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                                         Standard Bank Learner Series                                                                          resource

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  body art/body maps biography
                                                                                                                                                                               Verster’s representation of the human form in ‘Past/Present’ is filled with
                                                                                                                                                                               signs, symbols and icons. His time spent in India inspired many works
                                                                                                                                                                               dealing with Indian religious and cultural symbolism. The Indianesque
                                                                                                                                                                               series (2002), as well as Red Deity (2002) and Ritual (2008), all explore
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                fact file: Body Art And tAttooing                                                                 educational activities extracted from the ‘Past/Present’ educational supplement, prepared by
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Andrew Verster
                                                                                                                                                                               this idea in different ways. for the bulk of his subject matter, Verster gives
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  carol Brown to accompany the exhibition on its national tour.
                                                                                                                                                                               credit to “the two Indias” in his life: Durban, which he has called home for
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                In India, mendhi or henna painting is associated with                                                                                                                                                                  Andrew Verster, born in Johannesburg in 1937, is one of the
                                                                                                                                         EXH I B ITION                         more than 40 years, and the country, which he visited for the first time in
                                    a learner resource                                                                                                                         recent years.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                celebrations, such as weddings or other events linked with                                                                                                                                                             most prolific and diverse artists of our time. After studying art

                                    on the art of                                                                    PaSt/PRESENt                                              Another of Verster’s preoccupations, which ties in with this interest in
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                transcendence or transformation. The art serves the purpose of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                worship or work, rather than having anything to do with vanity.                                                                                                                      Choose a
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       at Camberwell Art School in the United Kingdom, he returned to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      glossary word                                                                                                    South Africa, where he has had more than 40 solo exhibitions, and

                                                                                                                           Standard Bank Gallery                               ritual, is tattooing and body art. A vast component of ‘Past/Present’ is                         Other cultures use tattooing to celebrate festivities, or to mark                                                                                                partner, and using body or mendhi                     is represented in numerous major public and private collections.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                membership of a group. Body art has a strong connection                                                                                                          paints, make a mendhi design on
                                                                                                                                    Johannesburg                               the various pieces concerned with body art in different contexts. The
                                                                                                                                                                               Bodyworks series features larger-than-life male figures adorned with motifs                      with identity, as a sailor’s tattoos might depict his travels, or a                                incongruous                                                   your partner’s hand. Cover their                      Verster has also designed costumes and sets for a number of
                                                                                                                           16 april – 23 May 2009                              which range in origin from Greece, to Rome, to India. The Skin Markings                          teenager’s might show his allegiance to a particular band or                                               - unsuitABle or                                       entire hand, making reference to                      productions, as well as for fashion events, including the Durban
                                                                                                                                                                               installation (2007) consists of tissue paper, wax, ink, pigments and pins,                       musical movement. The Maori people believe that a person’s life                                              out of plAce                                        Indian decorative tattoos.                            Designer Collection in 2002. Recently, the artist designed jewellery
      by emile maurice
      & rebecca dodd.                                                                                                                                                          and features fragments of the figures from Bodyworks, covered in the                             force, or ‘mana’, is displayed through their tattoos. Facial tattoos                                                                                                                                                   which was then made by beadmakers at the African Art Centre.
      produced by the                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           indicate a person’s heritage and status in the group, while other
  h e r i ta g e a g e n c y c c                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Andrew Verster, Tattoo Boy II, 2006. Ink on paper. 29 x 20 cm
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                tattoos are given to symbolise important events in a person’s

