Report on GAP Analysis Value Addition FOR BY March by hubeybrown


									Report on GAP Analysis Value Addition


             March 2008
Report on Gap Analysis Value Addition

                     Inventories of tourism activities and attractions should be developed, taking into
                     account the impacts on ecosystems and biological diversity. Co-ordinated efforts
                         of governments, the private sector and all other stakeholders should be
                     undertaken to agree on criteria to measure and assess the impacts of tourism on
                                              nature and biological diversity.
                                                  (Berlin Declaration 8)

1.      Introduction
This report complements the GIS study being carried out by University of Stellenbosch’s Centre for
Geographical Analysis (CGA), which maps the Western Cape from a spatial and resource
perspective. Informed by the new tourism thinking, the report highlights the non-spatial layers that
need to be taken into account as, although GIS is by its nature predominantly spatially-based (able
to show the gaps that exist from a spatial perspective), the Stellenbosch University’s GIS
capabilities go beyond the spatial perspective.
The gap analysis of the University of Stellenbosch CGA will show the opportunity space and the
potential that exists at a provincial, strategic level. This report develops principles to be applied
when taking the gap analysis to the next level – the operational level, located in local
municipalities. In so doing, it reflects the broader national framework for tourism development
which cascades the national imperatives down to local level, investing greater powers in provinces
and local municipalities.

2.      New Tourism Thinking
        “To achieve the true potential of the Tourism Industry it must be clear that any old tourism will not
The White Paper for the Development and Promotion of Tourism (1996) from which the above
quotation comes, provides the national framework and guidelines for tourism policy and
development in South Africa and reflects the shift that has occurred in tourism thinking post-1994.
At provincial level, policy has been developed to address these challenges, in particular through
the White Paper on Sustainable Tourism Development and Promotion in the Western Cape (2001),
the Integrated Tourism Development Framework (ITDF) (2003) and the Western Cape Tourism Act
Two of the key components with implications for CTRU’s mandate in the Western Cape are the
need to ensure the inclusion of a representative cross-section of tourism stakeholders in tourism
planning and development and the importance of implementing responsible tourism principles.
Based on the principles developed and CTRU’s imperatives, the gap analysis will need to take into
account the following non-spatial factors or layers:

2.1     Representation of the full spectrum of natural and cultural resources
        “Our heritage celebrates our achievements and contributes to redressing past inequities. It educates,
        it deepens our understanding of society and encourages us to empathise with the experience of others.
        It facilitates healing and material and symbolic restitution and it promotes new and previously
        neglected research into our rich oral traditions and customs.1”

1 Preamble of the National Heritage Resources ACT (NHRA), 1999 (Act 25 of 1999)

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The broad generic term ‘cultural heritage resources’ refers to any physical and spiritual property
associated with past and present human use or occupation of the environment, cultural activities
and history. The term includes sites, structures, places, natural features and material of
palaeontological, archaeological, historical, aesthetic, scientific, architectural, religious, symbolic or
traditional importance to specific individuals or groups, traditional systems of cultural practice,
belief or social interaction.
The mapped cultural resources need to include the heritage of those individuals, constituencies
and communities who were marginalised before 1994 and to incorporate both tangible and
intangible cultural resources as well as the built environment and natural environment inherent in
the province. Tangible heritage consists of monuments and other physical manifestations such as
archaeological remains, material heritage, rock art or shipwrecks.
There are many possible definitions of living/intangible heritage but they all show that it is socially
constructed and mostly manifests itself in intangible form. Intangible heritage informs the practicing
community about who they are and their past that has formed them. Not classically considered
heritage, it takes the form of cultural tradition, customs, oral history, performance, ritual, popular
memory, skills and techniques, indigenous knowledge systems, as part of the holistic approach to
nature, society and social practices. Cultural heritage resources and in particular intangible
heritage are a non-renewable resource; once they are lost they are gone forever. This is especially
true with intangible heritage vested in the minds of old people; once they have passed away, this
information is lost forever.
For example, the Moravian Mission Stations of the Western Cape, which was originally established
by Moravian philanthropists to ‘win the heart and souls of indigenous people and emancipated
slaves’ through conversion to Christianity and was where the converted were ‘schooled and given
agricultural knowledge to sustain a living’? These centres of education and agriculture became
thriving centres but over time factors such as the Group Areas Act; industrialisation and
urbanisation diminished these primary activities and in many instances led to the loss of their
intangible heritage, traditional skills and cottage industries.
One such place is the Genadendal Mission Station, once known for knife-making and had a
vigorous agricultural heritage, which is today a shadow of what it was. However, the resurgence of
organic farming methods on a global scale presents an opportunity for the local remaining
Genadendal farmers. These subsistence farmers still use traditional agricultural methods to
produce rooibos, honey-bush and indigenous plants for medicinal and culinary uses. Their
methods are based on organic principles, albeit not certified. As yet they do not occupy a
competitive position in the marketplace due to a host of challenges such as poor packaging,
ineffective marketing strategies etc. Therefore the potential exists to preserve this cultural heritage
in a novel way by assisting the farmers to become more competitive.

