leigh Miller          Tarong Energy Corporation Limited
following	list	of	industry	contributors.		    Dr Jim Ness              CS Energy Research Fellow
                                              Ms Fiona Nicholls        Rio Tinto Coal Australia
                                              Mr Peter Reed            Delta Electricity
                                              Mr Peter Siers           Delta Electricity
                                              Mr Andy Wearmouth        Verve Energy
                                              Mr Jaco Van Zyl          Intellection Pty Ltd

                                  CCSD ACHIEVEMENTS 2001–2008     38
Science Capabilities and Services

In	delivering	research	to	support	low	     Service                                 Delivered Capability
emissions from coal utilisation CCSD       Life Cycle Assessment                   An environmental emissions and energy efficiency
provided for its participants a national                                           context	for	coal-fired	power	generation	through:
                                                                                   •			benchmark	studies	of	state	grid	performance	and
repository	of	knowledge.	
                                                                                   •			assessments	of	emergent	technology	options
The	Centre	is	recognised	by	its	
                                           Pre-feasibility Techno-economic         Comparison and optimisation of innovative process
participants	as	delivering	research	       Assessments                             technologies based on the cost of unit production
that	informs	the	national	and	business	    Regional Energy Market Reviews          Strategic watching briefs on economic, political and
interests.	Internationally,	the	Centre	    and Strategic Issues Updates            environmental factors affecting the coal and energy
                                                                                   export markets
commands	a	significant	presence	as	an	
important source for understanding         Power Station Emissions                 Trace element analyses, emissions characterisation
                                           Research Services                       and environmental issues associated with coal utilisation
black	coal	performance	in	current	and	
                                           Environmental Updates on Global         Strategic watching briefs on international political
new	technologies.	CCSD	has	delivered	      trends in Science, Regulation, Policy   and	environmental	regulations	affecting	coal-fired	
the	following	suite	of	recognised	                                                 power generation
expertise,	research	services	and	          Coal Performance Assessment:            An internationally recognised integrated coal testing,
                                           PF Combustion                           assessment and market support service to investigate
scientific	capability.		
                                           Entrained-Flow	Gasification	            coal quality implications for performance with regard to:
                                           PFBC Combustion                         •			Fouling	slagging,	and	erosion
                                                                                   •			High	temperature	slag	viscosity	behaviour	
                                                                                   •			Coal	reactivity	measurement
                                           Flow-sheet Development and              Assessing	emergent	advanced	coal-fired	power	
                                           Technical Assessment Services           generation options with detailed heat and mass
                                                                                   balances in local Australian conditions
                                           Scenario Planning and Power             Assessments of the effect of emergent regulatory and
                                           Generation Portfolio Assessment         technology scenarios on the Australian electricity market;
                                                                                   •			Its	likely	effect	on	the	Australian	power	generation
                                                                                       asset portfolio and
                                                                                   •			Opportunities	resulting	from	present	and	future
                                                                                        value of asset investment options
                                           Assessing Ash Disposal                  Services and procedures for assessing the long-term
                                           and Management Options                  risks for ash containment
                                           Education and Communication              18   Seminars
                                                                                     5   Workshops
                                                                                     6   Annual Conferences
                                                                                     4   CRIEPI Technical Exchange Meetings
                                                                                     6   Eminent Visitors
                                                                                     7   Graduate Courses
                                                                                     1   CCSD Website
                                           International Research                  Membership – IEA Clean Coal Centre
                                           Collaboration and Networks              Membership – IEA Greenhouse Gas R&D
                                                                                   CRIEPI, Japan
                                                                                   REI (US DoE)
                                                                                   IHI – Japan
                                                                                   Vattenfall – Sweden
                                                                                   ULCOS Europe
                                                                                   JCOAL, Japan
                                                                                   JPOWER, Japan

