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					          INTERNATIONAL TELECOMMUNICATION UNION

          TELECOMMUNICATION                                               RGQ11/2/004-E
          DEVELOPMENT BUREAU                                              20 March 2000
                                                                          Original: English only
          ITU-D STUDY GROUPS

          Meeting of Rapporteur’s Group on Question 11/2, Geneva, 23-24 February 2000



Question 11/2:    Examine digital broadcasting technologies and systems, including
                  cost/benefit analyses, assessment of demands on human resources,
                  interoperability of digital systems with existing analogue networks, and
                  methods of migration from analogue to digital technique


                                    STUDY GROUP 2

SOURCE:           RAPPORTEUR FOR QUESTION 11/2

TITLE:            MINUTES OF THE RAPPORTEUR’S GROUP MEETING ON
                  QUESTION 11/2 HELD IN GENEVA, 23-24 FEBRUARY 2000

                                           _____


1.       Opening of the meeting and approval of the Agenda
The Rapporteur welcomed all the participants (see List of Participants attached), who
approved the agenda (attached). A summary was given of the Rapporteur Group's mandate
as approved by the last Study Group meeting. That mandate includes the following items:
(a)     to issue a report, to be updated annually, on digital broadcasting technologies, with
a focus on those issues that are not covered by the ITU-R and ITU-T sectors;
(b)   to provide ITU-D members with an update on the work being carried out by the
ITU-R and ITU-T sectors in the area of digital broadcasting;
(c)    to identify pilot projects and demonstrations in developing countries where digital
broadcasting technologies are being used to further the mandate of public service
broadcasters.
2.       Examination of contributions received
The first contribution discussed was received from OFCOM (Switzerland) entitled "Digital
Broadcast Technologies and Added-Value Services" (see Document 001 attached). This
contribution highlights the benefits of added-value services in radio and television
broadcasting, especially in the area of education, and offers specific recommendations to
help diffuse added-value services more quickly in developing countries. Particular
emphasis is placed on the desirability of common standards in the areas of reception
equipment, transmission protocols and the software needed to run added-value
applications.
The meeting then discussed the contribution received from the Co-Rapporteur for Question
11/2, Mr. Om Khushu, on behalf of the Asia-Pacific Broadcasting Union (ABU). The
contribution consists of a detailed table of contents for a report entitled "ABU Report on


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Digital Sound Broadcasting (DSB)" (see Document 002 attached - The full text of the draft
report was not available in time for the Rapporteur's Group meeting, but is expected to be
available by the end of March 2000). The report focuses on the implementation aspects of
DSB, thus differing from the "Digital Radio Guide" previously submitted to ITU-D Study
Group 2 by the World Broadcasting Unions.
3.     Identification of demonstrations and/or pilot projects
The meeting discussed demonstrations and/or pilot projects that could be presented to the
ITU-D Study Group 2. Several projects were discussed, including interactive digital video-
based distance learning projects in Morocco and India, and digital radio-based distance
learning projects in East Africa. It was agreed that a description of these projects should be
included in the draft Final Report, in time for the next Study Group 2 meeting (Geneva, 18-
22 September 2000).
4.      Finalization of the outline of the Final Report
The meeting worked to finalize a draft outline for the final report. (See Document 003
attached).
Finally, the meeting agreed:
(a)    to encourage the participation of additional regional broadcasting organizations in
the work of Study Group 2
(b)    to seek additional contributions, particularly with regard to digital television
broadcasting as well as value-added services in digital broadcasting.
It was noted that the deadline for contributions is 7 July 2000, in order to allow for
translation. Therefore, contributions should be received by the Rapporteur's Group well
before that date, to allow time for inclusion into the final report before submission to the
BDT Secretariat.
5.      Any other business
There being no other business, the meeting was closed.


