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Poetry On his blindness The Poet

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					The Poet:
John Milton (1608-1674) appeared after Shakespeare’s death and was a
great famous poet. He wrote many famous poems as ―Paradise lost ―and
―Paradise regained ―. His sight got weak gradually till he became blind. Yet,
poetry was his way in life.
The Poem:
When I consider how my light is spent,

Ere half my days, in this dark world and wide,

And that one talent which is death to hide,

Lodg’d with my useless, though my soul more bent

To serve therewith my Maker, and present

My true account, lest He returning chide,

Doth God expect day-labour, light denied.

I fondly ask; but patience to prevent

That murmur, soon replies, God doth not need

Either man’s work or His own gifts: who best

Bear His mild yoke, they serve Him best. His state

Is kingly. Thousands at His bending speed

And post o’er land and ocean without rest:

They also serve who only stand and wait



                                1
1-      Construction:
It’s a sonnet composed upon the Italian method (not the Shakespearian
form.) So, it was divided into an Octet (8 lines) which contains the problem
and the questions, then the sestet (6 lines) which contains the answer to the
problem.
2-      The main idea:
Milton wanted to express his anger for losing his sight and wondered how to
serve “God “without it. Yet, he concluded at the end that he should wait and
be patient.

3- Paraphrase:

A-     Octet :
The poet thought about losing his sight. He felt so sad that one of one of his
senses is dead and won’t be used again. He says that he needs his sight to
serve ―God ―, then be speaks asking impatiently ―how can God expect him to
serve him, while he can’t see? ―


B-     Sestet:
 Patience replies that ―God ―doesn’t need man’s work and so He doesn’t
need the gifts which He gave man. Patience says that God wants people to
obey and submit to His will. These obedient people should stand and wait for
His orders.



4-Figures of speech:
A-     Personification:
Milton personified patience as a man who can speak and advise.
B-     Metaphor :
Milton used the word ― Light ― to refer ― sight ― and ― dark ― to refer to
Blindness



5- Rhyme Scheme: a bba – a bba -              cde – cde




                                  2
    The Poet
    William Shakespeare (1564-1616) was a great poet and dramatist. He
    established the Shakespearean sonnet & a lot about the human element in
    his works.

    The Poem
               Shall I compare thee to a summer’s day?
              Thou art more lovely and more temperate:
            Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May,
             And summer’s lease hath all too short a date:

              Sometime too hot the eye of heaven shines,
               And often is his gold complexion dimm’d;
              And every fair from fair sometime declines,
          By chance, or nature’s changing course, untrimm’d ;

                But thy eternal summer shall not fade,
             Nor lose possession of that fair thou owest;
           Nor shall death brag thou wander’st in his shade,
             When in eternal lines to time thou growest;

              So long as men can breath, or eyes can see,
             So long as lives this, and this gives life to thee.
.
    Construction: What is a sonnet?
                    It’s a poem of 14 lines, which usually has an inner argument
    to convince the reader of its ideas.



                                   3
The Shakespearean sonnet contains 3 quatrains each of four lines and
heroic couplet (two lines). But the Italian sonnet contains an Octet of eight
lines and a sestet of six liens.

What’s a heroic couplet?
Two lines in which the poet conveys his main idea i.e. he wanted to prove the
greatness and immortality of his poetry.

Paraphrase:
            1st Quatrain: The poet wonders if he can compare his beloved
to a summer’s day. Then, he said that his beloved is more beautiful and
much milder because in summer there are strong winds which shake the
small flowers in May, and also the summer doesn’t live long.
            2nd Quatrain: The sun sometimes makes the weather become
very hot. All the beauty of all creatures will come to an end by accident or by
the natural development of life.
           3rd Quatrain: His beloved‘s beauty is immortal and will never die.
Also his beloved will never die or lose her beauty as death will not possess
her because she’ll always be alive in his poetry.

           Heroic couplet:
So long as people live and read his poetry, she’ll keep alive because she
lives throughout his lines.

Rhyme Scheme: (1) a b a b             (2) c d c d   (3) e f e f   ( H.C) G G

Rhythm:          Iambic Pentameter

Figures of Speech

                       “A” Personification:
The poet personifies the summer as a human being to whom he compares
his beloved.

                      “ B “ Metaphor :

He likens the sun to an eye i.e. ―the eye of heaven ―


                                4
                  Essay on Criticism
                     Nature to all thing fix'd the limits fit,
               And wisely curb'd proud man's pretending wit
                 As on the land while here the ocean gains
                 In other parts it leaves wide sandy plains;
                  Thus in the soul while memory prevails,
                  The solid powe'r of understanding fails;
                  Where beams of warm imagination play,
                   The memory's soft figures melt away,
                    One science only will one genius fit;
                     So vast is art'so narrow human wit,
                     Not only bounced to peculiar arts,
                  But oft in those confined to single parts.
             Like kings who lose the conquests gained before,
                 By vain ambition still to make them more:
              Each might his several province well command
               Would all but stoop to what they understand.


Paraphrase
  This is an extract from Pope's poem "Essay on Criticism". In this part of
   the poem he deals with nature's creating and ordering role which is
   beyond human comprehension.

 1-Nature has determined the suitable limits and boundaries of everything
 without resorting to man whose intellect and reason are limited and whose
 pride makes him pretend to know more than what he really knows.

 2-Nature designed the ocean in a way that in some places it limits the sand
 and in others it leaves wide sandy beaches.

 3-As for man, he can not understand and comprehend events and feelings
 while they are still fresh in his memory.


                                  5
4-However, when time passes, a blend takes place between his imagination
and his memories; the reality of those memories fades.

5- The power of knowledge is vast and great but man's intelligence is very
limited.
Pope stresses the necessity of limiting oneself through self-knowledge.

6-Man must know his limitations and concentrate on doing the things he does
well. If each person were to stress on what he knows best, he would be able
to master it and accomplish a lot of things.

7-If, on the other hand, he does not do that; he will be like the kings who try to
extend lands on their territories and have more lands on the expense of their
own countries. So, they end up losing their countries. It is the same with
people as we lose what we have by trying to make it more.

8-Each one should stick to what he knows to control his life well.

The Main Idea
This extract centers mainly on the idea that Man must be aware of his
limitations and must stress his knowledge to be able to excel.
Construction
An "Essay on Criticism" is one of the best pieces of critical works. Its content
is an article, but its style of written in heroic couplets; a couplet consists of
two rhyming lines of verse. The rhyme scheme of this extract is AA, BB, CC,
DD, AA, EE, FF, and GG. A couplet is a complete thought in itself and at the
same time connects to the rest of the poem.

The Rhyme Scheme : AA,BB.CC,DD,AA,EE,FF,GG

The Figures of Speech :
   His poem is full of vivid visual images such as the image of
   the ocean that sometimes engulfs the sand and in other times
   leaves wide sandy beaches. There is another image of
   conquest of king who loses their countries while trying to gain
   more lands.




                                   6
                           Pygmalion
                       George Bernard Shaw

Characters
1-Professor Henry Higgins:                is a professor of phonetics who plays Pygmalion to Eliza Doolittle's
   Galatea.
2-Eliza Doolittle
3-Colonel Pickering
4-Alfred Doolittle
5-Mrs. Higgins.
6-Freddy Eynsford Hill
7-Mrs. Pearce
8-Mrs. Eynsford Hill
9-Clara, Miss Eynsford Hill

                                          Act I
Summary
A heavy late-night summer thunderstorm opens the play. Caught in the unexpected rain,
   passersby in London streets are forced to seek shelter together in Covent Garden .
   Freddy Eynsford Hill is forced by his sister and mother to go out into the rain to find a
   taxi even though there is none to be found. In his hurry, he knocks over the basket of a
   common Flower Girl -Eliza Doolittle-, who says to him, "Nah then, Freddy: look wh' y'
   gowin, deah." After Freddy leaves, the mother gives the Flower Girl money to ask how
   she knew her son's name, only to learn that "Freddy" is a common word the Flower Girl
   would have used to address anyone.
An elderly military Gentleman enters from the rain -Colonel Pickering-, and the Flower Girl
   tries to sell him a flower. He gives her some change, but a bystander tells her to be
   careful, for it looks like there is a police informer taking copious notes on her activities.
   This leads to hysterical protestations on her part, that she is only a poor girl who has
   done no wrong. The refugees from the rain crowd around her and the Note Taker-
   Professor Henry Higgins-, with considerable hostility towards him as they believe him to
   be an undercover policeman. However, each time someone speaks up, this mysterious
   man has the amusing ability to determine where the person came from, simply by
   listening to that person's speech, which turns him into something of a sideshow .
The rain clears, leaving few other people than the Flower Girl, the Note Taker, and the
   Gentleman. In response to a question from the Gentleman, the Note Taker answers
   that his talent comes from "simply phonetics...the science of

                                            7
   speech." He goes on saying that he can use phonetics to make a duchess out of the
   Flower Girl. Through further questioning, the Note Taker and the Gentleman appear to
   be Henry Higgins and Colonel Pickering, both scholars of dialects who have been
   wanting to visit with each other. They decide to go for a supper, but not until Higgins
   has been convinced by the Flower Girl to give her some change. He generously throws
   her some coins. This allows the delighted girl to take a taxi home, the same taxi that
   Freddy has brought back, only to find that his impatient mother and sister have left
   without him.



                                       Act II
Summary
The next day, Higgins and Pickering are just resting from a full morning of discussion when
   Eliza Doolittle shows up at the door. Mrs. Pearce and the two gentlemen were very
   surprised. Encouraged by his careless brag about making her into a duchess the night
   before, she has come to take lessons from Higgins, so that she may sound genteel
   enough to work in a flower shop rather than sell at the corner of Tottenham Court
   Road. As the conversation progresses, Higgins alternates between making fun of the
   poor girl and threatening her with a broomstick beating, which only causes her to howl
   and holler, upsetting Higgins' civi lized company to a considerable degree. Pickering
   is much kinder and considerate of her feelings, even going so far as to call her
   "Miss Doolittle" and to offer her a seat. Pickering likes the prospect of helping Eliza,
   and bets Higgins that if Higgins is able to pass Eliza off as a duchess at the
   Ambassador's garden party, then he, Pickering, will cover the expenses of the
   experiment.
It is agreed upon that Eliza will live with Higgins for six months, and be schooled in the
     speech and manners of a lady of high class. Things get started when Mrs. Pearce
     takes her upstairs for a bath.
While Mrs. Pearce and Eliza are away, Pickering wants to be sure that Higgins' intentions
  towards the girl are honorable, to which Higgins replies that, to him, women "might as
  well be blocks of wood." Mrs. Pearce enters to warn Higgins that he should be more
  careful with his swearing and his forgetful table manners now that they have an
  impressionable young lady with them, revealing that Higgins's own gentlemanly ways
  are somewhat pretending. At this point, Alfred Doolittle, who has learned from a
  neighbor of Eliza's that she has come to the professor's place, comes a-knocking under
  the pretence of saving his daughter's honor. When Higgins readily agrees that he
  should take his daughter away with him, Doolittle reveals that he is really there to ask
  for five pounds, proudly claiming that he will spend that money on immediate
  gratification and put none of it to useless savings. Amused by his manners, Higgins
  gives him the money.


                                          8
Eliza enters, clean and pretty in a blue kimono, and everyone is amazed by the difference.
    Even her father has failed to recognize her. Eliza is taken with her transformation and
    wants to go back to her old neighborhood and show off, but she is warned agains t
    snobbery by Higgins. The act ends with the two of them agreeing that they have taken
    on a difficult task.

                                       Act III
Summary
It is Mrs. Higgins' at-home day, and she is greatly displeased when Henry Higgins shows
     up suddenly, for she knows from experience that he is too eccentric to be presentable
     in front of the sort of respectable company she is expecting. He explains to her that he
     wants to bring the experiment subject on whom he has been working for some months
     to her at-home, and explains the bet that he has made with Pickering. Mrs. Higgins is
     not pleased about this unexpected visit from a common flower girl, but she has no time
     to oppose before Mrs. and Miss Eynsford Hill (the mother and daughter from the first
     scene) are shown into the parlor by the parlor-maid. Colonel Pickering enters soon
     after, followed by Freddy Eynsford Hill.
Higgins is about to really offend the company with a theory that they are all savages who
   know nothing about being civilized when Eliza is announced. She makes quite an
   impact on everyone with her studied grace and delicate speech. Everything promises
   to go well until Mrs. Eynsford Hill brings up the subject of influenza, which causes Eliza
   to launch into the topic of her aunt, who supposedly died of influenza. In her
   excitement, her old accent, along with shocking facts such as her father's alcoholism,
   slip out. Freddy thinks that she is merely affecting "the new small talk," and is dazzled
   by how well she does it. He is obviously infatuated with her. When Eliza gets up to
   leave, he offers to walk her but she exclaims, "Walk! Not bloody likely. I am going in
   a taxi." The Mrs. Eynsford Hill leaves immediately after. Clara, Miss Eynsford Hill, is
   taken with Eliza, and tries to imitate her speech.
After the guests leave, Mrs. Higgins blames Higgins. She says there is no way Eliza will
    become presentable as long as she lives with the constantly-swearing Higgins. She
    demands to know the precise conditions under which Eliza is living with the two old
    bachelors. She is prompted to say, "You certainly are a pretty pair of babies,
    playing with your live doll," which is only the first of a series of such criticisms she
    makes of Higgins and Pickering. They try to calm her with accounts of Eliza's
    improvement. She tries to explain to them that there will be a problem of what to do
    with Eliza once everything is over, but the two men pay no attention. They take their
    leave, and Mrs. Higgins is left exasperated by the "infinite stupidity" of "men! men!!
    men!!!"