                                                                   39      CCSD ACHIEVEMENTS 2001–2008
Commercial Contracts

Commercial contracts are an indicator           Description                                                                  Contract Value
of	the	Centre’s	recognised	expertise	           Additional Participant contributions                                             $1,270,000
to	service	the	research	requirements	           •			Oxy-fuel	Feasibility	Study	–	$550,000
of	Centre	participants	and	external	            •			Gasification	Pilot	Trials	–	$600,000
parties.		They	are	also	an	important	           •			Mine	Backfill	–	$120,000
mechanism	for	technology	transfer	              Characterising Fine Particle Concentrations in the Hunter Valley                   $444,000
–	applying	Centre	knowledge	in	                 WA	Coal	Futures	Group	–	Gasification	Pilot	Trials                                  $300,000
commercial	circumstances.	The	
                                                Prediction for Ash Phase Equilibria using FACT Models                              $250,000
following	table	is	evidence	of	the	
                                                Australian Greenhouse Office                                                       $250,000
CCSD’s	success	in	attracting	additional	
                                                COAL21/DISR – Power Generation Options for Australia                               $245,000
funding from its participants and a
                                                Trace Element Deportment in Combustion Processes                                   $143,000
range	of	external	clients	who	value	the	
                                                Properties and Ultilisation of Shenhua Coal                                        $129,000
Centre’s	scientific	expertise,	credibility	
                                                Database of Trace Elements                                                         $128,000
and	capability.	
                                                Coal Quality Assessment                                                            $100,000
                                                Relating Coal Properties to Ash Deposition and Slagging                             $96,000
                                                Vattenfall AB – Coal Characterisation and Oxy-fuel Modelling                        $76,000
                                                Design of a Test Energy Recovery Coke Oven                                          $75,000
                                                Management of Trace Elements in Ash Dams                                            $50,000
                                                An Improved Grindability Index                                                      $50,000
                                                Coal Mine Waste Utilisation                                                         $50,000
                                                Slag	Composition	Limits	for	Coal	in	Slagging	Gasifiers                              $48,000
                                                Suitability of Export Thermal Coals for IGCC                                        $36,000
                                                Fracture Toughness as a Replacement for HGI                                         $19,500
                                                CRIEPI – Investigation of Biomass                                                   $49,712
                                                CRIEPI	–	The	Mode	of	Organic-CA	and	the	Significance	of	Catalysis	of	Char	          $46,000
                                                Reactivity	in	Gasification
                                                Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited                                                    $44,200
                                                Western Power – Application of De-sanding Process to Power Station Mills            $44,100
                                                The Society of Organic Petrography                                                  $32,903
                                                Australian Greenhouse Office – Simulating the Performance of Electric               $25,000
                                                Power Systems
                                                AIST, Japan – Trace Elements in Coal                                                $20,000

                                   CCSD ACHIEVEMENTS 2001–2008      40
Industry Handbooks

                     The Centre’s publications listed below are a repository of information that represent
                     the latest developments in understanding coal performance, coal-fired power generation
                     technologies and energy systems assessments . A similar report series from the preceding
                     Black Coal CRC may be found listed in its annual reports and are no less a part of this
                     valuable compendium of knowledge .
                     The Centre has produced four major industry handbooks and these are:
                     CCSD Coal Utilisation Electronic Handbook is a DVD that provides a useful
                     industry reference and guide to knowledge on coal performance and its utilisation arising
                     from all of the research undertaken by the Centre .
                     CCSD Coal-Biomass Co-firing Handbook compiles for industry-based users the
                     most up-to-date information on Australian biomass feedstocks and technical issues related
                     to fuel processing, combustion, emissions, and by-products of co-firing in pulverised fuel
                     boilers. It also addresses commercial aspects of co-firing and provides information on states
                     and federal government policy and regulation .
                     CCSD Coal Combustion Products Handbook, undertaken in collaboration with
                     the Ash Development Association of Australia (ADAA), brings together for the benefit
                     of industry operators information on all aspects of fly-ash character, production, disposal,
                     regulation and most importantly use . The information is drawn from the research resources
                     of CCSD and the ADAA .
                     CCSD Online Emissions Handbook places CCSD emissions research in the
                     context of industry application. It provides operators of coal-fired power stations and other
                     stakeholders with a resource to understand the nature of power station emissions to the
                     atmosphere, the potential environmental impacts arising from those emissions, policy and
                     regulatory responses, assessment methodologies, measurement and reporting protocols
                     and techniques and technologies to control emissions and mitigate impacts .