                                                                                                                                                                                           “Democracy, of course                                                                life. Traditional Samoans covered the entire lower halves of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                their bodies as a fashion statement. In Africa, the tradition of
                                                                                                                                                                                            has changeD so much                                                                 body art has been traced back to mummies in both Egypt and
                                                                                                                                                                                            anD freeD us to work                                                                Libya. Clans in Africa usually make use of a form of tattooing
 Andrew Verster (1937-)                                                                                                                                                                    anD think Differently”                                                               called ‘scarification’, a process which involves puncturing the
is one of the country’s                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         skin, then rubbing ash on the wound to heal it. This produces
  most prolific artists,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        an embossed effect of scar tissue. These tattoos always have a
                                                                                                                                                                               same symbols of serpents, gods, vases and sculptural heads. Verster                              symbolic purpose rather than just an ornamental one, and are
   due to his impatience                                                                                                                                                       explains, “In my work I quote from myself often – that is from previous                          generally believed to guard the wearer against evil spirits, or to
        and enthusiasm                                                                                                                                                         works”. The Tattoo Boy series (2006), a collection of ink drawings, appears                      demonstrate their courage.
     for exploring and                                                                                                                                                         as an echo of Bodyworks, but in simplified black and white. Here, images
                                                                                                                                                                               blend with serpents, egyptian gods and the foreign symbols used in
       discovering new
                                                                                                                                                                               Bodyworks and Skin Markings.
            techniques.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Andrew Verster, Indianesque II, 2002. Oil on canvas. 100 x 75 cm

                                                                                                                                                                               On the same theme, Notes on a Crucifixion – Black (2007), the Arm
      ‘PAst/Present’ is                                                                                                                                                        and Leg series (both 2008) and Hands/Feet/Stars (2007) all consist of
        verster’s third                                                                                                                                                        brightly-coloured disembodied body parts decorated with intricate designs
                                                                                                                                                                               inspired by other cultures. The subject is again confronted with playful
         retrospective                                                                                                                                                         irreverence in Classical Graffiti (2008), a series of digital transfers to                                                                                                                       Andrew Verster, Classical Graffiti, 2008. digital transfer to canvas                                                                                              Andrew Verster. Photograph courtesy of the artist
 exhibition. the works                                                                                                                                                         canvas, in which classical sculptures of nudes are reworked with detailed
     on the exhibition                                                                                                                                                         patterns. some of these feature incongruous modern symbols, like the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        ‘Past/Present’ promotes an awareness of self
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  “unless painting is
         are made from                                                                                                                                                         airplane, and eastern motifs, such as characters from the Japanese
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    and body image. For this activity, the class needs to be divided into
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                something more than
                                                                                                                                                                               alphabet or drawings of geishas.
    a variety of media,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             pairs. One person must lie on a large piece of paper on the floor,                                                           making pictures, i’Ve
 from the traditional                                                                                                                                                          Also important in ‘Past/Present’ is Verster’s set and costume design.                                                                                                                                while the other traces around their partner’s body, making a life-size                                                         misseD the point”
                                                                                                                                                                               The miniature models of his designs for the opera, La Traviata, and a                                                                                                                                body image. After this, partners swap so that the other person’s body
      oil on canvas, to                                                                                                                                                        reconstruction of one of the costumes form part of the exhibition. It is                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The past 14 years have seen Verster’s work moving out of the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    can be traced. When this has been done, each person gets their own
 drawing, etching and                                                                                                                                                          the mark of a dynamic and adaptable artist that ‘Past/Present’ includes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    body outline, and can then draw or paint motifs and patterns that
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       confines of the gallery into new territory. He designed three large
                                                                                                                                                                               such a broad range of media and techniques, but Verster explains that                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   tapestries for Rhodes House in Oxford to celebrate the centenary
           mixed media.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             have meaning to them on it.                                                                                        of the death of Cecil Rhodes and the start of the new Mandela
                                                                                                                                                                               this flexibility is a necessity: “Working as a fulltime artist for 25 years has
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Rhodes Foundation. For the Constitutional Court he competed for
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       seven of the commissions for various artworks. He designed the
                                                                                                              Andrew Verster, Bodyworks I, 2006. Oil on canvas. 180 x 180 cm                                                                                            Andrew Verster, Ritual, 2008. Oil on canvas with map pins, Indian wooden lattice frame. 47 x 41 cm                                                                                                                             carpets for the Court chamber, the entrance doors (which are eight

