ECONOMY OF MALAYA BEFORE THE COMING OF FOREIGNERS by yxm80800

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									  ECONOMY OF MALAYA BEFORE THE
  COMING OF FOREIGNERS
• Early settlement- at fertile areas and along
  rivers and coast line
• those areas provided “natural economy”-
  agriculture and fishery
• ECON. DURING BRITISH
• 1- The British only concentrated to rubber
  and tin industries
• The development of tin
• a- the coming of Chinese
• b- the demand of tin
• C- New discoveries
• d- British intervention
• - The development of rubber
• a- HN Ridley contribution
• The coming of Indian
• Demand of rubber
• Government encouragement
• 2- Imbalance distribution of econ.
  Concentrated to:
• 1- West peninsula - New Malaya
• 2-West Sabah
• 3-First and second division in Serawak
• D- urban areas
• 3- Communication facilities based on economic
  interest
• -road and railways constructed and rivers clear
• - the rest used conventional way of
  communication
• ECON. AFTER INDEPENDENCE
•   Divided into 4:
•   1- !st phase - 1956-70
•   2- 2nd phase- OPP1 (NEP 1970-90)
•   3- 3rd phase- OPP2(NDP 1991-2000)
 First phase (1956-1970)
• Plan - economic growth
•      - elimination of economic disparity
•      - greater employment opportunities
• economic growth - to be the key to
  achieving the other 2 goals.
• Second Phase - 1st outline perspective
  plan(1970-1990)
• -New economic policy (NEP)
• a- reduction and eventual eradication of
  poverty irrespective of race.
• b- restructuring of society
    Eradication of poverty
• 1- Agricultural development
• A- Modernization and mechanization of
  farming technique
• b- rubber replanting
• c- double cropping
• d- promotion cash crops
• 2- Diversifying the manufacturing
  - bumiputera participation in modern
  sector activities
• generate employment for nation’s growing
  work force
Restructuring the society
• Balance distribution of economy among all
  races and states.
• Expand the share of economy for bumiputra
  without reducing the economic attainment
  of the other groups
• all races participated in all economic
  sectors
The performance of NEP
• Not 100% but improved than before.
• poverty reduced . From 49.3 % (70) - 16.7%
• New land opened
• various plantation - more production
  because of new technique.
• Infrastructure- health and education,
  electricity and water supply.
• share among bumiputra increased. 2.4%
  (1970) to 20%(1988)
 National Development policy
• Replaced NEP and basically similar .
• The main difference between these two
  major policies is found in the emphasis,
  priority and timing.
• NDP maintains the basic strategies of the
  NEP, its new dimensions will be to:
• - Shift the focus of the anti-poverty strategy
  towards eradication of hard core poverty
  while at the same time reducing relative
  poverty
• Focus on employment and rapidly
  development at an active Bumiputera
  Commercial And Industrial Community
  (BCIC) as a more effective strategy to
  increase the meaningful participation of
  Bumiputera in the modern sector of
  economy.
• Rely more on the private sectors to be
  involved in the restructuring objective by
  creating greater opportunities for its growth.
• Focus on human resource development as a
  fundamental requirement for achieving the
  objectives of growth and distribution
Restructuring Society
• To continue efforts at increasing bumiputra
  participation in economic activities.
• To give training and education
• To encourage partnerships between bumi
  and non bumi.
• To encourage more bumi participation in
  private sectors
• Reorganization of share ownership.
Eradication of poverty
• More employment opportunities to reduce
  poverty level.
• Education, training and human resource
  development.
• Eradicating of hard core poverty while at
  the same time reducing relative poverty
 VISION 2020
• 1- To establish a united Malaysian nation or
  “bangsa Malaysia”
• 2- To establish a confidence Malaysian
  society.
• 3- To establish a mature democratic society.
• 4- To establish matured, liberal and tolerant
  society
• 5- To establish strong moral and ethical
  society
• 6- To establish a scientific and progressive
  society.
• 7- To establish a fully caring society and
  caring culture.
• 8- Ensuring an economically just society.
• 9- To establish a prosperous society with
  an economy that is fully competitive,
  dynamic ,robust and resilient.
    NDP and vision 2020
• 1- United nation and economically just
    society.
•   Balanced development to ensure a balance
    distribution of economy to all states and
    people.
•   2- Competitive, dynamic and rubout
    economy.
•   - Rely more on private sector in
    manufacturing and industrial base.
•   3- Fully caring society.
•   -Focus on anti poverty strategy.
• 4- Scientific and progressive society.
• The development on advance R & D
  capability and high light the need for a
  critical mass of inventors, designers and
  innovators who are able to produce new
  ideas, product and processes.
• 5- Moral and ethical.
• Stress on human resource development
  through education and training. Therefore
  we could develop a skill, creative and
  talented people with strong religious and
  ethical values.
Racial Unity through economy
• Under NEP and NDP, the government
  objectives:
     • -Eradicating of poverty
     • -Restructuring the society
• Eradication of poverty
• -eliminate jealousy and
  dissatisfaction – due to income gap
• -Balance distribution of economy to all
  people and states in Malaysia
• -Rural development
• Town planning- for people at urban
  areas
• Manufacturing sectors at rural areas-
  provide job opportunity to poor people
  at rural areas.
 Eradication of poverty- to avoid
  unstable political and social stability.
        National Vision Policy
         • Focus on building a united and competitive nation.
         • Develop a strong and sustainable econ.

                              ECONOMY


- generating endogenously- driven growth through strengthening
domestic investment.
- developing indigenous capability.
-increasing the dynamism of the agriculture, manufacturing and
services sectors through infusion knowledge.
- addressing pockets of poverty in remote areas and among Orang Asli
and Bumiputera minorities in Sabah and Sarawak.
- increasing the income and quality of life of those in the lowest 30%
income category.
-reorientation human resource development to support a knowledge
 based society.
                         Objective



- Change growth strategy from input-driven to knowledge driven
            - Strengthen socio-economic stability

                        Strategies

  - sustain macro economy stability
  - Eradicate poverty and restructure society
  - increase growth through productivity
  - increase competitiveness in the primary economic sectors
  - Extend the usage of ICT
  - Strengthen human resource development
  - upgrade the quality of life
  - Strengthen positive values and attitude.

								
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