                                           41      CCSD ACHIEVEMENTS 2001–2008

Research Reports                                       Combustion Characteristics of Pulverised Coal and   Modes of Occurrence of Trace Elements in
A Comparison of CCSEM and QEMSCAN Analysis             Softwood Blends, by C Meesri (2003) ISBN 978-       Australian Coals, by K Riley, OP Farrell, D French,
of Pulverised Coal, by Y Liu, RP Gupta, TF Wall        1-921374-46-3                                       CR Ward, PF Nelson (2007) ISBN 978-1-
(2007) ISBN 978-1-921374-20-3                          Extended Characterisation of World Cokes, by R      921374-27-2
A Framework for Energy Policy Scenario                 Sakurovs, D French (2005) ISBN 978-1-921374-        Performance Parameters for Blended Coals, by A
Construction, by T Brinsmead and C Hooker              34-0                                                Lowe (2002) ISBN 978-1-921374-41-8
(2007) ISBN 978-1-921374-12-8                          Fine Particle Emissions From Power Stations, by R   Physical Constraints and Options in Energy Policy,
A Preliminary Assessment of the Physical and           Helstroom, JN Carras, AJ Prokopiuk, DR Chase,       by T Brinsmead and C Hooker (2007) ISBN
Chemical Variation of Selected Australian Fly-Ash,     J Sapounas, B Buhre, PF Nelson (2002) ISBN          978-1-921374-11-1
by D French, J Smitham, PF Nelson (2007) ISBN          978-1-921374-44-9                                   Pilot-scale Evaluation of the Co-Injection of
978-1-921374-26-5                                      Fly-Ash Characteristics and Feed Coal Properties,   Pulverised Coal and Non-Chlorinated Plastic
A Review of Mineral Matter Issues in Coal              by J Smitham, D French (2007) ISBN 978-1-           Waste, by V Sahajwalla (2005) ISBN 978-1-
Gasification, by N Kinaev (2006) ISBN 978-1-           921374-04-3                                         921374-78-4
921374-31-9                                            Form and Distribution of Major and Trace            Predicting Pressurised Fluidised Bed Combustion
A Review of Tools for the Modelling and Prediction     Elements in Biomass for Co-fired Coal-based         Efficiency for Australian Black Coals, by J
of Trace Element Deportment in Combustion              Power Generation, by D Cohen (2004) ISBN            Stubington, E Ikeda, A Wang, Y Cui (2005) ISBN
Processes, by M Atalla, C Chao, PF Nelson              978-1-921374-38-8                                   978-1-921374-36-4
(2003) ISBN 978-1-921374-43-2                          Gaseous Nitrogen and Sulphur Emissions from         Prediction of Ash Phase Equilibria using FACT
Advanced Analytical Techniques for Coal and Ash        Coal Gasification, by SJ Day, PF Nelson and DC      Models, by E Jak, D Saulov, P Hayes (2004) ISBN
Characterisation, by D French, CR Ward, Z Li, A        Park (2006) ISBN 978-1-921374-32-6                  978-1-921374-35-7
Butcher (2007) ISBN 978-1-921374-22-7                  Gasification Behaviour of Australian Coal at High   Preliminary Assessment of Trace Element
Aggregate Manufacture from Coal Fly-Ash by High        Temperatures, by D Harris, D Roberts, E Hodge       Mobilisation From Australian Fly-Ashes For
Temperature Sintering Method, by H Fansuri, H          and D Henderson (2007) ISBN 978-1-921374-           Hydrogeochemical Modelling of Fly Ash-Water
Yan, DK Zhang (2007) ISBN 978-1-921374-                25-8                                                Interaction, by J Jankowski, CR Ward and D
76-0                                                   Gasification Behaviour of Australian Coals, by D    French (2004) ISBN 978-1-921374-48-7