                                         __________




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         INTERNATIONAL TELECOMMUNICATION UNION

         TELECOMMUNICATION                                              RGQ11/OJ/2/001(Rev.1)-E
         DEVELOPMENT BUREAU                                             21 February 2000
                                                                        Original: English only
         ITU-D STUDY GROUPS

         Meeting of Rapporteur’s Group on Question 11/2, Geneva, 23-24 February 2000




Question 11/2:    Examine digital broadcasting technologies and systems, including
                  cost/benefit analyses, assessment of demands on human resources,
                  interoperability of digital systems with existing analogue networks, and
                  methods of migration from analogue to digital technique




                                    STUDY GROUP 2

           Agenda of the Rapporteur’s Group meeting on Question 11/2
       Wednesday, 23 February 2000 (0900 hrs) – Thursday, 24 February 2000
       Tower Building, second basement, Room D (at the top of the escalator)
                                   ________

                                                                       Document

1. Approval of the Agenda

2. Examination of contributions received                                  001

3. Finalization of the outline of the Final Report                       2/113

4. Identification of demonstrations and/or pilot projects to
   be presented to the ITU-D Study Group 2 meeting
   (Geneva, 18-22 September 2000)

5. Distribution of work

6. Work programme

7. Date and place of the next meeting of the Group

8. Any other business

                                   __________________




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           INTERNATIONAL TELECOMMUNICATION UNION

           TELECOMMUNICATION                                                RGQ11/2/001-E
           DEVELOPMENT BUREAU                                               14 February 2000
                                                                            Original: English only
           ITU-D STUDY GROUPS

           Meeting of Rapporteur’s Group on Question 11/2, Geneva, 23-24 February 2000




Question 11/2:    Examine digital broadcasting technologies and systems, including
                  cost/benefit analyses, assessment of demands on human resources,
                  interoperability of digital systems with existing analogue networks, and
                  methods of migration from analogue to digital technique


                                     STUDY GROUP 2

SOURCE:           OFCOM, SWITZERLAND1

TITLE:            DIGITAL BROADCAST TECHNOLOGIES AND ADDED-VALUE
                  SERVICES

                                             _____

1. Introduction
In the early eighties, different (digital) added value services were implemented in existing
analog Radio and TV signals, especially in Europe. Teletext is one of the most popular
services for TV, a development led by British engineers. DARC is another application for
FM. All these services, even if very popular, were limited by the transportation capacity as
well as by graphical possibilities of the different systems, as they were created before the
HTML area.

The introduction of digital Radio and TV signals changed dramatically the situation as
there was, on the one hand, no more limitation in capacity. On the other hand, it was
possible to apply exactly the same technology that is already widely used with the Internet.
The only difference to the Internet is the fact that in the broadcast domain mainly the
«push» technology is used.
Even if this development of digital services seems to be very promising, there are still
some problems to be solved. This paper tries to be a first clarification of these difficulties.


2. The Value Chain
Every added value service can be structured along the same value chain.


____________________
1   Contact point: Mr. Daniel Kramer, Swiss TXT, P.O.Box 1147, CH-2501 Bienne
     Tel. +41 32 3292202/Fax +41 32 3292114


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   Content
   Collect and edit
   Transport
   Distribution
   Service application (possibly with conditional access)
Every part of this chain has to fit with each other. That is primarily a question of
standardization. Unfortunately, we use here very new technologies. Furthermore, many
content providers try with proprietary standards to monopolize the market. Such strategies
are possible in western countries, but are poison for developing countries, as they avoid a
quick spread out of new technologies.


3. Collect and Edit Content
One of the most important activities in this business is to collect and edit content in such a
way, that you can offer to the end user a service. To receive this content, the end user has to
have a receiver that is working with the same «software» the provider was packaging the
content. In these emerging services it is mainly the content provider who decides about the
standard to be used. And here, many operators forget, that the user, especially for
educational programs, is not willing (and in many cases not able) to manage many different
software tools. Finally, we have also to be aware that these software tools will not only be
used within the next three months but over decades. Here we should avoid any limitation in
the software validity.
For the content provider, this will also mean that he has to manage his content in a neutral
standard and to store it on a neutral database, so that he can easily retrieve it for different
applications.


4. Transportation
First of all, we have to be aware that in the digital world these added value services have
not necessarily to be linked to a dedicated Radio or TV programme. They are normally part
of a service channel (bouquet) of a provider. It is up to him to define the data rate allocated
to added value services. Furthermore, this capacity is more or less transparent, that means
independent of the distribution technique used and the associated protocol.


5. Distribution
This point is in general the most tricky subject. There are in principal two different ways to
distribute content. First you address one or many different type of files, based on IP
packaging, individually addressed or not. This is very similar to the Internet. The request
(or back channel) is normally combined over a telephone channel.

The second way is also based on files but transmitted via a carousel, a typical broadcast
application. Depending on the data and memory structures of your receiver, the resident
files can be refreshed, replaced, deleted or saved. In this operation mode, only a few




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applications need interactivity. For these cases, you can also include a back channel over
telephone line.