                                           9
                       Pygmalion
                  George Bernard Shaw
  Characters
1-Professor Henry Higgins .
2-Eliza Doolittle
3-Colonel Pickering
4-Alfred Doolittle
5-Mrs. Higgins.
6-Freddy Eynsford Hill
7-Mrs. Pearce
8-Mrs. Eynsford Hill
9-Clara, Miss Eynsford Hill
                                 Act IV
Summary:
Professor Henry Higgins, Eliza Doolittle &Colonel Pickering return to Higgins'
   Wimpole Street laboratory, exhausted from the great night's happenings.
   They talk about the evening and their great success, though Higgins
   seems rather bored, more concerned with his inability to find slippers.
   While he talks absentmindedly with Pickering, Eliza slips out, returns with
   his slippers, and lays them on the floor before him without a word. When
   he notices them, he thinks that they appeared out of nowhere. Higgins and
   Pickering begin to speak as if Eliza is not there with them, saying how
   happy they are that the entire experiment is over, agreeing that it had
   become rather boring in the last few months. The two of them then leave
   the room to go to bed. Eliza is clearly hurt ("Eliza's beauty turns
   murderous," say the stage directions), but Higgins and Pickering are
   oblivious to her.
Higgins pops back in, once again mystified over what he has done with his
   slippers, and Eliza promptly flings them in his face. Eliza is mad enough to
   kill him; she thinks that she is no more important to him than his slippers.
   At Higgins' retort that she is presumptuous and ungrateful, she answers
   that no one has treated her badly, but that she is still left confused about
   what is to happen to her now that the bet has been won. Higgins says that
   she can always get married or open that flower shop (both of which she
   eventually does), but she replies by saying that she wishes she had been
   left where she was before. She goes on to ask whether her clothes belong
   to her, meaning what she can take away with her without being accused of
                                    10
   thievery. Higgins is genuinely hurt, something that does not happen to him
   often. She returns him a ring he bought for her, but he throws it into the
   fireplace. After he leaves, she finds it again, but then leaves it on the
   dessert stand and departs.

Commentary
If we consider the conventional structure of a romance or fairy tale, the story
    has really already reached its climax by this point, because Cinderella
    has been turned into a princess, and the challenge has been met. Then
    why does the play carry on for another two acts? This would appear
    completely counter- productive, only if one thinks that this play is only
    about changing appearances. The fact that the play carries on indicates
    that there are more transformations in Eliza to be witnessed : this
    act shows the birth of an independent spirit in the face of Higgins' bullying
    superiority. The loosely set-up difference between people and objects (i.e.,
    whether Higgins treats people like people or objects) is brought to a head
    when Eliza flings his slippers in his face, and complains that she means no
    more to him than his slippers--"You don't care. I know you don't care.
    You wouldn't care if I was dead. I'm nothing to you--not so much as
    them slippers." Not only does she object to being treated like an object,
    she goes on to assert herself by saying that she would never sell herself,
    like Higgins suggests when he tells her she can go get married. This
    climactic move forces Higgins to reconsider what a woman can be, and,
    as he confesses in the final act, marks the beginning of his considering
    Eliza to be an equal rather than a burden.
One thing to consider in this act is why Shaw has chosen not to portray the
  climax at the ambassador's party where Eliza can prove how well she has
  been instructed by Higgins (although his movie screenplay does allow for a
  scene at the embassy). One reason is that most theatrical productions do
  not have the capacity to stage an opulent, luxurious ball just for a short
  scene. But another reason is that Shaw's intention is to rob the story of
  its romance. We are spared the actual training of Eliza as well as her
  moment of glory (that is, both the science and the magic); instead, all
  we get is scenes of her pre- and post- the dramatic climax.




                                     11
                                     Act V
Summary
Higgins and Pickering show up the next day at Mrs. Higgins' home in a state
   of distraction because Eliza has run away. They are interrupted by Alfred
   Doolittle, who enters resplendently dressed, as if he were the bridegroom
   of a very fashionable wedding. He has come to take issue with Henry
   Higgins for destroying his happiness. It turns out that Higgins wrote a letter
   to a millionaire jokingly recommending Doolittle as a most original moralist,
   so that in his will the millionaire left Doolittle a share in his trust, amounting
   to three thousand pounds a year, provided that he lecture for the
   Wannafeller Moral Reform World League. Newfound wealth has only
   brought him more pain than pleasure, as long lost relatives emerge from
   the woodwork asking to be fed, not to mention that he is now no longer
   free to behave in his casual, slovenly, dustman ways. He has been
   damned by "middle class morality." The talk degenerates into a squabble
   over who owns Eliza, Higgins or her father (Higgins did give the latter five
   pounds for her after all). To stop them, Mrs. Higgins sends for Eliza, who
   has been upstairs all along. But first she tells Doolittle to step out on the
   balcony so that the she will not be shocked by the story of his new fortune.
When she enters, Eliza takes care to behave very civilly. Pickering tells her
  she must not think of herself as an experiment, and she expresses her
  gratitude to him. She says that even though Higgins was the one who
  trained the flower girl to become a duchess, Pickering always treated her
  like a duchess, even when she was a flower girl. His treatment of her
  taught her not phonetics, but self-respect. Higgins is speaking incorrigibly
  harshly to her when her father reappears, surprising her badly. He tells her
  that he is all dressed up because he is on his way to get married to his
  woman. Pickering and Mrs. Higgins are asked to come along. Higgins and
  Eliza are finally left alone while the rest go off to get ready.
They proceed to quarrel. Higgins claims that while he may treat her badly, he
  is at least fair in that he has never treated anyone else differently. He tells
  her she should come back with him just for the fun of it--he will adopt her
  as a daughter, or she can marry Pickering. She swings around and cries
  that she won't even marry Higgins if he asks. She mentions that Freddy
  has been writing her love letters, but Higgins immediately dismisses him as
  a fool. She says that she will marry Freddy, and that the two will support
  themselves by taking Higgins' phonetic methods to his chief rival. Higgins
  is outraged but cannot help wondering at her character--he finds this
  defiance much more appealing than the submissiveness of the slippers-
                                       12
   fetcher. Mrs. Higgins comes in to tell Eliza it is time to leave. As she is
   about to exit, Higgins tells her offhandedly to fetch him some gloves, ties,
   ham, and cheese while she is out. She replies ambivalently and departs;
   we do not know if she will follow his orders. The play ends with Higgins's
   roaring laughter as he says to his mother, "She's going to marry Freddy.
   Ha ha! Freddy! Freddy!! Ha ha ha ha ha!!!!!"

Commentary
This final act brings together many of the themes that we have examined in
   the other acts, such as what constitutes the determinants of social
   standing, the fault of taking people too literally, or for granted, the
   emptiness of higher English society, etc. With regard to the first of these
   themes, Eliza makes the impressively astute observation that "the
   difference between a lady and a flower girl is not how she behaves, but
   how she's treated." The line packs double meaning by stating clearly that
   what is needed is not just one's affectation of nobility, while her delivery is
   proof of the statement itself as she has grown enough to make such an
   intelligent claim. Quite contrary to the dresses, the vowels, the consonants,
   the jewelry (significantly, only hired) that she learned to put on, probably
   the greatest thing she has gained from this experience is the self -respect
   that Pickering endowed her with from the first time he called her "Miss
   Doolittle." In contrast to the "self-respect" that Eliza has learned is the
   "respectability" that Doolittle and his woman have gained, a respectability
   that has "broke all the spirit out of her." While respectability can be
   learned, and is what Higgins has taught Eliza, self-respect is something far
   more authentic, and helps rather than hinders the growth of an
   independent spirit. Alfred Doolittle makes the unmitigated claim that
   acquiring the wealth to enter this society has "ruined me. Destroyed my
   happiness. Tied me up and delivered me into the hands of middle class
   morality." Higgins' haughty proclamation--"You will jolly soon see whether
   she has an idea that I haven't put into her head or a word that I haven't put
   into her mouth."--mistakes the external for the internal, and betrays too
   much unfounded pride, which is the ultimate cause of his
   misunderstanding with Eliza.
The greatest problem that people have with Pygmalion is its highly ambivalent
  conclusion, in which the audience is left frustrated if it wants to see the
  typical consummation of the hero and heroine one expects in a romance--
  which is what the play advertises itself to be after all. Most people like to
  believe that Eliza's talk about Freddy and leaving for good is only womanly
  pride speaking, but that she will ultimately return to Higgins. The first
  screenplay of the movie, written without Shaw's approval, has Eliza buy
  Higgins a necktie. In the London premier of the play, Higgins tosses Eliza a

                                     13
  bouquet before she departs. A contemporary tour of the play in America
  had Eliza return to ask, "What size?" Other films of the play either show
  Higgins pleading with Eliza to stay with him, or Higgins following her to
  church. Doubtless, everyone wanted to romanticize the play to a degree
  greater than that which the playwright presented it. All this makes us
  question why Shaw is so insistent and abrupt in his conclusion.
However, in an epilogue that Shaw wrote after too many directors tried to
  adapt the conclusion into something more romantic, he writes, "The rest of
  the story need not be shewn in action, and indeed, would hardly need
  telling if our imaginations were not so enfeebled by their lazy dependence
  on the ready-mades and reach-me-downs of the ragshop in which
  Romance keeps its stock of 'happy endings to misfit all stories." He goes
  on to deliver a detailed and considered argument for why Higgins would
  never marry Eliza, and vice versa. For one, Higgins has too much
  admiration for his mother to find any other woman even halfway
  comparable, and even "had Mrs. Higgins died, there would still have been
  Milton and the Universal Alphabet." To Shaw's mind, if Eliza marries
  anyone at all, it must be Freddy--"And that is just what Eliza did." The
  epilogue goes on to give a dreary account of their married life and faltering
  career as the owners of a flower and vegetable shop (an ironic treatment
  of the typical "happily ever after" nonsense) in which Freddy and Eliza
  must take accounting and penmanship classes to really become useful
  members of society. One can see this whole play as an intentional
  deconstruction of the genre of Romance, and of the myth of Pygmalion as
  well.




                                    14
              Wuthering Heights
About the Author
Emily Brontë was one of six children born to Reverend Patrick Brontë and
  Maria Branwell Brontë. Born in Thornton, Yorkshire, England, on July 30,
  1818, she was the sister of Maria, Elizabeth, Charlotte, Anne, and
  Branwell. Her family moved to Haworth when she was two years old, and
  here she first experienced the moors, a part of the Pennine Chain of
  mountains, and here she lived until she died 30 years later.

Evidence suggests that Emily Brontë began writing Wuthering Heights
   in December 1845 and completed it the next year. A year after that, in July
   of 1847, Wuthering Heights was accepted for publication; however, it was
   not printed until December, following the success of Jane Eyre .
Although Wuthering Heights did not meet with the critical success Jane Eyre
   received, contemporary critics tend to consider Emily the best writer of the
   Brontë sisters. Emily Brontë's highly imaginative novel of passion and hate
   was too savage and animal-like and clumsy in its own day and time, but
   contemporary audiences consider it mild.
The fall following publication, Emily Brontë left home to attend her brother's
   funeral. She caught a severe cold that spread to her lungs, and she died of
   tuberculosis on December 19, 1848.
Following the publication of poems, Jane Eyre, Wuthering Heights, and
   Anne's novel Agnes Grey , audiences considered all three "Bells" to be
   one author. Confusion continued as Anne published The Tenant of
   Wildfell Hall . Wuthering Heights was reissued with poems and a
   biographical notice by Charlotte. By this time, both Emily and Anne had
   died, and Charlotte succinctly stated how and why she and her sisters
   assumed the name of Bell. Charlotte Brontë also provided insight into the
   life of her sister.
Long after its initial publication and subsequent death of its author, Wuthering
   Heights has become one of the classics of English literature. After the
   reissue of Emily Brontë's text, the editors of the Examiner commented
   upon Charlotte's introduction. Their words and sentiments are often
   echoed by admirers of Wuthering Heights: "We have only most unfeignedly
   to deplore the blight which fell prematurely on sure rich intellectual
   promise, and to regret that natures so rare and noble should so early have
   passed away."