Application of Extended Producer Responsibility to     Harris, D Roberts and D Henderson (2003)            Quantifying Natural and Anthropogenic Sourced
the Coal-Fired Electricity Industry – A Pilot Study,   ISBN 978-1-921374-83-8                              Mercury Emissions from Australia in 2001, by C
by R Passey, R Harding (2004) ISBN 978-1-              Gasification Conversion Model, by S Hla, D Harris   Peterson, PF Nelson and A Morrison (2004)
921374-84-5                                            and D Roberts (2007) ISBN 978-1-921374-             ISBN 978-1-921374-49-4
Ash Formation During PF Combustion and                 15-9                                                Reactivity Characterisation of Australian Coals
Gasification in a Reducing Atmosphere, by TF Wall      Greenhouse Gas and Climate Change Issues, by L      for use in Advanced Technologies, by D Harris,
(2002) ISBN 978-1-921374-39-5                          Leung and A Urfer (2003)                            D Roberts and M Kelly (2002) ISBN 978-1-
Assessment of Fly-Ash in Mine Backfill Applications    Hazardous Pollutants in Power Station Emissions,
in Western Australia, by CR Ward, L Stephenson,        by M Attalla, H Malfroy, S Morgan, K Riley, PF      Slag Viscosity Prediction and Characterisation
D French, K Riley, Z Li (2008) ISBN 978-1-             Nelson (2004) ISBN 978-1-921374-80-7                Al2O3-CaO-’FeO’-SiO2 and Al2O3-CaO-’FeO’-MgO-
921374-75-3                                                                                                SiO2 Systems, by A Kondratiev, E Jak and P Hayes
                                                       Laboratory Assessment of Fly-Ash Interactions in
                                                                                                           (2006) ISBN 978-1-921374-33-3
Assessment of the Aqua Ammonia Process as an           Mine Backfill Applications, by CR Ward, D French,
Option for CO2 Capture from Coal-Fired Power           L Stephenson, K Riley (2007) ISBN 978-1-            Survey of the Suitability of Export Thermal Coals
Plants, by N Dave, T Do and GJ Duffy (2006)            921374-28-9                                         for IGCC Use, by JH Patterson, T Do (2004)
ISBN 978-1-921374-23-4                                                                                     ISBN 978-1-921374-81-4
                                                       Management of Trace Elements in Ash Dams, by
Background Information for Website on Trace            K Riley and OP Farrell (2002) ISBN 978-1-           Sustainabilities: A Systematic Framework and
Elements in Coal, by K Riley (2005)                    921374-40-1                                         Comparative Analysis, by T Brinsmead and C
                                                                                                           Hooker (2005) ISBN 978-1-921374-79-1
Benchmarking of Selected Australian and                Microscopic Characterisation of Coal/Biomass
International Fly-Ashes, by K Riley (2007) ISBN        Blends, by G O’Brien, H Beath, W Pickel, E          The Effect of Pyrolysis Conditions on Collie Coal,
978-1-921374-24-1                                      Gawronski (2004) ISBN 978-1-921374-82-1             by KV Yip, H Wu, DK Zhang, J Coleman (2007)
                                                                                                           ISBN 978-1-921374-19-7
Coke Reactivity with FeO in Slag, by H Sun, V          Modelling Element Mobility in Water/Fly-Ash
Sahajwalla, N Saha-Chaudhury (2007) ISBN               Interactions, by M Dubikova, J Jankowski, CR
978-1-921374-77-7                                      Ward and D French (2006) ISBN 978-1-