               ast/ Present’ tells us about Andrew Verster’s concerns with how our past affects our                                                                            fact file the south AfricAn                                                               meant that I have had to be versatile and develop a lot of other skills                                          something to think about:                                                                                    and a half metres high), three neon chandeliers, and has three
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       paintings and several graphics in the Court’s collection.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         so that I could take on a variety of commissions.”                                                               A number of the pieces you will see in ‘Past/Present’ can be defined
               present. The timeframe of the show, 1994-2008, is important in that the first works                                                                             constitution And Bill of rights                                                                                                                                                                            as ‘erotic’ art. At what point do you think the line should be drawn                                         Additionally, Verster is on the Film and Publication Review Board
               were made at the time of the birth of our democracy.
                                                                                                                          “Verster was                                         1994 marked the beginning of democracy in South Africa. The Constitution of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Verster’s process of costume design does not include sewing or
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          between erotic art and pornography? Consider the intention or                                                and is a trustee of the Durban Art Gallery, the Arts Work Trust,
             About his work, Verster says, “In each work I write my own history, which in turn is entan-                    the first                                          the Republic of South Africa, adopted in 1996, is the supreme law of the land and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         making patterns. He rather sketches the designs and then pins the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         fabric of his choice to mannequins in the shape of the design. At
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          message of each medium.                                                                                      Very Special Arts, Artists for Human Rights Trust and the African
             gled with everyone else’s. We live several lives at once...Past and present rub shoul-                        artist that                                         provides the foundation on which all other laws and policies are founded. It sets
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         this point, a dressmaker will extract a pattern from what Verster has                                                                                                                                                         Art Centre. He also serves on the committee of the National Arts
ders.” further, “I feel that my work in the last 14 years has taken a shift…Democracy, of course has                      maDe his life,                                       out the rights of all South Africans, the principles by which the country is governed,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         produced. “Where I lack specialist skills,” he explains, “I work with                                       RefeRences
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Festival in Grahamstown.
changed so much and freed us to work and think differently, so the exhibition intends to reflect this.”
                                                                                                                            his loVers                                         and defines the roles and the responsibilities of the state. It is widely regarded as
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         those who have them”.                                                                                       Brown, C. (ed.) 2008. Past/Present: Works by Andrew
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Today, Verster is still a relevant and dynamic artist. His work
The exhibition is a personal account of one man’s journey during a time of great change. for Verster,                      anD his sex                                         being amongst the most progressive in the world.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Apart from the confrontational sexuality of the Rude Boys series,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Verster from 1994-2008. durban: Fishwicks.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Brown, C. 2009. “Past/Present: works by Andrew                                                                    continues to push boundaries and surprise audiences. Verster
our new constitution, adopted in 1996, marked his ‘becoming legal’ as a gay man. Because of this,                          the subject                                         The Bill of Rights, included in the Constitution, lists and affirms the democratic
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         ‘Past/Present’ avoids neat categorisation by critics tempted to pin                                         Verster from 1994-2008”. educational supplement.                                                                  considers himself first and foremost a painter, and on the subject
many of the works reveal a preoccupation with the male form, which is treated with blunt matter-of-
factness in series such as Rude Boys (1994) and Bodyworks (2006). clive van den Berg, who was
                                                                                                                          of his work”                                         values of human dignity, equality and freedom and mandates the state to respect,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         the exhibition as part of a gay aesthetic or sensibility. The volume of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     durban: durban Art Gallery.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     iloveindia. African tattoos. [Online]. Available: http://                                                         of his life’s work has this to say: “Unless painting is something
                                                                                                                                                                               promote and fulfil these. It includes, amongst others, the rights to freedom of                                                                                                                                                                            more than making pictures, I’ve missed the point.”
taught by Verster at the University of natal in Pietermaritzburg in the 1980s, remembers him as “the                                                                                                                                                                     work, coupled with the sheer diversity of skill and material, renders                                       africa.html. [2009, March 11].
                                                                                                                                                                               expression, sexual orientation, culture and religion.
first artist that made his life, his lovers and his sex the subject of his work”. Van den Berg also recalls                                                                                                                                                              labelling Verster as one thing or another impossible. Verster, in                                           Verster, A. 2007. Profile. [Online]. Available: http://
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         response to such attempts at classification, believes that “boxes are                              [2009, March 9].
that Verster claimed responsibility for putting images, unashamed, of the male anatomy on view for                                                                             These new freedoms are important to Verster, both as a gay man, and as an artist                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        the exhibition is accompanied by a catalogue and an education supplement edited by
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       the curator, Carol Brown.
the public in south Africa at a time when extreme conservatism prevailed.                                                                                                      interested in different cultures and religions.                                           limiting – black art, wildlife art, women’s art – these sub-species
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       if you are unable to view this exhibition in person, you can take a virtual tour by
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         subvert appreciation for they demand different criteria”.                                                       Andrew Verster, Rico, 1994. Oil on canvas board. 36 x 25 cm                                                   visiting the standard Bank gallery website:
       resource                                                             Standard Bank Learner Series
             2/2009                                                                                                                                   The recognition by european artists of the value
                                                                                                                                                      of traditional, or classical, African objects as
                                                                                                                                                      art was a vital influence on the development                                                                                                                       try out
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Apart from those mentioned in
                                                                                                                                                      of european modernism. This led to a new                                                                                                                           the text, can you name other South African abstract                                                                                                     glossary words                                       think about this
                                                                                                                                                      formal language based, to a large extent, on the                                                                                                                   artists? Visit your local art museum, gallery or library                                              edoArdo VillA
                                                                                                                                                      geometric-style surfaces of African sculpture.                                                                                                                     to research such artists.                                                                                                                                                                                    • Renowned art historian, Esmé Berman,
                                   a learner resource                                                              EXH I B ITION                      This language combined with imagination,
                                                                                                                                                      expression, intuition and emotion as the new im-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Most visitors to South Africa visit only the country’s
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Edoardo Villa was born in Bergamo, Italy, in 1915.                - A french word used to descriBe Art
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        has suggested that Villa “transformed the