                                   15
Plot Summary
Wuthering Heights opens with Lockwood, a tenant of Heathcliff's,
  visiting the home of his landlord. A subsequent visit to Wuthering Heights
  yields an accident and a curious supernatural encounter, which pique
  Lockwood's curiosity. Back at Thrushcross Grange and recuperating from
  his illness, Lockwood begs Nelly Dean, a servant who grew up in
  Wuthering Heights and now cares for Thrushcross Grange, to tell him of
  the history of Heathcliff. Nelly narrates the main plot line of Wuthering
  Heights.

Mr. Earnshaw, a Yorkshire Farmer and owner of Wuthering Heights, brings
  home an orphan from Liverpool. The boy is named Heathcliff and is raised
  with the Earnshaw children, Hindley and Catherine. Catherine loves
  Heathcliff but Hindley hates him because Heathcliff has replaced Hindley
  in Mr. Earnshaw's affection. After Mr. Earnshaw's death, Hindley does
  what he can to destroy Heathcliff, but Catherine and Heathcliff grow up
  playing wildly on the moors, oblivious of anything or anyone else — until
  they encounter the Lintons.

Edgar and Isabella Linton live at Thrushcross Grange and are the complete
  opposites of Heathcliff and Catherine. The Lintons welcome Catherine into
  their home but shun Heathcliff. Treated as an outsider once again,
  Heathcliff begins to think about revenge. Catherine, at first, splits her time
  between Heathcliff and Edgar, but soon she spends more time with Edgar,
  which makes Heathcliff jealous. When Heathcliff overhears Catherine
  telling Nelly that she can never marry him (Heathcliff), he leaves Wuthering
  Heights and disappears for three years.

While he is away, Catherine continues to court and ends up marrying Edgar.
 Their happiness is short-lived because they are from two different worlds,
 and their relationship is strained further when Heathcliff returns.
 Relationships are complicated even more as Heathcliff winds up living with
 his enemy, Hindley (and Hindley's son, Hareton), at Wuthering Heights
 and marries Isabella, Edgar's sister. Soon after Heathcliff's marriage,
 Catherine gives birth to Edgar's daughter, Cathy, and dies.

Heathcliff vows revenge and does not care who he hurts while executing it.
  He desires to gain control of Wuthering Heights and Thrushcross Grange
  and to destroy everything Edgar Linton holds dear. In order to take his

                                   16
  revenge, Heathcliff must wait 17 years. Finally, he forces Cathy to marry
  his son, Linton. By this time he has control of the Heights and with Edgar's
  death, he has control of the Grange.
Through all of this, though, the ghost of Catherine haunts Heathcliff. What he
  truly desires more than anything else is to be reunited with his soul mate.
  At the end of the novel, Heathcliff and Catherine are united in death, and
  Hareton and Cathy are going to be united in marriage.

Character List :
   Heathcliff the main character.
   Catherine Earnshaw The love of Heathcliff's life.
   Edgar Linton Catherine's husband and Heathcliff's rival.
   Cathy Linton Daughter of Catherine and Edgar.
   Linton Heathcliff Son of Heathcliff and Isabella.
   Hareton Earnshaw Catherine's nephew, son of Hindley.
   Ellen (Nelly) Dean The primary narrator and Catherine's servant.
   Lockwood Heathcliff's tenant at Thrushcross Grange and the impetus for
    Nelly's narration..
   Mr. Earnshaw Catherine's father. He brings Heathcliff into his family and
    soon favors the orphan over his own son, Hindley.
   Mrs. Earnshaw Catherine's mother. Not much is known about her, except
    that she favors her own son to Heathcliff, whom she does not like.
   Hindley Earnshaw Catherine's brother. Jealous of Heathcliff, he takes a
    bit of revenge on Heathcliff after his father dies.
   Frances Earnshaw Hindley's wife. A sickly woman who dies soon after
    Hareton is born.
   Joseph Servant at Wuthering Heights. A hypocritical zealot who
    possesses a religious fanaticism that most find wearisome.
   Mr. and Mrs. Linton Edgar's parents. They welcome Catherine into her
    home, introducing her to the life in upper society. They die soon after
    nursing Catherine back to health.
   Isabella Edgar's sister. Her infatuation with Heathcliff causes her to
    destroy her relationship with her brother.
   Zillah Heathcliff's housekeeper. She saves Lockwood from a pack of dogs
    and serves as Nelly's source of information at Wuthering Heights.




                                  17
18
     Summary and Analysis of Chapters 1-5

                                 Chapter 1
Summary
In Chapter 1 the narrator, Mr. Lockwood, relates how he has just returned from
   a visit to his new landlord, Mr. Heathcliff . Lockwood is renting
   Thrushcross Grange in an effort to get away from society following a
   failure at love. He had fallen in love with a "real goddess," but when she
   returned his affection he acted so coldly she "persuaded her mamma to
   decamp." He finds that relative to Heathcliff, however, he is extremely
   sociable. Heathcliff, "a dark skinned gypsy, in aspect, in dress, and
   manners a gentleman" treats his visitor with a minimum of friendliness, and
   the farm, Wuthering Heights , where he lives, is just as foreign and
   unfriendly. "Wuthering" means stormy and windy in the local dialect.
   Dangerous-looking dogs inhabit the bare and old-fashioned rooms, and
   threaten to attack Lockwood: when he calls for help Heathcliff implies that
   Lockwood had tried to steal something. The only other inhabitants of
   Wuthering Heights are an old servant named Joseph and a cook called
   Zillah. Despite his rudeness, Lockwood finds himself drawn to Heathcliff: he
   describes him as being intelligent, proud and morose, an unlikely farmer, and
   declares his intention to visit Wuthering Heights again. The visit is set in
   1801.

Analysis
This chapter introduces the reader to the frame of the story: Lockwood will
   gradually discover the events which led to Heathcliff now about forty years
   old living all but alone in Wuthering Heights, almost completely separated from
   society. The casual violence and lack of concern for manners or consideration
   for other people which characterizes Heathcliff here is only a hint of the
   atmosphere of the whole novel, in which that violence is contrasted with
   more genteel and civilized ways of living.

                                 Chapter 2
Summary

                                   19
Annoyed by the housework being done in the Grange, Lockwood pays a second
  visit to Wuthering Heights, arriving there just as snow begins to fall. The
  weather is cold, the ground is frozen, and his reception matches the bleak
  unfriendliness of the moors. After yelling at the old servant Joseph to open the
  door, he is finally let in by a peasant-like young man. The bare kitchen is warm,
  and Lockwood assumes that the young and beautiful girl there is Mrs.
  Heathcliff. He tries to make conversation but she is consistently scornful and
  inhospitable, and he only embarrasses himself. There is "a kind of desperation"
  in her eyes. She refuses to make him tea unless Heathcliff said he could have
  some. The young man and Heathcliff come in for tea. The young man behaves
  boorishly and seems to suspect Lockwood of making advances to the girl.
  Heathcliff demands tea "savagely and Lockwood decides he doesn't really like
  him. Trying to make conversation again, Lockwood gets into trouble first
  assuming that the girl is Heathcliff's wife, and then that she is married to the
  young man, who he supposes to be Heathcliff's son. He is rudely corrected,
  and it transpires that the girl is Heathcliff's daughter-in-law but her husband is
  dead, as is Heathcliff's wife. The young man is Hareton Earnshaw. It is
  snowing hard and Lockwood requests a guide so he can return home safely,
  but he is refused: Heathcliff considers it more important that Hareton take care
  of the horses. Joseph, who is evidently a religious fanatic, argues with the girl,
  who frightens him by pretending to be a witch. The old servant doesn't like her
  reading. Lockwood, left stranded and ignored by all, tries to take a lantern, but
  Joseph offensively accuses him of stealing it, and sets dogs on him. Lockwood
  is humiliated and Heathcliff and Hareton laugh. The cook, Zillah, takes him in
  and says he can spend the night.

Analysis
The character of the natural setting of the novel the moors, snowstorms begins
  to develop, and it becomes clear that the bleak and harsh nature of the
  Yorkshire hills is not merely a geographical accident. It mirrors the roughness
  of those who live there: Wuthering Heights is firmly planted in its location and
  could not exist anywhere else. Knowing Emily Brontë's passionate fondness
  for her homeland, we can expect the same bleakness which Lockwood finds
  so disagreeable to take on a wild beauty. Its danger cannot be forgotten,
  though: a stranger to those parts could easily lose his way and die of
  exposure. Heathcliff and the wind are similar in that they have no pity for
  weakness. The somewhat menacing presence of the natural world can also be
  seen in the large number of dogs who inhabit Wuthering Heights: they are not
  kept for pets.

The power dynamics that Lockwood observes in the household of Wuthering
  Heights are extremely important. The girl is evidently frightened of Heathcliff

                                    20
  and scornful of Hareton; Hareton behaves aggressively because he is
  sensitive about his status; Heathcliff does not hesitate to use his superior
  physical strength and impressive personality to bully other members of his
  household... The different ways in which different characters try to assert
  themselves reveal a lot about their situation. Most notably, it is evident that
  sheer force usually wins out over intellectual and humane pretensions. The girl
  is subversive and intellectual, an unwilling occupant of the house, but she can
  achieve little in the way of freedom or respect.

Lockwood continues to lose face: his conversational grace appears ridiculous in
  its new setting. Talking to Heathcliff, for example, he refers to the girl as a
  "beneficent fairy," which is evidently neither true nor welcome flattery. This
  chapter might be seen, then, as a continuation of the strict division between
  social ideals (grace, pleasant social interactions, Lockwood) and natural
  realities (storms, frost, dogs, bluntness, cruelty, Hareton, Heathcliff). If the
  chapter was taken by itself, out of context, the reader would see that while
  social ideals are ridiculed, it is clear that the cruel natural world is ugly and
  hardly bearable. Fortunately we are only at the beginning.

                                  Chapter 3


Summary
Zillah quietly shows Lockwood to a chamber which, she says, Heathcliff does not
    like to be occupied. She doesn't know why, having only lived there for a few
    years. Left alone, Lockwood notices the names "Catherine Earnshaw,"
    "Catherine Linton," and "Catherine Heathcliff" scrawled over the window ledge.
    He leafs through some old books stacked there, and finds that the margins are
    covered in handwriting evidently the child Catherine's diary. He reads some
    entries which evoke a time in which Catherine and Heathcliff were playmates
    living together as brother and sister, and bullied by Joseph (who made them
    listen to sermons) and her older brother Hindley. Apparently Heathcliff was a
    "vagabond" taken in by Catherine's father, raised as one of the family, but
    when the father died Hindley made him a servant and threatened to throw him
    out, to Catherine's sorrow.

Lockwood then falls asleep over a religious book, and has a nightmare about a
  fanatical preacher leading a violent mob. Lockwood wakes up, hears that a
  sound in his dream had really been a branch rubbing against the window, and
  falls asleep again. This time he dreams that he wanted to open the window to
  get rid of the branch, but when he did, a "little, ice-cold hand" grabbed his arm,

                                    21
   and a voice sobbed "let me in." He asked who it was, and was answered:
   "Catherine Linton. I'm come home; I'd lost my way on the moor." He saw a
   child's face and, afraid, drew the child's wrist back and forth on the broken
   glass of the window so that blood soaked the sheets. Finally he gets free, and
   insists that he won't let the creature in, even if it has been lost for twenty years,
   which it claims it has. He awakes screaming.

Heathcliff comes in, evidently disturbed and confused, unaware that Lockwood is
  there. Lockwood tells him what happened, mentioning the dream and
  Catherine Linton's name, which distresses and angers Heathcliff. Lockwood
  goes to the kitchen, but hears on his way Heathcliff at the window, despairingly
  begging "Cathy" to come in "at last." Lockwood is embarrassed by his host's
  obvious agony.

Morning comes: Lockwood witnesses an argument between Heathcliff and the
  girl, who has been reading. He bullies her, and she resists spiritedly. Heathcliff
  walks Lockwood most of the way home in the snow.

Analysis:
It is very important that the ghost of Catherine Linton (who is not perhaps simply a
    figment of Lockwood's imagination) appears as a child. Of course Lockwood
    thinks of her as a child, since he had just read parts of her early diary, but
    Heathcliff also seems to find it natural that she appeared in the form she had
    when they were children together. Rather than progressing from childhood on
    to a maturer age with its different values, Heathcliff and Catherine never really
    "grew up." That is to say, everything emotionally important that ever happened
    in their lives either took place in childhood or follows directly from commitments
    made then. They never essentially outgrew their solidarity against the
    oppressive forces of adult authority and religion which is described in
    Catherine's diary. Thus the ghost of Catherine Linton (and that is her married
    name) tries to return to her childhood sanctuary, which Heathcliff has kept in its
    original state. The dominion of linear time is challenged.

It might be relevant here to remember that Emily Brontë kept up the imaginary
   world created when she was very young well into her early twenties, and hated
   to leave the home of her childhood.