2.2   Stereotyped generic images
The Cape icons have for years been projected as the sole content of the Western Cape tourism
product, when the Western Cape has much more to offer beyond the traditional attractions such as
the Winelands, Robben Island, Table Mountain and Cape Point. The intangible attractions that
reflect the diversity of the province are what make people come back for more frequent and longer
visits. This intangible heritage is the complex system of knowledge unique to a particular
population within a specific geographic area, a collection of practices, traditions, expressions,
skills, and knowledge that are passed from one generation to the next.
Even the Cape icons have move to offer. For example the importance of the Robben Island
Museum as a regional and national icon cannot solely be attributed to its recent past as an

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apartheid prison, but must also acknowledge the many different cultural voices and layers through
time such as:
      •    Natural paleontological history, through its formation as an island and link to the mainland
           of Africa and linkages to prehistory of the continent and pre-colonial history of the mainland.
      •    Different historic epochs such as the Dutch–English colonial history, post Anglo-Boer War
           or World Wars 1 and II, through the changes made to the built and natural environments.
           The island is no longer a pristine environment but rather a changed cultural landscape, e.g.
           the importation of exotic (European, North American, Australian) trees, shrubs and flowers
           which are so reflective of the Victorian/early Edwardian period.
Through an understanding of this multiplicity of cultural voices, there is an opportunity for provincial
stakeholders to create themes which link the mainland to the island on many levels. Allied to these
broad themes, specific localised products will be identified and ‘loops of sub-routes’ will become
feeders to and from these.

2.3       Imbalances in the development of the Cape Metropole and the hinterland
Rural areas lack exposure to and experience of tourism, despite the great need for employment
creation. Cape Town accounts for 75% of provincial tourism and yet the hinterland offers great
opportunities for new product development especially when the intangible heritage is taken into
account. Each area or ‘locale’ has a unique culture and social hospitability (or living heritage) that
is transmitted by usage and observation through individuals, families, community, and society.
Building on the uniqueness of each dorp, city or region will not only address the imbalances but
also extend in breadth and depth the Western Cape tourism experience.
Country areas still do not capitalise enough on their role as the producer of primary products,
which can evolve into a range of by-products for the visitor to feel, touch, taste, hear or see. As a
result, new visitors to a rural town may not be adequately infused with the knowledge of what the
town is all about. Or, there is an over-capitalisation of one product to the exclusion of many others,
e.g. wines overshadow any other products within Stellenbosch/Paarl/Worcester/Wellington areas.
Popular magazines which specialise in marketing and popularising country life (such as ‘Country
Life’) strive to capture the idylls of a country lifestyle for the urban tourist. Anecdotal evidence2
shows that its readership is slowly changing to include the emerging black middle class yet its
content has not kept apace with such changes. For example, features on the various wine routes
do not include options on where to purchase ‘grape juice’, which is produced by many wine
farmers; and yet teetotalers will form part of the non-traditional Middle East markets and emerging
domestic markets.
The appeal of the hinterland for the domestic market: The Western Cape has pioneered the
concept of ‘homestays’ which offer a very affordable option for the domestic visitor and yet is
seldom featured in campaigns aimed at the domestic market. For example, Country Life April 2008
featured a campaign ‘Getaways for under R250’ but very few of these product suppliers featured in
the article are HDE (historically disadvantaged backgrounds).