                                   on the art of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        South African viewers’ way of looking at
                                                                                               EdoaRdo viLLa:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         major tourist attractions – beaches, game parks,
                                                                                                                                                      pulses in art to make for an entirely new artistic                                                                                                                                                                                               While studying sculpture in Milan, World War II broke             or Artists depArting from Accepted
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         the winelands and some historical sites, like Robben                                                                                                                                                           sculpture”. How, in your opinion, did Villa
                                                                                               MoviNG voicES                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           out in 1939, and he was conscripted into the army.                trAdition, or the norm. AVAnt-gArde
                                                                                                                                                      vision, evident in Villa’s work.                                                                                                                                   Island. Over the last few years, the township tour has                                                                                                                                                         change the way viewers look at sculpture?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Artists use techniques, or deVelop

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         been added to the tourist menu, adding another ele-                           A year later, he was captured in north Africa, and
                                                                                                                                                      One european art movement that was greatly
                                                                                                       Standard Bank Gallery                          influenced by traditional African art was cu-                                                                                                                      ment that informs the outsider’s perception of Africa.                        transferred to South Africa as a prisoner-of-war. During           concepts of Art, thAt Are originAl.                         • Villa is regarded as an abstract artist.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           these techniques or concepts Are
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       his imprisonment, Villa’s talent granted him welcome                                                                             Read the fact file on abstract art and dis-
                                                                                                                Johannesburg                          bism, the formal language of which can be                                                                                                                          As someone living in South Africa, what is your under-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       spells of freedom, as he was commissioned to make
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           sometimes fAr-reAching, chAnging
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         standing of Africa? Collect source material – images                                                                                                                                                           cuss the concept with others in your class.
                                                                                                       16 april – 23 May 2009                         seen in Villa’s use of intersecting planes in
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         from newspapers and magazines, and postcards,                                 portraits of local personalities and other works of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   the course of Art.
              by emile maurice                                                                                                                        many of his sculptures. Another crucial mod-                                                                                                                                                                                                     art. Upon his release, Villa decided to make South                                                                             • In the 1960s and 1970s, Villa sought to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         for example – that represents Africa in one way or
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            reductiVe cArVing
              & rebecca dodd.                                                                                                                         ernist influence on Villa was the development                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     represent the “the spirit of Africa” in his
                   compiled by                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           the other. Also make sketches on the subject in your                          Africa his home and pursue his career as a sculptor in
                  t h e h e r i ta g e                                                                                                                of constructivist sculpture in europe, where the                                                                                                                   visual diary. Finally, make an artwork which repre-                           Johannesburg.                                                      - A method of mAking A sculpture,                             work. What do you understand by the
                      agency cc                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         term, ‘African art’? What do you think
                                                                                                                                                      work is assembled from various components,                                                                                                                         sents your understanding of today’s Africa.                                                                                                     whereBy wAste mAteriAl is remoVed
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         from the form until the Artwork is                             makes an artwork African? In developing