                                      22
                                Chapter 4

Summary
Lockwood is bored and a little weak after his adventures, so he asks his
  housekeeper, Ellen Dean, to tell him about the history of Heathcliff and the old
  families of the area. She says he is very rich and a miser, though he has no
  family, since his son is dead. The girl living at Wuthering Heights was the
  daughter of Ellen's former employers, the Lintons, and her name was
  Catherine. She is the daughter of the late Mrs. Catherine Linton, was born an
  Earnshaw, thus Harleton's aunt. Heathcliff's wife was Mr. Linton's sister. Ellen
  is fond of the younger Catherine, and worries about her unhappy situation.

The narrative switches to Ellen's voice, whose language is much plainer than
  Lockwood's. She is a discreet narrator, rarely reminding the listener of her
  presence in the story, so that the events she recounts appear immediate. She
  says she had grown up at Wuthering Heights, and one day:

Mr. Earnshaw offered to bring his children Hindley (14 years old) and Catherine
   (about 6) a present each from Liverpool, where he was going. Hindley asked
   for a fiddle and Catherine for a whip, because she was already an excelled
   horsewoman. When Earnshaw returned, however, he brought with him a "dirty,
   ragged, black-haired child" found starving on the streets. The presents had
   been lost or broken. The boy was named Heathcliff and taken into the family,
   though not entirely welcomed by Mrs. Earnshaw, Ellen, and Hindley. He and
   Catherine became very close, and Heathcliff was Earnshaw's favorite. Hindley
   felt that his place was usurped, and took it out on Heathcliff, who was
   hardened and stoical. For example, Earnshaw gave them each a colt, and
   Heathcliff chose the finest, which went lame. Heathcliff then claimed Hindley's,
   and when Hindley threw a heavy iron at him, threatened to tell Earnshaw about
   it if he didn't get the colt.

Analysis
A movement to the past is made in this chapter: from now on, Lockwood will
  gradually lose importance as the story of Heathcliff and Catherine's childhood
  becomes more and more vibrant. However, we cannot entirely neglect the role
  Ellen Dean plays as a narrator: her personality means that the events she
  recounts are presented in a particular way. She is practical and, like a good
  housekeeper, tends to incline to the side of order. Even when she was young,
  she did not really participate in the private lives of the children of Wuthering
                                    23
  Heights, and has little access to the relationship of Heathcliff and Catherine.
  Brontë demonstrates her versatility in using different points of view, faithfully
  recording her various characters' distinctive styles of speech.

Considering character development, it is interesting to know what Heathcliff and
  Catherine were like as children since, as we have seen in the previous
  chapter, their essential natures remain very much the same. Seen from Ellen's
  point of view. Catherine was willful and mischievous and Heathcliff was
  uncomplaining but vindictive.




                                Chapter 5

Summary
Earnshaw grew old and sick his wife had died some years before and with his
  illness he became irritable and somewhat obsessed with the idea that people
  disliked his favorite, Heathcliff. Heathcliff was spoiled as a result, to keep
  Earnshaw happy, and Hindley, who became more and more bitter about the
  situation, was sent away to college. Joseph, already "the wearisomest, self -
  righteous Pharisee that ever ransacked a Bible to rake the promises to himself,
  and fling the curses to his neighbors," used his religious influence over
  Earnshaw to distance him from his children. Earnshaw thought Hindley was
  worthless, and didn't like Cathy's playfulness and high spirits, so in his last
  days he was irritable and discontented. Cathy was "much too fond" of
  Heathcliff, and liked to order people around. Heathcliff would do anything she
  asked. Her father was harsh to her and she became hardened to his reproofs.

Finally Earnshaw died one evening when Cathy had been resting her head
   against his knee and Heathcliff was lying on the floor with his head in her lap.
   When she wanted to kiss her father good night, she discovered he was dead
   and the two children began to cry, but that night Ellen saw that they had
   managed to comfort each other with "better thoughts than [she] could have hit
   on," imagining the old man in heaven



                                    24
Analysis
The extremely close and entirely sexless relationship between Heathcliff and
  Cathy already manifests itself in an opposition to the outside world of parental
  authority and religion. Cathy is already charming and manipulative, though her
  love for her father is real.

The false, oppressive religion of Joseph is juxtaposed with the pure, selfless
  thoughts of heaven of the grieving children.

The decline and death of Earnshaw highlights the bond between the physical
  body and the spirit. The old man had formerly been charitable, loving, and
  open, but his physical weakness makes him irritable and peevish: the spirit is
  corrupted by the body's decline. One might remember that Emily Brontë
  watched her brother die wretchedly of alcohol and drug abuse, having had
  dreams of glory and gallantry in his youth




              Wuthering Heights
                          Chapter 6
Summary
Hindley returns home, unexpectedly bringing his wife, a flighty woman with a
   strange fear of death and symptoms of consumption (although Ellen did not at
   first recognize them as such). Hindley also brought home new manners and
   rules, and informed the servants that they would have to live in inferior
   quarters. Most importantly, he treated Heathcliff as a servant, stopping his
   education and making him work in the fields like any farm boy. Heathcliff did
   not mind too much at first because Cathy taught him what she learned, and
   worked and played with him in the fields. They stayed away from Hindley as
   much as possible and grew up uncivilized and free. "It was one of their chief
   amusements to run away to the moors in the morning and remain there all
   day, and after punishment grew a mere thing to laugh at."

One day they ran off after being punished, and at night Heathcliff returned. He
  told what had happened. He and Cathy ran to the Grange to see how people
  lived there, and they saw the Linton children Edgar and Isabella in a beautiful
  room, crying after an argument over who could hold the pet dog. Amused and
  scornful, Heathcliff and Cathy laughed; the Lintons head them and called for
  their parents. After making frightening noises, the wilder children tried to
  escape, but a bulldog bit Cathy's leg and refused to let go. She told Heathcliff

                                    25
  to escape but he would not leave her, and tried to pry the animal's jaws open.
  They were captured and brought inside, taken for thieves. When Edgar
  recognized Cathy as Miss Earnshaw, the Lintons expressed their disgust at the
  children's wild manners and especially at Heathcliff's being allowed to keep
  Cathy company. They coddled Cathy and drove Heathcliff out; he left after
  assuring himself that Cathy was all right.
When Hindley found out, he welcomed the chance to separate Cathy and
  Heathcliff, so Cathy was to stay for a prolonged visit with the Lintons and
  Heathcliff was forbidden to speak to her.


Analysis


In this chapter we first hear Heathcliff speak for a long time, and it is worth
   noting how his language differs from the narrators we have heard so far. He is
   more expressive and emotional than the other two, and his speech is more
   literary than Ellen's and less artificial than Lockwood's. He tends to speak in
   extreme and vibrant terms: expressing his scorn for Edgar Linton's cowardice
   and whiny gentility, he says: "I'd not exchange, for a thousand lives, my
   condition here, for Edgar Linton's at Thrushcross Grange not if I might have
   the privilege of flinging Joseph off the highest gable, and painting the house
   front with Hindley's blood!" He admires the comparative luxury of the Grange
   and recognizes its beauty, but he remains entirely devoted to the freedom of
   his life with Cathy, and cannot understand the selfishness of the spoiled
   children: "When would you catch me wishing to have what Catherine wanted?"
   His devotion to Cathy is clear, and appears to him to be completely natural and
   inescapable: "she is so immeasurably superior to them to everyone one earth;
   is she not, Nelly?" He admires her for her bravery, and he possesses that same
   kind of bravery.
The image of the two civilized children inside the beautiful room, and the two wild
   children outside both boy and girl of similar ages makes the glass of the
   window take on the role of a kind of mirror. However, the "mirror" shows the
   complete opposite rather than the true images of those who look into it.



                              Chapter 7
Summary
Ellen resumes the narrative. Cathy stayed at Thrushcross Grange for five weeks,
    until Christmas. When she returned home she had been transformed into a
    young lady with that role's attending restrictions: she could no longer kiss
    Ellen without worrying about getting flour on her dress. She hurt Heathcliff's
    feelings by comparing his darkness and dirtiness to Edgar and Isabella's fair
    complexions and clean clothes. The boy had become more and more neglected
    in her absence, and was cruelly put in his place by Hindley and especially by

                                    26
   Cathy's new polish. Cathy's affection for him had not really changed, but he
   did not know this and ran out, refusing to come in for supper. Ellen was sorry
   for him.
The Linton children were invited for a Christmas party the next day. That
   morning, Heathcliff humbly approached Ellen and asked her to "make him
   decent" because he was "going to be good." Ellen applauded his resolution and
   reassured him that Cathy still liked him and that she was grieved by his
   shyness. When Heathcliff said he wished he could be more like Edgar fair,
   rich, and well-behaved Ellen told him that he could be perfectly handsome
   without being effeminate if he smiled more and was more trustful.
However, when Heathcliff, now "clean and cheerful," tried to join the party,
   Hindley told him to go away because he was not fit to be there. Edgar unwisely
   made fun of his long hair and Heathcliff threw hot applesauce at him, and was
   taken away and flogged by Hindley. Cathy was angry at Edgar for mocking
   Heathcliff and getting him into trouble, but she didn't want to ruin her party.
   She kept up a good front, but didn't enjoy herself, thinking of Heat hcliff alone
   and beaten. At her first chance her guests gone home she crept into the
   garret where he was confined.
Later Ellen gave Heathcliff dinner, since he hadn't eaten all day, but he ate little
   and when she asked what was wrong, he said he was t hinking of how to
   avenge himself on Hindley.
At this point Ellen's narrative breaks off and she and Lockwood briefly discuss the
   merits of the active and contemplative life, with Lockwood defending his lazy
   habits and Ellen saying she should get things done rather than just telling
   Lockwood the story. He persuades her to go on.


Analysis


This chapter marks the end of Cathy and Heathcliff's time of happiness and
   perfect understanding; Cathy has moved partly into a different sphere that of
   the genteel Lintons and Heathcliff cannot follow her. Although Cathy still cares
   for the things she did when the two of them ran wild together, she is under a
   lot of pressure to become a lady and she is vain enough to enjoy the
   admiration and approval she gets as such from Edgar, Hindley and his wife.
   Cathy's desire to inhabit two worlds the moors with Heathcliff and the parlor
   with Edgar is a central driving force for the novel and eventually results in
   tragedy. Emily Brontë had experienced a personal inability to remain true to
   herself while interacting in conventional social terms, and she chose to
   abandon society as a result. Cathy takes a different route.
Just as the window separated the Wuthering Heights children from the Lintons in
   the last chapter, a material object separates Cathy from Heathcliff in this one.
   The fine dress she wears is a very real boundary between the old friends: it
   must be sacrificed (smudged, crumpled) if the two of them are to be as close
   as they were before. It is simultaneously valuable for economic reasons (its
   cost), for social ones (the respect Cathy gets on account of it), and because of

                                     27
   its artificial beauty. These same categories will consistently come between
   Cathy and Heathcliff; he is right to recognize the dress and what it represents
   as a threat to his happiness.


                               Chapter 8
Summary


Hindley's wife Frances gave birth to a child, Hareton, but did not survive long
    afterwards: she had consumption. Despite the doctor's warnings, Hindley
    persisted in believing that she would recover, and she seemed to think s o too,
    always saying she felt better, but she died a few weeks after Hareton's birth.
    Ellen was happy to take care of the baby. Hindley "grew desperate; his sorrow
    was of a kind that will not lament, he neither wept nor prayed he cursed and
    defied execrated God and man, and gave himself up to reckless dissipation.
    The household more or less collapsed into violent confusion respectable
    neighbors ceased to visit, except for Edgar, entranced by Catherine.
    Heathcliff's ill treatment and the bad example posed by Hindley made him
    "daily more notable for savage sullenness and ferocity." Catherine disliked
    having Edgar visit Wuthering Heights because she had a hard time behaving
    consistently when Edgar and Heathcliff met, or when they talked about each
    other. Edgar's presence made her feel as though she had to behave like a
    Linton, which was not natural for her.
One day when Hindley was away Heathcliff was offended to find Catherine putting
    on a "silly frock," getting ready for Edgar's visit. He asked her to t urn Edgar
    away and spend the time with him instead but she refused. Edgar was by this
    time a gentle, sweet young man. He came and Heathcliff left, but Ellen stayed
    as a chaperone, much to Catherine's annoyance. She revealed her bad
    character by pinching Ellen, who was glad to have a chance to show Edgar
    what Catherine was like, and cried out. Catherine denied having pinched her,
    blushing with rage, and slapped her, then slapped Edgar for reproving her. He
    said he would go; she, recovering her senses, asked him to stay, and he was
    too weak and enchanted by her stronger will to leave. Brought closer by the
    quarrel, the two "confessed themselves lovers."
Ellen heard Hindley come home drunk, and out of precaution unloaded his gun.


