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Current Trends in Copper Theft Prevention by lvs94353

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									Current Trends in
  Copper Theft
   Prevention

Aldo Mastrofrancesco, P.Eng
EDIST Conference 2009
      January 15, 2009

                    Electrical Distribution Safety
                         OUTLINE

• Problem & Consequence
• Background – Copper Demand
• Safety Hazards
• Technologies & Techniques used to combat
  Copper Theft
• Developing a Security Strategy for Utilities
• ESA Efforts

                                  Electrical Distribution Safety
Problem & Consequences




               Electrical Distribution Safety
Problem
• Demand for copper increases globally.
• Increase demand and reduced
   production equals increased price
• Thieves are stealing copper because it
   can easily be turned into cash.

Consequences
• Copper theft poses serious safety
  hazards to the public and workers.
• Economic Impact – costly replacement
  and repair to equipment damaged.
• Power outage – affects grid reliability
                                       Electrical Distribution Safety
Background - Copper Demand




                 Electrical Distribution Safety
•Physical Properties
    •Malleable & Ductile - can be bent and shaped
    without cracking, when either hot or cold
    •Excellent conductor of heat
    •Copper is second to silver in its ability to
    conduct electricity
    • It is resistant to corrosion, it will not rust
    •Eventually, it is coated with a green film called
    a "patina" that stops all further corrosion
•Chemical Properties
    •Atomic number: 29
    •Atomic mass: 63.546 g.mol -1
    •Density: 8.9 g.cm-3 at 20°C
    •Melting point: 1083 °C
    •Boiling point: 2595 °C
    •Isotopes: 6

                                                         Electrical Distribution Safety
Uses
• Electrical wiring/cables
• Water and Gas Piping
• Currency, the Penny was 95% copper
• Household items, such as cooking pots
• Two radioactive isotopes of copper are used in medicine
    •Copper-67 treats cancer
    •Copper-64, is used to study brain function and to
    detect Wilson’s disease



                                   Electrical Distribution Safety
Electrical Distribution Safety
The Law of Domestic Supply and Asian Demand
• In 2002 Copper was just above $1.00 per pound CAD.

• In Early 2003, investors took note of “Emerging Asia” which involved China and
it’s 20% Growth Rate! – China starts buying lots of copper.

• Oct 2003 an Indonesian Copper Mine collapsed – price of Copper spiked close
to $2.00 per pound CAD.

• Early 2004 Demand for metal was picking up in Europe and North America too,
as new construction continued and the military machine warmed up for a coming
war in Iraq. – In the meantime China keeps buying copper.

• Late 2004 a strike at a Chile Copper Mine – price of copper spiked to over $2.50
per pound CAD in 2005. – China keeps buying.

• Mid 2006 Copper Price hits over to $4.50 per pound CAD – China Keeps buying.
World entered into a “deficit condition” copper production fell below consumption.
                                                     Electrical Distribution Safety
Stolen Copper is Easily Turned into Cash
•More copper consumed in North America is supplied by recycling
than from domestic production, making copper recycling a major
industry.

• Significant demand for recycled copper means that any copper
delivered to a scrap dealer will quickly be turned into cash.

• Depending on demand in the area, a scrap dealer may pay near-
market prices for pure copper, i.e., copper wire stripped of all
insulation.




                                            Electrical Distribution Safety
Safety Hazards - Theft of Copper




                     Electrical Distribution Safety
                  Safety Hazard

• Hazards left behind after the thief vacates
  the station with the stolen copper.




                             Electrical Distribution Safety
                        Safety Hazards
• Site left unsecured:
  – Fact: Majority of LDC substations are located in
    residential areas.
  – In the act of stealing copper thieves often must
    gain entrance to substations, usually by:
     • Compromising the key/door mechanism
     • Bolt cutting the lock on gates or doors
     • Wire cutting the chain-link fence
  Attempt to steal copper can leave substations
    unsecured & easily accessible to children & other
    members of the public.
  Substation employees must be vigilant: Check fence
   perimeter prior to entering a substation, look for
   gate/fence grounding or signs of intrusion.
                                       Electrical Distribution Safety
                     Safety Hazards

• Theft of Substation Ground Grid
  – Stealing copper grounds at a substation will leave
    the station & it’s protective fencing potentially
    energized at a high voltage under faulted or
    transient conditions.
  – You don’t have to be inside the substation to get
    hurt or killed, affected are:
    • children playing nearby
    • passerby
    • LDC or other workers



                                  Electrical Distribution Safety
                    Safety Hazards

• Theft of Transformer Neutrals
  – Theft of transformer neutral grounds from a
    station will cause LDC protection to not
    operate properly – this can cause power
    surges in homes.
  – Incident in 2006 for the Windsor area where
    12 homes had minor appliance fires due to
    power surges, the incident was a direct cause
    of the station protection system not operating
    due to copper theft of transformer neutrals.