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  finAlly AttAined.                                     your ideas, ask your friends and family
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     edoardo Villa, Confrontation, 1978. steel. 4.23 m. Collection: rand Merchant Bank
                                                            doardo Villa: Moving Voices’ reflects an alternative Villa sensibility,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     members what they think.
          edOArdO VIllA: MoVInG                             often overlooked by the public. It pays homage to the tradition of small                                                                                                      Villa initially developed an African presence in                               public sculpture on show in Johannesburg than
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          oeuVre                                     edoardo Villa, elliptical Movement, Green, 2002.
                                                            sculpture. The show comprises three to four years’ work, which reflects                                                                                                       his work by including elements from the highveld                               any other artist.                                                                                                                                                                                           Mild steel, paint. 50 x 102 x 50cm
    VoICes’ is one of few indoor                            how the artist, in his maturity, has adopted a more painterly approach                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         - the entire Body of work By An
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          landscape into his work, particularly plant forms,                             The decades-long span of Villa’s career has seen
       exhibitions by the highly                to colour and form, in contrast with his better known large-scale, stark, mechanical                                                                                                      and his sculptures from the 1950s featured jagged
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Artist, or the Body of work regArded
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         his work evolve from relatively conservative busts                                                                                                          collectiVely.
            acclaimed sculptor,                 and industrial derivative works.                                                                                                                                                          contours and intersecting flat and curved planes. As                           and reliefs to bare, modernist shapes and figu-
                  edoardo villa.                Villa’s miniatures, like their enormous ‘cousins’, may appear non-figurative (ab-                                                                                                         esmé Berman puts it, his work now began to speak
                                                stract) at first, but all are characterised by a playful approach to the human form.                                                                                                      “convincingly, not of the appearance, but of the                                                                                                                                                                                       phAllocentric
          at the age of 93, villa               even the most abstract pieces make some reference to human relationships,                                                                                                                 experience of Africa”.                                                                 “Villa’s work speaks                                                                                                                  - referring to or implying the phAllus
         (1915- ) is probably the               circumstances, attitudes and postures.                                                                                                                                                    Villa’s works vary in mood and can be lighthearted,                                  ‘not of the appearance,                                                                                                                        (penis) or mAle Attitudes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                but of the experience
        oldest working artist                   The exhibition highlights the developmental process from studio to gallery, from raw                                                                                                      elegant or humorous. It is, however, in his more seri-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      of africa’”
                                                materials to the riot of shape and colour that celebrates Villa’s passion for life. The                                                                                                   ous reflections on life that his search for an African
      in the country. his work                  majority of Villa’s pieces have been created using spot welding, best likened to “gluing”,                                                                                                presence for his work shines through. An example                                                                                                             edoardo Villa at work
            spans nearly seven                  as opposed to the more traditional reductive carving technique of sculpture.                                                                                                              here is Confrontation (1978), an enormous work in-                             rines, to the exuberant and colourful works which                                                                                                                                                              ABout these worksheets
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Villa’s early work consists mostly of traditional
       decades and comprises                    After his release from a prisoner-of-war camp at Zonderwater in south Africa (he was                                                                                                      stalled outside the Rand Merchant Bank in sandton,                             typify the latter part of his oeuvre. While some of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       figurative heads and reliefs. Although his best-known         fact file ABstrAct Art                                             This educational supplement accompanies the exhibitions,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Johannesburg. Made in the aftermath of the 1976                                his sculptures are twisted interpretations of the
           thousands of pieces                  captured during World War II, and imprisoned for four years), Villa came under the influ-                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              work is very different from these demure figures, the                                                                            ‘Past/Present’ and ‘edoardo Villa: Moving Voices’. In it
                                                ence of radical shifts away from the tradition of replicating, or describing, appearances                                                                                                 soweto uprising, it expresses Villa’s concern with the                         human form, others are sometimes startlingly phal-                            sharp definition and precise finish of these reliefs were     In abstract art, the subject looks different                       artworks are explored by means of thought-provoking
        dealing with sexuality,                                                                                                                                                                                                           political conflict in apartheid south Africa.                                  locentric. It is a testament to an active, creative and                                                                                     from how it appears when we look at it
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        questions, fact files, glossary words and practical projects.
                                                in european art. He absorbed the lessons of modernism, as evident in the work of                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       to be become one of the hallmarks of Villa’s work in                                                                             Discussion topics help learners to develop a critical attitude
          aggression, political                 sculptors such as Pablo Picasso, Henry Moore and David smith, and rose to become                                                                                                          Today Villa’s easily recognisable public sculptures                            open mind that Villa, even after 90, still conceives                          the 1950s and 1960s. After the War, Villa created             in life. The subject may, for example, be                          to art, rather than just a grasp of media, styles, subject mat-