                                       CCSD ACHIEVEMENTS 2001–2008          42
The Heterogeneity of Slags from Entrained-Flow         Co-Firing of Coal and Biomass in 150 kW Pilot-         LCA of the New South Wales Electricity Grid
Gasification and the Effects on Slag Flow, by          Scale Boiler Simulation Furnace, by MH Zulfiqar,       for YEJ 2001, by A Cottrell, J Nunn, A Urfer, L
JA Lucas, DG Roberts, GJ Browning, TF Wall,            B Moghtaderi, TF Wall, C Spero, D Holcombe             Wibberley, P Scaife (2002)
M Ashizawa and Y Oki (2002) ISBN 978-1-                (2006) ISBN 978-1-921374-65-4                          LCA of the Queensland Electricity Grid (Year
921374-45-6                                            Co-Milling of Coal and Biomass in a Pilot-             Ending 2004), by P Brown, M Searles, A Cottrell,
Trace Element Deportment in Combustion                 Scale Vertical Spindle Mill, by MH Zulfiquar,          P Scaife (2007) ISBN 978-1-921374-86-9
Processes, by MI Attalla, S Morgan, K Riley, G         B Moghtaderi, TF Wall (2006) ISBN 978-1-               LCA of the Queensland Electricity Grid for
Bryant and PF Nelson (2007) ISBN 978-1-                921374-60-9                                            YEJ 2001, by A Cottrell, J Nunn, A Urfer, L
921374-21-0                                            Energy Scenario – India, by P Scaife, P Brown,         Wibberley, P Scaife (2003) ISBN 978-1-921374-
Trends in Pollutant Emission and CCP Policy and        A Cottrell, L Wibberley (2006) ISBN 978-1-             72-2
Legislation, by A Keogh, PF Nelson (2007) ISBN         921374-64-7                                            LCA of the Victorian Electricity Grid for YED 2000,
978-1-921374-08-1                                      Energy Scenarios – China (Updated 2007), by P          by A Cottrell, J Nunn, A Urfer, L Wibberley, P
Use of Coal Ash in Mine Backfill and Related           Scaife, L Wibberley (2007) ISBN 978-1-921374-          Scaife (2003)
Applications, by CR Ward, D French, J Jankowski,       10-4                                                   Leaching Characteristics of Long-stored Fly-Ashes,
K Riley, Z Li (2006) ISBN 978-1-921374-29-6            Energy Scenarios – China, by P Scaife, A Urfer         by CR Ward, M Dubikova, D French, J Jankowski,
Waste Streams in Black Coal Mining and Coal-           (2004) ISBN 978-1-921374-57-9                          Z Li, S Groves, K Riley (2007) ISBN 978-1-
Fired Power Generation, by SJ Day and KW Riley         Energy Scenarios – Europe, by A Urfer (2005)           921374-03-6
(2004) ISBN 978-1-921374-47-0                          ISBN 978-1-921374-58-6                                 Manufacturing Aggregates from Coal Ash (Part
                                                       Energy Scenarios – Japan (Updated 2004), by P          A), by H Wu, A Elliot, A Rossiter, J Zhu, DK
                                                       Scaife, P Brown, A Cottrell, L Wibberley (2005)        Zhang, and A Strategy for Producing Lightweight
Assessment Reports                                                                                            Aggregates from Fly-Ash (Part B), by P Heeley
                                                       ISBN 978-1-921374-59-3
A Life Cycle Assessment of the New South Wales                                                                (2005) ISBN 978-1-921374-67-8
Electricity Grid (year ending 2003), by P Brown, A     Energy Scenarios – Japan, by P Scaife, K Rollinson,
                                                       A Urfer, L Wibberley (2003) ISBN 978-1-                Options for Electricity Generation in Australia, by
Cottrell, M Searles, L Wibberley, P Scaife (2006)                                                             P Graham, P Coombes, T Beer, W Bouma, D
ISBN 978-1-921374-17-3                                 921374-53-1