Analysis

Hindley's dissipation and moral degradation are further evidence that only a
   strong character can survive defeat or bereavement without becoming
   distorted. His desperation is a result of his lack of firm foundations: Ellen says
   that he "had room in his heart for only two idols his wife and himself he
   doted on both and adored one." Evidently it is impossible to live well when only

                                     28
   caring about one's self, as Hindley does following his wife's death. It would be
   interesting to compare Hindley's behavior and Heathcliff's in the opening
   chapters: both survive after the deaths of their beloveds, both live in a chaotic
   and cheerless Wuthering Heights... Heathcliff, however, has not entirely lost
   contact with Cathy: their closer relationship rules out a complete separation,
   even with death.
Emily Brontë's obvious model for Hindley is her brother Branwell, who was sinking
   into dissipation when she was writing the novel.
This is the first time we really see Cathy behaving badly, showing that her temper
   makes the gentle and repressed life led by Edgar Linton unsuitable for her.
   Here she blushes with rage and in a later chapter she refers to her blood being
   much hotter than Edgar's: heat and coolness of blood are markers of different
   personalities. The physical differences between Cathy and Edgar are linked to
   their moral differences, not only in their appearances but even in their blood
   and bones.


                               Chapter 9
Summary


Hindley came in raging drunk and swearing, and caught Ellen in the act of trying
   to hide Hareton in a cupboard for safety. He threatened to make Nelly swallow
   a carving knife, and even tried to force it between her teeth, but she bravely
   said she'd rather be shot, and spat it out. Then he took up Hareton and said he
   would crop his ears like a dog, to make him look fiercer, then held the toddler
   over the banister. Hearing Heathcliff walking below, Hindley accidentally
   dropped the child, but fortunately Heathcliff caught him. Looking up to see
   what had happened, he showed "the intensest anguish at having made himself
   the instrument of thwarting his own revenge." In other words, he hated
   Hindley so much that he would have liked to have him to kill his own son by
   mistake. If it had been dark, Ellen said, "he would have tried to remedy the
   mistake by smashing Hareton's skull on the steps." Hindley was somewhat
   shaken, and began to drink more. Heathcliff told Nelly he wished he would
   drink himself to death, but he had a strong constitution.
In the kitchen Cathy came to talk to Nelly (neither of them knew Heathcliff was in
   the room, sitting behind the settle). Cathy said she was unhappy, that Edgar
   had asked her to marry him and she had accepted. She asked Nelly what she
   should have answered. Nelly asked her if and why she loved Edgar; she said
   she did for a variety of material reasons: "he will be rich, and I shall like to be
   the greatest woman in the neighborhood, and I shall be proud of such a
   husband." Nelly disapproved, and Cathy admitted that she was sure she was
   wrong: she had had a dream in which she went to heaven and was unhappy
   there because she missed Wuthering Heights. She said:
"I have no more business to marry Edgar Linton than I have to be in heaven; and
   if the wicked man in there had not brought Heathcliff so low, I shouldn't have

                                      29
   thought of it. It would degrade me to marry Heathcliff, now; so he shall never
   know how I love him; and that, not because he's handsome, Nelly, but
   because he's more myself than I am. Whatever our souls are made of, his and
   mine are the same, and Linton's is as different as a moonbeam from
   lightening, or frost from fire."
(Heathcliff left after hearing that it would degrade her to marry him.)
Nelly told Cathy that Heathcliff would be deserted if she married Linton, and she
   indignantly said that she had no intention of deserting him, but would use her
   influence to raise him up. Nelly said Edgar wouldn't like that, to which Cathy
   replied: "Every Linton on the face of the earth might melt into nothing, before
   I could consent to forsake Heathcliff!"
Later that night it turned out that no one knew where Heathcliff was. Cathy went
   out in the storm looking for him, unsuccessfully he had run away. The next
   morning she was sick. After some time she went to stay with the Lintons a
   healthier environment and she got better, while Edgar and Isabella's parents
   caught the fever and died. She returned to Wuthering Heights "saucier, and
   more passionate, and haughtier than ever." When Nelly said that Heathcliff's
   disappearance was her fault, Cathy stopped speaking to her. She married
   Edgar three years later, and Ellen unwillingly went to live with her at the
   Grange, leaving Hareton to live with his wretched father.


Analysis


The atmosphere of careless violence, despair, and hatred of the first part of the
  chapter is almost suffocating. Heathcliff's willingness to kill an innocent child
  out of revenge is the first real indication of his lack of morality. It is not
  altogether clear whether that lack is a partly a result of his hard childhood and
  miserable circumstances, or whether he was always like that. Certainly he
  appears quite changed from the sensitive boy who wanted to look nice so
  Cathy wouldn't reject him for Edgar, and who relied trustfully on Ellen, but he
  had spoken of wanting to paint the house with Hindley's blood much earlier.
The definition of love for Cathy and Heathcliff is perhaps Emily Brontë's original
  creation. It is not based on appearances, material considerations, sexual
  attraction, or even virtue, but rather a shared being. Cathy says: "I am
  Heathcliff he's always, always in my mind not as a pleasure, any more than I
  am always a pleasure to myself but as my own being." In this sense, her
  decision to marry Edgar is a terrible mistake: she will be abandoning the
  essence of herself. Apparently the sexual aspect of love is so meaningless for
  her that she believes marriage to Edgar will not come between her and
  Heathcliff: she would not consciously abandon her soul. Heathcliff thinks
  otherwise, since he runs away.




                                    30
                             Chapter 10
Summary
Catherine got along surprisingly well with her husband and Isabella, mostly
   because they never opposed her. She had "seasons of gloom and silence"
   though. Edgar took these for the results of her serious illness.
When they had been married almost a year, Heathcliff came back. Nelly was
   outside that evening and he asked her to tell Catherine someone wanted to
   see her. He was quite changed: a tall and athletic man who looked as though
   he might have been in the army, with gentlemanly manners and educated
   speech though his eyes contained a "half-civilized ferocity." Catherine was
   overjoyed and didn't understand why Edgar didn't share her happiness.
   Heathcliff stayed for tea, to Edgar's peevish irritation. It transpired that
   Heathcliff was staying at Wuthering Heights, paying Hindley generously, but
   winning his host's money at cards. Catherine wouldn't let Heathcliff actually
   hurt her brother.
In the following weeks, Heathcliff often visited the Grange. Isabella a "charming
   young lady of eighteen" became infatuated with him, to her brother's dismay.
   Isabella became angry at Catherine for keeping Heathcliff to herself, and
   Catherine warned her that Heathcliff was a very bad person to fall in love with
   and that Isabella was no match for him: "I never say to him to let this or that
   enemy alone, because it would be ungenerous or cruel to harm them, I say
   "Let them alone, because I should hate them to be wronged"; and he'd crush
   you, like a sparrow's egg, Isabella, if he found you a troublesome charge."
Catherine teased Isabella by telling Heathcliff in her presence that she loved him,
   holding her so she couldn't run away. Isabella scratched Catherine's arm and
   managed to escape, and Heathcliff, alone with Catherine, expressed interest in
   marrying Isabella for her money and to enrage Edgar. He said he would beat
   Isabella if they were married because of her "mawkish, waxen face."

Analysis
Catherine's belief that Edgar should not be jealous of her relationship with
  Heathcliff emphasizes the difference in her mind between their relationship and
  ordinary love affairs. She says that she does not envy Isabella's yellow hair, so
  Edgar shouldn't hate to hear her praise Heathcliff he should be glad for her
  sake. The comparison with Isabella suggests that she and Heathcliff are sister
  and brother, which is evidently not the case but it is a comparison that makes
  sense for her. Catherine uses natural analogies: Heathcliff would crush Isabella
  "like a sparrow's egg," he is "an arid wilderness of furze and whinstone."
  Isabella uses what seems to be a natural metaphor, but is in fact a literary
  one: Catherine is "a dog in the manger" for keeping Heathcliff to herself. They
  speak and think quite differently.
There are also important differences between the ways Edgar and Catherine view
  class. Edgar thinks that Heathcliff, "a runaway servant," should be entertained
  in the kitchen, not the parlor. Catherine jokes that she will have two tables
  laid, one for the gentry (Edgar and Isabella) and one for the lower classes

                                    31
  (herself and Heathcliff). She and Heathcliff both call the narrator Nelly, while
  Edgar coldly calls her Ellen.


                 Wuthering Heights
                            Chapter 11
Summary
Nelly went to visit Wuthering Heights to see how Hindley and Hareton were doing.
   She saw Hareton outside; he didn't recognize his nurse, threw a rock at her and
   cursed. She found that his father had taught him how to curse, and that he
   liked Heathcliff because he wouldn't let his father curse him, and let him do
   what he liked. Nelly was going to go in when she saw Heathcliff there ;
   frightened, she ran back home.
The next time Heathcliff came to visit Nelly saw him kiss Isabella in the courtyard.
   She told Catherine what had happened, and when Heathcliff came in the two
   had an argument. Heathcliff said he had a right to do as he ple ased, since
   Catherine was married to someone else. He said: "You are welcome to torture
   me to death for your amusement, only, allow me to amuse myself a little in the
   same style."
Nelly found Edgar, who came in while Catherine was scolding Heathcliff. He
   scolded her for talking to "that blackguard," which made her very angry, since
   she had been defending the Lintons. Edgar ordered Heathcliff to leave, who
   scornfully ignored him. Edgar motioned for Nelly to fetch reinforcements, but
   Catherine angrily locked the door and threw the key into the fire when Edgar
   tried to get it from her. Humiliated and furious, Edgar was mocked by Catherine
   and Heathcliff, but he hit Heathcliff and went out by the back door to get help.
   Nelly told Heathcliff that he would be thrown out by the male servants if he
   stayed, so he chose to leave.
Left with Nelly, Catherine expressed her anger at her husband and her friend:
   “Well, if I cannot keep Heathcliff for my friend if Edgar will be mean and
   jealous, I'll try to break their hearts by breaking my own." Edgar came in and
   demanded to know whether she would drop Heathcliff's acquaintance, and she
   had a temper tantrum, ending with a faked "fit of frenzy." When Nelly revealed
   that the fit was faked, she ran to her room and refused to come out or to eat
   for several days.

Analysis:
Nelly may seem to be rather unfeeling in her unsympathetic descriptions of
   Catherine and Heathcliff, but her behavior to Hareton and Hindley (who was her
   foster-brother) reveals her to be extremely tender-hearted and maternal at
   time. She is, however, independent and spirited, and doesn't like to be imposed
   on or bullied by Catherine, so she has no qualms about siding with Edgar when
   her mistress is being temperamental.


                                    32
The strain imposed on the three characters, Catherine, Edgar, and Heathcliff, has
  finally resulted in outright violence: it is no longer possible to conceal the
  strength of the emotions involved. Edgar in particular is put into a difficult
  situation: the other two are used to violent expressions of feeling, but he is not,
  and hates having to adjust to their modes of communication. He is more
  committed to gentility of behavior than the others, although they now appear
  as well-dressed and cultivated as he does.
Heathcliff and Catherine call Edgar a "lamb," a "sucking leveret," and a "milk-
  blooded coward." The first two insults are natural images that might easily
  come to mind for people who grew up on the moors; the third again uses the
  "blood" imagery which appears to be central to the way they think about
  personality.


                             Chapter 12
Summary
After three days in which Catherine stayed alone in her room, Edgar sat in the
   library, and Isabella moped in the garden, Catherine called Nelly for some food
   and water because she thought she was dying. She ate some toast, and was
   indignant to hear that Edgar wasn't frantic about her; she said: "How strange! I
   thought, though everybody hated and despised each other, they could not
   avoid loving me and they have all turned to enemies in a few hours." It
   became clear to Ellen that she was delirious, and thought she was back in her
   room at Wuthering Heights: she was frightened of her face in the mirror
   because she thought there was no mirror there. She opened the window and
   talked to Heathcliff (who was not there) as though they were children again.
   Edgar came in and was much concerned for Catherine, and angry at Ellen for
   not having told him what was going on.
Going to fetch a doctor, Ellen notices Isabella's little dog almost dead, hanging by
   a handkerchief on the gate. She released it, and found Dr. Kenneth, who told
   her that he had seen Isabella walking for hours in the park with Heathcliff. Ellen
   found that Isabella had indeed disappeared, and a little boy told her he had
   seen the girl riding away with Heathcliff. Ellen told Edgar, hoping he would
   rescue his sister from her ill-considered elopement, but he coldly refused to do
   so.

Analysis:
In her delirium, Catherine reveals that her true emotional identity has not altered
    since she was twelve, just before she stayed with the Lintons for some weeks.
    Everything that happened to her since then ceases to have any importance
    when she is irrational:
"...supposing at twelve years old, I had been wrenched from the Heights, and
    every early association, and my all in all, as Heathcliff was at that time, and
    been converted, at a stroke, into Mrs. Linton, the lady of Thrushcross Grange,
    and the wife of a stranger; an exile, and outcast, thenceforth, from what had
    been my world You may fancy a glimpse at the abyss where I groveled!"

                                     33
Time is unimportant: it has no effect on true, deep emotions in Brontë's world.
Edgar's coldness to Isabella seems to result from pique at having his sister desert
   him for his greatest enemy. His willingness to abandon her because of hurt
   pride is perhaps his greatest moral flaw. The emphasis he places on personal
   dignity differentiates him from the other characters, who certainly have many
   faults, though not that one.