    unease and confrontation.                   arguably the foremost abstract sculptor in south Africa.                                                                                                                                  dot the urban landscape of Johannesburg, com-                                  and produces works which reflect sexual energy                                a multitude of works, and exhibited often. He soon            distorted, generalised or fragmented, as in                        ter and themes. These worksheets are designed primarily
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        for grade 10-12 learners, but are easily adapted for younger
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          plementing the modernist buildings that partly                                 and youthful vitality.                                                        became a well-known member of the Johannesburg                early 20th century abstract art movements,                         learners. Together with the introductory text, they are a
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          give the city its particular character. He has more                                                                                                          art circuit. From the mid-1960s, he received a                such as Cubism, Constructivism, Fauvism                            stand-alone educational resource on the work of Andrew
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Verster and edoardo Villa.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       large number of commissions, and his work was                 and Expressionism. When an artwork is
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         edoardo Villa, Duo, Green - Blue, 2008. Mild steel, paint. 39 x 33 x 30cm
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       increasingly shown outside the country.                       completely abstracted, no recognisable                             Note on assessment
                                                                                                                                             edoardo Villa, elliptical Movement, sky Blue, 2002. Mild steel, paint. 74 x 93 x 35cm                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   forms can be detected: all we see are lines,                       We recommend that educators develop assessment activi-