                                                                                                              Vincent (2005) ISBN 978-1-921374-68-5
A Life Cycle Assessment of the Victorian Electricity   Energy Scenarios – South Korea (Updated May
                                                       2007), by P Scaife, A Cottrell, L Wibberley            Part 1: Technical Performance of Electric Power
Grid (year ending 2003), by P Brown, A Cottrell,                                                              Generation Systems, Selected Flowsheets Adapted
L Wibberley, P Scaife (2006) ISBN 978-1-               (2007) ISBN 978-1-921374-06-7
                                                                                                              to Australian Coal and Conditions, by E Ikeda,
921374-18-0                                            Energy Scenarios – South Korea, by P Scaife, K
                                                                                                              A Lowe, C Spero, J Stubington ISBN 978-1-
An Evaluation of the Potential Role for CO2            Rollinson and A Urfer (2003) ISBN 978-1-
Capture and Sequestration in Australia’s Future        921374-71-5
                                                                                                              Part 2: Technical Performance of Electric Power
Energy Mix, by P Graham, G Duffy and S                 Fine Particle Emissions from Power Stations, by        Generation Systems, Supplement on Post
Sharma (2003) ISBN 978-1-921374-88-3                   BW Halliburton, JN Carras and PF Nelson                Combustion Capture and Overseas Coals, by E
An LCA of WA’s South West Interconnected Grid          (2006) ISBN 978-1-921374-66-1                          Ikeda, A Lowe, C Spero (2007) ISBN 978-1-
Year Ending 2002, by A Cottrell, J Nunn and L          Hydrogen from Coal: A Pathway for the Future, by       921374-01-2
Wibberley (2006) ISBN 978-1-921374-61-6                BC McLellan, A Dicks, JC Diniz da Costa (2004)         Preliminary Assessment of a Process for Post
Analysis of Pollution Control Costs in Coal Based      ISBN 978-1-921374-56-2                                 Combustion Capture of CO2, by D Palfreyman, J
Electricity Generation, by H Nguyen, A Morrison        IGCC Technology Status – Update Report – Based         Nunn and L Wibberley (2004) ISBN 978-1-
& PF Nelson (2008) ISBN 978-1-921374-14-2              on the 2003 Gasification Technologies Conference,      921374-69-2
Ash Utilisation in Australia, by P Heeley, Pacific     by D Harris (2003)                                     Real Options Analysis – A Case Study, by P
Power International (2003) ISBN 978-1-                 Impact of Carbon Price Uncertainty of Investment       Graham, D Vincent, P Coombes, G Duffy (2003)
921374-54-8                                            in Selected Electricity Generation Options, by L       ISBN 978-1-921374-73-9
Assessing Pollutant Impact Mitigation Options, by      Reedman, P Graham, P Coombes, D Vincent                Regional Energy Summary – SE Asia, by P Scaife
A Keogh and PF Nelson (2008) ISBN 978-1-               (2006) ISBN 978-1-921374-16-6                          and L Wibberley (2004) ISBN 978-1-921374-
921374-85-2                                            Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, by L        87-6
Clean Development Mechanism, by L Leung                Leung and P Scaife (2002)                              Synergies with Renewables: Concentrating Solar
(2002)                                                 LCA of the Australian Electricity Grids, by P Brown,   Thermal, by L Wibberley, A Cottrell, P Scaife, P
                                                       A Cottrell, P Scaife (2007) ISBN 978-1-921374-         Brown (2006) ISBN 978-1-921374-51-7