3.        Principles
Cape Town Routes Unlimited (CTRU) vision puts the tourism industry at the heart of the economic
and social transformation of Cape Town and Western Cape. Therefore, in the development of
common principles to guide the gap analysis at municipal level, it was important firstly to

2 Interview with previous editor Margaret Wasserfall. 2006 -2007

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understand what is meant by sustainable tourism development, in particular in the South African
context and secondly to incorporate the essence of CTRU’s operating principles and values as
outlined in the 2007 Corporate Strategy.

3.1        Sustainable tourism development
As in other industries, sustainability in tourism has three interconnected aspects: environmental,
socio-cultural, and economic. Sustainability implies permanence; therefore sustainable tourism
must include:
•     optimum use of resources including biological diversity, minimisation of ecological, cultural and
      social impacts;
•     maximisation of benefits to conservation and local communities;
•     appropriate management structures necessary to achieve the above.

                                         Tourism development shall be based on
                                         criteria of sustainability, which means that it
                                         must be ecologically bearable in the long term,
                                         economically viable, as well as ethically and
                                         socially equitable for the local communities.
                                         (Charter for Sustainable Tourism, Lanzarote, 1)

All stakeholders including governments,                                                  Sustainable tourism destinations
international organisations, the private                                                 will only come into being when all
sector and environmental groups should                                                   products are designed with
recognise their common responsibilities                                                  environmental, cultural, and socio-
to achieve sustainable forms of tourism.                                                 economic criteria in mind. (Agenda
(Berlin Declaration 6).                                                                  21 for the Tourism & Travel
                                                                                         Industry, P 7).

The above three quotations illustrate the common goals that are shared by the many international
declarations and bodies3 to which the South African government is a signatory and/or affiliated.

In South Africa, the key guiding principle for tourism development is known as responsible tourism.
             “Responsible tourism is not a luxury for South Africa. It is an absolute necessity if
             South Africa is to emerge as a successful international competitor4”.

3 These include: Agenda 21 (global action plan setting out priorities for sustainable development into the 21st century); WTO (sustainable
development of tourism), Charter for Sustainable Tourism, 1995; WTO Global Code of Ethics (1999); PIRT (Partners in Responsible Tourism)
4 The White Paper on the Development and Promotion of Tourism in South Africa, 1996

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Responsible tourism is about enabling local communities to enjoy a better quality of life, through
increased socio-economic benefits and an improved environment. It is also about providing better
holiday experiences for guests and good business opportunities for tourism enterprises.
In 2002, South Africa published its National Responsible Tourism Guidelines, which cover guiding
principles, objectives and indicators for economic, social and environmental responsibilities:

     •    Assess economic impacts as a pre-requisite to developing tourism
     •    Maximise local economic benefits – increasing linkages and reducing leakages
     •    Ensure communities are involved in and benefit from tourism
     •    Marketing & product development
     •    Equitable business

     •    Involve the local community in planning and decision-making
     •    Assess social impacts as a prerequisite to developing tourism
     •    Maintain and encourage social and cultural diversity
     •    Be sensitive to the host culture

     •    Assess environmental impacts as a prerequisite to developing tourism
     •    Use local resources sustainably, avoid waste and over-consumption
     •    Maintain and encourage natural diversity

3.2 CTRU operating principles and values
Cape Town Routes Unlimited is dedicated to contributing significantly to economic growth and job
creation in Cape Town and the Western Cape by marketing the city and Province domestically and
internationally as a year-round destination of choice for leisure, business and events visitors,
thereby achieving exceptional tourism growth in partnership with the private sector and other
tourism stakeholders5.
The six operating principles and values of CTRU are:
•    We recognise the need for transformation in tourism and actively encourage and facilitate
     broad-based black economic empowerment in all activities.
•    We adopt a partner-based marketing and project management approach to maximise
     marketing synergies and spin-offs across business, leisure and events tourism and with
     complimentary sectors such as film, agriculture, etc.