                                                                                                                                                      rather than shaped, as per tradition, through
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          fact file cuBism                                                                                                                                             The 1970s marked the beginning of a long-standing
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     shapes and colours. These express the                              ties based on this learning experience. Assessment ensures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       relationship between Villa and various tertiary                                                                                  that learners integrate and apply knowledge and skills. It
                                                                                                                                                      the modelling, or carving, of form.                                                 Developed in Paris by Pablo Picasso and Georges                                                                                                                                                                            emotions and sensations of the artist, such                        also provides teachers with indications of achievement.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       institutions in and around Johannesburg. The Rand
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Braque, Cubism was an early 20th century                                                                                                                                                                                   as pain, anger or joy. Abstract art is based                       When assessment is focused, say in the form of continuous
                                                                                                                                                      Villa was first exposed to modernist avant-garde                                                                                                                                                                                                 Afrikaans University (now University of Johannesburg),                                                                           feedback over a year, learners understand more clearly
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          movement. By rejecting naturalistic art, it                                                                                                                                                                                on the idea that these lines, shapes and
                                                                                                                                                      developments in european art through his                                                                                                                                                                                                         University of Pretoria and the University of the                                                                                 what they are required to know. self-assessment helps
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          revolutionised painting and sculpture. Cubism                                                                                                                                                                              colours have aesthetic values in themselves,
                                                                                                                                                      friendship with two immigrants – egon Guenther                                                                                                                                                                                                   Witwatersrand have holdings of his work on their                                                                                 learners set personal goals, evaluate performance and build
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          consisted of two phases. In the ‘analytical’                                                                                                                 campuses, some obtained during exhibitions held               irrespective of how they might be used to                          self-confidence. Peer assessment encourages a sense of
                                                                                                                                                      and Vittorini Meneghelli. They both collected                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     responsibility. When planning an assessment programme,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          phase the subject was depicted from a variety of                                                                                                             there, others added over time, and some generously            represent an object or figure. Russian-born
                                                                                                                                                      traditional African art, and were involved with the                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               school teachers need to refer to Learning Outcomes and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          viewpoints, and appeared fragmented and made                                                                                                                 donated by Villa himself. The sculptor’s work therefore       Wassily Kandinsky (1866-1944) pioneered                            standards for the Visual Arts, as envisaged in the national
                                                                                                                                                      modern art scene in europe before arriving in
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          up of interlocking planes. As the aim was never                                                                                                              forms part of the Johannesburg landscape.                     pure abstraction from 1910. Pioneers                               curriculum statement.
                                                                                                                                                      south Africa. Through his association with them
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          to paint a completely abstract picture, when the                                                                                                                                                                           of abstract art in South Africa include                            Acknowledgements
                                                                                                                                                      in the Johannesburg of the 1960s and 1970s,                                                                                                                                                                                                      Villa represented South Africa at the Venice Biennale
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          subject became nearly unrecognisable because of                                                                                                                                                                            Walter Battiss (1906-82), Ernest Mancoba                           The authors wish to thank the artists, Andrew Verster and
                                                                                                                                                      Villa was exposed to traditional African art, which                                                                                                                                                                                              on five occasions, and received awards at the São
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          the fragmentation of the figure, Cubism evolved into                                                                                                                                                                       (1904-2002), and Edoardo Villa.                                    edoardo Villa; the standard Bank Gallery team - Mandie
                                                                                                                                                      was to have such a profound impact on his work.                                                                                                                                                                                                  Paulo Biennales of 1957 and 1959. His work has                                                                                   van der spuy, Barbara freemantle, nhlanhla ngwenya, sue
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          its second phase, known as ‘synthetic’ Cubism. This
                                                                                                                                                      Guenther’s fascination with Africa and its spirit                                                                                                                                                                                                been shown in more than 100 solo and group shows                                                                                 Isaac and Kate Johns; Jo-Anne Duggan at the Heritage Agen-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          phase was characterised by the use of stencilled                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              cy; Design Infestation, and Philippa Hobbs for her input.
                                                                                                                                                      led to the establishment of the Amadlozi group,                                                                                                                                                                                                  worldwide, including exhibitions in Europe, North and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          lettering and also collage – the incorporation into
                                                                                                                                                      of which Villa became a leading member. Other                                                                                                                                                                                                    South America, and Africa. The artist’s 80th birthday in                                                                         Published by the standard Bank Gallery, 2009. no part of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          painting of materials, which were stuck onto the                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              this resource may be reproduced without permission of the
                                                                                                                                                      members of the group included cecil skotnes,                                                                                                                                                                                                     1995 was celebrated with the opening of the Edoardo
 edoardo Villa, The Knot, 1981.                                                                                                                                                                                                           artwork. Picasso’s constructivist sculpture evolved                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           publisher.
                                                                                                                                                      cecily sash, sydney Kumalo, Giuseppe cattaneo                                                                                                                                                                                                    Villa Museum at the University of Pretoria. He is best      RefeRences
steel. 6.75 m. Collection: Iziko
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          from the use of collage. Here various materials were                                                                                                                                                                     Berman, e. 2005. “Foreword”. In K. nel, e. Burroughs & A. Von        standard Bank Gallery, corner simmonds and frederick
south African national Gallery                                                                                                                        and later ezrom Legae. They were dedicated to                                                                                                                                                                                                    known for his large-scale steel sculptures, which are       Maltitz (eds.), Villa at 90. Johannesburg & Cape town: Jonathan      streets, Johannesburg. Tel: 011 631-1889
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          combined – these were stuck together – to make a                                                                                                             housed in museums, universities and public spaces           Ball Publishers with shelf Publishing. 1-13.
                                                                                                                                                      creating an African identity in art.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          three-dimensional art object.                                                                                                                                around the country.                                                                                                    

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  edoardo Villa, Red Figure, 1967. steel. 2.35 m. Private collection

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Description: Body art is a human body outside of the United States, significant and can enjoy. When people reach a certain state of thought when that appreciation can be called art, body art is more than just sticking out of the body bare, bare this alone is not included among the arts. But the real art is known as the human body beyond, people have been approved for smoking cessation have been representative of toothpaste could be called an art.