For both cases, a common software and transmission procedure is mandatory.
Unfortunately, we have no standardized interface between the receiver and the computer
set. Some applications are based on the fact that you can download specific software to
your computer. But these operations are not always easy to be accomplished (even in
developed countries), or the software has only a limited lifetime. So an introduction of such
techniques is nearly impossible.



6. Conclusion

To spread out added value services in developing countries - and they can be very useful,
especially in the educational domain - we need to introduce techniques that fulfill different
conditions:

   The receivers have to be standardized, possibly integrated in set top boxes (to be placed
    between the standard Radio or TV receiver and the computer).

   The transmission protocols based on IP techniques or DSMCC object carousels have to
    be standardized as well as the associated browsers.

   The different applications must run on standard software.

   The possibility of later software upgrades must be built in.

   For interactivity we need a cheap (possibly asymmetric) return channel.

   All the equipment has to be the result of mass products so that they are affordable for
    everybody.

Unfortunately, a lot of progress has still to be done in standardization, even in developed
countries. May be that the just approved MHP (Media Home Platform) standard by the
DVB group could be the right way to go.

In any case, we have to remember the golden rule: «Keep it simple and stupid, so that even
my grandmother can use it!»

                                        __________




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         INTERNATIONAL TELECOMMUNICATION UNION

         TELECOMMUNICATION                                               RGQ11/2/002-E
         DEVELOPMENT BUREAU                                              25 February 2000
                                                                         Original: English only
         ITU-D STUDY GROUPS

         Meeting of Rapporteur’s Group on Question 11/2, Geneva, 23-24 February 2000




Question 11/2:    Examine digital broadcasting technologies and systems, including
                  cost/benefit analyses, assessment of demands on human resources,
                  interoperability of digital systems with existing analogue networks, and
                  methods of migration from analogue to digital technique


                                    STUDY GROUP 2

SOURCE:           ASIA-PACIFIC BROADCASTING UNION

TITLE:            ABU TASK GROUP (P2) ON DIGITAL SOUND BROADCASTING

                                           _____


The Asia-Pacific Broadcasting Union decided to apply an integrated approach in
addressing the DSB studies so that comprehensive guidance could be provided to the
members. Consequently, at the 1997 meeting the ABU Engineering Committee established
a Task Group (P-2) on ―Digital Sound Broadcasting studies within the ABU‖. The Terms
of Reference of the Task Group are:
To prepare a comprehensive report on DSB addressing the total system–source to reception
— covering relevant aspects of the available system choices and implementation strategies,
including:
   Summaries of system tests conducted by ABU members and others
   Characteristics of available systems and their implications for broadcasters.
The Group consists of :
                       Mr. K.M. Paul, AIR (Coordinator)
                       Mr. Peter Kepreotes, ABC
                       Mr. Xie Jinhui, RTPRC
                       Mr. Shinil Chung, KBS
                       Mr. Toru Kuroda, NHK
                       Mr. Yong Wui Pin, RCS
The Task Group provided an interim report to the 1998 meeting of the ABU Engineering
Committee. A draft of the final report has now been completed and is being coordinated
within the Group. It is expected that the report will be distributed to all ABU members by
March 2000, possibly earlier.
The contents of the 87 page report are listed in the Annex.



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         Draft ABU Report on DIGITAL SOUND BROADCASTING (DSB)


                                        CONTENTS


                                                                         PAGE No.