                             Chapter 13
Summary
In the next two months Catherine "encountered and conquered the worst shock of
   what was denominated a brain fever," but it was realized that she would never
   really recover. She was pregnant. Heathcliff and Isabella returned to Wuthering
   Heights and Isabella wrote Edgar an apology and a plea for forgiveness, to
   which he gave no reply. She later sent Ellen a longer letter asking whether
   Heathcliff were a demon or crazy, and recounting her experiences. She found
   Wuthering Heights dirty, uncivilized and unwelcoming: Joseph was rude to her,
   Hareton was disobedient, Hindley was a half-demented mere wreck of a man,
   and Heathcliff treated her cruelly. He refused to let her sleep in his room, which
   meant she had to stay in a tiny garret. Hindley had a pistol with a blade on it,
   with which he dreamed of killing Heathcliff, and Isabella coveted it for the
   power it would have given her. She was miserable and regretted her marriage
   heartily.

Analysis:
Isabella's reactions to her new home reveal her character to be lacking in moral
    strength: although she tries at first to stand up to Joseph and Hareton, her
    ladylike education has in no way prepared her for her married life, so when she
    loses her pride she has little else to fall back on. Her envy upon seeing
    Hindley's pistol is a little disconcerting, and she herself is horrified by the
    realization of it.
It is worth noting the unfortunate position of women who depend on men: Isabella
    cannot escape from Heathcliff without the help of her brother, who does not
    want to help her. Surrounded by hatred and indifference, she can only fall back
    on Ellen's pity.




                                     34
                              Chapter 14
Summary
Ellen, distressed by Edgar's refusal to console Isabella, went to visit her. She told
    Isabella and Heathcliff that Catherine would "never be what she was" and that
    Heathcliff should not bother her anymore. Heathcliff asserted that he would not
    leave her to Edgar's lukewarm care, and that she loved him much more than
    her husband. He said that if he had been in Edgar's place he would never have
    interfered with Catherine's friendships, although he would kill the friend the
    moment she no longer cared about him.
Nelly told Heathcliff to treat Isabella better, and he expressed his scorn and hatred
    for her (in her presence, of course). He said she knew what he was when she
    married him: she had seen him hanging her pet dog. Isabella told Nelly that
    she hated him, and Heathcliff ordered her upstairs so he could talk to Nelly.
Alone with her, he told her that if she did not arrange an interview for him with
    Catherine, he would force his way in armed, and she agreed to give Catherine a
    letter from him.

Analysis:
This chapter includes a great deal of criticism for the Lintons: Edgar is called proud
   and unfeeling, and Heathcliff says that Isabella was actually attracted by his
   brutality until she herself suffered from it. Edgar's explanation of refusal to
   write to Isabella is extremely unconvincing: "I am not angry, but sorry to have
   lost her: especially as I can never think she'll be happy. It is out of the question
   my going to see her, however; we are eternally divided." He is angry, of
   course, because he hates Heathcliff: presumably he is jealous of him. Heathcliff
   considers Edgar's version of love to be selfish, as though Edgar thought he
   owned his wife, and had a right to restrict her behavior: "Had he been in my
   place, and I in his, though I hated him with a hatred that turned my life to gall,
   I never would have raised a hand against him... I never would have banished
   him from her society, as long as she desired his." Correspondingly, he imagines
   Catherine's affection for Edgar in terms of property: "He is scarcely a degree
   dearer to her than her dog, or her horse it is not in him to be loved like me."
   Material wealth has always been associated with the Lintons, so Heathcliff
   extends ideas of property and ownership to their emotions as well.
The case of Isabella is somewhat different. Heathcliff despises her because she,
   knowing what he is, loves him. This is an interesting point: Heathcliff is an
   obviously romantic figure, with his mysterious past, dark looks, and so on. But
   Brontë makes it very clear that although he exerts a certain amount of
   fascination, he should in no way be considered a "hero of romance." For doing
   so, Isabella is called a "pitiful, slavish, mean-minded Brach." In this very
   romantic novel, one can never rely on conventional notions of romance:
   brutality should never be considered attractive. Even Catherine does not find
   Heathcliff attractive she simply finds him inescapable, a part of herself.



                                      35
                             Chapter 15
Summary
The Sunday after Ellen's visit to Wuthering Heights; while most people were at
  church, she gave Catherine Heathcliff's letter. Catherine was changed by her
  sickness: she was beautiful in an unearthly way and her eyes "appeared always
  to gaze beyond, and far beyond." Ellen had left the door open, so Heathcliff
  walked in and Catherine eagerly waited for him to find the right room. Their
  reunion was bitter-sweet: though passionately glad to be reunited, Catherine
  accused Heathcliff of having killed her, and Heathcliff warned her not to say
  such things when he would be tortured by them after her death besides, she
  had been at fault by abandoning him. She asked him to forgive her, since she
  would not "be at peace" after death, and he answered: "It is hard to fo rgive,
  and to look at those eyes, and feel those wasted hands... I love my murderer
  but yours! How can I?" They held each other closely and wept until Ellen
  warned them that Linton was returning. Heathcliff wanted to leave, but
  Catherine insisted that he stay, since she was dying and would never see him
  again. He consented to stay, and "in the midst of the agitation, [Ellen] was
  sincerely glad to observe that Catherine's arms had fallen relaxed... She’s
  fainted or dead, so much the better...'" Linton came in, Heathcliff handed him
  Catherine's body and told him to take care of her: "Unless you be a friend, help
  her first then you shall speak to me!" He told Nelly he would wait outside for
  news of Catherine's welfare, and left.

Analysis:
The passionate scene between Catherine and Heathcliff in this chapter is probably
  the emotional climax of the novel, though it only marks the middle of the book.
  It reveals how little their love relies on pleasure: they can hardly be said to be
  fond of one another, or to enjoy each other's company, yet they are absolutely
  necessary to each other. It is as though they were members of a different
  species from other humans, who belonged together. Ellen says: "The two, to a
  cool spectator, made a strange and fearsome picture." Catherine tore
  Heathcliff's hair, and he left bruises on her arm. Later, he "foamed like a mad
  dog, and gathered her to him with greedy jealousy. [Ellen] did not feel as
  though [she] were in the company of a member of [her] own species." Love
  appears to be a form of madness.
Their emotional reunion is counteracted by Ellen's cool and rather unsympathetic
  narration: their passionate conversation is interspersed with dry commentary
  on her part.




                                    36
                        Chapters 16
Summary
Around midnight Catherine gave birth to a daughter (also named Catherine, the
   girl Lockwood saw at Wuthering Heights) and died two hours later without
   recovering consciousness. No one cared for the infant at first, and Ellen
   wished it had been a boy: as it was, Edgar's heir was Isabella, Heathcliff's
   wife. Catherine's corpse looked peaceful and beautiful, and Ellen decided that
   she had found heaven at last.

She went outside to tell Heathcliff and found him leaning motionless against an
  ash tree. He knew she was dead, and asked Ellen how it had happened,
  attempting to conceal his anguish. Ellen was not fooled, and told him that she
  had died peacefully, like a girl falling asleep. He cursed Catherine and begged
  her to haunt him so he would not be left in "this abyss, where I cannot find
  you!... I cannot live without my soul!" He dashed his head against the tree
  and howled "like a savage beast getting goaded to death with knives and
  spears." Ellen was appalled.
On Tuesday, when Catherine's body was still lying, strewn with flowers, in the
  Grange, Heathcliff took advantage of Edgar's short absence from the chamber
  of death to see her again, and to replace Edgar's hair in her locket with some
  of his own. Ellen noticed the change, and enclosed both locks of hair together.
Catherine was buried on Friday in a green slope in a corner of the kirkyard,
  where, Ellen said; her husband lies now as well.

Analysis:
The question of what happens after death is important in this chapter and
  throughout the novel; though no firm answer is ever given. Ellen is fairly sure
  Catherine went to heaven, "where life is boundless in its duration, and love in
  its sympathy, and joy in its fullness." But Heathcliff cannot conceive of
  Catherine finding peace when they are still separated, or of his living without
  her. In the chapter before, Catherine said: "I'm wearying to escape into that
  glorious world, and to be always there; not seeing it dimly through tears, and
  yearning for it through the walls of an aching heart, but really with it, and in
  it." It is as though she had in mind a heaven that was like the moors in every
  way but the constraints of physicality: the spirit of natural freedom.
Another interesting question that comes up in this chapter is that of the value of
  self-control and reserve: Heathcliff tries to conceal his weakness and grief,
  holding "a silent combat with his inward agony," but Ellen considers it to be
  worse than useless, since he only tempts God to wring his "heart and nerves."
  Yet we know that Emily herself was almost incredibly self-disciplined, refusing
  to alter her everyday life even when suffering a mortal illness.




                                    37
                             Chapter 17
Summary
The next day, while Ellen was rocking the baby, Isabella came in laughing
   giddily. She was pale and her face was cut; her thin silk dress was torn by
   briars. She asked Ellen to call the carriage for the nearest town, Gimmerton,
   since she was escaping from her husband, and to have a maid get some
   clothes ready. Then she allowed Ellen to give her dry clothes and bind up the
   wound. Isabella tried to destroy her wedding-ring, and told what had
   happened to her in the last days:
She said that she hated Heathcliff so much that she could feel no compassion for
   him even when he was in agony following Catherine's death. He hadn't eaten
   for days, and spent his time at Wuthering Heights in his room, "praying like a
   Methodist; only the deity he implored was senseless dust and ashes." The
   evening before, Isabella sat reading while Hindley drank morosely. When they
   heard Heathcliff returning from his watch over Catherine's grave, Hindley told
   Isabella he would lock Heathcliff out, and try to kill him with his bladed pistol
   if he came in. Isabella would have liked Heathcliff to die, but refused to help
   in the scheme, so when Heathcliff knocked she refused to let him in, saying:
   "If I were you, I'd go stretch myself over her grave, and die like a faithful
   dog... The world is not worth living in now, is it?" Hindley came close to the
   window to kill Heathcliff, but the latter grabbed the weapon so the blade shut
   on Hindley's wrist; then he forced his way in. He kicked and trampled Hindley,
   who had fainted from the loss of blood, then roughly bound up the wound,
   and told Joseph and Isabella to clean up the blood.
The next morning when Isabella came down, Hindley "was sitting by the fire,
   deadly sick; his evil genius, almost as gaunt and ghastly, leant by the
   chimney." After eating breakfast by herself, she told Hindley how he had been
   kicked when he was down, and mocked Heathcliff for having so mistreated his
   beloved's brother, saying to Hindley: "everyone knows your sister would have
   been living now, had it not been for Mr. Heathcliff." Heathcliff was so
   miserable that he could hardly retaliate, so Isabella went on and said that if
   Catherine had married him, he would have beaten her the way he beat
   Hindley. Heathcliff threw a knife at her, and she fled, knocking down Hareton,
   "who was hanging a litter of puppies from a chair back in the doorway." She
   ran to the Grange.
That morning, she left, never to return to the neighborhood again. Later, in her
   new home, in the south, she gave birth to a son, named Linton, "an ailing,
   peevish creature," and died when he was about 12 years old.
Edgar grew resigned to Catherine's death, and loved his daughter, who he called
   Cathy, very much. Ellen points out the difference between his behavior and
   Hindley are in a similar situation.
Hindley died, "drunk as a lord," about six months after Catherine. He was just
   27, meaning that Catherine had been 19, Heathcliff was 20, and Edgar was
   21. Ellen grieved deeply for him they had been the same age and were
   brought up together. She made sure he was decently buried. She wanted to

                                     38
  take Hareton back to the Grange, but Heathcliff said he would keep him, to
  degrade him as much as he himself had been degraded. If Edgar insisted on
  taking Hareton, Heathcliff said he would claim his own son Linton, so Ellen
  gave the idea up.

Analysis:
Isabella's tendency toward impotent cruelty shows up again i n the character of
    her son Linton. The question of how cruelty operates in powerful versus weak
    characters was evidently of great interest to Brontë and might bear further
    investigation. One obvious point is that weakness is not simply equated with
    goodness, as is often the case in the Christian tradition. Although the weak
    are unable to physically express their hatred, they can, like Isabella, use
    verbal taunts to hurt their enemies emotionally.
Ellen's particular grief for Hindley emphasizes the way characters are paired in
    the novel: Ellen and Hindley, Heathcliff and Catherine, Edgar and Isabella.
    These pairs all grew up together (Ellen's mother was Hindley's wet -nurse, so
    they literally shared mother's milk) under somewhat fraternal conditions.
    Brontë's careful structure and concern with symmetry are important
    presences throughout the novel, and form an interesting contrast with what
    might be considered the chaotic emotions that seem to prevail.