                                                                                43        CCSD ACHIEVEMENTS 2001–2008
                                                                                  Centre Reports

Systems Assessment of Electricity Generation             Experience Curves – A Tool for Energy Technology      Discussion 5: Integration in Sustainability
Using Biomass and Coal in CFBC, by A Cottrell, J         Analysis, by A Urfer, P Scaife, L Wibberley (2004)    Assessment by C Hooker and T Brinsmead
Nunn, A Urfer, L Wibberley (2003) ISBN 978-1-            Externalities – A Complementary Tool for Impact       (2006)
921374-52-4                                              Assessment, by B Maddox, P Scaife, L Wibberley        Discussion 6: Industrial Networks – a Tool for
Systems Assessment of Future Electricity                 (2004)                                                Sustainable Planning by C Hooker and T
Generation Options for Australia, by A Cottrell,         Fine Ash from Coal Combustion – Part 1, by B          Brinsmead (2006)
J Nunn, A Urfer, L Wibberley, P Scaife, D                Buhre, PF Nelson, RP Gupta, TF Wall . Part 2: by      Discussion 7: Performance Indicators for
Palfreyman (2003)                                        J Hinkley, H Bridgman, B Buhre, RP Gupta, PF          Adaptiveness by C Hooker and T Brinsmead
Systems Assessment of Hypercoal for Electricity          Nelson, TF Wall (2006)                                (2007)
Supply in Japan, by A Cottrell, P Scaife, L              Guideline for Sampling and Analysis of Mercury in     Discussion 8: Adaptive Backcasting: The Method
Wibberley (2007) ISBN 978-1-921374-02-9                  Atmospheric and Source Samples, by PF Nelson          of Possibility and Design by C Hooker and T
Systems Assessment of Ultra Clean Coal used for          (2007)                                                Brinsmead (2007)
Distributed Electricity Generation in Japan, by A        Indicators and Their Place in Establishing            Discussion 9: Adaptive Analysis for Energy Policy by
Cottrell, J Nunn, L Wibberley (2004) ISBN 978-           Sustainability – A Briefing Paper on Current          C Hooker and T Brinsmead (2007)
1-921374-55-5                                            Status in the Electricity Generation Industry, by A   Exploring Alternative Perspectives on the Role
Technical Performance of Electric Power                  Morrison, PF Nelson (2007)                            for Coal and the Coal Industry in the Move to a
Generation Systems in Australian Conditions, by E        Legislation Relevant to Ash Disposal, by K Riley      Sustainable Energy System, by J Lacko, R Passey
Ikeda, J Stubington and C Spero (2004)                   (2005)                                                and R Harding (2005) ISBN 978-1-921374-89-0
Techno-economic Assessment of Power Generation           PF Super-Critical Boilers – Operational Issues and    Social Changes and Industry Cooperation required
Options for Australia, by L Wibberley, A Cottrell,       Coal Quality Impacts, by TF Wall, RP Gupta, B         for a Sustainable Energy Future, by R Harding, R
D Palfreyman, P Scaife, P Brown (2006 ) ISBN             Buhre, C Spero (2002)                                 Passey and J Lacko (2007) ISBN 978-1-921374-
978-1-921374-63-0                                                                                              90-6
                                                         Radiative Transfer in Oxy-fired Furnaces and
Western Australia Energy System, by P Scaife, A          Impact of Coal Properties, by S Khare, TF Wall        Summary of the CCSD/CSIRO Sustainability
Urfer, P Brown, A Cottrell, J Nunn, L Wibberley          (2007)                                                Seminar July 2006 by R Passey, R Harding, J
(2006) ISBN 978-1-921374-62-3                                                                                  Lacko, N Boughen, A Littleboy, P Ashworth
                                                         Review of Reference Conditions for Technology
                                                         Assessment, by A Lowe (2007)                          (2007) ISBN 978-1-921374-70-8
Technical Notes
A Review on Mineralogy Analysis of Pulverised            Slag Viscosity – Effects of Potassium and Phase
Coal by QEMScan with an Emphasis on Mineral              Composition, by N Kinaev and A Ilyushechkin
Associations and Ash Impacts, by Y Liu, RP Gupta         (2007)
and TF Wall (2007)                                       The Effect of Selected Coal Properties on Coke
Characteristics of Australian Fly-Ashes, by CR           Gasification, by M Grigore (2007)
Ward and D French (2003)                                 The Scope for Fuel Rate Reduction in Ironmaking,
Chemical Looping Combustion and CO2 Capture,             by S Gupta and V Sahajwalla (2005)
by TF Wall, Y Liu and B Moghtaderi (2007)
                                                         General Reports
Coal Selection Criteria for Industrial PFBC Firing, by
                                                         Discussion 1: System Efficiency, Resiliency,
J Stubington, V Budijanto (2003)
                                                         Adaptability by C Hooker (2003)
Coke Reactivity with Metal in Blast Furnace, by
                                                         Discussion 2: Introducing Adaptive Sustainable
T Cham, H Sun, R Sakurovs and V Sahajwalla
                                                         Development by C Hooker and T Brinsmead
Comparative Evaluation of Leachability Test
                                                         Discussion 3: Understanding and Issues for
Methods, by CR Ward, D French and J Jankowski
                                                         Industry by C Hooker and T Brinsmead (2005)
                                                         Discussion 4: Three Concepts of Sustainability
Comparison of Advanced Polygeneration Systems,
                                                         Systematically Framed by C Hooker and T
by N Dave, G Duffy (2006)
                                                         Brinsmead (2005)