                                  Electrical Distribution Safety
Technologies & Techniques to
    Combat Copper Theft




                  Electrical Distribution Safety
              Technologies & Techniques to
                  Combat Copper Theft
• Hybrid Steel & Copper Alternative:
  – Solid Steel Core – very hard to cut
  – Thick copper cladding – high
    conductivity & resists corrosion
  – Users are NB Power & BC Hydro
  – Can be used in place of copper for
    substation ground grids and other
    ground wire connections.
  – Scrap dealers don’t like the steel mix
    (low scrap $)
  – One common brand is CopperWeld
                                   Electrical Distribution Safety
              Technologies & Techniques to
                  Combat Copper Theft
• Asset Identification:
  – Spray or Brushed-on application
  – Used to identify copper’s owner – makes it
    easier to prosecute if stolen copper is found.
  – Users are NB Power, Nova Scotia Power & BC
    Hydro
  – Common brand are DataDot & DataTrace




                                   Electrical Distribution Safety
                    Technologies & Techniques to
                        Combat Copper Theft
Increased Substation Security:
• Utilize Automated Monitoring
  –   Motion detection
  –   Cameras (infrared for night imaging)
  –   Lights
  –   Digital Video Recording
  –   Proximity Card Readers
  –   Metal Detectors
  –   Gates
  –   Link control room to surveillance sites
      with real time control &
      communications with intercom.
                                             Electrical Distribution Safety
                Technologies & Techniques to
                    Combat Copper Theft
Increased Substation Security:
• Roving Patrols
• Replace substation chain-link
  fencing with extruded steel
  fencing (extremely hard to cut)
• Hardened padlocks
• Signs which warn intruders that
  the site is monitored or under
  surveillance.


                                    Electrical Distribution Safety
               Technologies & Techniques to
                   Combat Copper Theft

• Partnering with Law Enforcement Agencies:
  – Hydro One & BC Hydro partnering with Crime
    Stoppers, offering $10K rewards for info leading to
    copper theft arrests.
• Pressure local/provincial/federal governments to
  pass legislation which requires scrap dealers to
  record what they buy.



                                     Electrical Distribution Safety
Security Strategy for Utilities




                     Electrical Distribution Safety
          Security Strategy for Utilities

• 9/11 forced U.S Utilities to develop a
  Security Strategy.
• Focuses on threats such as:
  – Vandalism
  – Theft
  – Sabotage
  – Terrorism


                              Electrical Distribution Safety
            Security Strategy for Utilities

• Define Risk & Vulnerability:
  – Risk: is the potential for realization of unwanted
    adverse consequences to human life, health,
    property, or the environment

  – Vulnerability: is a characteristic of an infrastructure’s
    design, implementation, or operation that makes it
    susceptible to destruction or incapacitation by a threat




                                      Electrical Distribution Safety
              Security Strategy for Utilities:
                   Risk Assessment
• Risk Assessment:
  Risk = f ( probability x criticality )


          What is the            What is the
         likelihood of            severity of
               the                   the
         occurrence?             occurrence?




                                                Electrical Distribution Safety
                Security Strategy for Utilities:
                 Vulnerability Assessment
• Vulnerability Assessment:
   –   Identify threats
   –   Identify specific assets that may be impacted
   –   Determine the relative criticality of the utility’s assets
   –   Determine the likelihood that a threat may materialize
   –   Evaluate existing countermeasures
   –   Analyze current risks
   –   Identify additional countermeasures and prioritize
• Countermeasures are procedures, operational
  tactics, or elements of physical infrastructure that
  decrease probability or criticality.
                                               Electrical Distribution Safety
             Developing a Security Strategy
1. First, assess the threats and conduct a vulnerability
   assessment
2. Second, apply the three approaches to the development
   of a balanced plan
   –   Management of the Utility: create or update policies and
       procedures
   –   Operations of the Utility: review operational capabilities
   –   Design of Utility: review facility designs with security in mind
3. Third, build support for the strategy
   –   Consider all potential drivers
   –   Evaluate cost-risk reduction
                                               Electrical Distribution Safety
           Developing a Security Strategy
• What is best for your Utility?

  – Think logically and practically
  – Remember - providing the appropriate level of security for
    your system does not need to break the bank
  – Goal is to deter crime – by creating a built
    environment that reduces the opportunity and the
    ability to commit a crime undetected.
  – There is no single solution - the only wrong approach is to
    do nothing

                                        Electrical Distribution Safety
ESA Efforts




          Electrical Distribution Safety
                                ESA Efforts
• Apr 30/07 – ESA Code Side issues bulletin (36-10-14) on HV
  Grounding & Bonding on use of alternative grounding metal instead
  of copper due to increased copper theft.

• May 30/07 – ESA issues safety bulletin (DSB-06/07) on Utility
  Copper Theft

• Jan 10/08 – ESA Code Side wrote an article that appeared in the
  Ontario Electrical League’s “Dialogue” publication on Safety Issues
  with Copper Theft in HV Stations.

• Mar 05/08 – ESA involved in bulletin via Ministry of Community
  Safety and Correctional Services to All Chiefs of Police and the
  Commissioner about the risks to public safety from copper theft and
  encouraged cooperation with ESA during investigations?

• April 11/08 - ESA presented at a GTA Police Awareness Seminar
  on theft of copper.

• For more info visit www.esasafe.com
                                               Electrical Distribution Safety
Thank you for your attention.




                     Electrical Distribution Safety

								
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