                         Chapter 18
Summary
In the next twelve years, Cathy Linton grew up to be "the most winning thing
   that ever brought sunshine into a desolate house." She was fair like a Linton,
   except for her mother's dark eyes. High spirited but gentle, she seemed to
   combine the good qualities of both the Lintons and the Earnshaws, though she
   was a little saucy and was used to getting her way. Her father kept her within
   the park of the Grange, but she dreamed of going to see some cliffs,
   Penistone Crags, not too far away, on the moor.
When Isabella fell ill, she wrote to Edgar to come visit her, so he was gone for
   three weeks. One day Cathy asked Ellen to give her some food for a ramble
   around the grounds she was pretending to be an Arabian merchant going
   across the desert with her caravan of a pony and three dogs. She left the
   grounds, however, and later Ellen went after her on the road to Penistone
   Crags, which passed Wuthering Heights. She found Cathy safe and sound
   there    Heathcliff wasn't home and the housekeeper had taken her in
   chattering to Hareton, now 18 years old. She offended Hareton though by
   asking whether he was the master's son, and when he said he wasn't, saying
   he was a servant. The housekeeper told her he was her cousin, which made
   her cry. Hareton offered her a puppy to console her, which she refused. Ellen
   told her that her father didn't want her to go to Wuthering Heights, and asked
   her not to tell him of her negligence, to which she agreed.



                                    39
    Analysis:
    We have moved from the violent and discordant world of adulthood back to
       harmonious childhood. The abrupt contrast between the hellish last chapters
       and this relatively serene and innocent one could hardly be clearer. One might
       even suppose that we are witnessing a second chance: the story of the first
       Catherine ended in grief and bloodshed, but perhaps that of her daughter will
       be more serene. Indeed there are many similarities between the first
       Catherine and her daughter, although the mother's bad qualities are
       minimized in the younger Cathy.
    Although Cathy appears to display more Linton characteristics than Earnshaw
       ones, her desire to explore the wilderness outside of the Grange's park links
       her strongly to the wild, Wuthering Heights clan. Her sauciness also reminds
       the reader of her mother, as does her aristocratic unwillingness to be related
       to Hareton (just as Catherine thought it would degrade her to marry
       Heathcliff, who was at the time very much like Hareton).



    Chapter 19
    Summary
    Linton arrives from London, a "pale, delicate, effeminate boy" who
    greatly resembles Edgar. He is too weak and sick to play with Cathy
    and has to lie on a couch instead of sitting with the family during tea.
    Cathy treats him as should would a new pet. Edgar confides in Nelly
    that he hopes having a playmate his own age will help, if Heathcliff
    allows Linton to live at the Grange. Edgar's fears are realized when
    Joseph arrives that evening, demanding to take Linton to Wuthering
    Heights. Refusing to awaken Linton, Edgar promises Joseph that
    Linton will be delivered to Heathcliff in the morning.



    Chapter 19
    Analysis
    Although Cathy is excited about the imminent arrival of her "real"
    cousin (she does not want to consider Hareton a relative of hers), she
    is extremely disappointed in Linton. Cathy and the readers' first
    impressions are both similar and accurate. Linton's condition will not
    improve, especially living at Wuthering Heights.

                                        40
    As the second-generation characters develop in the second half of
    Wuthering Heights, readers should note significant similarities and
    differences between parents and their children. Most noticeably,
    although Linton's physical condition is nothing like Heathcliff's, he
    clearly reflects his father's tyrannical personality. Cathy, in turn, seems
    to possess the wildness of her mother, but her personalit y is tempered
    a bit, reflecting the nature of her father. Hareton's features favor his
    Aunt Catherine, but due to Heathcliff's upbringing, his personality is
    that of a young Heathcliff.


    Chapter 20
    Summary
    The next morning, Nelly takes Linton to Wuthering Heights. In order to
    get him to go to a father that he does not know, Nelly makes all sorts
    of assurances that she knows are not true. When they arrive,
    Heathcliff refers to his son as "property" and, speaking directly to
    Linton, refers to the boy's mother as a "wicked slut." Although
    Heathcliff readily admits he does not love his son, he relishes the
    opportunity to gain access of the Grange through him. Nelly leaves as
    Linton cries out, "Don't leave me! I'll not stay here!"
    Chapter 20
    Analysis
    Nelly lies quite easily to Linton and is probably somewhat relieved that
    she will not have to deal with him. Undoubtedly, raising Linton would
    be worse than raising Catherine was. As Heathcliff refers to his son as
    "property," readers may slightly sympathize with Linton's predicament.
    Heathcliff clearly has no tolerance for his weak offspring, and the fact
    that Linton's looks favor his Uncle Edgar make Heathcliff hate him
    even more. The only use Heathcliff has for the "whey-faced whining
    wretch" is implementing his revenge against Edgar.


    Chapter 21

                                        41
    Summary
    Three years later, with the memory of Linton erased from her mind,
    Cathy and Nelly are both bird hunting and exploring on the moors.
    Cathy moves more quickly than Nelly does, and before Nelly can stop
    them, Cathy is speaking with Heathcliff. While speaking with
    Heathcliff, Cathy notices Hareton and remarks that she has met him
    before. Heathcliff cannot respond to that, but he does mention that she
    has met his son before and encourages Cathy and Nelly to visit his
    house.
    Nelly knows that this is not a good idea but is unable to convince
    Cathy not to go because Cathy is eager to determine who Heathcliff's
    son is. Heathcliff mentions to Nelly his desire to have the cousins fall
    in love and get married. When Cathy and Linton do meet, they do not
    recognize each other at first. Although Linton is now taller than Cathy
    is, he is still quite sickly. Unwilling to show Cathy around the
    farmhouse at first, Linton stays inside while Hareton leaves to show
    his cousin Wuthering Heights.
    Heathcliff sends Linton after his cousins, and as he leaves, Nelly
    hears Cathy mock Hareton's inability to read.
    The next day, Cathy reveals everything about her visit to her father.
    Edgar tries to explain to Cathy why he kept her from her cousins and
    her uncle, but she does not understand his reasoning. Edgar also
    commands his daughter not to have any contact with Linton. This
    upsets Cathy greatly, and she begins to have a secret, letter-writing
    relationship with Linton. Nelly discovers what Cathy has been doing
    and destroys Linton's letters to Cathy, but Nelly does not tell Edgar.


    Chapter 21
    Analysis
    Heathcliff reveals his plan to Nelly and the readers, along with his
    rationale that he is doing this, only as a safeguard against legal
    disputes. It is interesting that he still considers Nelly a confidant.
    Often, in the past, she took his side, and he clearly still thinks he can

                                        42
    manipulate her. He is correct in his assumptions, for as he convinces
    Cathy to seek out his son, Nelly's chief concern is that Edgar will find
    out of the visit, and she laments "and I shall have the blame."
    After Heathcliff reveals his plan and Nelly counters that Cathy would
    be Edgar's heir, Heathcliff's response foreshadows the fact that
    Edgar's lawyer is now on Heathcliff's payroll, for Heathcliff knows that
    "there is no clause in the will to secure it so." The only way he could
    know what Edgar's will stated is by being privy to it. And there is no
    way that Edgar would have allowed Heathcliff to know the contents of
    his will; therefore, Edgar's lawyer must have shown Heathcliff, or at
    least shared the contents.
    When Nelly and Cathy arrive at Wuthering Heights, Linton has grown
    but is still as disagreeable as ever. He joins Cathy in making fun of
    Hareton's lack of a formal education and whines about not being able
    to travel the four miles to Thrushcross Grange. Logically, he argues,
    he is too sick to travel; therefore, Cathy must visit him.
    Once again, Nelly's priorities seem to be skewed. Instead of telling
    Edgar about Cathy's letter writing, she takes it upon herself to burn
    them all, only threatening to tell Edgar. Nelly keeps Cathy's secret the
    same way that Cathy kept Nelly's secret (in Chapter 18); thus acting
    as Cathy's friend. Nelly will not always keep Cathy's secrets, as
    readers soon find out.


    Chapter 22
    Summary
    During the winter, Cathy has little time to think of Linton because she
    is nursing her father, whom she thinks is dying. While walking one
    day, Cathy's hat blows over the garden wall. Nelly he lps Cathy over
    the wall to fetch it, but Cathy cannot scale the other side by herself.
    While Nelly searches for a key to open the gate, Heathcliff appears.
    He chides Cathy for writing letters to Linton for a few months and then
    suddenly stopping. He claims that she is playing games with Linton's
    affection and that he is now dying of a broken heart. Heathcliff tells
    Cathy that he will be away for a week and encourages her to visit her

                                        43
    cousin. Cathy feels extremely guilty about what Heathcliff has told her,
    so she and Nelly take off for Wuthering Heights the next morning.
    Chapter 22
    Analysis


    Again, Nelly is convinced to do something that she should probably
    not do — escorting Cathy to Wuthering Heights. Nonetheless, Cathy is
    determined to prove her loyalty to her sick cousin, and is eager to dote
    on him. Nelly's own devotion to Cathy illustrates the difference
    between Catherine and her daughter. Because of Catherine's
    selfishness and willfulness, Nelly had no trouble contradicting
    Catherine and making her life miserable, but with Cathy, Nelly's
    actions are different. Nelly is truly fond of Cathy and therefore has
    very little difficulty rationalizing a way to agree to Cathy's requests.
    Chapter 23
    Summary
    Nelly and Cathy travel in the rain all the way to Wuthering Heights.
    Heathcliff is indeed not home, and Linton is more pathetic than ever.
    He complains about the servants and whines to Cathy, first for not
    visiting, and then for writing instead of visiting. He also mentions the
    idea of marriage. Linton's talk of love vexes Cathy, and she pushes his
    chair, sending him into a coughing fit. He uses this to claim that she
    injured him and worsened his condition; he guilts her into thinking she
    can nurse him back to health. Because Nelly catches a cold due to
    spending the day traveling in wet weather, Cathy spends her days
    nursing both Nelly and her father, but, unbeknownst to Nelly and
    Edgar, she spends her nights riding across the moors to visit Linton.


    Chapter 23
   ANLASEs
    For many critics, Nelly's sickness is a contrived plot point that is
    entirely too convenient to be believable; however, most critics concede
    that sickness was possible if not plausible. Therefore, it does not


                                       44
    detract greatly from the narrative and does aid the advancement of
    Heathcliff's plan for revenge.
    Instrumental in Heathcliff's plan is for Cathy to marry Linton, and in
    order for that to happen, he needs her to care for him. When Cathy
    discusses her attraction to Linton, her words echo her mother: "he'll
    soon do as I direct him with some slight coaxing." Cathy, like her
    mother, enjoys the notion of having control over a man.

    Chapter 24
    Summary
    After Nelly recovers, she notices that Cathy is agitated in the evening.
    Cathy pretends to retire early, but when Nelly cannot find her
    anywhere in the house, she waits in Cathy's room for her to return.
    Cathy attempts a feeble lie at first but soon admits the truth.
    On one of her visits, Hareton stops her and tells her that he can read
    the name above the door; however, Cathy asks if he knows the
    numbers, and when he concedes he does not, she again makes fun of
    him. This enrages Hareton, and during her visit with Linton, Hareton
    storms into the room and forces Linton upstairs. Later Hareton
    attempts to apologize to Cathy, but she refuses to listen to him.
    Cathy visits three days later, but Linton blames her for the previous
    trouble, so she leaves. When she returns two days later, she tells
    Linton this is her last visit, but this news causes him trouble, and he
    apologizes for his behavior.
    Nelly listens to Cathy's tale, and then immediately tells Edgar
    everything. He forbids Cathy to continue visiting Linton but says he will
    write and invite Linton to visit the Grange.


    Chapter 24
    Analysis
    In this chapter Cathy serves as the primary narrator, telling Nelly (who
    in turn tells Lockwood) about her evening visits to Wuthering Heights.
    Many readers question Cathy's devotion to Linton, for he does not

                                        45
    seem particularly agreeable. Again, Cathy ridicules Hareton, but this
    time her words lead to an injury for Linton. Unbelievably, this is an
    incident that Linton holds Cathy accountable for. In doing so, he is
    remaining true to his self-centered, annoying character.
    Nelly, however, abruptly changes her character. For the first time, she
    does the responsible, adult thing and tells Edgar almost everything
    about Cathy and Linton's developing relationship. What she does not
    tell him, however, is the extent of Linton's illness, and this ends up
    providing Edgar a false sense of security that his daughter mig ht
    eventually marry and keep her family home.


    Chapter 25
    Summary
    Breaking from her narrative, Nelly tells Lockwood that these events
    transpired a little over a year ago. Lockwood is so enraptured with the
    story that he begs her to continue.
    Cathy obeys her father's wishes. Nelly tells Edgar that Linton is of frail
    health, and Edgar admits that he fears for Cathy's happiness. He even
    concedes that if marrying Linton would make Cathy happy, he would
    be in favor of it, even though it means Heathcliff would get what he
    wants.
    Although Linton never visits the Grange, after much pleading, Edgar
    allows Cathy to visit with Linton on the moors.