                                         CCSD ACHIEVEMENTS 2001–2008           44

ACARP    Australian Coal Association Research Program         HGI           Hardgrove Grindability Index
ACIRL    Australian Coal Industry Research Laboratories Ltd   IEA           International Energy Agency
ADAA     Ash Development Association of Australia             IFRF          International Flame Research Foundation
AFT      Ash Fusion Temperature                               IGCC	         Integrated	Gasification	Combined	Cycle
AIST     National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science    IHI           Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries
         and Technology (Japan)
                                                              IPCC          Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
ATSE     Academy of Technological Sciences and Engineering
                                                              JCOAL         Japan Coal Energy Centre
CCP      Coal Combustion Products
                                                              LCA           Life Cycle Analysis
CCSD     Cooperative Research Centre for Coal in
         Sustainable Development                              LETDF         Low Emissions Technology Demonstration Fund

CCT      Clean Coal Technologies                              MCA           Multi Criteria Analysis

CCUJ     Centre for Coal Utilisation Japan                    NERDDP        National Energy Research, Development
                                                                            and Demonstration Program
CFD      Computational Fluid Dynamics
                                                              PCI           Pulverised Coal Injection
CO2CRC   CRC for Greenhouse Gas Technologies
                                                              PEFR          Pressurised Entrained-Flow Reactor
COAL21   Australian Coal Industry initiative to realise the
         potential of advanced technologies to reduce or      PF            Pulverised Fuel
         eliminate greenhouse gas emissions associated with   PFBC          Pressurised Fluidised Bed Combustion
         the use of coal.
                                                              QEMScan       Quantitative Electron Microscopy Scan
CRC      Cooperative Research Centre
                                                              REI           Reaction Engineering International
CRI      Coke Reactivity Index
                                                              SIROQUANT Proprietary Analysis Technique
CRIEPI   Central Research Institute of Electric
         Power Industry                                       TCLP          Toxic Characteristic Leaching Procedure

CSR      Coke Strength After Reaction                         TEM           Transmission Electron Microscopy

EPA      Environmental Protection Agency                      ULCOS         Ultra Low CO2 Steelmaking
EPRI     Electric Power Research Institute (USA)              US DoE        United States Department of Energy
EU       European Union                                       XRD           X-Ray Diffraction
FACT     Facility for Advanced Chemical Thermodynamics        ZET           Zero Emission Technology
Cooperative Research Centre for Coal in Sustainable Development
Technology Transfer Centre
Queensland Centre for Advanced Technologies
PO Box 883 Kenmore QLD 4069
Telephone   +61 7 3871 4400
Fax         +61 7 3871 4444

                                      Established and supported under
                                      the Australian Government’s Cooperative
                                      Research Centres Program

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