1.      INTRODUCTION                                                          1
2.      WHY DSB?                                                              3
2.1     Importance of Digital Technology                                      3
2.2     Limitations in analogue broadcasting                                  3
2.3     Features of DSB                                                       3
2.3.1   Delivers high quality audio                                           3
2.3.2   Overcomes the effect of multipath fading                              4
2.3.3   Minimises the effect of frequency selective fading                    4
2.3.4   DSB is multi efficient                                                4
2.3.5   Capable of providing Multimedia Services                              5
2.4     Necessity to keep pace with technological changes                     5
3.      DSB SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS AS ENVISAGED BY ITU-R                         6
4.      TERRESTRIAL-DSB SYSTEMS                                               8
4.1     Eureka-147 System (System A of ITU-R)                                 8
4.2     BST-OFDM System of NHK, Japan                                         13
4.3     IBOC System of the USA                                                13
4.3.1   FM-IBOC (USA Digital Radio)                                           13
4.3.2   FM-IBOC (AT&T/Amati)                                                  14
4.3.3   FM-IBAC/IBRC                                                          15
4.3.4   IBOC-present status                                                   16
5.      WORLDWIDE T-DSB PROPAGATION EXPERIMENTS                               17
5.1     Introduction                                                          17
5.2     Canada                                                                17
5.2.1   Coverage constraints and solutions for hybrid system in L-Band        17
5.2.2   Indoor reception measurements in L-Band                               18
5.2.3   Wideband channel characterisation measurements at 1.5 GHz             19
5.3     China                                                                 19
5.4     E.B.U. Countries                                                      19
5.4.1   Man-made noise                                                        19
5.5     Finland                                                               21
5.6     Germany                                                               21
5.6.1   Internal network gain in a single frequency network                   21
5.6.2   Standard deviation of measurements                                    22
5.6.3   Coverage measurement along a long distance route                      22
5.6.4   Building penetration loss                                             22
5.7     India                                                                 23
5.7.1   Coverage area of DAB transmitters                                     23
5.7.2   Ignition noise                                                        23
5.7.3   H.T. power lines in proximity of receiver                             23
5.7.4   Location probability of DSB signal                                    24
5.7.5   Polarisation discrimination                                           24



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5.7.6   Antenna height gain                                          24
5.7.7   Gap fillers                                                  25
5.8     Netherlands                                                  25
5.8.1   Building penetration loss                                    25
5.9     UK measurements                                              25
5.9.1   Coverage of individual transmitters                          26
5.9.2   Coverage of the full network                                 26
5.9.3   Building penetration loss in VHF/UHF bands                   26
6.      CHOICE OF FREQUENCY BAND                                     28
6.1     VHF Band I                                                   28
6.1.1   Man-made noise                                               28
6.1.2   Propagation factors                                          28
6.1.3   Hardware constraints                                         29
6.2     VHF Band II                                                  29
6.3     VHF Band III                                                 29
6.4     UHF Band IV/V                                                29
6.5     L-Band                                                       30
6.6     Conclusion                                                   30
7.      DSB SERVICE PLANNING                                         31
7.1     Basic Criteria for DSB Service Planning                      31
7.2     Interference Considerations                                  32
7.3     Protection Ratios                                            32
7.4     Basic Planning Parameters                                    33
7.4.1   Minimum wanted field strength when using
        the ITU-R Rec. PN-370 propagation prediction model           33
7.4.2   Location and time percentage requirements                    33
7.4.3   Receiving antenna height gain correction                     34
7.4.4   Minimum wanted field strengths to be used for DSB planning   34
7.5     Special planning features                                    35
7.5.1   Building penetration loss                                    35
7.5.2   Polarisation                                                 35
7.5.3   Propagation factors influencing the choice of polarisation   35
7.5.4   Beam tilt                                                    35
7.5.5   Beam shaping                                                 35
7.6     Man-made noise                                               35
7.7     Planning of DSB Services                                     36
7.7.1   T-DSB transmitter network structures                         36
7.7.2   Definition of distances                                      36
7.7.3   A single transmitter case                                    36
7.7.4   An Example on calculation of coverage radius and re-use
        distance for DSB single transmitter case                     37
7.7.5   Factors influencing the re-use distance                      39
7.7.6   Re-use distance between two SFNs carrying different
        Programmes                                                   40
7.8     Computer planning methods                                    42
7.9     Gap fillers                                                  42
8.      DSB BELOW 30 MHZ                                             46
8.1     Digital Modulation Systems                                   46
8.1.1   VOV/JPL System                                               47
8.1.2   T2M System                                                   49
8.1.3   Thomcast’s Skywave-2000                                      51