    Chapter 25
    Analysis
    This short chapter is important for two significant reasons. First, it
    establishes the time frame, the previous winter, which is relatively
    close to Lockwood's arrival, and second, it establishes Edgar's
    mindset shortly before his death.
    Because the current events just occurred the previous winter, the
    characters who Lockwood encounters at Wuthering Heights may still
    be closely affected by the events that have transpired. Recall that at

                                        46
    Lockwood's visit to Wuthering Heights, Heathcliff had just recently lost
    his son and Cathy, her husband, and the way they reacted to the loss
    was indicative about their natures.
    Edgar, now and up to the time of his death, remains misguided. He
    only wants Cathy's happiness, but happiness is something he was
    unable to provide for her mother, and it is something that he is unable
    to provide for their daughter.
    Chapter 26
    Summary
    At the time of the first scheduled meeting on the moors, Linton is not
    at the agreed-upon spot; rather, he is quite close to Wuthering
    Heights. Both Nelly and Cathy are concerned about Linton's health,
    but he insists that he is getting stronger. During their entire visit he is
    squeamish and scared and is constantly looking back towards his
    house. When it is time to leave, Cathy assures Linton that she
    promises to meet him again next Thursday. On the way home Cathy
    and Nelly discuss Linton's health and decide to wait until the next visit
    to determine the extent of his deterioration.

    Chapter 26
    Analysis
    Cathy has mixed emotions about meeting her cousin and senses that
    Heathcliff is the one pushing for them to meet. Readers, who already
    know of Heathcliff's plans, realize that Cathy has a reason to be
    cautious.
    Linton is clearly dying, yet his father is still using him as a means of
    revenge. Nelly's inability to reveal anything to Edgar foreshadows the
    forthcoming abduction.
    Chapter 27
    Summary
    During the week that follows, Edgar's health continues to deteriorate,
    so it is grudgingly that Cathy rides to meet Linton. During the visit,



                                         47
    Heathcliff arrives and demands to know if Edgar is truly dying.
    Heathcliff is worried that Linton might die before Edgar does.
    Heathcliff asks Cathy to walk her cousin back to Wuthering Heights.
    Although she meekly reminds Heathcliff that she is forbidden from
    visiting the farmhouse, Cathy disobeys her father's instructions.
    Linton's cries of anguish and He athcliff's rage, which is directed
    toward Linton, however, convince both Cathy and Nelly to accompany
    them.
    After they're inside, Heathcliff imprisons Cathy and Nelly; he will not
    release her until after she and Linton are married. Overnight, Heathcliff
    locks Cathy in a bedroom. In the morning he frees Cathy from the
    room, but Nelly is held prisoner for five days, only seeing Hareton,
    who serves as her jailer.



    Chapter 27
    Summary
   Linton is extremely pathetic and obviously terrified of Heathcliff;
    however, the manner in which he speaks to Cathy after she is lured to
    Wuthering Heights mitigates any sympathy readers may be feeling for
    him.
    After Cathy is locked inside, Linton reveals to her Heathcliff's plans,
    and a sense of inescapable doom exists. This kidnapping, the fi rst
    time Heathcliff does something entirely outside the limits of the law, is
    an act of desperation on his behalf; Linton needs to marry Cathy
    before Edgar's death, and Edgar needs to die before Linton does in
    order for Heathcliff to solidify his claim on Thrushcross Grange.
    Heathcliff's actions clearly illustrate the philosophy that "the ends
    justify the means." In doing so, readers tend to root for Cathy to be
    able to somehow thwart Heathcliff's growing power. Nelly does not
    witness the wedding, but Cathy and Linton do indeed get married.


    Chapter 28


                                        48
    Summary
    Zillah enters the bedroom on the fifth morning of Nelly's imprisonment,
    telling her that the village gossip has both Cathy and Nelly being lost
    in the marshes. Nelly finds Linton, who tells her that Cathy is being
    held prisoner and cannot be released. Unable to get Cathy free and
    unwilling to face Heathcliff, Nelly returns to the Grange.
    She assures Edgar that Cathy is safe and will be home soon. She also
    dispatches servants to Wuthering Heights to bring Cathy home. The
    servants return empty-handed. Edgar sends for Mr. Green, a lawyer,
    to change his will. Nelly thinks she hears him arrive, but it is Cathy.
    With Linton's help, she has escaped.
    Edgar and Cathy are reunited, and Edgar dies content, t hinking his
    daughter is happily married. Later that evening, Mr. Green arrives and
    immediately takes charge of the Grange, dismissing all the servants
    except Nelly. He attempts to have Edgar buried in the chapel, but
    Nelly knows that Edgar's will clearly states that he is to be buried next
    to his wife. Cathy is permitted to stay at the Grange until after her
    father's burial.
    Chapter 28
    Summary
    Analysis
    Read the Original Text
    Nelly once again favors a lie instead of the truth, but this is probably
    advantageous for all involved, for nothing can be gained at this time by
    telling the truth to Edgar. Although Linton's words to Nelly echo his
    father's in regards to how he should treat his wife, Linton, in his own
    weakling way, finally stands up to his father when he enables Cathy to
    escape.
    And Mr. Green symbolizes the extent of Heathcliff's interference, using
    money and influence to bend the laws, encouraging a lawyer to
    sacrifice one client for another. Heathcliff's retention of Nelly as
    housekeeper at Thrushcross Grange is his way of being practical, as
    well as rewarding her for showing what he considers to be loyalty.
    Chapter 29
                                        49
    Summary
    Heathcliff arrives to escort Cathy home, informing her that he
    punished Linton for his role in Cathy's escape. He refuses to allow
    Cathy to live at the Grange because he wants her to work for her
    keep, especially after Linton dies. Legally, both Linton and Heathcliff
    have greater claims to the Grange; thus , Cathy has no choice but to
    obey the directive of her father-in-law.
    Cathy speaks out against Heathcliff, stating her love for Linton and
    that Heathcliff is alone in the world. As she is packing her things,
    Heathcliff confides in Nelly that he believes in ghosts, particularly the
    ghost of Catherine. Ever since her burial 18 years ago, he has been
    feeling her presence and seeing her. As he leaves, Heathcliff instructs
    Nelly not to visit Wuthering Heights, for she is not welcome.


    Chapter 29
    Analysis
    The fullest extent of Heathcliff's cruelty, what he does to Linton, is not
    shown on the page; rather, readers are able to leave it to their own
    imagination. Nonetheless, he makes it painfully clear that Linton will
    never cross him ag
    Although he punishes his son, Heathcliff is not entirely without
    feelings. The loss of Catherine has tormented him, and oddly enough,
    after all Heathcliff has done to other characters, many readers again
    tend to sympathize with him for what he has endured. Brontë evokes
    this sympathy through Heathcliff's explanation that he has been
    disturbed nightly for 18 years, yearning to be reunited with Catherine
    yet having her just out of reach. Heathcliff's longing to be one with
    Catherine for eternity is the mark of a romantic, of a man truly in love
    and truly tormented by the loss of his love. Yet, true to his nature, he
    ends the chapter being as heartless as ever, informing Nelly that she
    is not to visit Wuthering Heights, effectively leaving Cathy alone in her
    new home.

    Chapter 30
                                        50
    Summary
    This chapter is the end of Nelly's narrative: Zillah now serves as
    Nelly's source of information about Cathy. Following Heathcliff's
    orders, Zillah refused to help Cathy when she first came to Wuthering
    Heights; Hareton was not able to do anything for her, either. Until the
    day Linton dies, Cathy tends to him herself. After his death, Cathy is
    not willing to let Zillah or Hareton be nice to her. At the end of the
    chapter, Lockwood, who is recuperated, informs Nelly that Heathcliff
    may look for another tenant for the Grange.

    Chapter 30


    Analysis


    The end of Nelly's primary narrative brings the story full circle to
    Chapter 1, when Lockwood first visited the Heights. Because of the
    cold reception she received after her father's death (per Heathcliff's
    instructions), Cathy is not friendly with either Zillah or Hareton;
    however, an attraction between Cathy and Hareton obviously exists:
    He offers her food and a seat by the fire, and she allows him to help
    her retrieve books that are out of reach. Neither one wants to admit
    having even a passing interest in the other, but both remember their
    friendly first meeting.
    Heathcliff wants to prevent any friendship from developing between
    Hareton and Cathy because Hindley destroyed the relationship
    between Catherine and Heathcliff. Because he is miserable, he tries to
    ensure that no one else is happy.


    Chapter 31
    Summary
    Lockwood makes a trip to Wuthering Heights and carries a note from
    Nelly to Cathy. Hareton takes the note at first, but noticing Cathy's
    tears, returns it to her. She in turn still treats him coolly and makes fun

                                        51
    of his attempts at reading. Embarrassed, Hareton flings his books into
    the fire.
    When Heathcliff returns, he comments that Hareton favors Catherine
    more and more each day. This is something Heathcliff did not foresee
    and seems to disturb him. Now, in addition to the memories of his lost
    love, Heathcliff must also deal with Hareton's resemblance to his Aunt
    Catherine. Both the memories and physical reminder are beginning to
    take their toll on Heathcliff.


    Chapter 31
    Analysis
    This chapter provides foreshadowing for the end of the novel.
    Heathcliff is softening, and his plans for total revenge do not seem as
    important to him. Cathy and Hareton, although still arguing, show
    signs of developing a friendly relationship, and Lockwood, still the
    outsider, obviously must know more because he is the narrator of the
    events and they have not yet come to close.


    Chapter 32
    Summary
    Six months later, Lockwood is in the area and returns to the Grange,
    only to find that Nelly is now living at Wuthering Heights. He travels
    there, and Nelly tells him what has happened since Lockwood left.
    Two weeks after Lockwood departed from the Grange, Nelly was
    summoned to Wuthering Heights to be Cathy's companion because
    Zillah has left. While Nelly is there, Cathy admits to her that she was
    wrong to have made fun of Hareton, Hareton avoids Cathy, and
    Heathcliff withdraws from everyone.
    After Hareton accidentally shoots himself and has to stay inside,
    he and Cathy argue but eventually make up and agree to be
    cousins. As a peace offering, Cathy wraps up a book and has
    Nelly present it to Hareton. If he accepts the book, Cathy will
    teach him to reChapter 32

                                       52
    Analysis
    A date, 1802, opens this chapter, calling to mind the first chapter and
    indicating the passage of time from whence Lockwood initially began
    his diary. As Lockwood returns to the area, he notices the disparity
    between the moors in winter and summer. Once again, the idea of a
    contrasting yet dual nature comes through. Wuthering Heights is
    based on contrasts, and as the novel nears its end, themes that were
    previously shown but not told are now being spoken of directly.


    When Lockwood arrives at Wuthering Heights, he does not encounter
    a lock — the first sign that a change has taken place. The fragrance of
    flowers and fruit is the second. While Nelly mentions that Heathcliff
    has been dead for three months, she backs up in time to provide the
    details of the narrative that occurred between the time Lockwood left
    and his subsequent return.
    In this chapter, forgiveness occurs for the first time. In a scene
    reminiscent of Catherine's death, Cathy begs forgiveness. This time, it
    is Hareton, not Heathcliff, who must decide, and he forgives her. With
    Cathy and Hareton becoming allies, the second generation is not
    doomed to repeat the mistakes of the first. All that needs to fall into
    place is the death of Heathcliff.
    ad and vows never to tease him again.


    Chapter 33
    Summary
    At breakfast the next morning, Hareton takes Cathy's side in an
    argument against Heathcliff. Heathcliff is about to strike her, but as he
    looks into Cathy's eyes, he controls himself. Later that night, he sees
    Hareton and Cathy sitting together. Cathy's eyes and Hareton's entire
    being remind him of Catherine. At this moment, Heathcliff admits to
    Nelly that he does not have the desire to complete his revenge.
    Everywhere at Wuthering Heights, Heathcliff is being constantly
    reminded of Catherine, and this is tormenting him.

                                        53
    Chapter 33
    Analysis
    As Cathy and Hareton become friends, Heathcliff loses his desire for
    revenge. He refuses to speak of Cathy, but Hareton is the embodiment
    of Catherine and himself — her features and his personality come to
    life. The realities of this world are driving him mad, so Heathcliff seeks
    solitude more and more often.


    Chapter 34
    Summary
    Heathcliff continues to seek solitude and only eats once a day. One
    night, a few days later, he leaves and is out all night. When he returns
    in the morning, Cathy remarks that he is actually quite pleasant. He
    rejects all food. When Nelly tries to encourage him to send for a
    minister, he scoffs at her and reminds her of his burial wishes. Later,
    Nelly sends for the doctor, but Heathcliff refuses to see him. The
    following night, Nelly finds Heathcliff's dead body. Hareton is the only
    one to mourn Heathcliff's dying. They bury Heathcliff according to his
    wishes, and villagers swear that he and another walk the moors.

    Chapter 34
    Analysis
    The growing love between Cathy and Hareton serves to intensif y
    Heathcliff's loss. He, like Catherine, takes no food as he nears death.
    This is a ritual fasting. Food no longer sustains him; he needs to be
    nourished by something more. Heathcliff is consumed with pain as he
    longs to be united with Catherine.
    Readers easily forgive, if not forget, what a monster Heathcliff had
    been, for he is such a pitiable shadow of his former self. Wuthering
    Heights ends on a universal note, with love conquering hate.



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