The Finer Points of Powered Industrial Truck Safety May by whereitsat


									The Finer Points of Powered Industrial Truck Safety
    May 2008 ASSE San Francisco Chapter Meeting

            Presented by Bob Jasinski

          LiftSafe Inc. Forklift Safety Training
  What is a Powered Industrial Truck?

According to OSHA:
  Any power–propelled truck used to carry, push,
  pull, lift, stack, or tier materials. Can be ridden or
  controlled by a walking operator. Does not include
  farm or earthmoving equipment.
Powered Industrial Trucks are
 Categorized by Class (ITA)
     Class 1- Electric Counterbalanced

      Class 2- Electric Narrow Aisle
                 Class 3 -Powered Walk Behinds

Class 4 – Counterbalanced, Internal Combustion, Cushion Tires, Gas,
                       LPG, Diesel Powered
 Class 5 – Counterbalanced, Internal Combustion, Pneumatic Tires, Gas,
                         LPG, Diesel Powered

 Class 6 – Tow Tractors - Internal Combustion, Gas, LPG, Diesel Powered

Class 7 – Rough Terrain - Internal Combustion, Gas, LPG, Diesel Powered

• OSHA 1910.178 covers operations, design,
  applications, training

• CalOSHA: Title 8, GISO 3649-3668; 3650 covers
  operating rules, GISO 3668 covers training

• ANSI B56.1, Class 1-5 Warehouse Forklifts

• ANSI B56.9 Class 6 Tug Tractors

• ANSI B56.6 Class 7 Rough Terrain Forklifts
      Safety Considerations of Powered
             Industrial Truck Use
• Operator training. Must be equipment and site specific
• Loading dock hazards, trailer and railcar loading
• Warehouse design and housekeeping. Operating aisles, floors
  and storage systems
• Machine ergonomics
• Fuel Storage and handling. Includes lead acid batteries, diesel,
  LPG and gasoline
• Emissions created by the operation of the truck, and
  recharging of batteries
• Equipment Maintenance
• Hazardous atmospheres and locations. Fire or explosion of
  combustibles caused by improper application and/or improper
  use of the truck.
Statistical Data
Statistical Data con’t
           Old Law Vs: New Law
• Old law: “Only trained and authorized operators
  shall be permitted to operate a powered industrial
  truck. Methods shall be devised to train operators in
  the safe operation of powered industrial trucks.”

• New law: “ The employer shall ensure that each
  powered industrial truck operator is competent to
  operate a powered industrial truck safely, as
  demonstrated by the successful completion of the
  training and evaluation specified in this section.
  Training shall consist of a combination of formal
  instruction…and evaluation of the operator’s
  performance in the workplace.”

• Training in the general hazards associated with lift truck use as
  well as the specific hazards of the particular truck he or she will
  operate. Examples include vehicle capacity, stability, load
  centers, attachment adaptation, pre-shift inspections,
  refueling/recharging etc.

• The specific hazards of the workplace, including surface
  conditions, load composition,load manipulation, pedestrian
  traffic, narrow aisles, hazardous (flammable) locations, ramp
  operation, truck trailer operation at loading docks etc.

• Must be done on-site, in the workplace, on the same forklift
  he/she will be using to do their job or one equipped just like it
• Operator must pass driving evaluation that demonstrates driver
  proficiency in truck operation that duplicates how the truck will
  be used in the workplace. Typically this includes picking up
  and placing loads, traveling with loads, passing through blind
  intersections, loading dock and/or ramp operation; whatever
  applies to normal use in the workplace.
     Refresher Training and Evaluation

Refresher training and evaluation is required under the
                following circumstances:

• Operator is observed operating in an unsafe manner
• Operator is involved in an accident or near-miss
• Operator fails an evaluation
• Operator is assigned to operate a different type of
• A condition in the workplace changes that could
  affect safe operation of the truck
• At least once every 3 years
           Training Documentation

Written documentation must include:
• Name of the operator
• Date of training
• Date of evaluation
• Identity of the person(s) doing the training and
             Loading Dock Safety

• Trailers/Railcars must be
• Floors must be checked
          Loading Dock Safety cont.

• Dockboards/bridge
  plates must be used
• Jacks must be placed
  under spotted trailers
Forklift Accidents – Early departures
     Warehouse Design and Housekeeping

• Forklift aisles must be clearly defined
  and pedestrian traffic kept away

• Running over a loose object could
  cause the truck to tip or send the object
  flying towards a pedestrian

• Mirrors at intersections help

• Pedestrians must be kept away from lift
  operations where objects could fall and
  cause injury
Warehouse Design and Housekeeping cont.