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8.1.4     IBOC of USA Digital Radio                               52
8.1.5     CCETT (France) COFDM System                             53
8.2       DRM for a common World Wide Standard                    54
9.        SATELLITE-DSB SYSTEMS INCLUDING FIELD
          EXPERIMENTS                                             56
9.1       Introduction                                            56
9.1.1     ITU-R System-A                                          56
9.1.2     ITU-R System-B                                          56
9.1.3     ITU-R System-D                                          56
9.1.4     Digital System-D with Terrestrial MCM Extension         57
9.2       BBC Experiment with System-A in L-Band                  58
9.2.1     Transmission Parameters and Experiments                 58
9.2.1.1   Modes                                                   58
9.2.1.2   Transponder Input/Output Characteristics                58
9.2.1.3   Link Margin for Fixed Reception                         59
9.2.1.4   Mobile Reception                                        60
9.2.1.5   Reception with Portable Receiver                        60
9.3       Australian Experiment with System-A in L-Band           60
9.3.1     Transmission Parameters and Experiments                 60
9.3.1.1   Satellite                                               60
9.3.1.2   The Transmission and Reception System                   61
9.3.1.3   Experiments                                             61
9.3.2     Conclusion                                              62
9.4       Indian Experiment with ITU-R System-A in S-Band         62
9.4.1     Conclusion                                              63
9.5       WorldSpace Experiments in L-Band                        64
9.6       Conclusion                                              65
10.       DSB RECEIVERS                                           66
10.1 Terrestrial Digital Radio Receivers                          66
10.1.1 Eureka-147 System                                          66
10.1.2 AM and FM IBOC Radio Systems                               68
10.2 Satellite Digital Radio Receivers                            68
10.2.1 WorldSpace system                                          68
10.2.2 Eureka-147 S-DAB                                           70
10.3     Receivers by Philips Eindhoven                           70
10.3.1 Philips DAB-452 test receiver                              70
10.3.2 Philips DAB-752 professional receiver                      70
10.4     New Era in the Availability of Consumer DSB Receiver     71
11.       COUNTRY-WISE GLOBAL STATUS OF DSB                       72
12.       T-DSB versus DVB-T                                      83
13.       IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGIES                               84
13.1      Introduction                                            84
13.2      Asia-Pacific Region – A wide ranging nations            84
13.3      Selection of Technology                                 85
13.4      Suitable Frequency band for DSB                         85
13.5      National Spectrum Planning                              85
13.6      Acquaintance with the technology                        85
13.7      Pilot service                                           86
13.8      DSB – Awareness                                         86
13.9      Simulcasting                                            86



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13.10   Production of New Programmes                              86
13.11   Value added services                                      87
13.12   Listeners survey                                          87
13.13   International efforts                                     87
13.14   Conclusion                                                87


                                        __________




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           INTERNATIONAL TELECOMMUNICATION UNION

           TELECOMMUNICATION                                          RGQ11/2/003-E
           DEVELOPMENT BUREAU                                         20 March 2000
                                                                      Original: English only
           ITU-D STUDY GROUPS

           Meeting of Rapporteur’s Group on Question 11/2, Geneva, 23-24 February 2000




           Question 11/2: Examine digital broadcasting technologies and systems,
                  including cost/benefit analyses, assessment of demands on human
                  resources, interoperability of digital systems with existing analogue
                  networks, and methods of migration from analogue to digital technique


                                     STUDY GROUP 2

SOURCE:           RAPPORTEUR FOR QUESTION 11/2

TITLE:            DRAFT OUTLINE OF THE FINAL REPORT ON QUESTION 11/2

                                          _____
1.       Proposed Title of the Report
Report on Digital Broadcasting Technologies and Systems
2.       Draft outline of the Final Report
I.     Introduction
            Background and Scope of Question 11/2
            Purpose of The Report
II.    Digital Sound Broadcasting
            Executive Summary
            Table of Contents
            Digital Sound Broadcasting (DSB) Technologies: ABU Report on DSB
            Value-Added Services
            Interactivity
            Summary of Satellite DSB Systems not included in ABU Report
            Any other cntributions regarding National Experiences in DSB
III.   Digital Television Broadcasting
            Executive Summary
            Table of Contents
            Digital Television Broadcasting (DTB) Technologies (Requires additional
            contributions)



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           Value-Added Services
           Interactivity
           Any other contributions regarding National Experiences in DTB
IV.    ITU-R Activities in Digital Broadcasting
V.     ITU-T Activities in Digital Broadcasting
V.     Annexes
           Description of Pilot Projects/Demonstrations in developing countries
           Update of ITU-R and ITU-T Activities, based on outcome of 2000 Radio
           Assembly and WRC
VI.    Annexes
          Titles of Relevant ITU Recommendations
          Titles of Relevant ITU Handbooks
          List of References to Regional Broadcasting Organizations
          List of References to Relevant Publications


Chapters II and III above should also include sections on migration policies and
interoperability issues.


                                       __________




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               List of participants – page 1 - (not available electronically)




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               List of participants – page 2 - (not available electronically)




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