5 CTRU mission statement, Corporate Strategy document 2007/8 – 2009/10 (March 2007)

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•   We are committed to striking up strong, lasting and practical partnerships with the public and
    private sector to advance the destination brand and expand marketing reach and impact.
•   We invest in cutting edge new electronic technologies as a key driver of the marketing
•   We promote the philosophy of responsible tourism and to give recognition to responsible
    tourism practices.
•   We acknowledge the support of our citizens for tourism as being critical to our marketing

3.3 Common principles underpinning the gap analysis
Drawing on the values and principles expounded in sections 3.1 and 3.2, the common principles
developed were informed by the following elements:
           −   Equity, integration and opportunity for all
           −   Diversity and difference
           −   The sense of place
           −   Dispersion and movement
           −   Environmental and heritage sustainability

Four common principles were conceived:

       Principle 1: Recognise the importance of diversity and inclusivity

       Recognition of the many cultural voices of the Western Cape and its rich diversity of
       product, promoting leisure for all especially those previously excluded from tourism.

       Principle 2: Invest in people and place, maximising the benefits

       Tourism development contributes to the conservation of heritage and cultural
       assets and the economic and social well-being of local communities, maximising
       tangible and intangible benefits and minimising leakages of the area.

       Principle 3: Develop mutually beneficial partnerships

       Successful tourism operations are built through forming partnerships, alliances
       and open lines of communication between role players, especially working with
       local people to foster ownership, understanding and positive visitor experiences.

       Principle 4: Promote responsible, sustainable tourism

       Responsible and sensitive marketing to ensure cultural integrity and social
       values/norms of the local community are maintained and the natural environment
       is preserved.

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4.       Conclusion
The interdependence of the human relationship within space (environment) and time (the past) are
not separate and mutually exclusive concepts. Similarly, the gap analysis needs to go beyond the
spatial proximity element, overlaying other values such as those expressed through culture
heritage resources, which may be intangible but are integral to an area’s attractiveness. Each local
resource within a locale must therefore not be considered in isolation, but within its whole context
and with an understanding of its multiple reciprocal relationships that it has with its physical and
non-physical environment6. The Provincial Partnership Forum which was initiated last year from
MEC Lynn Brown’s office brings together the key constituencies of Business, Labour, Civil Society
and Government to discuss and decide how and where public resources ought to be allocated the
development of the tourism sector. This provincial strategy, together with the local municipal IDPs
(Integrated Development Plans) conceptualised at local municipal levels must coalesce into a
local-provincial model which meets the supply–demand gaps.
The gap analysis from the University of Stellenbosch CGA provides a map of the potential that
exists at provincial level from a resource and spatial perspective. The next step is to cascade down
to municipal level, which is where the knowledge and repository about local resources and
potential resides. Guided by the principles contained in this report, such a continuous mapping
process must be championed by the local authority and integrally involve key stakeholders at a
local level. This process of ‘drilling down’ further those existing or potential tourism resources will
feed into a dynamic process of an ever-evolving provincial tourism profile.
The exploration of non-traditional markets by SA-Tourism and CTRU provides a fresh demand-side
impetus, which simultaneously can be the catalyst for new or reviewed supply-side products. In
attempting to identify appropriate products which could meet these changing demands, CTRU and
local tourism planners can ‘test’ them against the principles which have been compiled. Recent
examples of such non-traditional markets which will influence how we identify gaps are:
     •     CTRU–Shandong Province (People’s Republic of China) twinning arrangement which will
           bring mutual demand-supply side benefits to both provincial regions. A Memorandum of
           Understanding was concluded during March 2008 and the agreement will encompass a
           diverse range of capacity building programmes as well as increasing inbound and outbound
           visitor numbers to each partner. Amongst projects already under discussion or underway:
                 o    Training local tourist guides to speak conversational Mandarin
                 o    Mentoring local tour operators in how to interact ‘culturally’ with the China market,
                      familiarising tour operators of demand-side needs which this market would be
                      looking for and in turn reviewing of current tour packages.
     •     Daily non-stop flights between Cape Town and Dubai. ‘In many respects the Middle East
           represented the inbound luxury tourism market for Cape Town and the Western Cape7....’
           This new service provides direct access to Cape Town for Emirates customers from
           Europe, Middle East, Indian sub-continent, Asia-Pacific areas. Many of them may have
           needs such as:
                 o    Top quality, luxury experience within a ‘halaal-friendly’ environment;
                 o    Special requests for female-specific activities
                 o    Contemporary interpretations of the different dietary requirements of diverse
                      religious backgrounds.

6 Principles of Cultural Development. UNESCO - WTO Decade for Cultural Development)
7 Calvyn Gilfellan. Cape Argus Business. April 1. Page 12

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