 •The interface of the rack system and the
 forklift is important to ensure operator
 safety. Rack load beams set at a height
 that allows the beam to enter the
 operator’s compartment while backing
 can crush an operator.

                                       • Operation in coolers and freezers
                                       presents a low temperature exposure
                                       hazard to the operator and
                                       equipment, and must be addressed in
                                       both design and use to protect the
                                       worker and ensure proper equipment
Warehouse Design and Housekeeping cont.
•   Storage methods need to be well
    planned, and thought be given to the
    proper placement of loads.
•   Long loads such as pipe or lumber
    that could extend out and impale an
    operator or pedestrian must be
    placed in a rack or location that
    minimizes or eliminates the hazard.
•   Bulk stacking of cube shaped loads
    makes good use of space but also
    significantly limits visibility.
             Machine Ergonomics

• Good design must be comfortable, intuitive, non
  fatiguing and promote good visibility
            Fuel Storage and Handling
•Storage and handling must be
according to "NFPA Liquids
Code“ or "NFPA Storage and
Handling of Liquefied Petroleum

•LPG is always under pressure
and subjects the employee to
hazards during the refueling
procedure unlike liquid fuels.

•PPE such as leather gloves and
safety glasses.

•Any liquid fuel spills such as
those that could occur with
gasoline or diesel, must be wiped
up completely and fuel caps
replaced prior to any restart of
Battery Charging/Changing Areas

           Hoist for lifting
           battery from truck
           Shower/eye wash
           Spill containment

                                Powered battery
                                change out system
                                with battery and
           Battery lifting      charger stands
Battery Charging/Changing Areas cont.

 Overhead Crane changing system with battery wash rack
                 Hazardous Environments
•   Unclassified – General storage

•   Class I – Locations which flammable gases or vapors are or may be
    present in the air in quantities sufficient to produce explosive or
    ignitable mixtures

•   Class II – Locations which are hazardous because of the presence of
    combustible dust

•   Class III – Locations where easily ignitable fibers or flyings are present
    but not likely to be in suspension in quantities sufficient to produce
    ignitable mixtures

•   Trucks rated D, E, G, and LP are rated for use only in non-hazardous,
    non-flammable locations.

•   Trucks rated DY, DS, EE, ES, EX, GS, and LPS are designed for use in
    flammable environments
EX (explosion proof) Walk Behind Forklift
•   Internal combustion engine powered industrial trucks produce emission
    concentrations that can cause injury or death to employees

•   OSHA addresses this concern by mandates that concentration levels of
    carbon monoxide gas shall not exceed the levels specified in 1910.1000
    which limits exposure to 50 PPM

•   Only electric forklifts should be used in enclosed spaces such as
    freezers, coolers and indoor operations.

•   Best practice would dictate that internal combustion trucks are only
    used in out door applications.

•   While it is true that electric trucks are zero emission vehicles while in
    use, the lead acid batteries that provide power do emit hydrogen,
    oxygen, and very small quantities of sulfuric acid vapor while being

•   Battery charging areas must be located in an area with adequate
    ventilation so that hydrogen generation during the charging process
    does not build up to combustible levels, considered to be 4% or above.
    Hydrogen detectors should be installed in areas where hydrogen
    buildup is possible.
            Maintenance Considerations

•   Equipment maintenance exposes the worker to hazards from chemical
    used for cleaning purposes, as well as other issues. OSHA addresses
    these concerns in 1910.178 (q). Excerpts pertaining to industrial
    hygiene are as follows.

•   Repairs to the fuel and ignition systems of industrial trucks, which
    involve fire hazards, must be conducted only in locations designated
    for such repairs. Any vehicle that emits hazardous sparks or flames
    from the exhaust system must immediately be removed from service
    and not returned to service until the cause has been eliminated.

•   When the temperature of any part of any truck is found to be in excess
    of its normal operating temperature, thus creating a hazardous
    condition, the vehicle must be removed from service and not returned
    to service until the cause has been eliminated.

•   Industrial trucks must be kept in a clean condition, free of lint, excess
    oil and grease. Noncombustible agents should be used for cleaning
    trucks. Only solvents with a flash point above 100 degrees F. may be
    used for cleaning. Precautions regarding toxicity, ventilation and fire
    hazard must be appropriate for the agent or solvent used.
• Operators must be aware of the general hazards
  associated with forklift use and the specific hazards that
  exist in their workplace.

• Operators must be trained in the specific forklift type they
  will be expected to operate and demonstrate driver
  proficiency on the equipment, in the workplace.

• Equipment and storage systems must be designed to
  work together. Each must be carefully selected and/or
  designed to fit the application

• An efficient, well planned, materials handling system
  provides for a clean, safe and productive work

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